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AECT 2009 Social Presence
 

AECT 2009 Social Presence

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  • Is this student present? Yes and no… it depends on what you mean
  • [BOOK]  The  Social Psychology  of  Telecommunications J Short, E Williams, B Christie - 1976 - John Wiley & Sons Cited by 1745  -  Web Search  -  Library Search They were interested in how communications media, specifically telecommunications media, impact communication
  • Communication media differ in their degree of social presence; these differences play an important role in how people interact.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfuS3m-Jhcc
  • CMC is different than other types of communication medium.
  • However, despite occasional reports of loneliness and isolation (Grubb & Hines, 2000; Robinson, 2000), proponents and practitioners of online education argue that online education and CMC can support the social practice of learning. Even though nonverbal and relational cues are filtered out, these researchers have argued that CMC can still be very social and interpersonal (Gunawardena, 1995; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997) and at times even hyperpersonal (Walther, 1996). Further, as researchers (Gunawardena, 1995; Tu, 2000) began examining the sociability of online education, these new researchers began to question the degree to which the attributes of a communication medium—in this case the cues filtered out of CMC systems—determine how people socially interact and are perceived as “being there” when communicating online (Danchak, Walther, & Swan, 2001; Gunawardena, 1995; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997; As a result, these researchers began questioning and further developing the theory of social presence developed by Short et al. (1976). They argued, based on their experience and research, that participants in online discussions, using text alone, are able to project their personalities into online discussions and create social presence (Swan, 2003a; Swan & Shih, 2005). They found that online learners are able to present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others when communicating in online learning environments by doing such things as using emoticons, telling stories, and even using humor (Rourke et al., 2001; Swan, 2003). Thus, a user’s personal perceptions of social presence and the behaviors used to make up for the cues that are filtered out matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities. This new line of research sparked a renewed interest in the sociability of online learning, social presence, and CMC as evidenced in the increased amount of literature focused on social presence.
  • However, despite occasional reports of loneliness and isolation (Grubb & Hines, 2000; Robinson, 2000), proponents and practitioners of online education argue that online education and CMC can support the social practice of learning. Even though nonverbal and relational cues are filtered out, these researchers have argued that CMC can still be very social and interpersonal (Gunawardena, 1995; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997) and at times even hyperpersonal (Walther, 1996). Further, as researchers (Gunawardena, 1995; Tu, 2000) began examining the sociability of online education, these new researchers began to question the degree to which the attributes of a communication medium—in this case the cues filtered out of CMC systems—determine how people socially interact and are perceived as “being there” when communicating online (Danchak, Walther, & Swan, 2001; Gunawardena, 1995; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997; As a result, these researchers began questioning and further developing the theory of social presence developed by Short et al. (1976). They argued, based on their experience and research, that participants in online discussions, using text alone, are able to project their personalities into online discussions and create social presence (Swan, 2003a; Swan & Shih, 2005). They found that online learners are able to present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others when communicating in online learning environments by doing such things as using emoticons, telling stories, and even using humor (Rourke et al., 2001; Swan, 2003). Thus, a user’s personal perceptions of social presence and the behaviors used to make up for the cues that are filtered out matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities. This new line of research sparked a renewed interest in the sociability of online learning, social presence, and CMC as evidenced in the increased amount of literature focused on social presence.
  • However, despite occasional reports of loneliness and isolation (Grubb & Hines, 2000; Robinson, 2000), proponents and practitioners of online education argue that online education and CMC can support the social practice of learning. Even though nonverbal and relational cues are filtered out, these researchers have argued that CMC can still be very social and interpersonal (Gunawardena, 1995; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997) and at times even hyperpersonal (Walther, 1996). Further, as researchers (Gunawardena, 1995; Tu, 2000) began examining the sociability of online education, these new researchers began to question the degree to which the attributes of a communication medium—in this case the cues filtered out of CMC systems—determine how people socially interact and are perceived as “being there” when communicating online (Danchak, Walther, & Swan, 2001; Gunawardena, 1995; Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997; As a result, these researchers began questioning and further developing the theory of social presence developed by Short et al. (1976). They argued, based on their experience and research, that participants in online discussions, using text alone, are able to project their personalities into online discussions and create social presence (Swan, 2003a; Swan & Shih, 2005). They found that online learners are able to present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others when communicating in online learning environments by doing such things as using emoticons, telling stories, and even using humor (Rourke et al., 2001; Swan, 2003). Thus, a user’s personal perceptions of social presence and the behaviors used to make up for the cues that are filtered out matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities. This new line of research sparked a renewed interest in the sociability of online learning, social presence, and CMC as evidenced in the increased amount of literature focused on social presence.
