Fischertechnik Handbook

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More informations above the Robo Interface

More informations above the Robo Interface

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  • 1. FischerTechnik Handbook PLTW GTT and POE Curriculum Shawn Lupoli Spring 2010 i
  • 2. ii
  • 3. Preface The Community College of Baltimore County’s pilot Project Lead the Way® (PLTW)professional development (PD) program was launched during the 2007-2008 school year througha grant from the Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing and Engineering (TIME) Center, aNSF ATE regional center, and with the support of the University of Maryland Baltimore County(UMBC), a PLTW Affiliate Training Center. This model was designed to build technicalcompetence and classroom confidence in middle and high school teachers in the use of theAutodesk Inventor software and FischerTechniks educational building system which are requiredfor the PLTW curriculum. Initially offered to Baltimore County teachers who attended a PLTWSummer Training Institute (STI), the training was designed to reinforce the skills and knowledgeacquired by teachers at the STI in an intensive, summer training program that in two weekscondenses a year-long PLTW engineering course curriculum. The goal of the PD program is tobuild the teachers’ technical competence by reinforcing and expanding on concepts learnedduring the summer program; and to help them to learn more innovative and effective ways ofintroducing engineering and technology concepts to their students through real-world classroomexperiences and in collaboration with other teachers and employers.About this book The book offers answers, suggestions, guidance and ideas for PLTW’s Gateway toTechnology (GTT) and Principles of Engineering (POE) activities where FischerTechnik robotsand/or the RoboPro programming software is required from the pre-established PLTWcurriculum and lesson plans. This book is a compellation of trainings, investigations andexercises held over the last few years with PLTW teachers in Maryland and the Introduction toLogic and Design class (CINS 111) at the Community College of Baltimore County. As moretraining sessions were held with the PLTW teachers and college classes with students, otherdeficiencies in explanations, directions and answers routinely popped up. This compellationstrives to cover and answer those deficiencies. The manual is broken up into many different categories, not just along PLTW or coursecurriculums. The categories with brief descriptions are: Basic Information: Covers items such as FischerTechnik robotic part identification anddefinition of usage, the differences between digital and analog inputs, along with a few otherbasic details are discussed. GTT/POE Activities: The activities are the same as those found in the PLTW curriculum,but these have answers, ideas, suggestions and identify potential pit-falls through trials andtribulations of many PLTW teachers and students. iii
  • 4. Custom Labs: These are tutorials and lab exercises on various topics that will helpfamiliarize both students and instructors on programming using RoboPro and the FischerTechnikparts. The labs do not follow the PLTW curriculum or activities and have been tested in thebefore mentioned training sessions and college courses. Appendix: Contains pictures, tutorials and procedures for a variety of topics.Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank the Technology and Innovation in Manufacturing andEngineering (TIME) Center, University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) and ProjectLead the Way®. Without their support and guidance this would not have been possible. Also,The Community College of Baltimore County’s Laura LeMire – Engineering Coordinator, whowas the originator and visionary of this entire project. Without her and relentless strive to givestudents the best possible tools for success in the Engineering field, this entire project would nothave come to fruition. iv
  • 5. Table of ContentsBasic Information ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Description of FischerTechniks Sensors and Inputs ........................................................................... 1 Digital vs. Analog ............................................................................................................................. 2 Interface connections ........................................................................................................................ 3 Common Ground .............................................................................................................................. 3 M1 – M4 (01 – 08) ............................................................................................................................ 4 Digital Inputs .................................................................................................................................... 4 Analog Resistance Inputs .................................................................................................................. 4 Analog Voltage Inputs ...................................................................................................................... 4 Inputs for Gap Sensors ...................................................................................................................... 4GTT (AR) Activity 2.1 ................................................................................................................................ 5 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................ 6GTT (AR) Activity 2.2 ................................................................................................................................ 7 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................ 7GTT (AR) Activity 2.3 ................................................................................................................................ 9 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Task 1 – (4 wheel drive vehicle) ........................................................................................................ 9 Task 2 – (Solar Collector) ................................................................................................................. 9 Task 3 – (Equipment mover) ........................................................................................................... 10 Task 4 – (Multi-use pump) .............................................................................................................. 10 Conclusion Solution ........................................................................................................................ 10GTT (AR) Activity 3.1 ...............................................................................................................................11 Procedure .........................................................................................................................................11 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 12GTT (AR) Activity 3.2 ...............................................................................................................................13 Procedure .........................................................................................................................................13 Road Trip.........................................................................................................................................13 Silly Susan’s Sign ........................................................................................................................... 14 v
  • 6. Eager Eddie’s Excellent Earthquake Machine .................................................................................. 15 Terry Traffic Tamer ........................................................................................................................ 16 This is your Exit .............................................................................................................................. 18 Grandma’s Getting Old ................................................................................................................... 19 Pick and Place ................................................................................................................................. 20 Freight Elevator Challenge .............................................................................................................. 20GTT (AR) Activity 3.4 .............................................................................................................................. 23 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 23 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 23GTT (AR) Activity 3.5 .............................................................................................................................. 25 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 25 Pneumatic door ............................................................................................................................... 25 Sorting machine .............................................................................................................................. 25 Gripper ........................................................................................................................................... 25 Processing Center............................................................................................................................ 25 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 25POE Activity 4.5a ................................................................................................................................... 28POE Activity 4.5c.................................................................................................................................... 30 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 30 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 30 Programming Solutions ................................................................................................................... 30POE Activity 4.5d ................................................................................................................................... 32 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 32 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 32POE Activity 4.5e ................................................................................................................................... 34 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 34POE Activity 4.5f .................................................................................................................................... 36 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 36 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 36POE Activity 4.5g ................................................................................................................................... 38 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 38 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 39POE Activity 4.5h ................................................................................................................................... 40 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 40 vi
