Era of Good Feelings The War of 1812 was a second war of independence Confirmed once and for all the American break with England.
Era of Good Feelings Low national debt and a large continent awaiting exploration The prospect of peace, prosperity, and social progress opened before the nation.
Era of Good Feelings Westerners advocated a national system of roads and canals to link them with Eastern cities and ports, and to open frontier lands for settlement.
Era of Good Feelings However, they were unsuccessful in pressing their demands for a federal role in internal improvements
Economic Nationalism Create a new national bank Protect American manufactures from foreign competition Building canals and roads to improve transportation
The Second Bank Established after the War of 1812. Created in 1816 Given power to • issue notes for national currency • control state banks
The Second Bank Republicans opposed the bank State banks grew and charged higher rates
Era of Good Feelings Commerce would cement national unity. The effects of war showed that protecting the manufacturers of America was needed until they could stand alone against foreign competition.
Era of Good Feelings Economic independence, many argued, was as essential as political independence. Some urged a policy of protectionism – imposition of restrictions on imported goods to foster the development of American industry.
Tariff and Transportation Embargo of 1807 had helped American industry • British goods were cheaper after the war
Tariff of 1816• Protective tariff , temporary• Taxed imports to make them more expensive
Tariff of 1816 • Difficult transition from war time to peacetime • Opposed by southern cotton farmers • NE shippers would not benefit as much - but as a whole they would
Tariff and Transportation Federal internal improvement plan Madison vetoed Nothing in the Constitution about spending money this way Private enterprises were begun
Judicial Nationalism The position of the federal government at this time was greatly strengthened by several Supreme Court decisions. A committed Federalist, John Marshall of Virginia, became chief justice in 1801 and held office until his death in 1835. The court – weak before his administration – was transformed into a powerful tribunal, occupying a position co-equal to the Congress and the president. In a succession of historic decisions, Marshall established the power of the Supreme Court and strengthened the national government.
Judicial Nationalism John Marshall Chief Justice for thirty-four years. Remembered for the landmark decisions he made while Chief Justice of the United States Decisions that have shaped the country in important and historic ways.
Marshall was the first in a long line of Supreme Court justices whose decisions have molded the meaning and application of the Constitution. When he finished his long service, the court had decided nearly 50 cases clearly involving constitutional issues. In one of Marshalls most famous opinions – Marbury v. Madison (1803) – he decisively established the right of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of any law of Congress or of a state legislature. In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), he boldly upheld the Hamiltonian theory that the Constitution by implication gives the government powers beyond those expressly stated.
John Marshall His landmark decisions did much to strengthen the judicial branch of government Defined the 3 branch system basic to the American system of government. Many scholars hold that Marshall was the founder of constitutional law and the doctrine of judicial review. (Marbury vs. Madison)
McCulloh v. Maryland (1819)• Court ruled that Congress had implied powers create the Second Bank of the United States• The state of Maryland lacked the power to tax the Bank.• Gave Congress broad discretionary power to implement the enumerated powers, but also repudiated, the radical states rights arguments
Gibbons v.Ogden (1824)• Vastly expanded the powers of Congress through a single clause in the Constitution: the Commerce Clause of Article I, Section 8.• The Court ruled that under that clause Congress had powers to regulate any aspect of commerce that crossed state lines• Such regulation preempted conflicting regulation by the states.
Martin v. Hunter Lessee (1816)• The Court has the authority to hear all appeals of state court decisions in cases of federal statutes and treaties• Court is the nation’s last court of appeal
Nationalist Diplomacy The US looks to expand it borders Jackson Invasion of Florida (slave expedition) • Florida was Spanish territory, US law did not apply • Creek – Seminole begin to attack GA from Florida • Spain could not control the border – US must do something
Spanish Florida For years, southern plantation owners and white farmers in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina had lost runaway slaves to the Florida swamps. Seminole and Creek Indians offered refuge to these slaves and led raids against white settlers in the border regions. The U.S. government could do little about the problem because the swamps lay deep within Spanish Florida.
Spanish Florida If the United States moved decisively against the Seminoles, it would risk war with Spain. The US had tried to convince Spain to cede the territory on various occasions President Monroe sent General Andrew Jackson to the Florida border in 1818 to stop the incursions.
Spanish Florida Jacksons troops invaded Florida captured a Spanish fort, took control of Pensacola deposed the Spanish governor. He executed two British citizens whom he accused of having incited the Seminoles to raid American settlements.
Nationalist Diplomacy John Quincy Adams backs Jackson and blames Spain • It shows the lack of control Spain had over the region.• Spain in the midst of serious internal problems• Spain’s colonies in Latin American were on the brink of revolution• Spain understood that the United States could seize the territory at will.
Adams-Onis Treaty 1819• Drew a definite border between Spanish land and the Louisiana Territory• Spain retained possession of Texas, California and the region of New Mexico.• Spain relinquishes its claims to the country of Oregon north of the 42 degrees parallel• US agreed to pay its citizens’ claims against Spain up to $5 Million.• If a European nation tried to control or interfere with a nation in the Western Hemisphere, the United States would view it as a hostile act against this nation
Monroe Doctrine 1823• Spanish colonies were in revolution• Quadruple Alliance • The Concert of Europe 1815 • To enforce the decisions of the Congress of Vienna.
Monroe Doctrine 1823 • Its main priorities were to • Establish a balance of power • Preserving the territorial status quo • To protect "legitimate" governments. • Major roadblock to countries decision to intervene in Latin American revolutions
Monroe Doctrine 1823• Britains refused to do so• Reasoned that it would lose trade profit from the Spanish if the rebellions were ended• From nationalistic interest refused to cooperate.• Britain look to issue a joint statement
Monroe Doctrine 1823 • US wants to go it alone • The United States would not get involved in European affairs. • The United States would not interfere with existing European colonies in the Western Hemisphere. • No other nation could form a new colony in the Western Hemisphere.