Unit 1   Foundations Overview
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
5,078
On Slideshare
4,655
From Embeds
423
Number of Embeds
7

Actions

Shares
Downloads
207
Comments
0
Likes
8

Embeds 423

http://kappelbaumwhap.weebly.com 322
http://www.weebly.com 32
http://historicallyinclined.blogspot.com 28
http://ohs.ossiningufsd.org 20
http://www.historicallyinclined.blogspot.com 17
http://biologyfreaks.com 3
http://www.slideshare.net 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Short-lived but very significant. Book burnings (including Confucius!) Millions of peasants were forced to build the Great Wall along the northern border. China, from Qin, developed as the name outsiders used to refer to China. But the Chinese still refer to themselves as Han people.
  • Note the western terminus at Jiayu Pass and the eastern terminus at Shanhai Pass.
  • The Han Synthesis term refers to the emphasis on Legalism, but with a touch of Confucianism. The Han dynasty recorded Confucius’s teachings ( The Analects) and put a big emphasis on the family. Founded the Imperial University Required examinations to become bureaucrat (civil service system) Soldiers dropped to lowest status. Confucianists at work; Daoists at home. The Han tried to replace literature, including Confucius’s writings, lost during the Qin Dynasty. Created new works of literature and music. Scroll painting began during this time. Iron was now used for plows and weapons. Acupuncture was invented. Invented a crude seismic sensing tool, so they could send troops and food to the scene of an earthquake! Inventions include: paper (105 CE), sternpost rudder on ships, water mill, wheelbarrow, furrowed cultivation Show map for Silk Road trade. It brought Chinese together into one civilization, creating a common culture. Economically, it brought much wealth to the Han, as they exported much more than they imported. Wudi’s public schools taught Confucianism. Grand School in capital. In 100 years, 30,000 studied there.
  • Short-lived but very significant. Book burnings (including Confucius!) Millions of peasants were forced to build the Great Wall along the northern border. China, from Qin, developed as the name outsiders used to refer to China. But the Chinese still refer to themselves as Han people.
  • Short-lived but very significant. Book burnings (including Confucius!) Millions of peasants were forced to build the Great Wall along the northern border. China, from Qin, developed as the name outsiders used to refer to China. But the Chinese still refer to themselves as Han people.

Transcript

  • 1. Unit 1: Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE
  • 2. Prehistory
    • Prehistoric or Prehistory refers to the time before the advancement of writing.
  • 3. Paleolithic Era
    • Paleolithic Era also means Old Stone Age .
    • The Paleolithic or Old Stone Age began 2 million years ago.
  • 4.
    • Humans during this period found shelter in caves.
    • Cave paintings left behind.
    Purpose? Lascaux caves (France) 32,000 years ago Paleolithic Era
  • 5. Paleolithic Era
    • Homo Sapiens during this period:
      • Were Nomads
      • Were Hunter-Gatherers
      • Lived in clans
      • The first to make simple tools and weapons .
      • Created cave art
      • Mastered the use of Fire .
      • Developed a language
  • 6. Neolithic Era 8000 BCE – 3000 BCE Paleolithic Era 2,000,000 BCE – 8000 BCE
  • 7. AP World History begins at about 8,000 BC when village life began in the New Stone Age. . . Also known as the Neolithic Revolution . NEW STONE AGE
  • 8. A TOTALLY new way of living:
    • From
    Hunter-Gatherers to Agriculture
  • 9. Neolithic Era
    • Neolithic Era means the new stone age .
    • Homo sapiens sapiens during this period:
      • Developed agriculture
      • Domesticated animals
      • Used advanced tools like spears
      • Developed weaving skills
  • 10. The Agricultural Revolution
    • 8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE
    • Agriculture developed independently in different parts of the world.
