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Origin Of Humans
 

Origin Of Humans

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    Origin Of Humans Origin Of Humans Presentation Transcript

    • The Origin of Humans A Scientific Viewpoint
    • Carl Sagan’s Universe Calendar
      • 24 days = 1 billion years
      • 1 second = 475 years
      • “ Big Bang” January 1
      • Milky Way May 1
      • Solar System September 9
      • Life on Earth September 25
      • First Humans December 31, 10:30pm
      Milky Way
    • Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE
      • Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans.
      • Australopithecines
      • An Apposable Thumb
        • Found in Hadar, Ethiopia (1974).
      • Lucy is ~ 3.5 mya
        • Australopithecus afarensis
        • adaptations in Lucy’s hip, leg and foot allowed a fully bipedal means of locomotion
      Lucy
      • Preserved in volcanic ash in Tanzania
        • Discovered in 1978
        • Proved hominids were bipedal walkers at least 3.5 million years ago
        • Most scientists think the footprints were made by A. afarensis, whose fossils are found nearby
      Hominid Footprints
    • Homo habilis (“Man of Skills”) Artist’s representation of a Homo habilis band as it might have existed two million years ago.
      • 612 cc brain
      • 2.3 - 1.6 mya
      • first toolmaker (stone)
      • prognathic face, brow ridge
      • probable meat-eater
      • possibly arboreal
      • discovered in 1960 by Leakeys
      • no speech
    • Stage 2 1,5000,000 BCE – 27,000 BCE
      • HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Human Being” )
      • Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology
      • First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia.
      • First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE )
      • BIPEDALISM
    • Homo erectus
      • 1891 - Eugene Dubois discovered Homo erectus in Java
      • AKA “Java Man”
      • finds in China called Sinanthropus
      • dates from 1.9 mya to 27,000 years ago
      • 994 cc brain size (compare to 612 for H. habilis )
      Photograph of Nariokotome boy, an early Homo erectus found near Lake Turkana, Kenya.
    • Differing Human Migration Theories Are we all Africans “under the skin”????
    • Stage 3 200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS ( “Wise Human Being” ) Neanderthals ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE ) Cro-Magnons ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE )
    • Homo neanderthalensis
      • massive brain--about 1,400cc on average
      • large torso, short limbs, broad nasal passages
      • Skeletons date back 200,000 years.
      • Massive brow ridges with protruding nose, jaws, and teeth.
      • Flaked stones that fit in wood handles.
      The skull of the classic Neandertal found in 1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.
    • NEANDERTHALS:
      • Neander Valley, Germany (1856)
      • First humans to bury their dead (with spices)
      • Made clothes from animal skins.
      • Lived in caves and tents.
      • Made Flutes
      • Language?
    • Burial Ceremony in a Cave
        • Neanderthals lived in caves and had ritual burials, such as this depiction from Shanidar Cave, Iraq
    • What happened to Neanderthals?
      • H. neanderthalensis coexisted with H. sapiens for at least 20,000 years, perhaps as long as 60,000 years
      • What happened?
        • Neanderthals interbred with H. sapiens
        • Neanderthals were killed off by H. sapiens
        • H. sapiens drove Neanderthals into extinction by competition
    • Cro-Magnons – Homo sapiens
      • Oldest fossils to be designated H. sapiens .
      • Modern humans who entered Asia and Europe from Africa 100,000 years ago.
      • Made advanced stone tools.
      • Accomplished hunters.
        • Hunted cooperatively.
      • First to have complex language?
      • Cro-Magnons were very skilled cave painters
      • Painting of a horse from a cave in France
      Painting From a Cave in France
    • Homo Sapiens 100,000 yrs ago Art: Cave Paintings, Venuses Lascaux (17,000 yrs old) Oldest paintings: Chauvet (32,000 yrs old) Peche Merle (15,000 yrs old)
    •  
    • The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE