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V.2 mc nabb patrick final project (media) intro to media psych fall 2011 their footprint remains


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This is an updated PDF version (with the typos removed) of the PowerPoint for Patrick McNabb’s final project in Dr. Pamela Rutledge's MSC 551 Intro to Media Psychology class, Fielding Graduate …

This is an updated PDF version (with the typos removed) of the PowerPoint for Patrick McNabb’s final project in Dr. Pamela Rutledge's MSC 551 Intro to Media Psychology class, Fielding Graduate University, Fall 2011.

The original slideshow and the companion paper that it was based on collectively received an A+ from Dr. Rutledge, with an A overall received for the class.

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  • 1. “…a footprint remains.” as a Prosocial Demonstration of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Patrick E. McNabb Fielding Graduate University Final Project (Media) MSC-551 Introduction to Media Psychology and Social Change Fall 2011
  • 2. Abstract Where Morse wrote “What hath God wrought?” at the inauguration of the telegraph, media psychologists and social historians might someday be writing “What hath Bandura wrought?’ in reference to the Occupy Wall Street movement.Although not directly responsible for the activity at Zuccotti Park and its related actions around the World, the tenets of Bandura’s social cognitive theory have found ready vehicles for prosocial action and expression in the ongoing movement.
  • 3. Abstract One vehicle, Occupy Wall Street’s flagship website ( provides a living demonstration of Bandura’s ideas in action.In the following slideshow the author discusses what Occupy Wall Street is, the transmedia nature of the website, and how social cognitive theory, in particular the concepts of collective efficacy and social modeling, are manifested in it.To paraphrase songwriter Gil Scott Heron, the revolution may not be televised but it is being webcast.
  • 4. Introduction
  • 5. IntroductionOn November 21, 2011, in what turned out to be a premature obituaryfor the Occupy Wall Street movement (OWS) entitled “A Movement, AQuestion: What Now?” New York Times columnist David Carr wrote:“After last weeks dead-of-night operation in New York to break up theprotest site in Zuccotti Park, and similar actions in other cities, it isinevitable that Occupy Wall Street will eventually become more of anidea than a place.” (para. 1)
  • 6. IntroductionHe ended with a caveat though –“If the coming election ends up being framed in terms of fairness,the people who took to the streets, battled the police and sat through those endless general assembly meetings will know that even though their tents are gone, their footprint remains.”(para. 18).
  • 7. Introduction Occupy Wall Street’s “footprint” remains online where it has always been at As Bandura (2002), the great prophet of collective efficacy, foresaw, “The internet technology is changing social and political processes. It provides vast opportunities to participate directly in sociopolitical matters of concern, and a ready vehicle for mobilizing grass-roots activity to promote desired changes in social practices and policies.” (p. 10)
  • 8. What is“Occupy Wall Street”? ?
  • 9. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?You can’t talk about the OWSwebsite without talking aboutthe Occupy Wall Streetmovement.The story of OWS is a classicnarrative of Us against Them,David vs. Goliath, but in thiscase “Goliath” is the 1% of thewealthiest Americans (and byextension the World) wholord their power and influenceover the rest of thepopulation, the 99% (akaDavid), and are blamed forthe recent economicmeltdown that has left manyin the 99% without jobs,homes, and hope.
  • 10. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?As the “About” section, notes,“The movement is inspiredby popular uprisings inEgypt and Tunisia, andaims to fight back againstthe richest 1% of people thatare writing the rules of anunfair global economy thatis foreclosing on ourfuture.”
  • 11. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?It’s a cognitive distinction thatBandura would recognize.Referring to the “triadicreciprocal causation” aspect ofhis social cognitive theory, henotes that, “In thistransactional view of self andsociety, personal factors in theform of cognitive, affective,and biological events,behavioral patterns, andenvironmental events alloperate as interactingdeterminants that influenceeach other bidirectionally ….”(Bandura, 2001, pp. 265-266).
  • 12. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?All is not lost, however.Where David had his slingand stones, the 99% have theInternet and social media.Referring to the “Arab Spring”protests that have led torevolutions across the MiddleEast in the past year,journalist John Boudreaunoted in the November 2,2011 edition of the San JoseMercury News that,“The revolution is beingtweeted …American activistsare using the same Internettools that Arabs used tochallenge oppressivegovernments…” (para.1, 14).