  • 7. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 41POE Activity 4.5j .................................................................................................................................... 42 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 42 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 42POE Activity 4.5k ................................................................................................................................... 44 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................ 44 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 44Appendix A............................................................................................................................................. 46 Installing RoboPro Interface Drivers ............................................................................................... 46Appendix B ............................................................................................................................................. 50Appendix C ............................................................................................................................................. 56 Universal Joint Parts List................................................................................................................. 56 Crown and Pinion Parts List .............................................................................................................57 Worm and Wheel Parts List............................................................................................................. 58 Rack and Pinion Parts List .............................................................................................................. 60 Lead Screw ..................................................................................................................................... 61 Cam and Follower Parts List ........................................................................................................... 62 Crank and Slider Parts List .............................................................................................................. 63 Pulley and Belt Parts List ................................................................................................................ 64 Simple Gear Train ........................................................................................................................... 65 Simple Gear Train with Idler Parts List ........................................................................................... 66Custom Labs .......................................................................................................................................... 68 Intro Lab ............................................................................................................................................. 70 Variables Lab ......................................................................................................................................75 Decisions Lab ..................................................................................................................................... 82 Loops Lab........................................................................................................................................... 87 Methods Lab ....................................................................................................................................... 91 Arrays Lab .......................................................................................................................................... 95 Methods Lab II ..................................................................................................................................101 Wait Until Lab ...................................................................................................................................105 Gears Lab ..........................................................................................................................................110Appendix D ...........................................................................................................................................114 Building the FischerTechnik Crane ................................................................................................114Appendix E ............................................................................................................................................118 Suggested Build Photos ..................................................................................................................118 vii
  • 8. GTT Activity 2.3 - 4 Wheel Drive vehicle ......................................................................................118 GTT Activity 2.3 - Solar Collector ................................................................................................ 120 GTT Activity 2.3 - Equipment Mover............................................................................................ 124 GTT Activity 2.3 - Multi-use pump ............................................................................................... 126 POE Activity 4.5k - Marble Sorter ................................................................................................ 126Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................130 viii
  • 9. Basic Information Description of FischerTechniks Sensors and Inputs No one can assume that the instructor has a background in electronics and/or robotics.Making things worse, the FischerTechnik robotic kits have so many parts that some are either notused or used sparingly. Plus, during the two week summer training sessions (STIs), manyinstructors do not become acquainted enough with some of the sensors and inputs since thetopics vary widely. One of the important items to understand is where the component is digital oranalog. The difference between analog and digital is further described in Analog ResistanceInput and Digital Inputs further in the book.Sensor Definition Used in:Electromagnet By running electric current Fire doors through a wire, you can create a Switches magnetic field. Inside motorsPhotocell A photocell is a type of resistor. Automatic lights When light strikes the cell, it Night lights allows current to flow more freely. When dark, its resistance increases dramatically.Solenoids An integrated device containing Cars (starter) an electromechanical solenoid Lawn mowers which actuates either a pneumatic or hydraulic valveReed Contact When a magnetic force is generated parallel to the reed switch, the reeds become flux carriers in the magnetic circuit. If the magnetic force between the poles is strong enough the reeds will be drawn together.Photo-transistor a transistor that amplifies Solar panels current induced by photoconductivity.NTC Resistor a type of resistor with resistance Used in varying according to its thermometers temperature 1
  • 10. an electrical device that Radios measures potential difference Joysticks between two points in a circuit ControllersPotentiometer by comparison with a standard battery of known potential difference. an electromagnet is used to Alarms operate a self-interrupting CarsBuzzer circuit that makes noise when repeated closingMini Switch an electrical device use to either Lighting connect or disconnect a circuit. Controls The switch given in the FischerTechnik switch has two options: constantly closed (circuit is complete), constantly open (circuit is open, disconnected)MotorReversing Switch Digital vs. Analog Digital is the easiest to understand. In digital, only on (represented as a 1) and off (0).Anything in between is ignored or impossible. The 1’s and 0’s are then translated into data. In thecase of Analog, there are various values from 0 to 1. Making it worse since analog can varywidely, it is more susceptible to noise or interference.Digital SignalsAnalog Signal 2
  • 11. Interface connections The interface map is given with the official FischerTechnik instructions. The map will beused to identify and demonstrate the different features. Please note the numbers in the picturesbelow. Common Ground There are two areas in the interface that should be considered the common ground. Thefirst can be found as #2 on Interface map on the manual with the symbol ┴ imprinted on theboard. If needed, plugs (31 336, 31 337) can be attached to one another to access the singlecommon ground access point. ON the other end of those plugs can be any sensor, motor, etc…that requires a ground line. Another location for a ground wire is the row of inputs close picturedbelow. Usually these are used a ground input for sensors, bulbs, or motors that require oneconnection to the ground, second with the specific input 3
  • 12. M1 – M4 (01 – 08)This area is #14 on the Interface map. The inputs can be for four (4) motors, eight (8) light bulbs(37 869, 37 875) when grounds are grouped together, and four (4) electromagnets (32 363).Previously mentioned, motors and electromagnets have to be properly wired. There is two endscoming from either component, one end needs to be connected to the common ground, then otherto the closest stamped M value on the interface. Digital InputsDigital input accepts values that can ONLY be 0(off) or 1(on). This is #12 on the Interface map.The inputs receives ONLY 0/1 (digital) responses is used for mini buttons (37 783), phototransistors (36 134), reed contacts (36 120) and any other switches offered. Analog Resistance InputsAnalog values can be a wide (so not exact) range of values from 0 to 1023. The range of answerscould lead to errors or imprecision called noise. Many electronics such as radios, temperaturesensors, older televisions, still use analog signals to transport data. This is located at #11 on theinterface map as “AX” and “AY”. These inputs are used for Potentiometers, Photo resistance,NTC resistance, components that can wide range of values. Analog Voltage InputsThis is #10 on the Interface map and “A1” and “A2” on the interface. Inputs for Gap SensorsThis is #9 on the Interface map and “D1” and “D2” on the interface. These inputs are used forgap sensors which are not included with the kits and can be bought separately. 4
  • 13. GTT (AR) Activity 2.1 Procedure In covering the application of gears, this is a potential area where the “Gears lab” in the“Custom Lab” section in the book may bear fruit for the students. There are a few ideas andterms in this activity that should be understood before entering. The activity uses the terms drivegear and driven gears. The drive gear is where the force is being focused or pushed by a motor ofsome sort, such as an engine or human. The driven gear is the outcome of that force. On abicycle, the gear attached to the pedals would be considered the drive gear, and the rear bikewheel and gear set, where the only connection is the chain from the other gear, is the driven gear.Identifying the drive gear is critical in any system. 1. Gears turn in a circular direction. There is a relationship between torque and speed in gearing. A ten-speed bicycle has ten different gear selections. When you pedal up a hill, you use a gear train that provides more torque (turning force) but, in doing so, less speed. When you pedal on flat land, you use a gear train that provides more speed, but in doing so, less torque within the gear train. The gear train in which diagram provides more torque? __A___ The gear train in which diagram provides more speed? __B___ 2. Fill in the diagram below to show the relationship between torque and speed in gear trains. More torque less speed More speed less torque 3. Complete the chart below showing the relationship between drive gear and driven gear in a simple gear train. 5
  • 14. Driven Gear Size To increase torque larger than drive gear To increase speed smaller than drive gear 4. Calculate the following gear ratios. # Teeth # Teeth Gear Explanation Gear 1 Gear 2 Ratio 8 40 40/8 A small gear must turn 5 times 5/1 to move larger gear once. 4 36 36/4 A small gear must turn 9 times 9/1 to move larger gear once. 6 48 48/6 A small gear must turn 8 times 8/1 to move larger gear once. 16 20 20/16 A small gear must turn 5 times 5/4 to move larger gear 4 times. Conclusion 1. What would cause the gears to lose some of their efficiency?Friction is one of the keys issues. There are two areas of friction to be concerned about: gear teeth friction: the teeth of the gears grind with another gear or a chain gear set: what the gear is fastened to. On a bike, the gear is placed on a ball bearing setthat will corrode in time.Gear system alignment is another issue. The teeth will grind more if the gears are not perfectlyaligned with one another. 2. How could the effect be minimized?Oil and maintenance. 6
