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Does Video Improve
Social Presence?
Investigating students’ perceptions of
asynchronous video and social presence
slides @...
Patrick Lowenthal
educator
researcher
designer
developer
patricklowenthal.com
Twitter@plowenthal
Overview
Background Method Results Discussion
BACKGROUND
Social Presence
Social presence is the
degree of salience (i.e.,
quality or state of
being there) between
two communicator...
METHOD
Regular Video Use
Video Announcements
Instructional Videos (screencasts)
Video Feedback
1
2
3
Survey
General Questions
Questions about Video Announcements
Questions about Instructional Videos
Questions about Video Fe...
Data Collection
Summer
2013
Fall
2013
Spring
2014
Summer
2014
Sample
Internet for Educators
Graphic Design for
Learning
Online Course Design
68
students
RESULTS
preliminary
General Background
Females 59%
Males 41%
Experienced Online Learners (9.13 avg)
Perceived learning (4.59)
Satisfied (4.59)
Importance of Presence
[1 Strongly Disagree --- Strongly Agree 5]
Important to
perceive
instructor as
“real” & “there”
Str...
Communication Media
Video: 4.23
Audio: 3.55
Text: 3.45
[1 Poor --- Excellent 5]
Rate video, audio, & text in
their ability...
Lonely
Sometimes feel alone or
isolated when taking online
courses
[1 Strongly Disagree --- Strongly Agree 5]
Neither Agre...
Preference
I like it when instructors
use videos in online
courses.
Agree 3.93
VIDEO ANNOUNCEMENTS
Video Announcements
I read every
announcement
instructor posts
I watched all
announcements
Agree 4.18 Agree 4.03
Video Announcements
When / given a video
announcement and a text
transcription, which are
you more likely to do:
Only read...
Video Announcements
What reasons influence you to watch a
video announcement?
“If I have time”
“If there is instruction I ...
INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEOS
Instructional Videos
Like it when my
instructor uses
instructional
videos
Instructional
videos are a good
way to learn
Str...
Instructional Videos
I watched most of the
instructional videos
created by my instructor
this semester?
Strongly / Agree 4...
Instructional Videos
Prefer
instructors use
videos they
created
Instructional
videos created
by others add
value
~ Agree 3...
VIDEO FEEDBACK
Preference
I like video feedback
Agree 3.98
Instructional Videos
I watched the
video feedback
Watch video
feedback more
than once?
Agree 4.35
Yes 63%
Public Feedback
Helpful to view
feedback others
receive
Agree 3.11
I would watch
video feedback
instructors gave
other stu...
OTHER RESULTS
Sync. vs. Async.
Prefer
Asynchronous
Video87%
Most Valued
Video Feedback
Video Announcements
Instructional Videos
20%
11%
69%
Situational Factors
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Media Ranked
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Personal asynchronous video 4.12
 Group two-way synchronous vi...
Media Ranked
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Personal asynchronous video 4.12
 Group two-way synchronous vi...
Media Compared
 One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22
 Group two-way synchronous video 3.83
 Personal asynchronous ...
Video & Social Presence
Videos can establish instructor presence 4.29
Video announcements can establish instructor
presenc...
Video & Social Presence
Videos can establish instructor presence 4.29
Video announcements can establish instructor
presenc...
Video & Social Presence
Videos can establish instructor presence 4.29
Video announcements can establish instructor
presenc...
Video, audio, and text are all tools for
distance communications. Other factors
also contribute to the feeling of a real
p...
When videos are kept short and focused they
can be a very effective tool for learning. Not
all information needs to be pre...
The courses where there was some element
of video communication, helped me to feel
more connected to the instructor (or in...
DISCUSSION
Final Thoughts
One size
doesn’t fit all
Video
announcements
ROI
Subject Matter
Difference?
Accessibility
CONTACT ME
Patrick Lowenthal
patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu
www.patricklowenthal.com
SLOAN C Emerging Technologies Conference - Social presence and online video
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SLOAN C Emerging Technologies Conference - Social presence and online video

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  • http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2215/2140831025_18d577a6c9.jpg
  • Only read; don’t watch: 16 (24% ); Watch but don't read: 30 (45% ); Read transcript and watch video: 21 (31% )
  • Video Feedback=13 (20%)Video Announcements=7 (11%) Instructional Videos=44 (69%)
  • Transcript of "SLOAN C Emerging Technologies Conference - Social presence and online video"

    1. 1. Does Video Improve Social Presence? Investigating students’ perceptions of asynchronous video and social presence slides @ www.patricklowenthal.com
    2. 2. Patrick Lowenthal educator researcher designer developer patricklowenthal.com Twitter@plowenthal
    3. 3. Overview Background Method Results Discussion
    4. 4. BACKGROUND
    5. 5. Social Presence Social presence is the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there) between two communicators using a communication medium.
