Vicksburg• Union needs to control the MS River – New Orleans – Shiloh• Grant’s troops march 180 miles in 17 days
Vicksburg• The Confederates had blockaded the Mississippi River at Vicksburg – it was important to open the blockade
Vicksburg• South had rations for only a month.• Vicksburg was completely enclosed.• Continual bombardment and cannonade for forty days, during which time – 7,000 mortar shells, – 4,500 gunboats shells.• Grant proceeded to mine under some of the Confederate works to blow them up.
The Siege of Vicksburg• Siege of Vicksburg begins in May 1863.• Inhabitants had taken shelter in caves dug in the clay hills on which the city stands. – Famine attacked the inhabitants, and mule meat made a savory dish.
The Siege of Vicksburg• After forty-eight days, city surrenders – July 4, 1863 surrenders• July 8 the last Confederate fort on the MS surrendered
The Daily Citizen, Vicksburg, Mississippi Thursday, July 2, 1863.• [T]he great Ulysses—the Yankee Generalissimo, surnamed Grant—has expressed his intention of dining in Vicksburg on Saturday next, and celebrating the 4th of July by a grand dinner and so forth. When asked if he would invite Gen. Jo Johnston to join he said. No! for fear there will be a row at the table. Ulysses must get into the city before he dines in it. The way to cook rabbit is first catch the rabbit. &c.
The Daily Citizen, Vicksburg, Mississippi Thursday, July 2, 1863.• Two days bring about great changes, The banner of the Union floats over Vicksburg, Gen. Grant has caught the rabbit; he has dined in Vicksburg, and he did bring his dinner with him. The Citizen lives to see it. For the last time it appears on Wall-paper. No more will it eulogize the luxury of mule- meat and fricasseed kitten—urge Southern warriors to such diet never-more.
The Significance of Vicksburg• Last Confederate stronghold on the MS river – Taking Vicksburg severs the South’s supply lines.• Union Navy could have safe passage down the river. – Union could freely patrol river to assist Army.
Road to Gettysburg• Lincoln replaces McClellan• He refused to begin his battle campaigns until directed to do so by Lincoln• Lincoln finally commanded him to take action in his Presidents General War Order No. 1.
Lincoln replaces McClellan• A sarcastic President Lincoln wires General George McClellan: "I have just read your dispatch about sore tongued and fatiegued [sic] horses. Will you pardon me for asking what the horses of your army have done since the battle of Antietam that fatigue anything?"
Ambrose Burnside • Takes command of the army Nov. 1862
Fredericksburg I• Dates: December 11-15, 1862• Principal Commanders: – Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; – Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]• Forces Engaged: – 172,504 total (US 100,007; CS 72,497)• Estimated Casualties: 17,929 total – (US 13,353; CS 4,576)• Result: Confederate victory – “Mud March” – Burnside replaced by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker
Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker• Fighting Joe• Mexican war vet• Takes over for Burnside in January 1863• “48-year-old Massachusetts native endowed with high courage and low morals”• His men relished their new commander’s reputation• “Joe Hooker is our leader, he takes his whiskey strong, so our knapsacks we will sling, and go marching along.”
Chancellorsville • Dates: April 30-May 6, 1863• Principal Commanders: – Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; – Gen. Robert E. Lee• Forces Engaged: – 154,734 total (US 97,382; CS 57,352)• Estimated Casualties: 24,000 total (US 14,000; CS 10,000)• Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded.• Considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest victory.• Result: Confederate victory
Gettysburg • Most famous and most important Battle – Lee looks for another shot at victory in the north• July 1 to July 3, 1863• Begins as a skirmish but by its end involved 160,000 Americans. – Major cities in the North were under threat of attack from Lees Confederate Army of Northern Virginia• Confederate soldiers searching for shoes and other supplies headed toward Gettysburg
George Meade • 1862 seriously wounded • Fought at Antietam
George Meade• 1863 replaces John Hooker, (three days before Gettysburg)• Victor of Gettysburg• Overshadowed by Grant• Performed Reconstruction duty in the South
The Battle of Gettysburg• Overconfident after his great victory, Lee pushed his troops into battle
Gettysburg • Principal Commanders – Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; – Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]• Forces Engaged: – 158,300 total (US 83,289; CS 75,054)• Estimated Casualties: – 51,000 total (US 23,000; CS 28,000)• Description: Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade – July 4, Lee withdraws his army – His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles.• Result: Union victory
Pickett’s Charge• "General, shall I advance?"• "Charge the enemy and remember old Virginia!" yelled Pickett – 12,000 Rebels formed an orderly line that stretched a mile – March takes 50 minutes – Half the men die perished
Gettysburg Address• Dedication of a national cemetery on a portion of the Gettysburg battlefield.• One of the most famous speeches given by a U.S. President.
Gettysburg Address• November 19, 1863 on the battlefield near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, USA• Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation: conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war. . .testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated. . . can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate. . .we cannot consecrate. . . we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us. . .that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion. . . that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. . . that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom. . . and that government of the people. . .by the people. . .for the people. . . shall not perish from the earth.
Gettysburg Address• Paid tribute to the Union soldiers who sacrificed their lives for union and equality. – Lines of the Gettysburg Address are even carved on the walls inside the Lincoln MemorialThe speaker before Lincoln, spoke for two hours.• Lincolns believed that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here," his speech
Chattanooga • Date(s): November 23-25, 1863• Principal Commanders: – Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; – Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]• Estimated Casualties: 12,485 total (US 5,815; CS 6,670)• Description: Union army under siege – Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies; – A new supply line was soon established.• One of the Confederacy’s two major armies was routed.• Union held Chattanooga – the “Gateway to the Lower South,” – Becomes the supply and logistics base for Sherman’s 1864 Atlanta Campaign.• Result: Union victory
Grant Accomplishments• Capture of Vicksburg – Union control of the MS River• Chattanooga – Secured eastern TN – Cleared a way for invasion of GA• Appointed General in chief of Union forces – Lt. General (only other was Washington)
Section 5 Overview• Final battles of the Civil War 1864• General Ulysses S. Grant vs. General Robert E. Lees• Gen. Sherman marched from Chattanooga toward Atlanta. – destroyed more than one-third of Atlanta – Shermans army cut a path of destruction that reached to Georgias coast and north into South Carolina. – Southerners were demoralized• Atlantas capture revitalized Northern support for the war.
Section 5 Overview• Voters reelected Lincoln (1864) – Lincoln took it as a mandate to end slavery permanently.• Confederate hopes end at Appomattox Courthouse.• Terms of surrender – Grant was generous to the Confederates. – Lincoln outlined his plan for restoring the Southern states to the Union• Lincolns in 1865, shocked the nation