  • 15. GTT (AR) Activity 2.2 Procedure In this activity, students are going to build all ten gear assemblies pictured in the activityand observe how they are used. The pictures given in the activity are awful. But there is anaccompanying document which is attached to the PLTW activity named “Build Sheet” that hasnice pictures showing different angles and the different parts required. This document and hasbeen added to Appendix C to this book. The “Mechanism Checklist” listed later in the exercise is a checklist for the instructor tomonitor the group’s completed assemblies and a document for the students to summarize eachassembly completed since some of the parts may need to reused for other assignments within theactivity. Finally, there is a question I would suggest to add to the Conclusion. Add which gearassemblies change the direction of motion. The question is listed as #4 below. Conclusion 1. Which gear assemblies increased speed?Pulley and Belt (depending on Drive gear)Simple Gear Train with Idler 2. Which gear assemblies increased torque?Crown and PinionWorm and WheelLead ScrewPulley and Belt (depending on Drive gear) 3. Which gear assemblies allow the reversal of power?Pulley and BeltSimple Gear Train 4. Which gear assemblies allow the direction of momentum to be diverted?Universal JointCrown and PinionBevel GearsWorm and WheelRack and PinionLead ScrewCam and Follower 7
  • 16. Simple Gear Train 8
  • 17. GTT (AR) Activity 2.3 Procedure This is one of the most difficult building activities in the curriculum which is furtherbroken down into four tasks where the students are assigned to complete two. It is not justdifficult since students will come up with various solutions, but the directions in some are notclear. In each task a suggestion of a build. On the PLTW curriculum, it says this activity issuggested. But in fact, this is where the students can really be creative in their solutions and notso prescribed. There are photos in Appendix E of previous builds that may help give a few ideas andsuggestion. Task 1 – (4 wheel drive vehicle) Task 1: The scientists and doctors need a vehicle that will take them over the rough terrain to search for other survivors and collect data. o Requirements: 1. Needs to travel over rough terrain. 2. Needs to have a universal drive shaft. 3. Must be able to switch from two-wheel drive to four-wheel drive.One of the biggest questions posed was how to be able to switch from two to four wheel drive. Ateam developed a car where a second motor would push another motor and it’s mount towardsthe front axel that contains an offset bevel gear. Task 2 – (Solar Collector) Task 2: The scientists need a machine that will rotate a solar collection dish from inside their labs, but be located outside their building and around the corner. o Requirements: 1. Needs to have a minimum gear ratio of 1:5. 2. Needs to be located around a corner. 3. Needs to be angled 30 toward the sun and be able to follow the sun. 9
  • 18. One of the first questions was about the corner. The corner makes the contraption use differentangles and multiple pulleys to reach the corner required. As a suggestion, use either the surgicaltubing or string to use as a connecting wire. The angled required can be satisfied by using the“Angle block 30 degree” (31 011 pg 1) FischerTechnik part. Task 3 – (Equipment mover) Task 3: Doctors need a machine to move all their operating equipment and generators, at one time, from room to room. One of the pieces of equipment is an old radio now used to regulate heartbeats, called a cardioregulator. o Requirements: 1. Must move all the equipment at once. 2. Must create a cardioregulator.The suggested build in the appendix focuses on the equipment mover. Many contraptions used asimple track and a platform to move items from one room to another. Task 4 – (Multi-use pump) Task 4: For all members to survive, they must have food, water, and shelter. This means pumping up water from the ground, cutting wood for building and grinding grain for flour to eat. o Requirements: 1. Must create one machine that will perform all these tasks. 2. Must have only one input to run all these devices, to save energy. 3. Must use only ¼ of the space normally provided.There were many questions about #3 in the instruction set above. When covered in trainingsessions, many of the teachers use a quarter of the baseplate as the area requirement. Conclusion Solution 1. What would you have changed if you had time to redesign one thing on your device?There have been several comments that will routinely appear:1. We didn’t know how the pieces fit together.2. They wish they were able to use rubber bands or string.3. 10
  • 19. GTT (AR) Activity 3.1 Procedure This activity is going to introduce students to the icons or pictures you will be using inthe RoboPro programming language. Here are a few suggests before entering the exercise: 1. Each icon represents a few details: a. the part b. where the part is connected on the interface c. on some (V), speed or power i. 0 = off ii. 8 = highest intensity 2. Ask the student what numbers in the icons stand for such as 0, 1, and I1. 3. The second RoboPro icon is a light bulb that is off. Many cannot identify the object on top of the black block. 4. For the third RoboPro icon, many students can identify the motor, but have them focus on the direction (counter-clockwise). The direction of the arrow follows that of a clock. 5. Show the opposing icon be shown later in the exercise. The opposing icons are shown in the exercise below.2. Now let’s see what happens with some RoboPro programming icons. Fill in the table with the possible actions you think will occur when the icons are pressed. Function Block Icons Possible Actions 1 (on), 0 (off), I1 (where it is connected to on the interface) Lamp that is off. Connected to O1 on the interface. (Lamp that is on) Motor running counter-clockwise at speed 8 (fast). (motor running clockwise) 11
  • 20. Conclusion 1. What is the advantage of using icons in programming?Icons replace the need for words and typing. Icons are also easier to read and require a similarstructure. 12
  • 21. GTT (AR) Activity 3.2 Procedure This is the first full exercise with building and programming. In each exercise, the roboticsetup and programming are provided. Building can vary slightly, but the programming should beexactly the same as shown. Road TripHints and Parts: None, very easy. Here are the parts required for the task: 1. Motor (32 293 pg 2) 2. Wires x 2 3. Plug in light holder (38 216 pg 5) 4. Bulb lamp (37 869 pg 5)Setup: 1. Connect the motor to M1 2. Connect the light holder to M3 3. Place bulb into light holderProgramming: 13
  • 22. Silly Susan’s SignHints and Parts: None, very easy. Photos of the activity are in the appendix. The suggested parts list is asfollows. 1. Turntable top (31 390) 2. Turntable base (31 391) 3. Small blocks 2 pin x 6 (32 882) 4. Small blocks 1 pin x 10 (32 881) 5. Motor (32 293) 6. Switch (37 783) 7. Motor reducing gearbox (31 078) 8. Worm Gear (35 072) 9. Angle girder 30 mm (36 299)Setup: 14
  • 23. 1. Motor connected to M1. 2. Switch connected to I1.Programming: Eager Eddie’s Excellent Earthquake MachineHints and Parts: Just remember that the switches are waiting for input. 1. 1-motor 2. 2-switches 3. 3-wires 4. 1-motor rack gearbox 5. 1-rack and pinion (60mm) 6. 6-building blocksSetup:Programming: 15
  • 24. Terry Traffic TamerHints and Parts List: Please note that the light has two different patterns to change from green to red after button is pressed. 1. 1 – aluminum strut (90mm)(horizontal light pole) 2. 1 – aluminum strut (210mm)(vertical light pole) 3. 3 – light caps (green, yellow, red) 4. 3 – light blocks 5. 1 – building block (30mm)(holds light blocks) 6. 1 – building block (15mm)(holds light blocks) 7. 3 – pairs of wires 8. 1 – switchSetup:Programming: 16
  • 25. 17
  • 26. This is your ExitHints: Note that the light has two different patterns to change from green to red after button ispressed. Also the electromagnet will play the role of the car, just hover it over the reed switch. 1. 1 – aluminum strut (90mm)(horizontal light pole) 2. 1 – aluminum strut (210mm)(vertical light pole) 3. 3 – light caps (green, yellow, red) 4. 3 – light blocks 5. 1 – building block (30mm)(holds light blocks) 6. 1 – building block (15mm)(holds light blocks) 7. 3 – pairs of wires 8. 1 – reed switch 9. 1 - electromagnet 18
  • 27. Setup:Programming: Grandma’s Getting OldHints and Parts: Please note no stairs are built but rather the idea of a 30 degree angle is used. 1. 5 – rack and pinion tracks 2. 1 – motor with rack gearbox attached 3. 3 – switches (one for start button, two for end sensors) 4. 8 – building blocks (30mm)(for the “stairs”) 5. 4 – angle blocks (30deg.) (three to angle “stairs” to 30 deg., one to return seat angle to 90deg.) 6. 3 – building blocks (7,5mm)(attaches tracks to “stairs”) 7. 2 – mounting plates (for the seat) 19
  • 28. 8. 1 – holding axle (holds the seat) 9. 1 – hinged block tab (attaches seat to motor unit) 10. 1 – angular block (10x15x15mm) (holds seat back) 11. 1 – building block (5mm)(attaches seat back and bottom together on holding axle) 12. 4 – pairs of wiresSetup:Programming: Pick and PlaceHints: None, very easy.Setup:Programming: Freight Elevator Challenge 20
  • 29. Hints: Each floor has its own sensor and button. Elevator will return to floor 1 after destination hadbeen achieved. 1. 1 – motor with rack gear box 2. 3 – rack and pinion tracks 3. 23 – building blocks (30mm) 4. 4 – building blocks (15mm) 5. 6 – switches 6. 7 – pairs of wires 7. 2 – mounting plates (30x90mm)Setup:Programming: 21
  • 30. 22
  • 31. GTT (AR) Activity 3.4 Procedure This exercise requires some imagination teamwork and several kits and interfaces to worktogether, but work as “workcells” in an assembly line. The assembly line must simulate the: Creating o the slot on the top o the slot on the side o the top hole o the chamfers on the side edges o the chamfers on the front and back edges o the side holes Painting the entire part Delivering it to the loading area at the end of the lineAgain, the build solutions and programming will vary greatly. Here are few hints:1. The piece which can be a larger block from the FischerTechnik kit (32 879 pg 3) shouldnot be touched by human hands during the process. You may find a few YouTube videosshowing this. Strive for no human interaction.2. The use of rubber bands, links (32 649 pg 3), string should be used to move the blockfrom on workcell to another.3. Have the block land on a pulley, which with turn, to simulate the painting of all sides.There is still the top and bottom to paint. Conclusion 1. What would you have done to improve your workcell?Space or fitting pieces together will always be an issue. 2. What was your team’s greatest challenge with its workcell?Getting the block to routinely move how the team wished is always a feat. The block is usuallylight and this can be a detriment. 23
  • 32. 24
  • 33. GTT (AR) Activity 3.5 ProcedureThis activity introduces the pneumatics portion of the FischerTechniks kit. The activity coversthe creation of the pump, use of the solenoids to control the air, and the compressors to push airthrough the surgical tubing provided. Students are then asked to build solutions for: Pneumatic door Sorting machine Gripper Processing Center Pneumatic door Sorting machine Gripper Processing Center Conclusion 1. What is pneumatics?Pneumatics is the use of pressurized gas to effect mechanical motion. 2. How can pneumatics be used in the Simulated Factory Assembly Line that your class created?The compressed air could be used to move the block, and dry the paint. 3. What are two advantages of using pneumatics in the Simulated Factory Assembly Line?1. Air is much gentler on the block than a motor pushing it.2. Air line is flexible and can get into tight spaces. 25
  • 34. POE Activity 4.4b Procedure The activity listed in 4.5a is a general description of the RoboPro interface in 26
  • 35. 27
