Prevalence of
Convenient
Sampling
An investigation into
sampling trends in
online learning
research
Patrick R. Lowenthal &...
Online Growth
+ million
post-secondary
students
Source: Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010
Poor
Quality
Research
Studies “suffered from
weaknesses such as small
sample sizes; failure to
report retention rates for
...
Bias
Context matters: A
description and
typology of the
online learning
landscape.
www.patricklowenthal.com/publications/A...
Balance
What are the
sampling trends of
online learning
research?
What are the
sampling trends of
online learning
research focused on
social presence?
“social presence”
&
“online learning”
Ebsco--Academic Search Premier,
Applied Science & Tech full text
(H.W. Wilson), Comm...
“social presence”
&
“online learning”
102
studies
Results [Type of Publication]
4%
23%
73%
Journal
Dissertation
Journal
Conference
Results [Popular Outlets]
Journal of Interactive Online Learning
• 8 articles
Internet and Higher Education
• 8 articles
I...
Results [Methodology]
16% Mixed
methods
Results [Subject]
79%
9%
6%
6%
Education
Buisness
Nursing
Psychology
Results [Format]
19%
15%
1%
65%
Blended
Both
F2F
Online
Results [Level]
High School 4
Undergraduate 25
Graduate 35
6%
39%
55%
High School
Undergraduate
Graduate
Results [Sample Size]
• 13%: 10 or less students
• 24 %: 20 or less students
• 34%: 50 or more students
• 25%: 100 or more...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
More time
reporting on
sampling
rationale
Study under-
represented
groups &
subjects
Replicate
studies in
different
contex...
patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu
slides @ patricklowenthal.com
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AERA 2014 - Prevalence of Convenient Sampling: An investigation into sampling trends

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Prevalence of Convenient Sampling: An investigation into sampling trends in online learning research

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  • In the fall of 2009, 5.6 million students took at least one online course according to Sloan-C
  • Lowenthal, P. R., Wilson, B., & Parrish, P. (2009, October). Context matters: A description and typology of the online learning landscape. Paper presented at the 2009 AECT International Convention, Louisville, KY. http://www.patricklowenthal.com/publications/AECT2009TypologyOnlineLearning.pdf
  • We posit that researchers need to do a better job of researching various contexts of online learning and investigating how the context shapes the experience. We are not arguing as some have that we simply need more experimental or multi-institutional studies with samples in the thousands but rather that we need to do a better job of investigating various and diverse samples of online learning (which then might lead to larger multi-institutional studies).
  • Initially found 194 results (1994-2011) After deleting duplicates, 156 studiesCouldn’t locate 16 dissertations Couldn’t locate 11 journal articlesCouldn’t locate 4 journal articlesRemoved 10 articles that were reviews
  • Journal of Interactive Online learning: 8Internet and Higher Ed: 8International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning: 4Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks: 4Computers & Education: 4
  • 16 out of 102
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • 12 weren’t listed
  • AERA 2014 - Prevalence of Convenient Sampling: An investigation into sampling trends

    1. 1. Prevalence of Convenient Sampling An investigation into sampling trends in online learning research Patrick R. Lowenthal & Ross Perkins Boise State University
    2. 2. Online Growth + million post-secondary students Source: Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010
    3. 3. Poor Quality Research Studies “suffered from weaknesses such as small sample sizes; failure to report retention rates for students in the conditions being contrasted; and, in many cases, potential bias stemming from the authors’ dual roles as experimenters and instructors” (Means et al., 2009, p. xviii) Online learning research is “severely wanting in terms of depth of reporting”
    4. 4. Bias Context matters: A description and typology of the online learning landscape. www.patricklowenthal.com/publications/AE CT2009TypologyOnlineLearning.pdf
    5. 5. Balance
    6. 6. What are the sampling trends of online learning research?
    7. 7. What are the sampling trends of online learning research focused on social presence?
    8. 8. “social presence” & “online learning” Ebsco--Academic Search Premier, Applied Science & Tech full text (H.W. Wilson), Communication & Mass Media Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, PsycINFO Key Words
    9. 9. “social presence” & “online learning” 102 studies
    10. 10. Results [Type of Publication] 4% 23% 73% Journal Dissertation Journal Conference
    11. 11. Results [Popular Outlets] Journal of Interactive Online Learning • 8 articles Internet and Higher Education • 8 articles International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning • 4 articles Journal of Asynchronous Learning • 4 articles Computers & Education • 4 articles
    12. 12. Results [Methodology] 16% Mixed methods
    13. 13. Results [Subject] 79% 9% 6% 6% Education Buisness Nursing Psychology
    14. 14. Results [Format] 19% 15% 1% 65% Blended Both F2F Online
    15. 15. Results [Level] High School 4 Undergraduate 25 Graduate 35 6% 39% 55% High School Undergraduate Graduate
    16. 16. Results [Sample Size] • 13%: 10 or less students • 24 %: 20 or less students • 34%: 50 or more students • 25%: 100 or more students • Mean: 101 • Mode: 6 • Median: 43 • Range: 2 to 709
    17. 17. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
    18. 18. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
    19. 19. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
    20. 20. More time reporting on sampling rationale Study under- represented groups & subjects Replicate studies in different contexts Share & publish more dissertation research
    21. 21. patricklowenthal@boisestate.edu slides @ patricklowenthal.com

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