Social presence aera 2014

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Social presence aera 2014

  1. 1. Social Presence What is it? And how do we measure it? { Patrick R. Lowenthal @ Boise State University }
  2. 2. Research on Social Presence Researchers have shown—in varying degrees: •A relationship between social presence & student satisfaction •A relationship between social presence & the development of a community of learners •A relationship between social presence & perceived learning
  3. 3. Conceptual Framework Social Presence Cognitive Presence Teaching Presence Educational Experience
  4. 4. Social Presence disclose Affective •Expression of Emotions •Use of humor •Self- disclosure Cohesive •Vocatives •Use of inclusive pronouns •Phatics / Salutations Interactive •Continuing a thread •Quoting from other messages •Referring explicitly to other messages •Asking questions •Complimenting / Expressing appreciation Social Presence + + =
  5. 5. Method
  6. 6. Mixed Methods Phase Data Analysis Type of Data Purpose of Results 1 Word Count (Quantitative) All course discussions Explore the frequency of top words used 2 Content Analysis (Quantitative) All course discussions Explore the presence and frequency of categories and indicators of social presence. 3 Constant Comparative Analysis (Qualitative) One discussion thread with high social presence & one with low social presence Identify codes, groups, and themes in the data missed by content analysis. Research Question How does social presence manifest in a graduate education asynchronous online course?
  7. 7. Results
  8. 8. Phase 1 Word Count
  9. 9. Phase 2 Content Analysis
  10. 10. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage One: Frequency Across All Forums
  11. 11. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage One: Frequency Across All Forums
  12. 12. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage Two: Frequency within different forums
  13. 13. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage Two: Frequency within different forums
  14. 14. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage Two: Frequency within different forums
  15. 15. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage Three: Frequency across students
  16. 16. Phase 2 Content Analysis Stage Three: Frequency across students
  17. 17. Phase 3 Constant Comparison Reading Group E ~ Lowest Social Presence Students began the threaded discussion (which spanned two months) with chit chatting and telling personal stories but quickly changed their focus to the task at hand of discussing public policy in general and the readings in particular; overtime the focus of the discussion was solely on the reading and public policy—by this point the discussion largely consisted of students posting questions and the instructor answering the questions.
  18. 18. Phase 3 Constant Comparison Pair 9~ Highest Social Presence Students who have a past relationship and spend time with each other either professionally (e.g., we are fortunate enough to work together) or personally outside of class can have an easier time collaborating with each other because of their past relationship, shared experiences, and geographic closeness which others might not have. These benefits can help them NOT to be alone, give them opportunities to chat a lot, provide a strong and safe foundation to openly share how they are struggling personally and professionally, and to regularly meet face-to-face.
  19. 19. Discussion
  20. 20. Key Findings Results suggest the the following are important: Group size Instructional task Past relationships One size doesn’t fit all
  21. 21. Other Findings Other findings from this study are: •Situational variables matter: There really isn’t simply one type of CMC--the publicness, group nature of online discussions, people’s growing use of CMD, instructor’s role all matter •Unit of analysis matters •All indicators are not equal •Differences between CoI survey and Indicators
  22. 22. Other Findings Other findings from this study are: •Situational variables matter: There really isn’t simply one type of CMC--the publicness, group nature of online discussions, people’s growing use of CMD, instructor’s role all matter •Unit of analysis matters •All indicators are not equal •Differences between CoI survey and Indicators
  23. 23. Patrick R. Lowenthal patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu www.patricklowenthal.com Contact Me

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