  • 36. POE Activity 4.5a Procedure The activity listed in 4.5a is a general description of the RoboPro interface in BasicInformation. After using the interface for different class here are a few suggestions and updates.Below is the manufacturers’ image of the interface, as this manual will go by their numberedmap. 28
  • 37. 29
  • 38. POE Activity 4.5c Procedure Activity 4.5c is a great introduction into the program design of RoboPro. The activityprepares the students for the programming portion of FischerTechnik robotics. As a small note, the latest activity shows the setup for a serial connection. Any newpurchases from PLTW will have a USB setup which is basically the same setup, different cord toplug in. Just make sure to have the correct connection setting in RoboPro. Conclusion 1. How would you change the direction that the motor will rotate? A. Within the software: You would right click the motor icon, select “ccw” (counter clock wise) or “cw” (clock wise) from the action section. B. Within the hardware: You would switch the wires. If you had the green wire on the left and the red wire on the right, you would simply switch their positions on the actual motor. 3. What is the indication given that there is a problem with your program? The program will say “The program flow output element is not connected” if a connection is not made between icons. It might also say “No ROBO interface could be found on the USB” if the USB cord is not connected to the interface or the computer or the power plug is not connected. 4. What command is used to check your software program? You click the “Test” icon at the top of the ROBO PRO program. 5. What command is used to check your hardware setup? You press the red button “port” on the ROBO interface. If its on “COM” it will not work, but it will work when its on “USB” or “USB” and ”COM”. Programming Solutions 30
  • 39. 31
  • 40. POE Activity 4.5d Procedure This activity covers decisions nicely. There is also a custom Decisions lab within thisbook. There is also an introduction to an infinite loop, a loop that runs forever. The idea soundsbad, but there are many applications for this useful feature! In the conclusion exercise #1, infiniteloops are the only way to make the directions work. Conclusion 1. You are to write 3 programs to do the following: BP3A: Turn a motor off when the switch is pressed. BP3B: Turn a motor on when a switch is pressed. BP3C: Turn a motor on when a switch 1 is pressed and turn a motor off when switch 2 is pressed. 32
  • 41. 2. What is the purpose on the Branch function block? The Branch function block can be used to represent a switch in your program.6. What is the purpose of a branch in a program? This function block is used to evaluate binary inputs.7. Describe a normally open switch. A normally open switch is wired so that the contacts inside the switch are not touching, while the switch is not activated8. Describe a normally closed switch. A normally closed switch is wired so that the contacts inside the switch are touching, while the switch is not activated. 33
  • 42. POE Activity 4.5e Procedure Activity 4.5e covers the use of the variables in RoboPro. There is a new variable datatype float in the latest version of RoboPro. The “Variables” custom lab further in the readingcovers the creation and use of variables in expressions. Conclusion 1. What is the purpose of the VARIABLE function block? It sets the initial value of your variable. 2. In your last program (BP1), you repeated a sequence of commands 2 times. In this program (BP2) you also repeat a series of commands. Explain the difference between these two programs with respect to the methods used for repeating a command sequence. 34
  • 43. In BP1, we programmed it for one turn without a loop. The program terminated after one time. In BP2, you made a loop so the program will do the specified function as many times as you would like without having to write it all out.3. What is the function of the BRANCH function block? The Branch function block is used to create a program-processing branch based on the value of a variable. 35
  • 44. POE Activity 4.5f Procedure This activity creates an open loop system that is destine to fail showing the shortcomingsof this type of system. Eventually, the motor and gear box will run out of space and run off therack and pinion track as it moves back and forth. Because this is an open loop system there areno checks or sensors that keep track of exactly where the motor is located on the track. The parts required are as follows: 1. Motor (32 293 pg 2) 2. Motor rack gearbox (37 272 pg 5) 3. Rack and Pinion 60 mm x 3 (37 351 pg 5) 4. Aluminum Strut 210 mm (31 226 pg 1) 5. Building Block 15 mm x 2 (32 881 pg 3) The setup should be as follows: 1. Motor connected to M1 Conclusion 36
  • 45. 1. Explain what open-loop control means. The controller does not check whether the actual output (position or velocity) equals the desired output during the operation of the system. Controller output signal is determined by the input signal from the computer or another peripheral device.2. Observe your system in operation, for at least 2 minutes, and describe how it behaves. The number of rotations of the motor varies each times it pushes and pulls during the same amount of time.3. What are some possible explanations for the behavior that you observed? The number of rotations are constant, but might possibly be different in the gears moving left or right. The amount of weight that the motor holds is the same, but when the motor pulls the gear, the friction is harder than when it pushes the weight of the gear which could result in an irregular pattern. The teeth on the rack pinion could also create friction which could slow down the pattern of the motor.4. Give 10 other examples of an open-loop control system, and explain why it is an open-loop system. (You can’t use a washing machine)1. Elevator – input is by floor buttons; repeats the same job of moving up and down floors.2. Escalator – infinite loop of going forward after you initially start the escalator.3. Ski lift – infinite loop of going forward after you initially start the ski lift.4. Automatic opening doors: input by movement detection; repeats the same job of opening, and then closing (same as rack pinion).5. Assembly line (cars) - input by workers (start machine) and it will run all day doing the same job over and over again.6. Fan (cpu) – circles around and around infinitely after you turn on the computer until you turn off the computer.7. Cotton candy machine – input is power button; repeats same rotation process over and over again until power is turned off.8. Car engine (rpm) – engine starts when key is turned; repeats same rotation process depending on the amount of RPM’s initiated.9. Digital clock – does the same process over and over again until an hour/minute occurs, then it changes.10. Flashing ads – loop turns the two specific colors/images on and off after a given amount of time.11. Traffic light – input is car detection; changes the color of the light depending on car detection on either side of the street after a certain amount of time. 37
  • 46. POE Activity 4.5g Procedure This activity creates a closed loop system using the previous activity while adding morefeatures such as sensors. The motor and gear box will now uses switches as sensors to changedirections. This eliminates any errors such as running of the track that could occur. Because thisis a closed loop system, there are checks using sensors (switches) that keep track of exactlywhere the motor is located on the track. Please notice that the motor assembly will touch theswitch when it moves far enough to one side or the other. The parts required are as follows: 1. Motor (32 293 pg 2) 2. Motor rack gearbox (37 272 pg 5) 3. Rack and Pinion 60 mm x 3 (37 351 pg 5) 4. Aluminum Strut 210 mm (31 226 pg 1) 5. Building Block 15 mm x 2 (32 881 pg 3) 6. Switch x 2 (37 783 pg 5) The setup should be as follows: 1. Motor connected to M1 2. Switch #1 should be connected to I1. 3. Switch #2 should be connected to I2. 38
  • 47. Conclusion 1. Explain what Closed-Loop control means.Closed-loop control allows for feedback. In this case, the feedback is the switches. We can movethe motor back and forth at will, or let the motor hit the switches and move itself. Either way itwill move infinitely, but now we can alter it at anytime with the switches. 2. What provides the feedback in this close-loop system?The switches on either side of the rack and pinion. 3. Describe your observations of this system.The motor will initially start moving clockwise until it hits a switch. When the switch is hit, themotor will move in the opposite direction (counter clock wise) until it hits the other switch andmoves clockwise again. We can also manually maneuver the motor by pressing the switchesourselves and looping faster. 4. How would you change the distance that the motor travels?By pressing the opposite switch before the motor reaches it by itself. 5. Describe three examples of a Closed-Loop control system from your home. What types of feedback systems are they using?Sprinkler system: When it detects smoke in the room, the alarm and water go off. The smoke hasto be a certain amount in order for the program to initiate.Alarm system: The program tracts movement, and when a considerable amount of movement isdetected, then the alarm will go off. The alarm has to be set in order for the program to run.Garage door opener: When the button is pressed and the garage door goes down, it will detectany object in the path, and if there is, the garage door will go back up. A sensor detects anyobject above a certain height. 39
  • 48. POE Activity 4.5h Procedure This activity creates a closed loop system using the previous activity while using aPhotocell or Phototransistor instead of a switch for one of the locations. The photocells, inconjunction with a light, will sense darkness of the motor moving by, much like a nightlight in ahallway. The motor and gear box will now uses switch and sensors to change directions. Thiseliminates any errors such as running of the track that could occur. Because this is a closed loopsystem, there are checks using sensors (switches) that keep track of exactly where the motor islocated on the track. Please notice that the motor assembly will touch the switch on one side anduses the photocell of transistor on the other when it moves far enough to one side or the other. The parts required are as follows: 1. Motor (32 293 pg 2) 2. Motor rack gearbox (37 272 pg 5) 3. Rack and Pinion 60 mm x 3 (37 351 pg 5) 4. Aluminum Strut 210 mm (31 226 pg 1) 5. Building Block 15 mm x 2 (32 881 pg 3) 6. Switch x 1 (37 783 pg 5) 7. Photocell x 1 (32 698 pg 3) OR Photo transistor (36 134 pg 4) The setup should be as follows: 1. Motor connected to M1 2. Switch #1 should be connected to I1. 3. If using a Photocell, it should be connected to EX. 4. If using a Photo transistor, it should be connected to E2. 40
  • 49. Conclusion 1. What is the feedback in these systems?The first feedback is the switch and the other is the phototransistor. 2. Explain what digital means. Give an example of a digital device.Relating to or being a device that can generate record, process, receive, transmit, or displayinformation that is represented in discrete numerical form.Ex: Digital Camera 3. Explain what analog means. Give an example of an analog device.of or pertaining to a mechanism that represents data by measurement of a continuous physicalvariable, as voltage or pressure.Ex: Analog TV 41
