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Urban cities and green issues lecture
 

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    Urban cities and green issues lecture Urban cities and green issues lecture Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture 2 of 6 Urban Environment Project
      June, 2011
      P.Matthews
      Urban Cities and Green Issues
    • Aims of lecture:
      What does it mean – ‘green design`
      Why green design?
      Introduce design principles: Biophilia Effect, Life Cycle, Hierarchy of Needs, Hunter-Nurturer Fixations
      Examples of art and design works connected green issues
      Consequences of poor, short sighted design
      Excite your ideas, generate discussion at the end of the lecture, and to contextualise your project around this growing urban environment theme
    • Can you explain the process of a designed thing, such as a mobile phone?
      What are the main stages in the life cycle of the product?
      What does the designer need to consider if the design is going to be effective, popular, successful, trendy, perhaps in terms of a classic design or a cult object?
    • 4 main stages in the life cycle of a designed ‘thing’:
      1. Introduction
      2. Growth
      3. Maturity
      4. Decline
    • http://www.secret-life.org – accessed June 2011
    • Hierarchy of Needs
      Creativity
      Proficiency
      Usability
      Reliability
      Functionality
      The seminal work on the concept of hierarchy of needs is Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow, Addison-Wesley, 1984
    • The Pleo by toy manufacturer Ugobe
    • Hunter-Nurturer Fixations
      Hunter fixation is characterised by:
      • Object movement and location
      • Weapons and tools
      • Hunting and fighting
      • Predators
      • Physical play
      Nurturer fixation is characterised by:
      • Form and colours
      • Facial expressions and interpersonal skills
      • Babies
      • Verbal play
      See Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., Universal Principles of Design, Rockport, USA, 2010, page 130-131
    • Hunter fixation is characterised by:
      Object movement and location
      Weapons and tools
      Hunting and fighting
      Predators
      Physical play
      Nurturer fixation is characterised by:
      Form and colours
      Facial expressions and interpersonal skills
      Babies
      Verbal play
      The Pleo by toy manufacturer Ugobe
    • Hunter-Nurturer Fixations
      Vervet monkeys playing with a toy car (right) and a doll (left)
    • a = designer
      b = client
      c = customer
    • a = designer
      b = client
      c = customer/user of the product
    • Now the customer or user of the designed object/thing/space is becoming more central to the design process.
      The key word here is integration/integrated designing processes.
      a = designer
      b = client
      c = customer/user of the product
    • Design is becoming more and more customer/user oriented.
      You can inform design more than you think – but how?
    • Source: International Herald Tribune, page 10, 28th December, 2009
    • Biophilia Effect
      Bio philia
      Agrophobic phobic
    • Peter Kahn, professor of psychology, University of Washington, conducting his ‘room with a view’ study which explores the physiological and psychological effects of living inside detached from nature, where HDTV plasma screens give the only view of nature. The video of nature is in real-time, but is it an effective substitute?
    • “But in Japan, there's nothing like that, since the temple is made of wood. The divine spirit inside the building is eternal, so the enclosure doesn't have to be.”
      Japanese architect Tadeo Ando
    • Nocturne of the Limax maximus
      Paula Hayes
      Installation view at the MOMA, New York
    • What does it mean – ‘Green Design’
      "eliminate negative environmental impact completely through skillful, sensitive design". (a)
      Sustainable designs purposefully avoid using non-renewable materials such as PVC plastics which derive from oil, a material we cannot make.
      Sustainable design can positively affect the microcosm (small, everyday objects) to the macrocosm (buildings and cities.)
      Design is a verb (action) and a noun (a thing or object). Sustainable design looks at what happens to the object after the customer buys them, for example, how long does the product last (durability) and how does it affect the environment after the user is finished with it.
      References:
      (a) McLennan, J. F. (2004), The Philosophy of Sustainable Design
    • What are the important design principles associated with green design today?
    • What does it mean – ‘Green Design’
      * Low-impact materials: choose non-toxic, sustainably-produced or recycled materials which require little energy to process.
      * Energy efficiency: use manufacturing processes that require less energy to produce the designed ‘thing’.
      * Quality and durability: longer-lasting and better-functioning products will have to be replaced less frequently, reducing the impacts of producing replacements. Going against design trends which have a predetermined built in obsolescence to them, e.g. Apple products.
      * Design for reuse and recycling: "Products, processes, and systems should be designed for performance in a commercial 'afterlife'.“ (b)
      References:
      (b) Anastas, P. L. and Zimmerman, J. B. (2003). Through the 12 principles of green engineering. Environmental Science and Technology,
      March 1. 95-101A.