  • 13. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?In the case of OWS therevolution began with aprompt from the Canadianprosocial“The first apparent mentionwas that July 13 blog post byactivist group Adbusters …urging people to#OccupyWallStreet, asthough such a thing (Twitterhashtag and all) werepossible.” (Berkowitz, 2011,para. 5, 1)
  • 14. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?According to Berkowitz(2011), Adbuster’s promptdidn’t catch immediately,but by September 17 enoughmomentum had built acrossthe Web that an actualoccupation materialized atZuccotti Park, New York Cityon Constitution Day,September 17, 2011(see also Greene, 2011).
  • 15. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?Boudreau (2011), quotingEugene Sherill, “a member ofthe tech committee atOccupy San Jose”, notes,"If it were not for Facebook,Twitter, YouTube, email, thiswould have been squashedon Wall Street, …Without theopen public media, thismovement wouldnt havegone national and global. Itcant be slowed by bigcorporate media." (para. 13).
  • 16. What is “Occupy Wall Street”?Bandura (2001), anticipatesthis phenomenon when henotes that:“Social cognitive theory isfounded in an agenticperspective (Bandura, 1986,2001b). … personal agencyoperates within a broadnetwork of sociostructuralinfluences. In these agentictransactions, people areproducers as well as productsof social systems. Personalagency and social structureoperate as codeterminants inan integrated causal structurerather than as a disembodiedduality.” (p. 266)
  • 17. The Transmedia andConvergent Nature of
  • 18. The Transmedia andConvergent Nature of occupywallst.orgJenkins (2006) definestransmedia storytelling as,“Stories that unfold acrossmultiple media platforms,with each medium makingdistinctive contributions toour understanding of theworld, a more integratedapproach to franchisedevelopment than modelsbased on urtexts andancillary products.” (p. 334)
  • 19. The Transmedia andConvergent Nature of occupywallst.orgBy its very is an exampleof a transmedia phenomenonbecause it concurrently utilizesmultiple media and mediatechnology platforms to spreadits message across textual,audio, and visual channels,including Reddit, Twitter,Facebook, RSS feeds, blogs,video feeds, chat forums, andemail, among others. The web page is just one of thecollecting points, but it is aportal and a central rallyingplace where the differentmedia can meet and besubsequently consumed,inputted, and/or re-transmitted. In other words,they “converge”.
  • 20. The Transmedia andConvergent Nature of occupywallst.orgAs Jenkins (2006) notes:“…media convergence refersto a situation in whichmultiple media systemscoexist and where mediacontent flows fluidly acrossthem.” (p. 322)He adds: “Convergence isunderstood here as anongoing process or series ofintersections betweendifferent media systems, nota fixed relationship.”(Jenkins, 2006, p. 322)
  • 21. The Transmedia andConvergent Nature of occupywallst.orgAnother advantage to takinga transmedia and convergentapproach is that not only canthe message get through viadifferent technologicalchannels to the information-consumer (and potentialactivist or supporter) but itcan also get into differentareas of their brain as well.
  • 22. The Transmedia andConvergent Nature of occupywallst.orgAs Weinschenk (2009)notes, much of our decisionmaking and the way we areinfluenced occurs outside ofour conscious awareness, inthe older “unconscious”parts of the brain, and aneffective website mustrespond to that.Weinschenk (2009)comments, “To get us toclick, they have to persuadeus. … We want to think thatwe are making logicaldecisions, even though wearen’t. The most effectiveWeb sites are Web sites thattalk to all three brains.”(p. 13)
  • 23. The Method behind the Media
  • 24. The Method behind the MediaThe transmedia andconvergent nature of theOccupy Wall Streetmovement are one of thehallmarks of why it has beenso successful.Berkowitz (2011), quotingfuturist Paul Saffo, observes,“In the 1960s, "The tools ofsocial protest weremimeograph machines andpostage stamps …Now itscyberspace. You have theexponential growth of theWorld Wide Web and socialmedia and velocity … asthings move much morequickly” (para. 9).
  • 25. The Method behind the Media However, as Darth Vader,the black suited anti-hero ofanother media phenomenonthat Jenkins (2006) cites asan excellent example oftransmedia, cautions,“Dont be too proud of thistechnological terror youveconstructed …”The technology of media canonly get you so far – it has tobe used correctly to beeffective.
  • 26. The Method behind the Media As Jenkins (2006)comments,“Delivery systems are simplyand only technologies;media are also culturalsystems. Deliverytechnologies come and go allthe time, but media persistas layers within an ever morecomplicated information andentertainment stratum.”(p.4)
  • 27. The Method behind the Media: Social Cognitive TheorySo what is the method behind the media that makes (and, by extension, the movement) so effective? And how can you measure that effectiveness?Bandura and his social cognitive theory, in particular his concepts of collective efficacy and social modeling, can provide an explanation.