  • 50. POE Activity 4.5j Procedure This exercise again uses the previous tasks and introduces how using a potentiometer as afeedback device. The task also introduces the concept of position control where the student willuse the potentiometer much like a joystick and move the motor and gear box depending on theircontrol. Conclusion 1. What is the feedback in this system?The feedback is the predetermined values of the potentiometer. The potentiometer gets to adetermined value and then the motor changes direction. 2. Give an example of a positional control system and an explanation of how it works.Water Tank: A set point is reached when the water in the tank gets too low, and water is thenpoured in. Then another set point is reached when the water gets too high, stopping the waterflow. This process repeats.Source: http://www.tpub.com/content/doe/h1013v2/css/h1013v2_127.htm 3. Give two examples where you might find a potentiometer.Sliding door: when the sensor detects movement, the potentiometer turns until a desired radius isachieved, and then the door stops opening. After a few second of non-movement, thepotentiometer turns back the other way until a desired radius is reached.Doorknob: It has two set of angles that you can turn the knob clockwise and counterclockwise.After it reaches a certain angle it opens the door and vice versa it will close the door when theknob is released to a certain angle. 42
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  • 52. POE Activity 4.5k Procedure The marble sorter!! Out of all of the activities, this is one of the most challenging, but the most fun with well constructed instructions and requirements. The marble sorter is to use several system listed below to separate two different colored marbles, clear and opaque, into separate collection bins. The various system that must be included with the marble sorter are: Hopper System: A place to dump, not place, the raw material (trash), to begin the process. You can use non-FischerTechnik parts for the hopper. Transport System: A system to move the marbles from point to point: from the inspection station to the proper bin for those color marbles. Sensing System: A system for recognition of part or position of the bin Bin System: A system to collect and hold the marbles after the system has determined its classification. Program: A computer program used to automate the sorting system. You must use subroutines in your program. Many instructors and students have been so successful that hints or clarifications have not been needed!! Just remember that a photocell and a light will be determining if the marble is clear. Trails runs are critical for success. Suggest build pictures are in the Appendix. Conclusion 44
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  • 54. Appendix A Installing RoboPro Interface DriversOne item commonly not covered and needed for the school’s IT team is the hardware setup forthe FischerTechniks interface drivers. In order to install the USB driver, you must first haveinstalled the RoboPro software, reboot and then connect the ROBO Interface with a USB cableto your computer and supply it with power. Windows XP automatically recognizes that theInterface is connected and displays the following window:Here you must select “Install software from a list or specific location” and press Next. In the nextwindow you deactivate Search removable media and activate Also search following sources.Then you click Search and select the sub-directory USB Driver Installation in the directory inwhich RoboPro is installed (the standard directory is C:ROBOPro): (pictured below) 46
  • 55. Under Windows XP, you may see the following message after pressing Next:The USB driver is still being tested by Microsoft. Once testing is completed the driver will beapproved by Microsoft, so that this notice no longer appears. In order to install the driver, pressProceed with installation. Finally, the following message will appear: 47
  • 56. Press Finish to complete USB driver installation. From within RoboPro, the correct connection must be made. Thankfully this needs to bedone once to establish the settings. Select USB/COM button on the menu bar, select USB andRoboPro Interface. 48
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  • 58. Appendix B 50
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  • 64. Appendix C Universal Joint Parts List 1X 2X 1X 1X 1X 1X 1X 1X 1X 1X 80 mm Isometric View 1X 60 mm Top View Side View 56
  • 65. Crown and Pinion Parts List Bevel Gear Parts List3X2X1X1X1X 80mm1X 110 mm3X Top View Isometric View1X1X1X2X2X 57
  • 66. Worm and Wheel Parts List4X2X4X2X2X2X1X1X1X2X 110 mm1X3X 58
  • 67. 2X1X2X2X 60 mm1X1X Side View Top View1X Side View1X 59
  • 68. Rack and Pinion Parts List6X5X1X1X 80 mm1X1X1X1X2X1X Top View Side View 60
  • 69. Lead Screw4X3X2X2X2X2X1X 125 mm1X 110 mm1X1X1X1X Partial Top View1X1X1X1X 61
  • 70. Cam and Follower Parts List9X3X4X1X2X 80 mm3X3X1X1X Side View Front View 62
  • 71. Crank and Slider Parts List3X2X1X1X2X2X6X1X2X 30 mm1X 60 mm2X 110 mm1X 120 mm1X 63
  • 72. Pulley and Belt Parts List6X4X4X4X2X 60 mm3X3X1X1X1X 64
  • 73. Simple Gear Train10X4X2X2X 110 mm2X2X1X1X2X Top View Back Side View1X1X 65
  • 74. Simple Gear Train with Idler Parts List10X6X2X2X 110 mm2X2X1X2X2X2X1X Isometric View1X 60 mm Back Side View Top View 66
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  • 76. Custom Labs The custom labs included were created for a college level introduction to programmingand logic class at the Community College of Baltimore county. The course ran without theguidance of PLTW so many of the materials may look familiar and redundant but are much morein depth and require a basic building structure of a crane. (Appendix E) 68
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  • 78. Intro Lab Team: FischerTechnik and RoboPro IntroductionThis will be a simple introduction to the robotic parts called FischerTechniks and the software required to run the robotics called RoboPro.Lab SetupThere are a few items that needed before beginning. They are: 1. The kit is required. 2. Make sure the RoboPro software is installed on your computer 3. POE FischerTechniks Parts list (PDF)Part 1: Kit Scavenger Hunt!!Indentify and collect the parts required from the kit using the POE Parts list.Find these parts:3 x Motors (32 293, pg 2)1 x Mini-Screwdrivers (36 443, pg 5)3 x Shorter wires (31 360, pg 1)6 x Green Board Connectors (31 336, pg 1)6 x Red Board Connectors (31 337, pg 1)1 x Robo Interface (93 293, pg 6)1 x USB cord1 x Power cordFollow these instructions: 1. Attach wire plugs to all wires (at both ends) shown in Figure 1. 2. Put green plug on green side of wire 3. We need to test wires, in order to do so: a. make sure wires are securely fastened to the connectors b. make sure the copper wires do not cross or touch 4. Connect each set of wires (but only one end) to: a. All MOTORs 5. Connect other set to: a. M1 (both 01,02, green on either) b. M2, M3 70
  • 79. Figure 1: Connecting wires Instructor Check and SignatureRobot completed and workedPart 2: Introduction to RoboProRoboPro is the programming portion of the robotics. Without RoboPro, the robot will not move, interact or come alive. This will be a simple introduction where you will complete your first program in RoboPro.Please follow these instructions: 1. Start RoboPro 2. Using Figure 2, identify: a. The toolbar i. This is where some basic features such as save, run, etc… are located b. The Program Window i. Where icons will be dragged to create a program c. The Element Window i. The palette of icons 3. Setting up the Interface type is the next step. (Figure 3) a. Hitting the button will switch between TX and IF controller. Please select whichever one you have. Interfaces with the clear cover are IF. 4. Setting up the connection is critical. This is what you use to connect the computer to the a. Press the USB/COM button on the toolbar in RoboPro (Figure 4) i. Select USB, and whichever interface you are using. (Figure 5) ii. Simulation is great when trying things on your own, with no robotFigure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 71
  • 80. Figure 55. Creating a Test File a. Click “New” on Toolbar6. Add icons to program shown in Figure 6 a. To change properties, right click on the icon Figure 67. Once all items match, click “Start” to test, “Stop” when done on the toolbar above the programming window. 72
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  • 82. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)M1, M2, M3 mean exactly what? □How many times will this program run? □Show you instructor how to change the motors direction. □Show your instructor how to move draw any shape on the program window. Hint: Make sure you are on Level 4. □Show your instructor how to add text to the program window. □Show your instructor how to delete an icon to the program window. □ Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredRobot completed and workedPart 3: Traffic Light ProgramCreate a traffic light. First, start with the green light to light for 10 seconds, then ONLY the yellow light for 5 seconds, then ONLY the red light for 3 minutes.Find these parts:1. Light Cap – Red (35 079, pg 3) x 12. Light Cap – Yellow (35 085, pg 3) x 13. Light Cap – Green (35 0854, pg 3) x 14. Bulb lamp (37 869, pg 5) x 35. Plug in light holder (38 216, pg 5) x 3Here are a few hints: Make sure to TURN OFF the light after it is done Change the “motor” icon to “Lamp” (right click after placed on program desktop) connecting to the plug in light holder is in ANY order (green, red) The property “Stop” on the “Motor Output” icon also denotes shutting off the bulb (or motor) Instructor Check and Signature Questions Answered Robot completed and worked 74
  • 83. Variables Lab Team:Applications for VariablesThis lab will explore why variables are important to have and use. Variables are used to store values. These values can be given by a user, an outside influence (sensor) or used as a result from a calculation. The first application we will create will calculate the perimeter of a rectangular room. (4 sided shape, 2 equal sides) We will then break it down into segments to create your OWN program using variables.Take a good look at Figure 1 since we will be creating the same program from scratch.Figure 1: How to use variables within a RoboPro programLab SetupThere are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 4. No robot or kit is required. 5. All items in this lab are completed individually EXCEPT for questions that are dotted throughout the lab. 6. In RoboPro: a. At the connection icon (COM/USB) in the toolbar, select “Simulation” since not working with the robot in this lab b. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4” 75
  • 84. Part 1: Creating variables in RoboProBefore we start thinking about programming, we need to think about how many variables we need for our given application. Having too many variables is not a problem (to an extent) so be creative. Also, give EVERY variable two things: 1. a descriptive name 2. a default value, which is NOT ALWAYS 0Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)What is the MINIMUM number of variables would you need to calculate the PERIMETER of arectangle? (remember the definition of a rectangle)What is the MINIMUM number of variables would you need to calculate the PERIMETER of apolygon? (remember a polygon is 4 sided shape, 4 unequal sides)What is the MINIMUM number of variables would you need to calculate the AREA of arectangle? (remember the definition of a rectangle)Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredEach team member should complete Parts 1-3 on their owncomputer!!!Now that you have thought about the number, let’s create them in RoboPro. 1. Start a new program (File  New) 2. Select “Program Elements”  “Basic elements” (If missing, forgot to set the Level to 4) 3. Drag the “Start” and “Stop” icons and separate them (TOP AND BOTTOM) as far as possible. Do not connect them. 4. Hit the ‘+’ beside “Program Elements” in the UPPER left window (may already be selected). Then select “Variable, timer …”. (Figure 2) Notice that the LOWER left window changes. 5. Select “Basic elements” in the UPPER left window. Notice the icons in the LOWER left window are the icons normally seen. 6. Reselect “Variable, timer …”. 7. Drag the first variable icon to the program window, place to the left side of START. 8. We drag all variables close to the start icon (Figure 1) for two reasons: a. easy to find the variables if we need to change their values b. ALL variables need to be declared and given a default value before use 9. Right click on that icon just dragged to the program window. There are a few properties that we need to edit. (Figure 3) a. Name: remember, give EVERY variable created a good name. Give the variable the name “length”. b. default “initial” value: leave a zero for now. We will change the value later. 10. Do this 2 more times, for variables: a. width b. perimeter 76
