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Hamilton PSYC 3317 Adulthood & Gerontology 01
 

Hamilton PSYC 3317 Adulthood & Gerontology 01

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Lecture over Chapter 1 from Mason's Text on Adulthood and Aging

Lecture over Chapter 1 from Mason's Text on Adulthood and Aging

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    Hamilton PSYC 3317 Adulthood & Gerontology 01 Hamilton PSYC 3317 Adulthood & Gerontology 01 Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Adulthood and Aging Chapter Developmental Psychology Applied to Aging 1
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason The Seven Ages of Man • (with apologies to women …)  Please Click on the link above (the title)
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Introduction • Field of adult development and aging – a relatively new and rapidly-growing area in psychology • Aging process better understood due to:  Recent advances in technology  Increases in computing power  Increasing number of older adults
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Why Study Adult Development and Aging? • Interest to learn more about topics covered • College requirement • Improve quality of life; age successfully/optimally
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason An Aging Population • Rapidly growing population of older adults has societal and personal effects
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Figure 1.1 Predictions Based on U.S. Census Bureau Data Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2006, May). Older Americans Update 2006: Key Indicators of Well-Being. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason An Aging Population • Trend poses challenges of economic stability and health care needs • 5 key areas in the study of adulthood and aging:  Population  Economics  Health status  Health risks and behaviors  Health care
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Challenging Issues 1) Changes in age distribution will effect many industries – health care, insurance, housing, transportation 2) Lack of research – some topics are emphasized, while others are overlooked/neglected  less emphasis on young and middle-aged adults  later adults have received more emphasis  balanced approach needed
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Challenging Issues 3) Highlighting commonalities and diversities between younger and older populations
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason A Psychological Approach to Adult Development and Aging • Different approaches to study adult development and aging:  Psychology - scientific study of mental and behavioral processes  Developmental psychology - study of ways individuals change as they age  Adult development and aging - study of normal or typical ways mental and behavioral processes change with age beyond adolescence
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason A Multidisciplinary and Multifaceted Endeavor • Consider combined approaches of various disciplines:  Psychology - individual characteristics that influence behavior  Sociology - societal factors that influence behavior  Anthropology - cultural heritage and background that influence behavior
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason A Multidisciplinary and Multifaceted Endeavor • Consider aspect of study: theoretical, methodological, empirical, and applied • Consider when and how data is collected and interpreted
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason The Developmental Psychological Perspective • Developmental psychology focused on child development pre-World War II • Interest in psychological study of adults emerged post-WWII • The Gerontological Society of America founded in 1946 • U.S. government established National Institute of Aging in 1974
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason The Developmental Psychological Perspective • Federal Interagency Forum on Aging- Related Statistics formed in 1986 • Medical researchers interested in how the nervous system and aging are connected
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason The Developmental Psychological Perspective • Current research emphasizes 4 areas of study of adult development and aging:  Stasis – studying stable aspects  Change – that occurs with age  Decline – functional decline  Growth-based – positive areas
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Positive and Realistic Approach • Positive Psychology – approach emphasizes individual’s strengths, resilient qualities  fosters productive coping, personal growth, life-satisfaction, well-being • Optimal aging – adjusting and coping well with life changes  emphasizes physical and psychological adjustment
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Multiple Dimensions of Age • Developmental psychologists segment age as follows:  young adulthood: 18 or 20 years to 40-45 years  middle adulthood: 40-45 years to 60-65 years  late adulthood: 60-65 to end of life  Late adulthood further segmented - young-old: 60-65 to 74 - old-old: 75 to 84  oldest-old: 85+
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Multiple Dimensions of Age • European scholars divide older ages differently:  Adulthood-pre-retirement: second age  Pre-retirement-oldest old: third age  End of life: fourth age
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Functional Age • Chronological age: age in weeks or months – more useful when considering child development • Normative age-graded influences: typical events/influences strongly related to age • Functional age: a useful concept of age in adulthood; comprises of physical and cognitive abilities
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Functional Age • Biological age: An individual’s health when compared to others of the same chronological age (physical well-being)  Biomarkers: bodily functions • Psychological age: individual’s ability to cope and adjust to changes in environment when compared to others of same chronological age
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Functional Age • Social age: comparing social roles and expectations with those of the same chronological age
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Age-Related Influences • Normative history-graded influences: experiences of a culture/society at a point in history, e.g., wars, disasters, technological advances  Cohort: a group of people who have grown up together and have similar normative history-graded experiences
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Age-Related Influences • Non-normative influences: unexpected, personal experiences, or chance occurrences that alter our lives (e.g., untimely death of a loved one; losing/winning a large sum of money)
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Metatheories as Philosophies of Development • Three metatheories useful in organizing knowledge and designing research • World views or metamodels • Serve as philosophies of human nature
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Mechanistic Metatheory • Initiation/source of change is external • Researchers aim at studying interaction and influence of various interacting parts • Items studied are observable and measurable, involve quantitative design • Change occurs in continuous, smooth increases/decreases, not jagged/step-like
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Mechanistic Metatheory • Criticism:  view is incomplete  does not consider whole person or whole context
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Organismic Metatheory • Emphasizes the biological and genetic influences on development • Revealed through maturation and environmental influences • Development consists of spurts of growth/decline • View emphasizes discontinuous, qualitative change
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Organismic Metatheory • Each stage is more complex and sophisticated than the previous stage • Additions and reworking on previous stage