  • 28. Social Cognitive Theory Snyder, Lopez, and Pedrotti(2011) definesocial cognitive theory as :“A theory suggesting thatpeople’s self-efficacy(confidence in their abilities)influences their actions andthoughts in such a way thatthey shape theirenvironments.”(p. 203-204).
  • 29. Social Cognitive TheoryBandura (2001) providesa more technicaldefinition:“Social cognitive theoryprovides an agenticconceptual frameworkwithin which to analyzethe determinants andpsychosocial mechanismsthrough which symboliccommunicationinfluences humanthought, affect andaction.” (p. 265)
  • 30. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective Efficacy“Collective efficacy” is a groupform of what Bandura calls“personal efficacy”. Tounderstand collective efficacyyou have to define whatpersonal efficacy is first. According to Snyder et al.(2011):”Bandura (1997, p. vii) definedself efficacy as “peoples’ beliefsin their capabilities to producedesired effects by their ownaction.” Similarly, Maddux(2009a, p. 336) has describedself efficacy as “what I believe Ican do with my skills undercertain conditions.” (p. 168)
  • 31. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyBandura (2004) himselfadds,“Efforts at social changetypically challenge powerrelations and entrenchedsocietal practices.Successes do not comeeasy. To change theirlives for the better,people have to struggleagainst dated traditionsand normativeconstraints.” (p. 80)
  • 32. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyOne of the signatureelements of OWS thathelps them to foster,maintain, andencourage collectiveefficacy in theirgroups and selfefficacy for theindividual membersis the way theyorganize themselvesboth offline andonline.
  • 33. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyFor example, OWSdoes not employ thetop – down verticalstructure with aleader on top and thefollowers below thatis typical of othergroups. In fact, it is amovement purposelycomprised of peopleorganizedhorizontally, with nosingle leader pullingthe strings.
  • 34. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective Efficacy And it works.Berkowitz (2011) adds:“The Occupy movement,decentralised [sic] andleaderless, has mobilised[sic] thousands of peoplearound the world almostexclusively via theinternet. To a largedegree through Twitter,and also with platformssuch as Facebook andMeetup, crowds haveconnected and gathered.”(para. 3).
  • 35. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacySo how cansuch a group beorganized andcontrolled in aproductivefashion withoutfalling intomobocracy?
  • 36. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyOn the ground, OccupyWall Street uses aconcept called the“General Assembly”, aform of pure (or “direct”as the website puts it)democracy whereeveryone gets a vote.Online, they use toolssuch as the website tohost virtual versions ofthe same groups theyhave created offline.
  • 37. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyOn the website, or linkedto it, Occupy Wall Streetuses social media tools tocreate, foster, andmaintain what Jenkins(2006) would recognize as“knowledge communities”.“Knowledge communitiesform around mutualintellectual interests; theirmembers work together toforge new knowledge oftenin realms where notraditional expertise exists…” (Jenkins, 2006, p. 20).
  • 38. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyAnd online knowledgecommunities need not besocial, although they doneed the technology ofsocial media to work.As Giles (2010)points out,“Many onlinecommunities have beendeveloped whoseprimary goal is not socialbut informational …”(p. 170).
  • 39. Social Cognitive Theory : Collective EfficacyThese practices are entirely inkeeping with Bandura’s socialcognitive theory. He notes: “Social cognitive theoryextends the conception ofhuman agency to collectiveagency. People’s sharedbeliefs in their collectivepower to produce desiredresults are a key ingredient ofcollective agency. A group’sattainments are the productnot only of shared knowledgeand the skills of its differentmembers, but also of theinteractive, coordinative, andsynergistic dynamics of theirtransactions.” (Bandura,2000, pp. 75-76).
  • 40. Social Cognitive Theory : Social ModelingIn describing social modeling,Bandura (2004) notes:“Modeling influences servediverse functions in promotingpersonal and social change(Bandura, 1986, 1997). Theyinclude instructive,motivational, social prompting,and social constructionfunctions. With regard to theinstructive function, modelsserve as transmitters ofknowledge, values, cognitiveskills, and new styles ofbehavior. Observers also acquireemotional proclivities towardpeople, places, and objectsthrough modeled emotionalexperiences.” (p. 78)
  • 41. Social Cognitive Theory : Social ModelingOne of the signatureelements of OccupyWall Street, and ameasurement of itssuccess, is that it canbe (and frequently is)replicated elsewherein other communities,both physical andand/or topical
  • 42. Social Cognitive Theory : Social Modeling To do this the movementengages in socialmodeling, with theflagship servingas both a prototype,example and cultivator ofwhat in effect has turnedout to be kind of aprosocial activistfranchise. While thegroups are not directlyrelated to each other, akind of horizontalconfederacy existsbetween them (in keepingwith the localorganizational structurediscussed earlier) whereeach group controls itselflocally.