  • 85. Figure 2: Variable Icons Figure 3: Variable PropertiesPart 2: Variables in actionVariables can be manipulated by only two types of RoboPro icons: Operators o Figure 4 o They can be found under “Program elements”  “Operators” o used to add, subtract, etc… other variables together o by default operators can handle one or two variables. This can be expanded to handle many variables Commands o Figure 5 o They can be found under “Program elements”  “Commands” o used to SET, EDIT or ADD values to variables o can only handle one variable at a time Figure 4: Operator icons Figure 5: Command icons 77
  • 86. Producing the perimeter of a rectangle is simple: just add up the length of each side. Let’s create the code to accomplish this: 1. Select “Commands” in the UPPER left hand window. 2. Select the “Assignment Operator” ( = 0 ) in between the START and STOP icon. Connect with flowlines. 3. Right click on the command icon for its’ properties. (Figure 6) Select: a. Date input for command value, check on 4. Select “Operators” in the UPPER left hand window. 5. Select the addition “Arithmetic Operator” and place to the far left of the command icon. 6. Right click on the operator icon for its’ properties. (Figure 7) Select: a. Number of Inputs: 2 (since adding 2 variables together (length, width) 7. Select the multiplication “Arithmetic Operator” and place to the left of the command icon. 8. Right click on the operator icon for its’ properties. (Figure 7) Select: a. Number of Inputs: 2 (since adding 2 variables together (length + width and 2) 9. Copy and paste (select an variable icon, then hit: CTRL C, CTRL V) length and width variables and: a. place closer to the “+” symbol on the LEFT hand side. (Figure 8) b. Leave the perimeter variable alone for now 10. Back under “Variables, timers, …” select the “CONSTANT” icon from the LOWER left hand window (middle icon) a. place next to the addition icon on the program window. b. right click and change the value of the constant to 2. 11. Connect each variable icon and the constant to one peg of the operators’ icons shown in Figure 8. Make sure they connected. 12. Finally, copy and paste the “perimeter” variable to the right the command icon ( = ). Make sure it connects. Use Figure 1 to see exactly where.Figure 6: Command Property Figure 7: Operator Figure 8: Calculation properties 78
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  • 88. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)What would the equation be to determine the perimeter of a rectangle. The answer must have multiplication somewhere in it.List the other “Assignment Operators” that were not used.Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredPart 3: Getting outputOutput can come in MANY forms in RoboPro. There are: Meter o like a voltage meter Text Display o like a computer screen with simple text Display lamp (light) o various sizes o lights up o good for Boolean (true/false) valuesWe can add output to our program that will reflect a result. There is a set (and finicky) procedure to establish a link from the output to the program. 1. In the UPPER left hand window, select ‘+’ beside “Operating elements”. (May already be selected) 2. Select “Displays” 3. In the LOWER left hand window, select any colored “Text Display” and place anywhere VISIBLE on your program. 4. Right click on the “Text Display” on your program to view it’s properties. (Figure 9) a. please edit the item to match those seen on Figure 9. 5. Select “Input, Outputs” under the “Program Elements” in the UPPER left hand window. 6. In the LOWER left hand window, select the LAST Input Icon “Panel Display” and place beside the LAST perimeter variable that is set by a command. (Figure 11). 7. Right click on the “Output Display” icon on your program to view it’s properties. (Figure 12) a. please edit the item to match those seen on Figure 12. 8. RUN THE PROGRAM!!! 80
  • 89. Figure 9: Text Display properties Figure 10: Figure 11: Sending data to Output Input Icons Figure 12: Output PropertiesPart 4: Testing and working with what you got.Change some of the values and make sure it works correctly.Instructor Check and SignatureRobot programmed and runs appropriatelyPart 5: On your own. Calculate the perimeter of a polygon.Copy and paste the program created to create a NEW program to calculate the perimeter of a polygon. You will need to make changes, but keep it simple.(Hint: change the number of INPUTS for the addition assignment operator)Instructor Check and SignatureRobot programmed and runs appropriatelyPart 6: On your own. Calculate the AREA of a rectangle.Copy and paste the program created to create a NEW program to calculate the AREA of a rectangle. Again, keep it simple. Hint: (L x W)Instructor Check and SignatureRobot programmed and runs appropriately 81
  • 90. Decisions Lab Team:Applications for DecisionsThis lab will explore why decisions are important to have and use. The conditions of each decision is set by YOU THE PROGRAMMER, but the computer will make the decision when the program is running based off of your conditions. The lab below will also introduce loops. You will be asked BASIC questions about the loops, and more complicated question about the decisions in the program you will create.Lab SetupThere are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 7. The kit is required. 8. In RoboPro: a. DOWNLOAD the file from the website, make sure to save it as “If-Else.rpp” i. it may say something different b. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4” 9. Divide team into two groups: a. Crane Builders (2 or more students) i. Start at Part 1 b. Programmer (1 student) i. Start at Part 2Part 1: Creating the CraneYour job is to build a VERY basic crane using: 1. Robo Interface (93 293, pg 6) 2. Only 2 motors (3 x Motors (32 293, pg 2) 3. Only 4 switches (4 x 37 783, pg 5) 4. Wires and wire connectors 5. Any Technik building pieces you wish to build the meat of the craneFew hints to get you moving: 1. Use the base plate to attach the crane to the robo interface 2. You need to connect the wires from the interface to the motors a. motors connect to M1-M4 on the interface b. connect wires for the 4 switches (shown below) to I1-I4 respectfully 3. Use this link below for directions on building the crane: http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~slupoli/Lego/Building the FischerTechnik Crane.ppt 82
  • 91. Part 2: Programming the CraneThe program is given below. (Figure 1) Create an exact copy in RoboPro (with the text too). Here are a few hints to get things moving: 1. All items below are found under “Program elements”, either “Basic elements” or “Branch, wait…” 2. connecting the wires will be the most changing 3. Create the first one on the left, then copy and paste the rest 4. when all copied, make the slight changes my right clicking on the icon and changing the settingsFigure 1: How to use decisions within a RoboPro programPart 3: Getting the Crane workingYou will only get credit for this if the crane works. Please make sure the program is EXACLTY the same as Figure 1.Instructor Check and Signature 83
  • 92. Robot completed and worked 84
  • 93. Part 4: Looking closely at the program.In Figure 1, there are many decision being made at the same time. You will notice 4 separate “threads” that all run at the same time. As a group, be able to answer the questions below. The instructor will pick a random student to ask AND EXPLAIN their answer. Usually the answer is easy, keep it simple. Do not write your answer on this lab sheet.All question below come from Figure 1.Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)Identify the loop in one of the threads. □Which icon is the decision icon? (In one of the threads) □There is a 0 and 1 on an icon for the switch. What would the 0 mean? (Not false) The answer relates to the switch. □Which part of the loop will run when the switch is NOT activated. □Which part of the loop will run when the switch is IS activated. □Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredPart 5: On your own. Add a beep while moving.Using the program already created, add that a beep will sound when moving. Add it to all threads. Here are a few hints: 1. attach the Buzzer directly to the interface using M3 2. the icon that should be added is the same as a motor icon. Place the motor icon, then right click and change it to buzzerInstructor Check and SignatureRobot programmed and runs appropriately 85
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  • 95. Loops Lab Team:Applications for LoopsIf an application is to repeat many times, instead of placing the same code over and over, a loop can be used to run over the same code and repeat that same code. After the brief introduction in the if-else lab, you will be introduced to several loops and different types of loops.Lab SetupThere are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 10. The kit is required. 11. The crane will again used. 12. In RoboPro: a. Start a new file, save it as “Loops.rpp” b. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4”Part 1: Creating a blinking light for the CraneYour job is to build a red blinking light using: 6. Wires and wire connectors 7. Light cap red (1x 35079, pg 3) 8. Lens bulb plug in 6 V (1 x 37 875, pg 5) 9. Plug in light holder (1x 38 216, pg 5)After gathering the parts for the light: 1. Place the bulb in the holder 2. Place the red lens cover over the holder (attaches) 3. Attach one end of the wire to the holder, the OTHER to M4 4. Attach the light to the top or side of the crane.Part 2: Programming the lightThe program is given below and on the class website: Loops 1.rpp. (Figure 1) Download the file (right click on the link, as “Save As” Loops 1.rpp. Get the program working and answer the questions below. Figure 1: How to use loops within a RoboPro program 87
  • 96. As a group, be able to answer the questions below. The instructor will pick a random student to ask AND EXPLAIN their answer. Usually the answer is easy, keep it simple. Do not write your answer on this lab sheet. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)Identify the loop in the program. □When will this program end? □What will happen first, light on, or light off? □ Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredRobot completed and workedPart 3: Blinking light, Part IIThe program is given below and on the class website: Loops 2.rpp. (Figure 2) Download the file (right click on the link, as “Save As” Loops 2.rpp. Get the program working and answer the questions below. 88
  • 97. Figure 2: How to use loops within a RoboPro programAs a group, be able to answer the questions below. The instructor will pick a random student to ask AND EXPLAIN their answer. Usually the answer is easy, keep it simple. Do not write your answer on this lab sheet. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)Identify the loop in the program. □How many times will the loop run? (0, 9, 10 or 11) □The “Z” value starts (before looping) at what value? □The “Z” value ends (after looping) at what value? □+1 is added to what value? □ □How can you tell this icon is a decision?What is the difference between the loop in Part 2 and Part 3? □If you want the loop to run 30 times, where would that be adjusted? □ Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredRobot completed and worked 89
  • 98. Part 4: Programming the crane using loopsUse what you have learned for the crane. Program the crane to: 1. Swing left for .25 second, then stop 2. Swing right for .25 second, then stop 3. Repeat this 5 times. Instructor Check and Signature Robot programmed and runs appropriately 90
