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Victims
 

Victims

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    Victims Victims Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 3 Victims and Victimization
    • Problems of Crime Victims  Victimization costs include: damaged property, pain and suffering, and the involvement of police and other agencies of the justice system
    • Problems of Crime Victims • Website link: http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc
    • Problems of Crime Victims • Economic Loss:  Problems of Crime Victims • Violent crime by juveniles costs $158 billion per year • Total economic costs of crime amounts to $450 billion annually • The costs of crime for each U.S. citizen is $1,800 annually • Victims suffer long term losses in earnings and occupational attainment • Research suggests crime victims during adolescence earn about $82,000 less than nonvictims
    • Problems of Crime Victims • System Abuse  Callous handling of victims by police  Holding of personal property for evidence  Rape victims report feeling “re-raped”  Economic hardships due to trials
    • Problems of Crime Victims • Long Term Stress  Posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD)  Lowering of self-esteem  Increased risk of suicide  Eating disorders  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders  Victimization lead to some people feeling timid and cautious  Fear of a repeat attack  Suffer psychological stress for longer periods of time
    • Problems of Crime Victims • Antisocial Behavior  Victims are more likely to commit crimes themselves  Being abused increases the odds of one being arrested (cycle of violence)  Both males and females are affected by the cycle of violence
    • The Nature of Victimization  Crime rates have been declining  The violent victimization rate decreased 54 percent  The property crime victimization rate decreased 50 percent
    • Figure 3.1 Declining Crime Rates, 1973-2003
    • Figure 3.2 Violent Crime Victimization Rates, 1973-2003
    • Figure 3.3 Property Crime Victimization Rates, 1973-2003
    • The Nature of Victimization • The social ecology of victimization  Violent crimes are more likely to occur in open public areas during daytime or early evening hours  Almost two-thirds of more serious crimes such as rape occur after 6 P.M.  Inner-city inhabitants have a greater chance of being victimized than suburbanites
    • The Nature of Victimization • The Victim’s Household  Larger, African American, Western, and urban homes are the most vulnerable to crime  Recent declines in victimization may be explained by smaller households in less populated areas due to movement from urban areas
    • The Nature of Victimization • Victim Characteristics  Gender: • Males are more likely to be victims of violent crime than females, except for rape and sexual assault • Females are more likely to be victimized by someone they know, whereas males are more likely to be victimized by strangers  Age: • Young people are more at risk of victimization than older people • People over 65 only account for 1 percent of violent victimizations (most being frauds and scams)
    • Figure 3.4 Violent Crime Rates by Age of Victim
    • The Nature of Victimization • Social Status  Poor people are more likely to experience violent and property crime  The wealthy are more likely to be targets of personal theft crimes
    • The Nature of Victimization • Marital Status  Never-married people are more likely to be victimized than married people  Widows and widowers have the lowest victimization rate
    • CNN Clip - Anti-Immigrant House Bombing
    • The Nature of Victimization • Race and Ethnicity  African Americans more likely to be victims of violent crime than European Americans  Minorities experience income inequality in greater number than European Americans
    • Figure 3.5 Violent Crime Rates by Race of Victim
    • The Nature of Victimization • Repeat Victimization  Individuals who have been a crime victim have a significantly higher chance of future victimization  Characteristics which increase potential for victimization • Target vulnerability • Target gratifiability • Target antagonism
    • The Nature of Victimization • The Victims and Their Criminals  Males are more likely to be violently victimized by a stranger  Females are more likely to be victimized by a friend or intimate  Crime is intraracial: Blacks victimize Blacks and Whites victimize Whites  Substance abuse is involved in about one-third of violent crime incidents  Women are more likely to be both robbed and raped by known acquaintances
    • Theories of Victimization • Victim Precipitation Theory – some people may actually initiate the confrontation that leads to their injury or death.  Active precipitation – victim acts provocatively (Menachem Amir 1971)  Passive precipitation – occurs when victim exhibits some personal characteristics that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker.
    • Theories of Victimization • Lifestyle Theory – certain lifestyles increase exposure to criminal offenders.  Being in a public place late at night  Living in an urban area  High-risk lifestyles (i.e. drinking, drug using)  Criminal lifestyle such as carrying weapons and belonging to gangs
    • Theories of Victimization • Deviant Place Theory  Victim prone to victimization because one resides in a socially disorganized high-crime area  The more often victims visit dangerous places, the more likely they will be exposed to crime and violence  Deviant places include: poor densely populated areas, highly transient neighborhoods and commercial areas with residential property in close proximity  William Julius Wilson suggests White residents flee high-crime areas, leaving racial minorities behind to suffer high victimization rates
    • Theories of Victimization • Routine Activity Theory  Victimization results from the interaction of everyday factors • Availability of suitable targets • Absence of capable guardians • Presence of motivated offenders  People who live in “hot spots” elevate their chances of victimization  Some criminologists suggest moral guardianship might cause some people to refrain from crime if they are bonded with conventional attitudes (peer rejection)  Ronald Clarke contends the relationship among opportunity, routine activities, and environmental factors increases victimization potential
    • Figure 3.6 Routine Activities Theory
    • Figure 3.7 The Opportunity Structure of Crime
    • Caring for the Victim • Victimization surveys indicate almost every American will become a victim of a common law crime • Helping the victim cope is the responsibility of all of society
    • Caring for the Victim • The Government’s Response  Task Force on Victim’s of Crime created in 1982 to provide recommendations for victim assistance  In 1984 The Comprehensive Crime Control Act and the Victims of Crime Act authorized federal funding for state victim compensation
    • Caring for the Victim • Victim Service Programs  An estimated 2,000 victim-witness assistance programs have been developed  Victim compensation: to pay for damages associated with crime ($100 to $15,000)  Court services: to help prepare victims and witnesses for court testimony  Public education: to familiarize the general public with primary prevention programs  Crisis intervention: Networks of social service agencies to provide emergency and long term assistance  Victim-offender reconciliation programs: use of mediators for face-to-face encounters between victims and perpetrators  Victim impact statements: allows victims the opportunity to describe their ordeal
    • Caring for the Victim • Victims’ Rights  Legal scholars have suggested crime victims have legal rights and society is obliged to ensure basic rights for law-abiding citizens  Thirty-three states have added victim’s rights amendments to their constitutions  A national Constitutional Amendment has been debated but has not yet passed Congress  In 2004, the Senate passed S.2329 a bill to provide rights to federal victims of crime, which does not change the Constitution
    • Caring for the Victim • Victim Advocacy  Advocates provide assistance to crime victims by interacting with police, courts, and legal aid  Advocates may assist in the writing of victim statements for various legal proceedings such as sentencing and probation/parole hearings.  Advocates may interact with media trying to ensure reporting is accurate and that privacy is not violated
    • Caring for the Victim • Self-Protection  Target hardening involves making one’s home and business crime proof  Use of fences, guards, surveillance cameras, window bars, warning signs, and dogs  Gary Kleck suggests armed victims kill between 1,500 and 2,800 potential felons each year
    • Caring for the Victim • Community Organization  Neighborhood watch programs  Community newsletters  Home security surveys  Lighting projects