    6. 6. METHOD
    7. 7. Regular Video Use Video Announcements Instructional Videos (screencasts) Video Feedback 1 2 3
    8. 8. Survey General Questions Questions about Video Announcements Questions about Instructional Videos Questions about Video Feedback
    9. 9. Data Collection Summer 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014 Summer 2014
    10. 10. Sample Internet for Educators Graphic Design for Learning Online Course Design 68 students
    11. 11. RESULTS preliminary
    12. 12. General Background Females 59% Males 41% Experienced Online Learners (9.13 avg) Perceived learning (4.59) Satisfied (4.59)
    13. 13. Importance of Presence [1 Strongly Disagree --- Strongly Agree 5] Important to perceive instructor as “real” & “there” Strongly Agree 4.46 Importance to perceive classmates as “real” & “there” Agree 3.93
    14. 14. Communication Media Video: 4.23 Audio: 3.55 Text: 3.45 [1 Poor --- Excellent 5] Rate video, audio, & text in their ability to establish a communicator as a “real” person and being “there” (i.e., social presence)
    15. 15. Lonely Sometimes feel alone or isolated when taking online courses [1 Strongly Disagree --- Strongly Agree 5] Neither Agree or Disagree 3.10
    16. 16. Preference I like it when instructors use videos in online courses. Agree 3.93
    17. 17. VIDEO ANNOUNCEMENTS
    18. 18. Video Announcements I read every announcement instructor posts I watched all announcements Agree 4.18 Agree 4.03
    19. 19. Video Announcements When / given a video announcement and a text transcription, which are you more likely to do: Only read; don’t watch Read and watch video Watch but don’t read 24% 45% 31%
    20. 20. Video Announcements What reasons influence you to watch a video announcement? “If I have time” “If there is instruction I watch. If it is simply an announcement I will not watch” “Internet connection speed” “I always watch the video announcements because they are critical to success in the class”
    21. 21. INSTRUCTIONAL VIDEOS
    22. 22. Instructional Videos Like it when my instructor uses instructional videos Instructional videos are a good way to learn Strongly Agree 4.53 Strongly Agree 4.49
    23. 23. Instructional Videos I watched most of the instructional videos created by my instructor this semester? Strongly / Agree 4.53
    24. 24. Instructional Videos Prefer instructors use videos they created Instructional videos created by others add value ~ Agree 3.65 Agree 3.96
    25. 25. VIDEO FEEDBACK
    26. 26. Preference I like video feedback Agree 3.98
    27. 27. Instructional Videos I watched the video feedback Watch video feedback more than once? Agree 4.35 Yes 63%
    28. 28. Public Feedback Helpful to view feedback others receive Agree 3.11 I would watch video feedback instructors gave other students Agree 2.92
    29. 29. OTHER RESULTS
    30. 30. Sync. vs. Async. Prefer Asynchronous Video87%
    31. 31. Most Valued Video Feedback Video Announcements Instructional Videos 20% 11% 69%
    32. 32. Situational Factors
    33. 33. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    34. 34. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    35. 35. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    36. 36. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    37. 37. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    38. 38. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    39. 39. Media Ranked  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group synchronous audio 3.18  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10  Group synchronous text-based 3.00
    40. 40. Media Ranked  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group synchronous audio 3.18  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10  Group synchronous text-based 3.00
    41. 41. Media Compared  One-on-one two-way synchronous video 4.22  Group two-way synchronous video 3.83  Personal asynchronous video 4.12  General asynchronous video 3.76  One-on-one synchronous audio 3.64  Group synchronous audio 3.18  One-on-one asynchronous audio 3.27  Group asynchronous audio 3.10  One-on-one synchronous text-based 3.61  Group synchronous text-based 3.00  One-on-one asynchronous text-based 3.48  Group asynchronous text-based 3.10
    42. 42. Video & Social Presence Videos can establish instructor presence 4.29 Video announcements can establish instructor presence 4.18 Video feedback can establish instructor presence 4.10 Instructional videos can establish instructor presence 4.22 I know my instructor better as a result of his use of video 3.96 Enjoyed the use of video in this course 4.45 Agree
    43. 43. Video & Social Presence Videos can establish instructor presence 4.29 Video announcements can establish instructor presence 4.18 Video feedback can establish instructor presence 4.10 Instructional videos can establish instructor presence 4.22 I know my instructor better as a result of his use of video 3.96 Enjoyed the use of video in this course 4.45 Agree
    44. 44. Video & Social Presence Videos can establish instructor presence 4.29 Video announcements can establish instructor presence 4.18 Video feedback can establish instructor presence 4.10 Instructional videos can establish instructor presence 4.22 I know my instructor better as a result of his use of video 3.96 Enjoyed the use of video in this course 4.45 Agree
    45. 45. Video, audio, and text are all tools for distance communications. Other factors also contribute to the feeling of a real person. Most critical for me is timeliness of the communications. I'd rather have a more immediate text reply that suffer digital silence - even if the communication after the delay is in a high quality video format.
    46. 46. When videos are kept short and focused they can be a very effective tool for learning. Not all information needs to be presented in a video.
    47. 47. The courses where there was some element of video communication, helped me to feel more connected to the instructor (or in the case of 502 not my instructor, but the video instructor). This semester, I do not feel connected to my instructors who have not used any form of video communication.
    48. 48. DISCUSSION
    49. 49. Final Thoughts One size doesn’t fit all Video announcements ROI Subject Matter Difference? Accessibility
    50. 50. CONTACT ME Patrick Lowenthal patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu www.patricklowenthal.com
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