  • 99. Methods Lab Team:Applications for MethodsMethods do not change how a program runs, it helps organize and shorten code written on the screen.Creating methods and “calling” them is the hardest part.Lab SetupThere are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 13. The kit is required. 14. The crane will again used. 15. In RoboPro: a. Load the file from the website named “Methods.rpp” b. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4”Part 1: Blinking light ONLY when darkIf you ever drive at night and look up at the cranes that dot the area, you’ll notice a blinking light on top of the crane to warn aircraft. But the light is NOT on during the day UNLESS a storm rolls in. Want to know how? There is a light sensor attached to the light. We’ll demonstrate. When “Methods.rpp” is loaded, the program looks a little too simple. There are TWO functions in one, (Figure 1) Main and Blink.Figure 1Your job is to build the sensor to detect the light using: 10. Wires and wire connectors 11. Photocell LDR (1x 32698, pg 3)After gathering the parts for the light: 5. Attach one end of the wire to the sensor, the OTHER to AX 6. Run the program. Place your finger OVER the sensor, the light should begin to blink 91
  • 100. As a group, be able to answer the questions below. The instructor will pick a random student to ask AND EXPLAIN their answer. Usually the answer is easy, keep it simple. Do not write your answer on this lab sheet. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)Which method is being run first, Main or Blink? □When will this program end? □From what method is “calling” the Blink method? What else is being called from the answer? □When your thumb is off (bright) what value is being transmitted from the sensor? Use theInterface Test to help you. (Figure 2) □Why is the answer to the previous not 0? □What is the MAXIMUM value given by the sensor? □What is the MINUMUM value given by the sensor? □ Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredRobot completed and workedFigure 2 Figure 3:Part 2: Warning siren for windFor safety reasons, cranes cannot be operated if the wind reaches a certain speed. For this safety precaution, create a windmill that will measure the wind present and sound the BUZZER when too high.Your job is to build the windmill to detect the wind using: 1. Wires and wire connectors 2. Motor (1x 32293, pg 2) 92
  • 101. 3. Buzzer (1x 36119, pg 4) 4. Pointed adapter for propeller (1x 37681, pg 5) 5. Blue Propeller (1x 36559, NOT LISTED)After gathering the parts for the windmill: 1. Attach one end of the wire to the motor, the OTHER to AY 2. Connect the rest of the windmill using Figure 3. 3. Connect one end of the wire to the BUZZER, the OTHER to M3Part 3: Creating a new method called “Wind Check” 1. Give new subprogram a name “Wind Check” (Figure 5) 2. A new “tab” will appear with Main and Blink. (Better be Wind Check, Figure 6)Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6:Part 4: Create the program for Wind CheckThere will be a few items to complete IN ORDER. 1. Copy and paste the program from BLINK and place in WIND Figure 7: CHECK. 2. In WIND CHECK, change the decision to 400 3. In WIND CHECK, change the INPUT sensor to AY 4. In WIND CHECK, change the light to buzzer 5. In MAIN, copy the infinite loop for Blink and paste for WIND CHECK 6. In MAIN, we need to “call” Wind Check, here’s how: Click on + on “Loaded Programs” (Figure 7) o Upper left hand corner Find named SubProgram Drag icon with subProgram’s name into Main 7. In MAIN, replace the second Blink call with Wind Check.Run the program. Spin the windmill with your fingers to test the buzzer. Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions Answered 93
  • 102. Robot completed and worked 94
  • 103. Arrays Lab Team:Applications for LoopsRoboPro calls an Array a “List”. Other than that, what we have talked about is exactly the same. In Help, look at List (8.4.5) and read very carefully since the questions below will ask you about it.Lab SetupThere are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 1. The kit is required. 2. Connect one end of a set of wires to AX, the other to the Temperature Sensor a. NTC Resistor, pg 4, part # 36 437 3. Connect the Buzzer to M1 a. Buzzer, pg 4, part # 36 119Part 1: Creating and adding values to the array for the first timeFollow the directions below to create a list. 4. Start a new file, save it as “Arrays.rpp” 1. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4” 2. Drag the list icon (found under Variables) to the desktop 3. Right click for properties and: a. give the array the name “scores” b. give the arrays the size of 10. 4. Create a program shown in Figure 1 by: a. drop the start and stop icons b. find the append value command i. (listed under “Command” and down towards the bottom) c. add these values to the same array, 10, 20, 89, 56, 83, 67, 89, 0, 78 and 12 i. (Connect to the S portion of the list) ii. Use the help to show you how Figure 1: Adding values to an array 95
  • 104. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)What is the MAXIMUM value that can be entered into the array? (Hint: Help) □What is the value at the beginning of the array? End of the array? □What number index is the first one considered? □ Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredPart 2: Displaying Values in the ArrayYou cannot display the ENTIRE array at once. You can by displaying one element at a time.Add to your program the ability to display the 10 values in 10 display boxes. Use theAssignment Operator to do the “=”. Remember to click on “Data input for command value”.(Figure 2 & 3)Hints: 1. Display items can be found under “Input, Output”. 2. Also, remember to name EACH display SLIGHTY different. (Like Text0, Text1, etc…) 3. Add a delay (wait) at the end of the programFigure 2: Displaying values in an array Figure 3: Assignment Operator 96
  • 105. Instructor Check and SignatureProgram completed correctlyPart 3: Introduction to CompareWith the Compare program element, the two values at the data inputs A and B may be comparedwith one another. Depending on whether A is less than B, A is greater than B, or A equals B,the element branches to the left, right, or middle exit. The most common application for this isthe comparison of a nominal value with an actual value. According to where the nominal valuelies in relation to the actual value, then, for example, a motor can turn left or right or be stopped.The compare feature has two stages: 1. Accept two input (and only 2) 2. Determine outcomes for <, =, and >The Compare feature accepts any two values, here we are gathering two values from an array. (Figure 4) In the next exercise, values from a temperature sensor will be used.Next is what to do with the comparison. Again there are three outcomes, A is less than B, A isgreater than B, or A equals B. (Figure 5) This is the complex part. The code given displays theMAXIMUM value of index 0 or 1. (Figure 6)Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Outcomes for maximum valueInput values Outcomes 97
  • 106. In this exercise, create a NEW program that looks like below. (Figure 7)Hints: 1. Need “Variables”, “Commands” (need to check properties), “Branch, Wait…” Figure 7: Sample program using compare Instructor Check and SignatureProgram completed correctlyPart 4: Temperature Sensor CalibrationThe temperature sensors are known to be “testy”. The sensor returns a value from 0 to 1024. Interesting part of this, is 0 would be HOT, and 1024 would mean cold. Here’s the setup and test. 98
  • 107. 1. Connect a set of wires to AX (Figure 1) on the Interface.2. The ends of NTC Resistor (Temperature Sensor) fit on the capped wired ends if you slide them into the “+”.3. Open RoboPro.4. Click the Interface Test icon located in the top middle menu bar.5. Locate the AX Analog input (Figure 2)6. If all is connected correctly, and the sensor in is room temperature it should be close to 450.7. Hold the sensor in your hand, the AX value SHOULD drop. Figure 1: AX Connection Figure 2: AX Interface Test 99
  • 108. Part 5: Arrays and receiving valuesUsing the temperature sensor, and the two cups of water, (one cold, one warm) store the valuesgiven by the sensor and determine which cup was the COLDEST.A few suggested hints: 1. Put a lengthy delay in between measuring cup temperatures. 2. Use the buzzer to let you know when measuring is over. 3. Use everything above to piece your program together 4. You will need to receive input from the sensor, so use Figure 8. Figure 8: Placing sensor value into an array Right click on Append Command Instructor Check and SignatureProgram completed correctly 100
  • 109. Methods Lab II Team:More applications for MethodsJust as a reminder, methods do not change how a program runs, it helps organize and shorten code written on the screen. Creating methods and “calling” them is the hardest part. But methods are so useful since AFTER you create them, they can be used over and over again for many applications.There are a few things to remember about functions: 1. Main() is a function, and starts the program 2. The Main() or any other function can “call” another function 3. values called “parameters” can be passed to a function in order for the function to complete a task 4. functions are totally separately from the Main(), and physically on another tab in RoboPro.Lab SetupThere are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 16. The kit is NOT required. 17. Open the “Methods” lab that you already completed to review and refresh your memory. 18. In RoboPro: a. Load the file from the website named “Methods II.rpp” b. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4” c. Under USB/COM, select “Simulation”Part 1: Finding the area of a rectangle part IIMethodsII.rpp is a complete program that will determine the area of a rectangle with the given valueswidth and height (Figure 1) and display the area’s value. You can find the main() immediately sinceRoboPro will show it by default. To look at the other function “getAreaOfRectangle” click on the tabwith the name (Figure 2) of that function. Your job is to determine the basic parts of BOTH functions.Run the program once just to see it work. Figure 1 Figure 2 101
  • 110. As a group, be able to answer the questions below. The instructor will pick a random student to ask AND EXPLAIN their answer. Usually the answer is easy, keep it simple. Do not write your answer on this lab sheet. Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)Which method is being run first, Main or getAreaOfRectangle? □In Main, where is getAreaOfRectangle being called? (Show me on the screen) □In Main, how can you tell what parameters are being passed INTO getAreaOfRectangle? □In Main, how can you tell that the function getAreaOfRectangle is RETURNING a value? □How would the perimeter of a rectangle be calculated given ONLY width and height? (give me the equation) □In getAreaOfRectangle, how can you tell what parameters are being passed INTO the function? □In getAreaOfRectangle, how can you tell that the function is RETURNING a value? □ Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredPart 2: Creating the “getPerimeter” functionYour job is to ADD to this program. Add a new function “getPerimeter” that will determine the perimeter given two values width and height. Review the previous Methods lab to create a function, and use the MethodsII program to mold your answer. The main (when completed) should look like below. (Figure 3) You will need to add another display (Operating elements -> Displays) to display the perimeter value. Run the program a few times to make sure it work correctly.Steps for completion: 1. Create a new function named “getPerimeter” 2. Copy items from “getAreaOfRectangle” and paste into “getPerimeter” 3. Make changes to equation. (Hint #2, maybe Hint #3) 4. Save the program 5. Go to main. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE ANYTHING FROM HERE!!! 6. Look at “Loaded Programs”, find your new function and drag to main. The rest you are on your own. Again, it should look like Figure 3.Hint #1: copy and paste, make some changes.Hint #2: A constant value is under Programming Elements -> Variables, then the symbol with a 0. Operators (+ and *) are also in Programming Elements. 102
