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The Origin  of Humans A Scientific Viewpoint
Carl Sagan’s Universe Calendar <ul><li>24 days = 1 billion years </li></ul><ul><li>1 second = 475 years </li></ul><ul><li>...
Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE <ul><li>Hominids  --> any member   of the family of two-legged   primates that inclu...
<ul><ul><li>Found in Hadar, Ethiopia (1974).  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lucy is ~ 3.5 mya  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopith...
<ul><li>Preserved in volcanic ash in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1978  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved ...
Homo habilis (“Man of Skills”) Artist’s representation of a  Homo habilis  band as it might have existed two million years...
Stage 2 1,5000,000 BCE – 27,000 BCE <ul><li>HOMO ERECTUS    ( “Upright Human Being” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and more va...
Homo erectus <ul><li>1891 - Eugene Dubois discovered  Homo erectus  in Java </li></ul><ul><li>AKA “Java Man” </li></ul><ul...
Differing Human Migration Theories Are we all Africans “under the skin”????
Stage 3 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS   ( “Wise Human Being” ) Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Cro-Magno...
Homo neanderthalensis <ul><li>massive brain--about 1,400cc on average </li></ul><ul><li>large torso, short limbs, broad na...
NEANDERTHALS: <ul><li>Neander Valley,    Germany (1856) </li></ul><ul><li>First humans to bury   their dead (with spices) ...
Burial Ceremony in a Cave <ul><ul><li>Neanderthals lived in caves and had ritual burials, such as this depiction from Shan...
What happened to Neanderthals? <ul><li>H. neanderthalensis  coexisted with  H. sapiens  for at least 20,000 years, perhaps...
Cro-Magnons –  Homo sapiens <ul><li>Oldest fossils to be designated  H. sapiens . </li></ul><ul><li>Modern humans who ente...
<ul><li>Cro-Magnons were very skilled cave painters </li></ul><ul><li>Painting of a horse from a cave in France </li></ul>...
Homo Sapiens 100,000 yrs ago Art: Cave Paintings, Venuses Lascaux (17,000 yrs old) Oldest paintings: Chauvet (32,000 yrs o...
 
The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
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Origin Of Humans

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Transcript of "Origin Of Humans"

  1. 1. The Origin of Humans A Scientific Viewpoint
  2. 2. Carl Sagan’s Universe Calendar <ul><li>24 days = 1 billion years </li></ul><ul><li>1 second = 475 years </li></ul><ul><li>“ Big Bang” January 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Milky Way May 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Solar System September 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Life on Earth September 25 </li></ul><ul><li>First Humans December 31, 10:30pm </li></ul>Milky Way
  3. 3. Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE <ul><li>Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Australopithecines </li></ul><ul><li>An Apposable Thumb </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Found in Hadar, Ethiopia (1974). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lucy is ~ 3.5 mya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australopithecus afarensis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adaptations in Lucy’s hip, leg and foot allowed a fully bipedal means of locomotion </li></ul></ul>Lucy
  5. 5. <ul><li>Preserved in volcanic ash in Tanzania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1978 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved hominids were bipedal walkers at least 3.5 million years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most scientists think the footprints were made by A. afarensis, whose fossils are found nearby </li></ul></ul>Hominid Footprints
  6. 6. Homo habilis (“Man of Skills”) Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago. <ul><li>612 cc brain </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 - 1.6 mya </li></ul><ul><li>first toolmaker (stone) </li></ul><ul><li>prognathic face, brow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>probable meat-eater </li></ul><ul><li>possibly arboreal </li></ul><ul><li>discovered in 1960 by Leakeys </li></ul><ul><li>no speech </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stage 2 1,5000,000 BCE – 27,000 BCE <ul><li>HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Human Being” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology </li></ul><ul><li>First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE ) </li></ul><ul><li>BIPEDALISM </li></ul>
  8. 8. Homo erectus <ul><li>1891 - Eugene Dubois discovered Homo erectus in Java </li></ul><ul><li>AKA “Java Man” </li></ul><ul><li>finds in China called Sinanthropus </li></ul><ul><li>dates from 1.9 mya to 27,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>994 cc brain size (compare to 612 for H. habilis ) </li></ul>Photograph of Nariokotome boy, an early Homo erectus found near Lake Turkana, Kenya.
  9. 9. Differing Human Migration Theories Are we all Africans “under the skin”????
  10. 10. Stage 3 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS ( “Wise Human Being” ) Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Cro-Magnons ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE )
  11. 11. Homo neanderthalensis <ul><li>massive brain--about 1,400cc on average </li></ul><ul><li>large torso, short limbs, broad nasal passages </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletons date back 200,000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive brow ridges with protruding nose, jaws, and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Flaked stones that fit in wood handles. </li></ul>The skull of the classic Neandertal found in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.
  12. 12. NEANDERTHALS: <ul><li>Neander Valley, Germany (1856) </li></ul><ul><li>First humans to bury their dead (with spices) </li></ul><ul><li>Made clothes from animal skins. </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in caves and tents. </li></ul><ul><li>Made Flutes </li></ul><ul><li>Language? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Burial Ceremony in a Cave <ul><ul><li>Neanderthals lived in caves and had ritual burials, such as this depiction from Shanidar Cave, Iraq </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What happened to Neanderthals? <ul><li>H. neanderthalensis coexisted with H. sapiens for at least 20,000 years, perhaps as long as 60,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neanderthals interbred with H. sapiens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neanderthals were killed off by H. sapiens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H. sapiens drove Neanderthals into extinction by competition </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Cro-Magnons – Homo sapiens <ul><li>Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens . </li></ul><ul><li>Modern humans who entered Asia and Europe from Africa 100,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Made advanced stone tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplished hunters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunted cooperatively. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First to have complex language? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Cro-Magnons were very skilled cave painters </li></ul><ul><li>Painting of a horse from a cave in France </li></ul>Painting From a Cave in France
  17. 17. Homo Sapiens 100,000 yrs ago Art: Cave Paintings, Venuses Lascaux (17,000 yrs old) Oldest paintings: Chauvet (32,000 yrs old) Peche Merle (15,000 yrs old)
  18. 19. The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
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