  • I have argued elsewhere that we are in Phase 4.
  • Social presence is now a central concept in online learning; Just as earlier researchers of CMC (Kiesler, 1986; Kiesler, Siegel, McGuire, 1984) used social presence theory to explain why CMC was inherently impersonal, later researchers (Gunawardena, 1995; Tu, 2000) reconceptualized social presence theory—focusing less on the medium and more on people—to explain how CMC in online learning environments can be very personal and social.
  • Social presence is now a central concept in online learning; Just as earlier researchers of CMC (Kiesler, 1986; Kiesler, Siegel, McGuire, 1984) used social presence theory to explain why CMC was inherently impersonal, later researchers (Gunawardena, 1995; Tu, 2000) reconceptualized social presence theory—focusing less on the medium and more on people—to explain how CMC in online learning environments can be very personal and social.
  • Social presence is now a central concept in online learning; Just as earlier researchers of CMC (Kiesler, 1986; Kiesler, Siegel, McGuire, 1984) used social presence theory to explain why CMC was inherently impersonal, later researchers (Gunawardena, 1995; Tu, 2000) reconceptualized social presence theory—focusing less on the medium and more on people—to explain how CMC in online learning environments can be very personal and social.
  • Presence is a key theoretical construct used in a variety of disciplines besides communication and online learning—most notably virtual reality (see Biocca, 1997). In fact, Lombard and Ditton (1997) identified six interrelated but distinct ways people understand “presence”: (a) presence as social richness, (b) presence as realism, (c) presence as transportation, (d) presence as immersion, (e) presence as social actor within medium, and (f) presence as medium as social actor. They even attempted to create one all encompassing definition of presence. According to Lombard and Ditto, the following definition takes into consideration all six ways presence is understood; presence is “the perceptual illusion of nonmediation” (presence explicated section). To date, though, their all encompassing definition has not caught on. Biocca, Harms, and Burgoon (2003), also recognized the different ways researchers across different fields define presence. They attempted to create an all-encompassing definition of social presence; they defined social presence as simply “‘sense of being with another’” (p. 456) whether that other is human or artificial. Despite attempts by Lombard and Ditto (1997) and Biocca et al. (2003) to develop some conceptual clarity when it comes to discussions of presence in general or social presence in particular, researchers of social presence and CMC in educational environments continue to redefine and categorize social presence (Picciano, 2002). For Gunawardena (1995), social presence is “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (p. 151). Garrison et al. (2000), on the other hand, define social presence “ as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94). Tu and McIsaac (2002) define social presence as “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (p. 140). Finally, for Picciano (2002), social presence in an online course “refers to a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (p. 22).
  • Presence is a key theoretical construct used in a variety of disciplines besides communication and online learning—most notably virtual reality (see Biocca, 1997). In fact, Lombard and Ditton (1997) identified six interrelated but distinct ways people understand “presence”: (a) presence as social richness, (b) presence as realism, (c) presence as transportation, (d) presence as immersion, (e) presence as social actor within medium, and (f) presence as medium as social actor. They even attempted to create one all encompassing definition of presence. According to Lombard and Ditto, the following definition takes into consideration all six ways presence is understood; presence is “the perceptual illusion of nonmediation” (presence explicated section). To date, though, their all encompassing definition has not caught on. Biocca, Harms, and Burgoon (2003), also recognized the different ways researchers across different fields define presence. They attempted to create an all-encompassing definition of social presence; they defined social presence as simply “‘sense of being with another’” (p. 456) whether that other is human or artificial. Despite attempts by Lombard and Ditto (1997) and Biocca et al. (2003) to develop some conceptual clarity when it comes to discussions of presence in general or social presence in particular, researchers of social presence and CMC in educational environments continue to redefine and categorize social presence (Picciano, 2002). For Gunawardena (1995), social presence is “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (p. 151). Garrison et al. (2000), on the other hand, define social presence “ as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94). Tu and McIsaac (2002) define social presence as “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (p. 140). Finally, for Picciano (2002), social presence in an online course “refers to a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (p. 22).
