Legalism became the political philosophy of the Qin Dynasty.
1. Human nature is naturally selfish. 2. Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged. 3. Law is the supreme authority and replaces morality. 4. The ruler must rule with a strong, punishing hand . 5. War is the means of strengthening a ruler’s power. Major Legalist Principles
One who favors the principle that individuals should obey a powerful authority rather than exercise individual freedom. The ruler , therefore, “cracks his whip” on the backs of his subjects! Authoritarian
1. Tao [Dao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. [Think of “The Force” from Star Wars – Controversy over the Mystical] 2. A believer’s goal is to become one with Tao ; one with nature. 3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its course.” --> “The art of doing nothing.” --> “Go with the flow!” 4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature. Major Taoist Principles
1. Reject formal knowledge and learning. 2. Rely on the senses and instincts. 3. Discover the nature and “rhythm” of the universe. 4. Ignore political and social laws. The “Tao" [Dao] To escape the “social, political, & cultural traps” of life, one must:
In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power .
According to legend, Lao Tsu saw that society was crumbling and decided to ride away alone into the desert. However, at the mountain pass leading to the desert, he was stopped by the gatekeeper who knew of Lao Tsu’s reputation for wisdom. The gatekeeper begged Lao Tsu to write down the essence of his teachings. Thus was the wisdom contained in the Tao Te Ching preserved.
The Name that can be named is not the eternal name.
In dwelling, be close to the land. In meditation, go deep in the heart. In dealing with others, be gentle and kind. In speech, be true. In ruling, be just. In daily life, be competent. In action, be aware of the time and the season. No fight, no blame Empty yourself of everything, let the mind become still. Ten thousand things rise and fall while the Self watches their return. Those who talk do not know. Those who talk do not know.
Give up learning and put an end to your troubles… In the pursuit of learning, every day something is acquired. In the pursuit of Tao, every day something is dropped. Keep your mouth shut, guard the senses, and life is ever full. Open your mouth, always be busy, and life is beyond hope. Achieve results, but never glory in them. Achieve results, but never boast. Achieve results, but never be proud.
Hengshan Monastery is located on the cliffs of Mt. Hengshan, which is one of the five sacred mountains of Taoism. In the Shanxi province of China, near the city of Datong.
The gravity defying Hanging Monastery was built on extremely sheer cliffs above Jinlong Canyon 1400 years ago.
Bridges and corridors connect the pavilions and caves in which dozens of bronze, iron, stone and clay statues are enshrined.
The mythical creatures on the eaves serve to protect the monastery from evil spirits.
In the Three Religions Hall, Buddha, Confucius and Lao-tsu are all enshrined together. This is because in present day the three faiths co-exist in the temple.
Three Chinese Philosophies How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Taoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.