    • SLASH-AND-BURN Farming
    Middle East India Central America China Southeast Asia 8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,000 BCE
  • 11. The Agricultural Revolution
    • The Neolithic Age is sometimes called the Agricultural Age
        • Some Nomads turned into Farmers
        • They learned to domesticate (tame) animals
        • They learned to farm their food
  • 12. INVENTION OF AGRICULTURE
    • Mesopotamians first to engage in agriculture
      • Around 8000 BCE
      • Cereal crops
        • Wheat
        • Barley
      • Herd animals
        • Sheep
        • Goats
    • Woman probably first farmer
      • Grain-collecting then noticed that stored wild grain could be grown on purpose
  • 13. Agriculture changed how people lived
    • Agriculture (Farming)
    • Growth of Cities
    • Division of Labor (Specialization)
    • Trade
    • Writing and Mathematics
  • 14. Nomadic vs. Agricultural Societies
    • Hunter/Gatherers vs. Farmers
    • More Free Time vs. Constant Work
    • Temporary Shelter vs. Long-term Homes
    • Small Groups vs. Larger Groups
    • Public Land vs. Private Land
  • 15. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES
    • Originally ruled by council of elders
      • Authority moved to single leader
    • Close-knit society
      • Communal granaries, ovens, and fields
    • Private property limited to personal possessions
  • 16. POSSESSIONS
    • Needs of agriculture and stability
      • Clay pottery
      • Woven baskets
      • Woolen and linen clothing
      • Sophisticated tools and weapons
      • Plow
  • 17. RESULTS OF AGRICULTURE
    • Required intensification of group organization
      • Neolithic farmers lived in settlements
        • Population from 150 (Jarmo) to 2000 (Jericho) people.
  • 18. OUTSIDE CONTACTS
    • Neolithic communities had similarities
      • Walls indicate some were fearful
      • Others were more peaceful
        • Obsidian and turquoise in Jericho from several 100’s of miles away
          • Either gifts or received in trade
    Jericho
  • 19. Thus…Civilization Began – But Whose Definition?
    • 18th Century European
    • Civilized vs. primitive
    • White vs. everyone else
  • 20. What contributes to the Development of a Civilization?
    • Specialization of labor is the key
    • If everyone has to farm to have enough food, a great civilization won’t develop.
    • If there is a surplus of food, others are free to build, invent, create tools, create art, and build institutions.
  • 21. What does it mean to be civilized?
    • Historians have determined 6- 9 characteristics of civilization:
        • Cities as administrative centers
        • Political System based on territory
        • Job specialization
        • Social classes
        • Monumental Building
        • Writing/Record Keeping
        • Long-distance trade
        • Advances in science and art
        • Complex religions
  • 22. Cities formed along a River!
    • Rivers provided:
      • water supply
      • transportation
      • food supply from animals
    • Rivers provided challenges:
      • flooding
      • irrigation
    • Required organized, mass labor
      • Construction and repair of canals and irrigation ditches
    Euphrates River
  • 23. Organized Central Governments
    • Central authority needed to control:
      • Labor
      • Storage of grain
      • Dispersion of foodstuffs among population
    • Early governments first led by priests
    • Later controlled by warrior chiefs or kings
  • 24. Organized Central Governments
    • Governments became more complex as new responsibilities arose such as:
      • tax collecting
      • law making
      • handling public works projects
      • organizing systems of defense
  • 25. Complex Religions
    • Generally polytheistic
      • Many gods represented natural forces
      • Others controlled human activities
      • Priests and worshippers tried to gain gods’ favor through complex rituals and sacrifice
    • Directed by unquestionable ruling class of priests
    • King regarded as a god or as a god’s agent
  • 26. Complex Religions
    • Temples often built to honor specific gods and goddesses
    Egyptian temple Mesopotamian ziggurat Mayan temple
  • 27. Social Classes
    • People ranked according to their profession
    Egyptian social structure
      • Chief
      • Priests
      • Nobles
      • Wealthy merchants
      • Artisans
      • Peasants/farmers
      • Slaves
  • 28.
    • Priestly class is part of the beginning of social differentiation
    • Class structure based on specialization of labor
    • Generated class differences
      • Priests (“We talk to god, you don’t.)
      • Aristocrats/warriors (“We have weapons, you don’t.”)
      • Common people (“I guess we work...?”)
      • Slaves (“Uh, oh!!!”)
