The Nineteenth CenturyImmigration and Reform 1820- 1850
The Nineteenth Century• Immigration• Reform
Immigration• From 1776-1814 European immigration to the US was slow.• From 1783-1819 the US averaged 7,000 immigrants per year.• Immigration during the 1820’s and continues to increase in 30’s, 40’s and 50’s.
Immigration Statistics• 1783-1819- 7,000 average per year• 1825- 10,199 immigrants• 1830- 23,322• 1840-84,066• 1845-1854- 2.6 million
Who made the journey?• The Irish• German• British• Scandinavian• Chinese• Nativists
The Irish• Irish immigrants were the largest group of foreign born in the United States by 1860, 1.6 million
Irish, reasons for leaving Ireland1. British: Rule, Protestantism, Landlords, and Taxes.2. Depression and Social hardship3. Potato Famine, 1845, over 1 million peasants died.
Irish ImmigrationTravel1. Journey took six weeks2. Unsanitary conditions- typhus, dysentery and malnutrition caused thousands to die before reaching the United States. 1847 40,000 died “coffin ships”3. Huddled together in Eastern cities, around Catholic Churches4. By the 1850’s the Irish made up over half the populations of Boston and New York
Irish Immigration- Employment• Construction Gangs, canals and railroads• Laborers in factories, steel mills and shipyards• Women- textile mills, domestic servants
Irish in America: “The poorest and most wretched population that could be found in the world.” Archbishop of New York, 1850’sLiving Conditions• Most lived in filthy tenements.High Rate of:1. Crime2. Infant Mortality3. Infectious disease4. Prostitution5. Alcoholism
Irish in America: Challenges• Anti-Catholic sentiment• “No Irish Need Apply”• Filthy, Ignorant, Alcoholics• “Were I asked to say what I believed to be the most serious obstacle to the advancement of the Irish in America, I would unhesitatingly answer- Drink; meaning thereby the excessive use, or abuse, of that which, when taken in excess, intoxicates, deprives man of his reason, interferes with his industry, injures his health, damages his position, compromises his respectability, renders him unfit for the successful exercise of his trade, profession, employment- which leads to quarrel, turbulence, violence, crime.” Maguire, John Francis, The Irish in America
Irish in America: SuccessTight community/Cultural Identity• Churches, political groups, saloons, fire companies.• Powerful voting constituency- local politics, Democratic Party, by the 1880’s controlled Tammany Hall.• The Irish pushed the growth of the Catholic Church in the United States.
The Germans• Many Germans made their way to the United States due to failed revolutions in 1830 and 1848.• From the late 1840’s through the 1850’s over 1 million Germans made their way to the United States.
The Germans: CharacteristicsGerman Immigrants were:• Educated, cultured professional people, doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers, farmers and artisans.• Politically savvy and opinionated• Religiously diverse, Catholic, Lutheran, Jewish, even Atheist and Agnostics
German Immigration• Often immigrated in groups rather than individuals like the Irish.• Often looked to the frontier for settlement, St. Louis, San Antonio, and Milwaukee• Very independent, skills allowed German immigrants to capitalize on the American Economy.
German Immigration: ChallengesPrejudice1. Religion2. Alcohol3. Success- economic and political
British, Scandinavian, and Chinese• British, largely professional, farmers and skilled workers.• Scandinavians- Swedes and Norwegians, settled in Wisconsin and Minnesota. By 1860 population was over 72,600.• Chinese- Treaty of Nanking (1842),Treaty of Tien Tsin (1858), Unemployed, “Kidnapped” 35,500 by 1860. Construction gangs, Railroads- Coolie labor
The Nativists• Native born Americans, preferred “native” Americans to immigrants.• Feared that immigrants would take their job opportunities.• Anti-Catholic- Attack on the Ursiline Convent, Charlestown, MA• Native American Association, Order of the Star Spangled Banner, Know Nothing/American Party.