  • 43. Social Cognitive Theory : Social Modeling In addition, in anexample of what couldalso be categorizedunder the collectiveefficacy discussed above,the different franchisesfrequently collaboratetogether using socialmedia, sharingresources, especiallyinformation, and moralsupport.
  • 44. Social Cognitive Theory : Social Modeling The practical nature ofthe social modelingpracticed by the OccupyWall Street site is in is inkeeping with theprecepts of Bandura’stheory, all the more sobecause the modelingoccurs “vicariously”online while thereceiving Occupy groupscan be located aroundthe World.
  • 45. Social Cognitive Theory : Social Modeling As Bandura (2002), notes“… their [peoples’]conceptions of social realityare greatly influenced byvicarious experiences – whatthey see, hear, and read in themass media – without directexperiential correctives.”(p. 12).He adds: “To a large extent,people act on their images ofreality. The more people’simages of reality depend uponthe media’s symbolicenvironment, the greater is itssocial impact (S. Ball-Rokeach& DeFleur, 1976).” (Bandura,2001, p. 271).
  • 46. Measuring the Effect of Occupy Wall Street and So how do you measure the effectiveness of a movement like Occupy Wall Street and a website like
  • 47. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand occupywallst.orgBandura (2000) offersthe following advice.There are two mainapproaches to themeasurement of agroup’s perceivedefficacy:
  • 48. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand occupywallst.orgThe first methodaggregates the individualmembers’ appraisals oftheir personalcapabilities to executethe particular functionsthey perform in thegroup.
  • 49. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand The secondmethod aggregatesmembers’appraisals of theirgroup’s capabilityoperating as awhole. The latterholistic appraisalencompasses thecoordinative andinteractive aspectsoperating with-ingroups. (p. 76)
  • 50. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand At the time of this writingthe author of this mediaproject was not able tocome across many reliablequantitative facts andfigures regarding OWSand the website, perhapsbecause of thedecentralized nature of themovement or because it isstill so new .(Not that the author didn’t try -255 separate LiveStreamchannels were hand-counted asof 12/17/11 where OWSshowcases its links to itsLiveStream videos.)
  • 51. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand occupywallst.orgThe followingqualitative anecdotes,from a New YorkTimes article entitledsimply “Occupy WallStreet” (12/14/2011),are more in keepingwith Bandura’s advice:
  • 52. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand“Three weeks into theprotest, similardemonstrations spread todozens of other cities acrossthe country, including LosAngeles, San Francisco,Chicago and Boston. InOctober, demonstrations inemulation of Occupy WallStreet were held in Europe,Asia and the Americas,drawing crowds in thehundreds and thethousands.” (para. 6-7)
  • 53. Measuring the Effectof Occupy Wall Streetand occupywallst.orgIn other words, the “efficacy”,to use Bandura’s term,demonstrated by OWS hasliterally “moved” people.And OWS is getting noticedwhere it counts – the media:“… there was a sevenfoldincrease in Google searchesfor the term “99 percent”between September andOctober and a spike in newsstories about incomeinequality throughout the fall,heaping attention on theissues raised by activists.”(para. 17)
  • 54. Conclusion
  • 55. ConclusionIt remains to be seen whatwill come of the OccupyWall Street movement, itswebsite, and what Historywill say about it. But it hasalready made a difference.According to the New YorkTimes (12/14/2011),“Whatever the long-termeffects of the Occupymovement, protesters havesucceeded in implanting“We are the 99 percent,”referring to the vastmajority of Americans …into the cultural andpolitical lexicon.” (para. 15)
  • 56. ConclusionBandura (2000) adds: ”People’s success inshaping their social andeconomic lives liespartly in a shared senseof efficacy to bring theircollective influence tobear on matters overwhich they can havesome command …. Asglobalization reachesever deeper intopeople’s lives, aresilient sense of sharedefficacy become criticalto furthering theircommon interests.”(p. 78)
  • 57. ConclusionRegardless of theoutcome, thefootprint of OWS– and by extensionthe real worldapplication ofsocial cognitivetheory – willremain.