    Social Classes
  • 29. Job Specialization and the Arts
    • Artisans specialized in various jobs, such as:
      • Bricklayers
      • Blacksmiths
    • Production of luxuries (Items Not Related to Survival)
    • Metal technology
  • 30.
    • Created great architecture and art
    • monumental architecture
    • pyramids, ziggurats, big cities
    • huge temples and associated structures
    • to fill the needs of a god-oriented state
    • under the control of the priestly class
    Job Specialization and the Arts
  • 31. Writing
    • Probably first used by priests
    • Earliest writing used pictograms
    Mesopotamian cuneiform Egyptian hieroglyphs Chinese calligraphy
  • 32. Writing
    • Symbols later added to represent words and then sounds
    • Scribes were specially trained to read, write, and record information
      • Religion
      • Trade
      • Government
    • Learning became cumulative
  • 33. UNIQUENESS OF CIVILIZATION
    • Civilization was not simply next inevitable step from Neolithic Age
      • Many peoples remained at simple food-raising stage for thousands of years—without developing any sort of civilization
    • Only five locations developed civilizations entirely on their own
      • Mesopotamia
      • Egypt
      • Indus River Valley
      • China
      • Central America and Peru
  • 34. But What About…?
    • Easter Island
    • (Sometime between
    • 500-1500 CE)
    • Stonehenge
    • (2000 BCE?)
  • 35.  
  • 36. GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations.
  • 37. Role of Climate and Geography in Early Societies
    • Imagine how early societies may have been affected by climate/geography.
    • How do you think early peoples responded?
    • What difference would geography make in the long term development of a society?
  • 38. Early River Valley Civilizations
    • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
    • No natural barriers
    • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings
    Environment Mesopotamia Egypt Indus River Valley China
    • Flooding of the Nile predictable
    • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages
    • Deserts were natural barriers
    • Indus flooding unpredictable
    • Monsoon winds
    • Mountains, deserts were natural barriers
    • Huang He flooding unpredictable
    • Mountains, deserts natural barriers
    • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations
    • Mountains and ocean natural barriers
    • Warm temperatures and moderate rainfall
    • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations
    Mesoamerica & Andes
  • 39. Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent
    • Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations
    • Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Iraq.
  • 40. Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Cuneiform is created by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet.
  • 41. Ziggurat – Holy Mountain
  • 42. EGYPT “The Gift of the Nile” Nile River Sahara Desert
    • Hieroglyphics
    • Pyramids
    • Geometry
    • Advances in medicine and surgery
  • 43. Indus River Valley 2500 BC – 1500 BC
    • Harappan culture
    • Well planned cities
      • Grid pattern
      • Modern plumbing
      • Built on mud brick platforms
        • Protected against seasonal floods
      • Larger cities
        • Houses built of baked brick
      • Smaller towns
        • Houses built of sun-dried mud brick
  • 44. Shang China 1600 BC – 1027 BC
    • Yellow River Valley
    • Bronze, jade, stone, bone and ceramic artifacts
    • Advanced culture
      • Divinations
      • Religion
      • Astronomy
      • Calendar
      • Art
      • Medicine
  • 45. Shang China 1600 BC – 1122 BC
    • Religion
      • Human as well as animal sacrifices
    • Regarded their land as only civilized land and called it Zhongguo (Middle Kingdom)
    • Lack of contact with foreigners led to belief in:
      • Strong sense of identity
      • Superiority
      • Center of earth
      • Sole source of civilization
  • 46. Zhou China 1122 BC – 256 BC
    • Bronze, jade, silver, gold
    • Mandate of Heaven
      • Power to rule came from heaven
      • Power could be removed if ruler not just
    • Veneration of ancestors
      • All must honor family responsibilities
    • Period ended with Era of Warring States
  • 47. Mesoamerica and Andean South America 2900 BC – 1400 BC
    • Mesoamerica
      • Maize, chili peppers, avocados, beans
      • Pottery
      • Stone bowls
      • Beads
      • Waddle and daub structures
      • No draft animals
  • 48. Mesoamerica and Andean South America 3500 BC – 1400 BC
    • Andes
      • Textiles technology
      • Sophisticated government
      • Religion
      • Lacked ceramics
      • Largely without art
      • Most impressive achievement was monumental architecture
        • Large platform mounds
        • Sunken circular plazas
  • 49. Civilization
    • A civilization is built on what is required of men, not on that which is provided for them.
