Introduction to Corrections
Definition of Corrections
Corrections refers to the great number of
programs, services, facilities and organizations
respo...
Corrections Statistics
•In 2008, 3.2% (7.2 million men and women) of
U.S. adults were under correctional supervision
•1 in...
A Brief History
•Prior to 1800, Americans were physically
punished (flogging, branding, death)
•During Enlightenment U.S. ...
The Pennsylvania System
•Reform group was led by the Quakers
•Used separate confinement – 1 inmate per cell
•Used to preve...
The New York System
•Started in Auburn, NY under Warden Elam Lynds
•Used a congregate system – prisons worked
together dur...
Prisons in the South and West
•States of the South and West lacked the
necessary funds to build prisons
•Began the lease s...
Corrections in the U.S. Today
•Correctional programs/facilities are overseen by
all of the following:
•Federal government
...
Federal Corrections
•Overseen by Federal Bureau of Prisons – created by
Congress in 1930
•Houses 195,000 inmates and emplo...
State Corrections
•Organization varies by state, but:
•Executive branch oversees the prison system
within the state
•Judic...
Jails vs. Prisons
•Prisons are state or federal institutions that hold
offenders who are sentenced for longer than one
yea...
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Corrections

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Corrections

  1. 1. Introduction to Corrections
  2. 2. Definition of Corrections Corrections refers to the great number of programs, services, facilities and organizations responsible for the management of people accused or convicted of criminal offenses.
  3. 3. Corrections Statistics •In 2008, 3.2% (7.2 million men and women) of U.S. adults were under correctional supervision •1 in every 100 American adults are in prison or jail •Highest percentage of prisoners in the world •Costs $60 billion a year
  4. 4. A Brief History •Prior to 1800, Americans were physically punished (flogging, branding, death) •During Enlightenment U.S. changes policies so punishments fit the crime •Penitentiary is created to punish and reform criminals
  5. 5. The Pennsylvania System •Reform group was led by the Quakers •Used separate confinement – 1 inmate per cell •Used to prevent further corruption •Help prisoners reflect on their mistakes •Punishment through isolation from society •Short stays in prison because prisoners would repent quickly •System failed when overcrowding increased
  6. 6. The New York System •Started in Auburn, NY under Warden Elam Lynds •Used a congregate system – prisons worked together during the day but spent nights alone in their cell •Inmates wore “prison stripes” •Forbidden to speak with other inmates •Contract Labor System – inmates worked to produce goods •System became popular and spread throughout the United States
  7. 7. Prisons in the South and West •States of the South and West lacked the necessary funds to build prisons •Began the lease system – inmates worked for contractors who paid for their food and labor •Ended in 1887, when Congress prohibited prisoners from working for private companies
  8. 8. Corrections in the U.S. Today •Correctional programs/facilities are overseen by all of the following: •Federal government •State government •District of Columbia •Counties •Cities
  9. 9. Federal Corrections •Overseen by Federal Bureau of Prisons – created by Congress in 1930 •Houses 195,000 inmates and employs over 30,000 people •Divided into security levels – 1 (least secure) to 5 (maximum security) •Office of the U.S. Courts oversees probation and parole
  10. 10. State Corrections •Organization varies by state, but: •Executive branch oversees the prison system within the state •Judicial branch oversees probation and parole •Facilities include: maximum, medium and minimum security prisons, halfway houses, prison farms and forestry camps
  11. 11. Jails vs. Prisons •Prisons are state or federal institutions that hold offenders who are sentenced for longer than one year •Jails are local facilities that hold people awaiting trial and sentenced misdemeanants •Lockups, or Drunk Tanks, can hold people for up to 48 hours
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