  • Presence is a key theoretical construct used in a variety of disciplines besides communication and online learning—most notably virtual reality (see Biocca, 1997). In fact, Lombard and Ditton (1997) identified six interrelated but distinct ways people understand “presence”: (a) presence as social richness, (b) presence as realism, (c) presence as transportation, (d) presence as immersion, (e) presence as social actor within medium, and (f) presence as medium as social actor. They even attempted to create one all encompassing definition of presence. According to Lombard and Ditto, the following definition takes into consideration all six ways presence is understood; presence is “the perceptual illusion of nonmediation” (presence explicated section). To date, though, their all encompassing definition has not caught on. Biocca, Harms, and Burgoon (2003), also recognized the different ways researchers across different fields define presence. They attempted to create an all-encompassing definition of social presence; they defined social presence as simply “‘sense of being with another’” (p. 456) whether that other is human or artificial. Despite attempts by Lombard and Ditto (1997) and Biocca et al. (2003) to develop some conceptual clarity when it comes to discussions of presence in general or social presence in particular, researchers of social presence and CMC in educational environments continue to redefine and categorize social presence (Picciano, 2002). For Gunawardena (1995), social presence is “the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’ in mediated communication” (p. 151). Garrison et al. (2000), on the other hand, define social presence “ as the ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally, as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used” (p. 94). Tu and McIsaac (2002) define social presence as “the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (p. 140). Finally, for Picciano (2002), social presence in an online course “refers to a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (p. 22). the “sense of being with another” (Biocca, Harms, & Burgoon) “ the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena) “ the degree of feeling, perception, and reaction of being connected by CMC to another intellectual entity through a text-based encounter” (Tu & McIsaac) “ a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor”
  • Tell a story about teaching online and finding your voice

AECT 2009 Social Presence AECT 2009 Social Presence Presentation Transcript

  • Social Presence What is it? And Why Does it Matter? Patrick R. Lowenthal | patrick.lowenthal@ucdenver.edu
  •  
  •  
  • Why do I not have results to report?
  •  
  • Why should you stay?
  • Lowenthal, P. R., Lowenthal, D. A., & White, J. W. (2009, October). The changing nature of online communities of inquiry: An analysis of how discourse and time shapes students' perceptions of presence . Paper presented at the 2009 AECT International Convention, Louisville, KY. Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (under review). Hot for teacher: Using digital music to enhance student’s experience in elearning courses . Submitted to TechTrends . Lowenthal, P. R., & Dunlap, J. (in press). From pixel on a screen to real person in your students’ lives: Establishing social presence using digital storytelling . The Internet and Higher Education . Dunlap, J. C., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2009). Tweeting the night away: Using Twitter to enhance social presence . Journal of Information Systems Education , 20(2), 129-136. Lowenthal, P. R. (2009). The evolution and influence of social presence theory on online learning . In T. T. Kidd (Ed.), Online education and adult learning: New frontiers for teaching practices (pp. 124-139). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Lowenthal, A., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2009, April). Revisiting teaching presence: An analysis of teaching presence across discourse communities . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, San Diego, CA. Lowenthal, P. R., & Parscal, T. (2008). Teaching presence. The Learning Curve, 3(4), 1-2, 4.
    • This presentation will,
    • Review the literature on social presence (focusing on what it is and why its important),
    • Identify gaps in the literature, and
    • Describe my current research on social presence—including a mixed methods study currently being conducted on the nature of social presence and its relationship to student learning.
  • What is it ?
  • Does Presence = present ? ? ? ?
  •  
  •  
  • Social Presence Theory
    • Communications Studies Group at the University College in London in the 1970s
    • Short, J.A., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976).  The social psychology of telecommunications .  New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Original Definition Social presence is the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there ) between two communicators using a communication medium.
  • What does that mean?
    • It’s a quality of a communication medium.
    • Some media (e.g., video) have higher social presence than other media (e.g., audio)
    • Mediums with high social presence are sociable, warm, and personal; mediums with low social presence are as less personal.
  • For Example
  •  
  •  
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfuS3m-Jhcc
  • Why does this matter ?
  • Our lives have Changed
  • We are social beings!
  • Learning is social !
  • Computer-mediated Communication
    • Early CMC Research Suggested
    • CMC is a lean medium
    • CMC is better at task oriented communication
    • CMC is inherently antisocial and impersonal
  • If learning is social and CMC antisocial , where does leave us?