  • 58. References(Unless otherwise specifically stated, and for the sake of brevity, all direct quotes from “OccupyWall Street” were obtained from or through the main OWS website at )Bandura, A. (2000, June). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. CurrentDirections in Psychological Science, 9(3), 75-78.Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3(3),265-299. doi:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0303_03Bandura, A. (2002, March). Growing primacy of human agency in adaptation and change in theElectronic era. European Psychologist, 7(1), 2-16. doi:10.1027//1016-9040.7.1.2Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory for personal and social change by enabling media. InA. Singhal, M. J. Cody, E. M. Rogers, & M. Sabido (Eds.), Entertainment-education andsocial change: history, research, and practice (pp. 75-96).Berkowitz, B. (2011, October 19). From a single hashtag, a protest circled the world. BrisbaneTimes. Retrieved from
  • 59. ReferencesBoudreau, J. (2011, November 2). Occupy Wall Street, brought to you by social media. San JoseMercury News (California), breaking; technology; news; business; high-tech; science and tech.Carr, D. (2011, November 21). A movement, A question: What now? New York Times, sectionb, column 0; business/financial desk: the media equation; pg. 1.Giles, D. (2010). Psychology of the Media. Great Britain: Palgrave MacMillan.Greene, B. (2011, October 17). How Occupy Wall Street started and spread.,politics & policy; washington whispers.Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture. New York: New York University Press.Memorable quotes for Star Wars (1977). (n.d.). Retrieved December 16, 2011, from Streams . (n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2011, from Wall Street. (2011, December 14). New York Times. Retrieved from
  • 60. ReferencesOccupyWallStreet - NYC protest for World revolution. (n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2011,from, G. (n.d.). Excerpt from "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised." RetrievedOctober 1, 2011, from, C. R., Lopez, S. J., & Pedrotti, J. T. (2011). Positive Psychology. Los Angeles: SAGEPublications Inc.Weinschenk, S. M. (2009). Neuro Web Design. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
  • 61. Media CreditsUnless otherwise noted all other graphics/images/animations/sounds were Microsoft ClipArt ordownloaded from Microsoft Office Online at“Civics” PowerPoint 2007 Slideshow template used (standard template already installed withsoftware)Image/GraphicsAdbusters-Occupy Wall Street logo (slides 13, 14, 15) 12/18/11“Anonymous together” (slide 37) 12/18/11“brain full color” (slide 21) 12/18/11
  • 62. Media Credits“Darth Vader and technology” (slide 25) 12/18/11“Efficacy – Grades” graphic (slide 48) 12/18/11“From pitchforks to PDAs Protest” graphic (slide 8) 12/14/11“Egypt – Arab Spring protest” (slide 10) 12/18/11
  • 63. Media Credits“Lost my job found my occupation” (slide 32) 12/18/11New York Times logo (slide 51) 12/18/11“Occupied Wall Street Journal” (slide 23) 12/18/11“Occupy Everywhere” (slide 49) 12/18/11“Occupy Google” (slide 53) 12/18/11
  • 64. Media Credits“occupy-laptop_640” (slide 24) 12/13/11“Occupy Sesame St.” (slide 41) 12/18/11“Occupy USA” (slide 56) 12/18/11“Occupy Wall Street” logo (slide 57) 12/18/11“Occupy Wall Street” poster (slide 55) 12/18/11
  • 65. Media Credits“Occupy the World” (slide 44) 12/18/11“Occupy your Heart” (slide 53) 12/18/11“a plethora of self efficacy graphic” (slide 47) 12/18/11“Psychology of the Media” cover (slide 38) 12/18/11“Protestors changing the World” poster-graphic (slide 52) 12/18/11
  • 66. Media CreditsSnyder, Lopez, and Pedrotti - Positive Psychology handbook cover (slides 28, 30) 12/18/11“That’s All Folks! Looney Tunes” graphic (slide 70) 8/7/11Together (slide 36) 12/18/11Zuccotti Park (slides 14, 15) 12/18/11
  • 67. Media CreditsPersonalities:Albert Bandura photos“Bandura 2” (slide 7) 12/18/11“Bandura 3” (slides 16, 51) 12/18/11“Bandura 4” (slides 11) 12/18/11“Bandura 5” (slides 27, 29, 30, 31) 12/18/11
  • 68. Media Credits“Bandura 6” (slide 39) 12/18/11Bandura 7” (slide 40) 12/18/11Bandura compilation (slide 45) 12/18/11Henry Jenkins photos“Jenkins 1” (slide 26) 12/18/11
  • 69. Media Credits“Jenkins 2” (slide 18) 12/18/11“Jenkins 3” (slide 20) 12/18/11“Jenkins 4” (slide 37) 12/18/11Other Personalities:“David Giles” (slide 38) 12/18/11“Susan Weinschenk” (slide 22) 12/18/11