  • 111. Hint #3: Program Elements->Subprogram I/O will help with the new function for parameters and RETURNING value Figure 3: What the main should look like Instructor Check and Signature Robot completed and workedPart 3: Totaling the Volume of 2 CubesIn this program, the Main() will call the same function “getVolume” twice with two separate values (each representing a cube, Figure 5) and add them together for a TOTAL volume. Figure 4: Variables for Volume Figure 5: Adding to volumes together + =? 103
  • 112. 1. Create the “getVolume” function. Use the previous work to help you. 2. Call each functions with these values (depth, width, and height respectfully) a. Call #1  7, 7 , 7 b. Call #2  5, 10, 12 3. The returned value should be placed into a temporary variable(s) and added together to the VARIABLE “total” 4. Total is then displayed. The total SHOULD be 943. 5. Make sure to have a delay Instructor Check and SignatureRobot completed and worked 104
  • 113. Wait Until Lab Team:Applications for Wait Untils“Wait fors” or “Wait Untils” are great when holding a program UNTIL an action occurs. This is used for switches, bumpers, sensors (like wait until dark, then start blinking) and reduces the work the CPU has to do since it does not loop or proceed in the program.The basic operation of a switch is from ON or 1 (pressed) to OFF or 0 (depressed), then OFF (depressed) to ON (pressed). This can be seen in a simple graph below (Figure 1), where the “spikes” represent the switch is pressed or turned on. The vertical bar that separate the on’s and off’s is where the action of the switch changing position is occurring. Each complete off/on to then on/off routine is called a pulse. (Figure 2)Figure 1: Graphing a switch’s life Figure 2: A PulseThe wait until has an icon vary similar to below. (Figure 3). Since a switch has only two positions (on and off), a wait until will measure (and wait) until there is a change in that switch. To read the symbol, read left to right. Notice in Figure 3, that we start with the LOW line or OFF, then switches to ONE. So this wait until STARTS in the OFF position, then waits for the switch to be turned ON, before the rest of the program will run.Figure 3: Basic Wait Until Symbol Figure 4: Reading the SymbolLab Setup 105
  • 114. There are a few items that need to be set in RoboPro and in general. They are: 19. The kit is required. 20. The crane will again used. 21. In RoboPro: a. Load the files from the website named “WaitUntil1.rpp”, “WaitUntil2.rpp”, etc… b. Select “Level” in the menu bar, and select “Level 4”Part 1: Testing the different waitsYou will be testing each wait to see how they work. They do work differently!!Your job is to build the switch sensor to detect the changes in the switch using: 12. Wires and wire connectors 13. Connect the 4 switches to I1, I2, I3 and 14 respectfully on the interface. Be sure to connect to the switch correctly using Figure 5. 14. Make sure a motor is connect to M1 Figure 5: Connecting the switchAfter connecting the parts for the Wait Untils: 7. Run each program “WaitUntil1.rpp”, “WaitUntil2.rpp”, etc… 8. After running each describe how the wait until works for that programRemember to focus on the switch!!! Remember to focus on theswitch!!!Also, do not press and hold the switch, just press!!File Symbol Description when PRESSED Description when UNPRESSEDWaitUntil1.rppWaitUntil2.rpp 106
  • 115. WaitUntil3.rppWaitUntil4.rppGroup Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)Which symbol would be used if the application is USUALLY running, but may need apause? □Which symbol would be used if the application is USUALLY stopped, but may need tomove? □When the value goes from 0 to 1. What is happening with the switch? □Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions AnsweredPart 2: The Pulse CounterThe pulse counter uses the same idea as the wait until, but notice the symbol. (Figure 5) It has two Wait Until symbols in one.Like last time: 1. Run the program “WaitUntil PulseCounter.rpp. (uses I1 for the switch) 2. After running the program answer the questions below.Remember to focus on the switch!!! Remember to focus on theswitch!!! Group Questions (Do not write your answers!!!)How many times did you have to press/depress the switch to complete the program? □What does holding the switch do? □What does depressing (and leaving it depressed) do? □What applications would this type of icon be used for? Please list 2. □Instructor Check and SignatureQuestions Answered 107
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  • 118. Gears Lab Team:Introducing GearsGears in any application are used to either: increase or decrease rotation speed, or, increase or decrease power or "torque". If any of you happen to drive a car with manual transmission gears 1 and 2 are used to get up to speed (more power), and gears 4 and 5 are meant for speed. Remember, the faster the vehicle, the less torque it will have. An example of this idea happens when a vehicle drives up a hill. It will need more POWER to climb, so shifting down to a lower gear.Another term that is important is drive gear. This is the gear DIRECTLY attached to the motor or axel from the motor.Part 1: Go faster!!The basic idea for making a car go FASTER (but less torque) is to use a smaller gear in conjunction to the larger drive gear. The higher the ratio using the teeth count of both gears, the faster it will go!! Notice the drive gear (40 teeth) will turn on 1 time while the smallest gear (8 teeth) will turn 5 times. (Figure 1) That would make the two gears a 1:5 (8/40 reduced) ratio start from the drive gear. (Always start from the drive gear.) Figure 1: Increasing Speed image taken from: http://badlink.com/lego_mindstorms/gears_drivetrain.htm 110
  • 119. Part 2: Go slower. We need more power Scotty!The opposite is also true. Use a larger gear in conjunction to the smaller drive gear. The higher the ratio using the teeth count of both gears, the faster it will go!! Notice the drive gear (8 teeth) will turn on 5 times while the larger gear (40 teeth) will turn 1 time. (Figure 2) That would make the two gears a 5:1 (40/8 reduced) ratio start from the drive gear. Figure 2: Decreasing Speed image taken from: http://badlink.com/lego_mindstorms/gears_drivetrain.htmQuestionsWhat would be the ratio: 120 drive gear to 40 gear? Faster or slower?What would be the ratio: 10 drive gear to 40 gear? Faster or slower?What would be the ratio: 40 drive gear to 400 gear? Faster or slower?When would you need more speed? Give 3 examples that would usegears. (Use other than a car or a vehicle)When would you need more power? Give 3 examples that would usegears. (Use other than a car or a vehicle) Instructor Check and Signature All questions answered correctlyPart 3: Combining and stacking GearsCombining gears can be used to get more extreme ratios. This option uses gears combined intoseries of three or more gears together. To determine the ratio “The gear ratio of a gear chain iscalculated by multiplying the successive ratio of drive gears divided by driven gears.” UsingFigure 2 (pink lined area) that would be: 111
  • 120. (8/20×20/24= 160/480=1/3 or 3:1)Notice again that the calculation STARTS with the drive gear to the second, then second gear to the final gear.Finally, the stacking of gears can be the ultimate in extreme rations using teeth and space with several gears. Figure 3: Stacking gears in series image taken from: http://badlink.com/lego_mindstorms/gears_drivetrain.htmPart 4: Power CompetitionCombining gears can be used to get more extreme ratios. This option uses gears combined intoseries of three or more gears together. To determine the ratio “The gear ratio of a gear chain iscalculated by multiplying the successive ratio of drive gears divided by driven gears.” UsingFigure 2 (pink lined area) that would be:Using what has just been covered, create a crane that will: lift the heaviest weight possible QuestionsWhat was the crane’s FINAL gear ration? (place answer here )Instructor Check and SignatureRobot programmed and runs appropriately 112
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  • 122. Appendix D Building the FischerTechnik CraneThe crane built in this lab or exercise will be used for almost all of the labs. The crane will also have features added to it along the way. There are several parts to the crane:parts of the crane: Base Horizontal Support Vertical Support WiringHere are a few items needed before building: 1. String (may already be in kit) 2. Label (to place on baseplate with team members’ names) 3. Tape (for label)Building the Base31 390 (pg 2)31 391 (pg 2)turntables snap togetherRed base faces down32 882 x 4 (pg 3)Place on red base in corners to support crane bottom.Attach base to a corner of baseplate (35 602 pg 4)On another corner place a label with all teammates name on it.Tape label. 114
  • 123. This is the motor for the lifting of objects.31 075, pg 132 293, pg 2 (motor)Tie the string to the CLOSEST point of the winch to the engine.Motor (32 293 pg 2)Gearbox (31 078 pg 1)Worm Gear (35 072 pg 3)Bevel Gear (31 082 pg 1)Block (32 882 pg 3)Bevel Gear goes THROUGH gearbox and attached to Worm Gear.Slide gearbox onto Motor. Attach all to base plate CLOSE enough to have the worm gear turn the crane’s base.Attach the motor w/ string to the base turntable with a block in between.Make sure to connect the block to the center line.Parts needed:32 882, pg 3 115
  • 124. Building the Vertical SupportBuild 4 of these vertical support struts.Parts needed:36 294, pg 4 x 837 328, pg 5 x 4Attach vertical supports to turntable asshownAdd bracing, notice ONLY on 3 sides.Parts needed:38 541, pg 6 x 336 323, pg 4 x 8Add these items to the top of the vertical support. Notice where exactly each item is placed.Parts needed:38 423, pg 6 x 232 879, pg 3 x 235 969, pg 4 116
  • 125. Except for the black piece, the yellow supports are mirrors of one anotherParts needed:32 879, pg 3 x 235 054, pg 3 x 435 059, pg 3 x 236 323, pg 4 x 4Put the two supports together. Be very careful on two items:1. Where they connect2. Where the braces are connectedWiringItems required for the crane: 1. Interface 2. Mini switches x 4 (37 727 pg 5) 3. 6 sets of wires with plugs (31 336 and 31 337) on both ends 4. Angular Blocks x 4 (38 423 pg 6) 5. Block with 2 pins x 4 (37 238 pg 5)Follow these instructions: 1. Connect wires from M1 on Interface to crane’s base motor 2. Connect wires from M2 to Crane’s lifter motor 3. Connect wires from I1 to mini switch #1 (Figure 1) 4. Connect wires from I2 to mini switch #2 5. Connect wires from I3 to mini switch #3 6. Connect wires from I4 to mini switch #4 7. Secure Interface on base plate by using the angular block Figure 1: Connecting to the switch 117
  • 126. Appendix E Suggested Build Photos These are photographs of many of the projects in GTT and POE. Look at the activity tofind part numbers. Again these are suggestions, the students should come up with their ownsolution, but a little nudge in the right direction doesn’t hurt. GTT Activity 2.3 - 4 Wheel Drive vehicle 118
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  • 128. GTT Activity 2.3 - Solar Collector 120
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  • 132. GTT Activity 2.3 - Equipment Mover 124
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  • 134. GTT Activity 2.3 - Multi-use pumpPOE Activity 4.5k - Marble Sorter 126
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  • 138. Bibliography http://science.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet.htm http://www.makingthings.com/teleo/teleo/cookbook/photocell.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solenoid http://www.reed-sensor.com/Notes/General_Reed_Switch_Theory.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermistor http://science.howstuffworks.com/potentiometer-info.htm http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/repair/doorbell2.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamfer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumatics PLTW GTT and POE Curriculum 130