Catal Huyuk is the oldest and the largest Neolithic city found, so far. It dates to 8,000 years BCE and was occupied continuously for 376 generations. No specific reasons for its abandonment have been found.
A section of an earlier dig
An artist’s reconstruction of Catal Huruk
Archaeologists at work
A skeleton found in a house.
A fertility goddess A pottery bowl with tripod stand A mural of two animals
Jericho ~8000 BCE
Mesopotamia - The Land Between Two Rivers Mesopotamia was a place where many cities began to grow. As its name suggests, Mesopotamia was located between two rivers. The two rivers were the Tigris River and the Euphrates River. Mesopotamia was located in the Middle East, and surrounded by desert. People came to Mesopotamia because the soil between the two rivers was very fertile. When a newborn baby begins life, he or she is placed in a cradle . Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization because the first civilizations began there, about 5,500 years ago in 3500 B.C.
Mesopotamia was located in the Middle East. USA
Mesopotamia was located in what is now the country of Iraq.
City-States Formed Along the Rivers Many city-states formed along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia. They each had their own form of government, and the people worshipped different gods and goddesses. Eventually, they each had their own kings. The region where the two rivers meet was called Sumer. The people who lived in the Sumer region were called Sumerians.
Why Did These Cities Develop? Due to the fertile soil in Mesopotamia, farming was very successful. In fact, people were able to create surpluses of food. This meant that some people could stop farming and begin doing other things, like building a city. As cities began to develop, people began to worry about others who might come and invade their city. They wanted to protect themselves from enemies, so people in Mesopotamia built walls around their cities.
Sumerians Remember, Sumer is the region where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet. Writing first began in Sumerian cities. The first schools were set up in Sumer over 4,000 years ago. Sumerian schools taught boys the new invention of writing. Those who graduated became professional writers called scribes . Scribes were the only people who could keep records for the kings and priests. Boys that wanted to be scribes had to attend school from the age of 8 to the age of 20.
Sumer was different from all other earlier civilizations
Food surplus increased population expanded trade expansion of Sumerian society
Wrote myths ( Epic of Gilgamesh )
Had social classes
Priests and kings were at the top
Slaves were at the bottom
Women probably couldn’t attend school but had many other rights
Advances in mathematics
Number system based on 60 (60 seconds = 1 minute)
Sumerian Society (cont.)
Number system using base 60 – time and circles
12 month calendar
Some of the 1 st known maps
New architecture: Bricks
Arch and ramp
Sumerian Writing Scribes used a sharp point called a stylus to etch words into clay tablets. These tablets have been discovered by archaeologists and looked at by historians .
A Sumerian City Sumerian city streets were so narrow that you could hardly get a cart through them. Sumerian houses faced away from crowded streets. Instead, they faced onto courtyards where families ate and children played. Narrow Streets Courtyard Area
Sumerian Cities On hot nights, people slept outdoors on the top of their house’s flat roof. Sumerians had a form of light at night. They burned oil lamps. Sumerians even had plumbing! Clay pipes that were buried underground carried their waste away. Inventions like plumbing wouldn’t come around for another thousand years in other parts of the world!
Sumerian Religion Sumerians worshipped many gods, not just one. This belief in many gods is called polytheism . “Poly” means many and “Theism” means gods. The picture above shows a ziggurat . Ziggurats were the main temples used to worship the gods of a city. Ziggurats were built in the center of the city. They had steps and ramps, and it was believed that the gods descended to the Earth using the ziggurat as a ladder.
ziggurat Gods Sumerian Mythology Sumerian myths , or stories, explained people’s beliefs. Sumerians believed that a person must keep the gods happy by going to the ziggurat and praying to them. They believed that the gods would reward them for good service. They also believed that the gods would punish the people who made them angry.
The Epic of Gilgamesh Search for immortality by semi-historical King Gilgamesh of Uruk (~2700 BCE) after death of his friend Enkidu. Realizes that only gods enjoy immortality; humans must content themselves with fame derived from performing mighty deeds Story of a devastating flood in later version
The Epic of Gilgamesh PowerPoint
The Downfall of the Sumerians Each of the Sumerian city-states had a ruler, and these city-states began fighting each other. They fought over land and the use of river water. Since the Sumerians were constantly at war with each other, they became weak. By 2000 BC, Sumer was a weakened area, and by 1759 BC, Sumer was conquered by another group of people - the Babylonians, who were from the north.
Who Controls Mesopotamia?
From Sumerians to Babylonians
The Sumerian city-states eventually fell to foreign invaders (2000s BC)
Semites- nomadic people from the Arabian Peninsula that migrated to Mesopotamia
Sargon I (2300-2200 BC) unites all Mesopotamian cities (creates first empire)
The Ancient Babylonians
Amorites (2000-1600 BC)
Conquered many parts of old Sumeria (including Babylon)
Hammurabi - created a law code with harsh punishments
Borrowed heavily from Sumerian culture
After Hammurabi’s death Babylon declined
Hammurabi’s Code (~1700 BCE) Hammurabi was the king who united most of Mesopotamia and conquered the Sumerians. He developed a “code” of laws. The laws were numbered from 1 to 282. Law number 196 states: If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. Some people summarize Hammurabi’s code by saying “an eye for an eye.” Law number 195 states: If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off. There are many, many more laws like this in Hammurabi’s Code. A statue of Hammurabi
On the left is a stela , which has all 282 of Hammurabi’s laws engraved on it. This stela is located in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France. The Hammurabi stela was discovered in 1909, in Susa, Elam, which is now Khuzestan. Khuzestan is a province of southern Iran. Susa Stelas containing Hammurabi’s Law Code were erected throughout the Mesopotamia River Valley.
The Law Code of Hammurabi PowerPoint
Began to conquer Asia Minor (2000 BCE)
A strong army with chariots
Conquered Babylon in 1595 BCE)
Borrowed from Mesopotamian and Egyptian culture
Had a law code less harsh than Hammurabi’s
Lasted until about 1200 BCE
Started to gain strength about 900 BCE
Treated conquered people cruelly
Large empire with good roads
Collapsed about 612 BCE
Defeated the Assyrians in about 612 BCE
Descended from Hammarabi’s Babylonians
At its height during the rule of Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 BCE)
Spent a lot of money on Babylon
Built Hanging Gardens
Empire collapsed in 539 BCE after being defeated by the Persians