      • Antoine De Saint-Exupery 1900-1944, French Writer
    • Increased means and increased leisure are the two civilizers of man.
      • Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881, British Statesman Prime Minister
    • To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization.
      • Toynbee, Arnold 1852-1883, British Economic Historian and Reformer
  • 50. Civilization
    • Cities that served as administrative centers
    • Political system based on control or defined territory rather than on connections of kinship
    • Significant number of people engaged in specialized, non-food-producing activities
    • Status distinctions, usually linked to accumulation of substantial wealth by some groups
    • Monumental building
    • System for keeping permanent records
    • Long distance trade
    • Major advances in science and arts
  • 51. Civilization
    • "All peoples from small bands of hunters and gatherers to farmers and factory workers live in societies. All societies produce cultures: combinations of the ideas, objects, and patterns of behavior that result from human social interaction. But not all societies and cultures generate the surplus production that permits the levels of specialization, scale, and complexity that distinguish civilizations from other social organizations. All people are capable of building civilizations, but many have lacked the resource base, historical circumstance, or, quite simply, the motivation of doing so.“
      • Peter Stearns on culture vs. civilization
  • 52. The Classical Age (500 BCE – 600 CE)
    • Some civilizations gained enough territory and power (iron weapons, etc) to become an empire.
    • The rulers of these empires constructed extensive networks of roads and promoted urbanization.
    • Religious and philosophical systems become more complex.
  • 53. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Polytheism
  • 54. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Hinduism
  • 55. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Judaism
  • 56. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Confucianism
  • 57. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Taoism
  • 58. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Buddhism
  • 59. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Christianity
  • 60. Origins of World Belief Systems
    • Islam
  • 61. The Axial Age (800 BCE – 300 BCE)
    • At the beginning of the Classical Age several thinkers came along who changed history.
  • 62. Axial Age Thinkers Confucius Plato Zoroaster Siddhartha Gautama – The Buddha Lao Tzu
  • 63. Classical Greece
  • 64. Early History (3000 BCE-750 BCE)
    • Minoans
      • Crete
      • Seafaring merchants
      • Sophisticated civilization
    • Mycenaeans
      • Merged with native Greeks
    • Dark Age
    Homer
  • 65. Geographic Influence
    • Mountains
      • Independent city-states
    • Insufficient farmland
      • Founded colonies on Mediterranean coast
    • Location
      • Peninsula in Mediterranean
      • Exchange of culture/trade
    • Deep harbors
      • Numerous good harbors on its irregular coastline
  • 66. City-States
    • Athens
      • Democratic, leading city-state
    • Sparta
      • Aristocratic/military city-state
    • Corinth
      • Trading center
    • United by language, culture and fear of Persians
  • 67. Alexander the Great ( 336-323 BCE)
    • Taught by Aristotle
    • Conquered Persian Empire
    • Created Hellenistic culture
    • Died suddenly at 33
  • 68. Athenian Contributions
    • Theater, poetry and historical writing
    • Science and math
    • Architecture and sculpture
    • Philosophy
      • Socrates
        • Individual
      • Plato
        • Group
      • Aristotle
        • World
  • 69. Classical Rome
  • 70. Ancient Rome (1500 BCE-500 BCE)
    • 1500BC-Latins crossed Alps
      • Founded Rome
      • Conquered by Etruscans
    • New Romans
      • Roads, walls, & buildings
      • Metal weapons
  • 71. Republic 500-27 BCE
    • Social aristocracy
      • Patricians
      • Plebeians
    • Senate
    • Conquered Mediterranean world
      • Italian Peninsula and west
      • Client states
    • Spread Greek culture
    • Began to end with assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE
  • 72. Empire 27 BCE-476 CE
    • Octavian (Augustus)
      • Began Pax Romana
    • Spread Greco-Roman civilization
      • Law, language, historical writing
      • Trade, industry, science, architecture
    • Diocletian
      • Divided Empire
    • Constantine
      • Reunited empire
      • Converted to Christianity
  • 73. Germanic Invasion
    • Germans allowed to settle
    • Huns pushed more Germans in
    • 476 CE—last Roman emperor
  • 74.  
  • 75. Classical China
  • 76. Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty (221-206 BCE)
    • Shi Huangdi
    • Legalist rule 
      • Bureaucratic, centralized control
      • Military expansion
      • Book burnings --> targeted Confucianists
        • Buried protestors alive!
  • 77. Terra Cotta Army Great Wall
  • 78.
    • Strong, centralized bureaucracy
    • Extended Great Wall
    • Roads (including Silk Road), canals
    • Emperor Wu Di (141-87 BCE)
      • Public schools
      • Colonized Manchuria, Korea, & Vietnam
      • Civil service system
    Han Dynasty (202 BCE-220 CE)
  • 79. Han – Roman Empire Connection
  • 80. Classical India
  • 81. Mauryan Empire (320 BCE-320 CE)
    • Chandragupta
      • Unified northern India after Alexander the Great withdrew
      • Set up efficient bureaucracy
    • Asoka (grandson)
      • Dedicated life to Buddha
      • Continued bureaucracy
      • Hospitals, roads
  • 82. Gupta Empire (320-647 CE)
    • Chandra Gupta I
    • Bureaucracy
      • Allowed local government in south
  • 83. Social Structure
    • Patriarchal
      • Women were legally minors
      • Women under control of fathers, husbands and sons
    • Caste system continued
  • 84. International Trade Routes
  • 85. Items Traded spices spices gold & ivory gold & ivory rice & wheat horses cotton goods cotton goods silks
  • 86. Gupta Art Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.
  • 87. Medicine Literature Mathematics Astronomy Printed medicinal guides 1000 diseases classified Plastic Surgery C-sections performed Inoculations 500 healing plants identified Decimal System Concept of Zero PI = 3.1416 Kalidasa Solar Calendar The earth is round Gupta India Gupta Achievements
  • 88. Classical Mesoamerica
  • 89. Maya (1800 BCE-800 BCE)
    • Led by ruler-priests
    • Only known fully developed written language of time/area
    • Art, architecture
    • Writing, math, astronomy, calendar
    • Cultural diffusion across Mesoamerica
  • 90. Chavin (900 BCE-200 BCE)
    • Pottery
    • Metalwork (including gold and silver)
    • Religion promoted fertility
      • Built temples
      • Used hallucinogens
    • Trade
  • 91. Trade Routes of the Ancient World
  • 92. Silk Routes
  • 93. Mediterranean Trade Routes
  • 94. Indian Ocean Trade
  • 95. Why civilizations fall
    • External
      • War
      • Natural disaster
      • Disease
    • Internal
      • Overpopulation
      • Economic problems
      • Social disruption
      • Political struggles
  • 96. How do civilizations collapse?
    • Population size and density decrease dramatically
    • Society tends to become less politically centralized
    • Less investment is made in things such as architecture, art, and literature
    • Trade and other economic activities are greatly diminished
    • The flow of information among people slows
    • The ruling elites may change, but usually the working classes tend to remain and provide continuity
  • 97. Is it possible to prevent collapse?
    • Every society must:
      • answer basic biological needs of its members: food, drink, shelter, and medical care.
      • provide for production and distribution of goods and services (perhaps through division of labor, rules concerning property and trade, or ideas about role of work).
      • provide for reproduction of new members and consider laws and issues related to reproduction (regulation, marriageable age, number of children, and so on).
      • provide for training (education, apprenticeship, passing on of values) of individuals so that they can become functioning adults in society.
      • provide for maintenance of internal and external order (laws, courts, police, wars, diplomacy).
      • provide meaning and motivation to its members.
  • 98. Unit 1—Foundations 8000 BCE to 600 CE