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Organismic Metatheory • Criticism:  Stages not always linear, and in numerical order  Behavior outside of ‘normal’, does not imply behavior is abnormal
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Contextual Metatheory • Dominant philosophy in developmental psychology • Recognizes interaction of internal and external forces • Development is continuous and discontinuous
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Contextual Metatheory • Acknowledges influences of:  Individual differences  Diversity  Levels of culture
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Contextual Metatheory • Baltes et al., found 7 core assumptions influencing current lifespan developmental theory: 1) Development is a lifelong process 2) There are gains and losses in each period 3) Development is multidirectional 4) Contextualism is evident 5) Historical influences are relevant
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Contextual Metatheory • Baltes et al., found 7 core assumptions influencing current lifespan developmental theory: 6) Plasticity: skills and abilities are malleable 7) Recognize a multidisciplinary approach to lifespan development
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Theoretical Approaches to Adult Development and Aging • Biological Theories  Influenced by neuropsychology (biopsychology or behavioral neuroscience)  Emphasize biological foundations of thoughts and behaviors
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Table 1.2 Examples of Biological Theories of Aging
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Biological Theories • Programmed theories of biological aging: aging process controlled by biological timetable  Programmed longevity theory: deficits associated with aging caused by genes turning on and off
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Biological Theories • Endocrine theory: hormones control biological clock that influences aging the process • Immunological theory: immune system programmed to decline over time which increases vulnerability to infection and diseases
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Biological Theories • Error Theories: recognize the interaction between genetically programmed aging and environmental factors  Wear and tear theory: cells and tissues wear out over time  Rate of living theory: organisms die when finite resources to sustain them get exhausted
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Biological Theories • Error Theories: recognize the interaction between genetically programmed aging and environmental factors  Crosslinking theory: undesirable changes and reaction occur when glucose molecules attach to proteins  Free radical theory: damage caused by “oxygen free radicals”
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Biological Theories • Error Theories: recognize the interaction between genetically programmed aging and environmental factors  Somatic DNA damage theory: cells deteriorate and malfunction due to genetic mutations with time and age
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Connectionist Approaches • Emphasizes the role of cognitive psychology • Utilize:  latest technologies to observe neuronal activity and brain changes with age  Sophisticated software for mathematical modeling of cognitive processes  Artificial intelligence software for simulating human learning and development
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Connectionist Approaches • Proposed development involves making associations between basic items or pieces of information, “units” to form a network of associations • Connecting units results in a gradual process requiring repetition • Distinct networks form over time
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Connectionist Approaches • Approach helpful in understanding peak performance and decline in various aspects of brain functioning • Imitating human cognition with software allows researchers to make predictions and test models • Helpful in designing therapies • Helpful in computer-simulating brain functions without causing harm to humans
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Sociocultural Theories • Emphasize social, cultural, societal forces in shaping human development • Bronfenbrenner developed bioecological model:  Development outcome of interactions between genetics and environment  Model layered: - Inner layers – direct impact on the individual - Outer layers – indirect impact on the individual
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Sociocultural Theories • Bronfenbrenner developed bioecological model:  Model layered: - Microsystem: interpersonal relations and immediate settings of an individual - Mesosystem: groups of microsystems; one relationship affects another - Exosystem: distant influences
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Sociocultural Theories • Bronfenbrenner developed bioecological model:  Model layered: - Macrosystem: unwritten cultural, societal roles, norms - Chronosystem: changes in the personal, interpersonal, social, cultural influences over time
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Theory (SOC) • Developed by Baltes et al., 1999 • Theory – a model of adaptation
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Theory (SOC) • Describes ways in which individuals manage gains and losses in each phase of life  Selection: - loss-based selection – accepting facts about old age - elective selection – determining one’s needs, goals  Optimization: proactively optimizing resources available
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Theory (SOC) • Describes ways in which individuals manage gains and losses in each phase of life  Compensation: for losses that come with age • Optimization and compensation work together to support selected needs and goals
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Scientific Study of Adult and Aging Scientific Approach • Conducting high quality research requires:  Accurate data collection  Application of appropriate statistical analysis  Strict and rigorous interpretation  Logically sound conclusions
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Ethically Sound Research • Ethical safeguards required for research involving humans or animals • Institutional Review Board (IRB) protect research, participants, institutions ensuring compliance with federal guidelines • Belmont Report, 1979, provides ethical guidelines in biomedical and behavioral research
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Ethically Sound Research • Code of Federal Regulations identifies groups of people frequently involved in studies of adult development • Research involving animals requires approval from Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) • Informed consent: details of study shared with participant(s) prior to study
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Ethically Sound Research • Deception: withholding or giving false information • Debriefing: follows deception; researchers to plan debriefing prior to research • Research in psychology to comply with APA ethics code
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Ethically Sound Research • APA ethic code addresses testing, assessment, therapy, education and training, privacy
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Deciphering Psychological Research • Findings as reported by media could be inaccurate or misinterpreted • Articles published in scientific journals more trustworthy – go through rigorous approval process
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason Deciphering Psychological Research • Organization of articles:  Literature Review and Hypotheses  Research Designs  Measurement, Methods, and Procedures  Analyses and Results  Discussion and Conclusions
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason The Six Ages of Woman • Please click on the link above …
    • Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Marion G. Mason End