    • Why is it important to design our future into a greener future?
      Fashion design:
      • Certified organic textiles are grown in controlled settings with no pesticides, herbicides or synthetic fertilizers which are very detrimental to the environment.
      • Cotton requires lots of water. For example, approximately 10,000 – 17,000 L of water is required to produce 1 Kg of cotton lint. This heavy water requirement has led to water shortages in many areas of the world with the Aral Sea area being a notable example.
      • Over 73% of cotton fields world wide are irrigated (Kooistra and Termorshuizen, 2006).
      • The main raw material used to produce polyester is oil. Oil is a non-renewable resource therefore polyester production is a not sustainable practice. Polyester is not biodegradable which means that any polyester textiles that end up in the land-fill will remain there for a very long time.
      • Polyester is a big contributor to GHG emissions and is a main contributor of waste in global land-fills. To manufacture 1 mt of polyester you get 5.5 mt of GHG emissions (CO2) going into the atmosphere. (Robert J Smith, Lenzing Fibers).
    • Why is it important to design our future into a greener future?
      The built environment:
      • Global production of cement in 2000 was 1.56 billion tonnes. (1 ton = 1,000kg) One third of this was produced in China alone. (Source: USGS Minerals Information. Cement Statistics 2000)
      • In manufacturing 1.56 billion tonnes of cement each year worldwide, an equivalent amount of CO2 is released into the air.
      • Concrete requires about 2 tonnes of raw material (limestone and shale) to make one tonne of concrete.
    • Smog in London during the industrial revolution boom.
    • Miroslaw Balka’s monumental installation in the Turbine Hall at Tate Modern, How It Is.
      13 metres high, 10 metres wide and 30 metres long, stainless steel.
    • The Weather Project, Turbine Hall, Tate Modern, Olafur Eliasson, 2003/2004
    • Examples of art and design works connected with green issues:
      art:
      1. Mona Hatumn, Hot Spot, stainless steel and neon tube,
      2006
      2. Joseph Beuys, 7,000 oaks, 1982-1987, Kassel, Germany
      3. Edward Burntynsky, Alberta Oil Sands, #6, Fort McMurray, Alberta, 2007, chromomeric colour photograph
      4. Elephant Parade, various decorated plastic elephants around London’s park
      design:
      Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan by architect Toyo Ito
      2.Chaise Lounge by Frank Gehry, corrugated cardboard to Tom Emerson and Max Beckenbauer’s ‘cardboard banquet room’
      3. Hobo patchwork and plaid fashion design by Comme des Garcons Homme Plus designed by Rei Kawakubo
      4. Puma restyle the ordinary shoe box
    • art:
      1. Mona Hatumn, Hot Spot, stainless steel and neon tube, 2006
    • art:
      2. Joseph Beuys, 7,000 oaks, 1982-1987, Kassel, Germany
    • art:
      2. Joseph Beuys, 7,000 oaks, 1982-1987, Kassel, Germany
    • art:
      2. Joseph Beuys, 7,000 oaks, 1982-1987, Kassel, Germany
      “I think the tree is an element of regeneration which in itself is a concept of time. The oak is especially so because it is a slow growing tree with a kind of really solid heartwood. It has always been a form of sculpture, a symbol for this planet.”
      Source: Richard Demarco, "Conversations with Artists" Studio International 195, no. 996 (September 1982), 46
    • art:
      2. Joseph Beuys, 7,000 oaks, 1982-1987, Kassel, Germany
      “7000 Oaks is a sculpture referring to peoples' life, to their everyday work. That is my concept of art which I call the extended concept or art of the social sculpture”
      Sourc :Norbert Scholz, "Joseph Beuys-7000 Oaks in Kassel," Anthos (Switzerland), no. 3 (1986), 32
    • art:
      3. Edward Burntynsky, Alberta Oil Sands, #6, Fort McMurray, Alberta, 2007, chromomeric colour photograph
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • art:
      4. Elephant Parade, hand decorated plastic elephants located around London including Green Park
    • design:
      1. Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan by architect Toyo Ito
    • design:
      1. Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan by architect Toyo Ito
    • design:
      1. Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan by architect Toyo Ito
    • design:
      1. Kaohsiung Stadium, Taiwan by architect Toyo Ito
    • design:
      2. Chaise Lounge by Frank Gehry, corrugated cardboard to Tom Emerson and Max Beckenbauer’s ‘cardboard banquet room’
    • design:
      2. Tom Emerson and Max Beckenbauer’s ‘cardboard banquet room’
    • design:
      3. Hobo patchwork and plaid fashion design by Comme des Garcons Homme Plus designed by Rei Kawakubo