The Reform Movement• The Second Great Awakening• Transcendentalists• Temperance Movement• Education• Women’s Rights• Abolition
Second Great Awakening• Some Protestants begin to turn away from the Calvinist doctrine of predestination.• Evangelical Of, relating to, or being a Christian church believing in the sole authority and inerrancy of the Bible, in salvation only through regeneration, and in a spiritually transformed personal life.• New denominations- Baptist, Methodist and Mormons
Transcendentalists• Transcendentalism asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition.• Ralph Waldo Emerson• Henry David Thoreau
TranscendentalistsEmerson1. “Insist on yourself; Never imitate. Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life’s cultivation;…That which each can do best, none but his master can teach him.” Emerson, Self-Reliance2. Self-Reliance, 1840,- transcendental non-conformity instead of following the dictates of society.3. Advocated creating an American identity
TranscendentalistsHenry David Thoreau1. Walden, 18542. Resistance to Civil Government, 1849a. “Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them, and obey them until we have succeeded, or shall we transgress them at once?b. Non-violent protestc. Mohandus Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr.
Temperance Movement• American Temperance Society- founded by Protestant ministers, targeted excessive drinking. Alcohol led to violence, crime and had led to a lack of productivity.• Encouraged abstinence• States began to ban the sale of alcohol, others taxed liquor.
Education• Free Public Schools• Fear of an uneducated poor class, educate the workforce. Could the family be relied on as the providers of republican virtue?• Horace Mann- MA Board of Education
Women’s Rights Movement• Cult of Domesticity – Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Suzan B. Anthony, Catherine Beecher, Margaret Fuller• Woman’s Rights Convention, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions – Equal rights – Suffrage
Abolition Movement• Movement to abolish slavery is getting stronger.• Moral, Social, Political, & Economic Issue• Pro-slavery arguments• Anti-slavery arguments• Abolition Organizations
Proslavery Arguments• Founding Fathers, slavery = necessary evil• “I hold that in the present state of civilization, where two races of different origin, and distinguished by color and other physical differences, as well as intellectual, are brought together, the relation now existing in the slaveholding states between the two is, instead of an evil, a good- a positive good.”• John C. Calhoun, 1837
Proslavery Arguments• “Many in the South once believed that [slavery] was a moral and political evil…. That folly and delusion are gone; we see it now in its true light, and regard it as the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the world.”John C. Calhoun, 1837
Proslavery ArgumentsRacism•Blacks were inferior to whites and were unsuitedfor life in any other conditionTheological/Bible•Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall hebe unto his brethren•OT and NT prophets and apostles nevercondemned the practice•Servants should obey their masters
Proslavery ArgumentsHistorical•All the great civilizations of antiquitypracticed slavery.•Aristotle- in every organized society menof superior talents would become mastersover those of inferior talents.
Proslavery ArgumentsSocial•Without slavery planters would be unableto take in the arts and sciences and othercivilized pursuits.•Guaranteed economic equality for whites,preventing an unskilled labor class- betterthan the free labor system
Proslavery Arguments• Paternalism- Slaveholding gentlemen took personal responsibility for the physical and moral well-being of their dependents- women, children and slaves. Foner, Give Me Liberty, p 394• No element of disharmony. “It is the only condition of society in which labor and capital are associated on a large scale in which their interests are combined and not in conflict. Every plantation is an organized community… where all work, where each member gets subsistence and a home.”• Phrenology
Antislavery Arguments• Slavery = Sin• The Reform Movement liberating and perfectionist• “Slavery was the greatest social evil in the way of the nation’s moral regeneration.” (Blum, National Experience, p.273)
Abolitionist GroupsAmerican Colonization Society, 1817•Monrovia, LiberiaAmerican Antislavery Society, 1831•William Lloyd Garrison, The LiberatorLiberty Party•James BirneyAfrican-Americans•Fredrick Douglas, The North Star•Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, William Still,Underground Railroad