  • The Emergence of Online Learning
    • Proponents and practitioners argued
    • CMC can support the social practice of learning and be very interpersonal
    • Learners can present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others
    • Perceptions of social presence, and behaviors used to make up for missing cues, matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities
  • The Emergence of Online Learning
    • Proponents and practitioners argued
    • CMC can support the social practice of learning and be very interpersonal
    • Learners can present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others
    • Perceptions of social presence, and behaviors used to make up for missing cues, matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities
  • The Emergence of Online Learning
    • Proponents and practitioners argued
    • CMC can support the social practice of learning and be very interpersonal
    • Learners can present themselves as being “real” as well as “connect” with others
    • Perceptions of social presence, and behaviors used to make up for missing cues, matter just as much, if not more, than a medium’s supposed capabilities
  • Phases of Social Presence Research
  • Research on Social Presence
    • Researchers have shown—in varying degrees:
    • A relationship between social presence and student satisfaction
    • A relationship between social presence and the development of a community of learners
    • A relationship between social presence and perceived learning
  • Research on Social Presence
    • Researchers have shown—in varying degrees:
    • A relationship between social presence and student satisfaction
    • A relationship between social presence and the development of a community of learners
    • A relationship between social presence and perceived learning
  • Research on Social Presence
    • Researchers have shown—in varying degrees:
    • A relationship between social presence and student satisfaction
    • A relationship between social presence and the development of a community of learners
    • A relationship between social presence and perceived learning
  • Limitations of Past Research
  • 1. Multiple Definitions
    • Social Presence is,
    • the “sense of being with another” (Biocca, Harms, & Burgoon)
  • 1. Multiple Definitions
    • Social Presence is,
    • the “sense of being with another” (Biocca, Harms, & Burgoon)
    • “ the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
  • 1. Multiple Definitions
    • Social Presence is,
    • the “sense of being with another” (Biocca, Harms, & Burgoon)
    • “ the degree to which a person is perceived as a ‘real person’” (Gunawardena)
    • “ a student’s sense of being in and belonging in a course and the ability to interact with other students and an instructor” (Picciano)
  • 2. Conceptual / Methodological
    • Social Presence is very contextual but research has not adequately focused on the context and how context changes everything
    • Gunawardena studied online conferences
    • Rourke et al. only analyzed one week of discussion
    • Wise et al. studies six week long independent study courses
  • 3. Contradicting Findings
    • Some researchers have found that social presence behaviors decrease over time (Rourke, Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 2001a), while others have not (Stacey, 2002)
    • Picciano (2002) found a relationship between social presence and student learning, while Wise et al. (2004) did not
  • Why does this matter to me ?
  • My Current Research
    • Revisiting indicators of social presence in online discussions (with mixed and multiple methods) with a specific focus on their relationship to student learning
    • Differences in presence across discourse communities in accelerated courses
    • Ability of Twitter to establish and improve social presence
    • The power of digital music to establish and improve social presence
  • My Current Research
    • Revisiting indicators of social presence in online discussions (with mixed and multiple methods) with a specific focus on their relationship to student learning
    • Differences in presence across discourse communities in accelerated courses
    • Ability of Twitter to establish and improve social presence
    • The power of digital music to establish and improve social presence
  • My Current Research
    • Revisiting indicators of social presence in online discussions (with mixed and multiple methods) with a specific focus on their relationship to student learning
    • Differences in presence across discourse communities in accelerated courses
    • Ability of Twitter to establish and improve social presence
    • The power of digital music to establish and improve social presence
  • My Current Research
    • Revisiting indicators of social presence in online discussions (with mixed and multiple methods) with a specific focus on their relationship to student learning
    • Differences in presence across discourse communities in accelerated courses
    • Ability of Twitter to establish and improve social presence
    • The power of digital music to establish and improve social presence
  • One Example Affective Responses
    • Expression of emotions
    • Use of Humor
    • Self-Disclosure
    Cohesive Responses
    • Vocatives
    • Use of Inclusive Pronouns
    • Phatics / Salutations
    + + =
    • Continuing a Thread
    • Quoting from Other Messages
    • Referring Explicitly to Other Messages
    • Asking Questions
    • Complimenting / Expressing Appreciation
    • Expressing Agreement
    Interactive Responses Social Presence
  • Category & Indicators Definition of Indicators Examples Affective Responses Paralanguage Features of text outside formal syntax used to convey emotion (i.e., emoticons, exaggerated punctuation or spelling) Someday……; How awful for you  ; Mathcad is definitely NOT stand along software; Absolutely!!!!! Emotion Use of descriptive words that indicate feelings (i.e., love, sad, hate, silly) When I make a spelling mistake, I look and feel stupid; I get chills when I think of … Value Expressing personal values, beliefs, and attitudes I think it is a necessary evil; I feel our children have the same rights Humor Use of humour—teasing cajoling, irony, sarcasm, understatement God forbid leaving your house to go to the library Self-Disclosure Sharing personal information, expressing vulnerability I sound like an old lady; I am a closet writer; We had a similar problem Interactive Responses Acknowledgement Referring directly to the contents of others’ messages; quoting from others’ messages agreement Those ‘old machines’ sure were something; we won by a landslide – ‘landslide’ (next response) Disagreement Expressing agreement or disagreement with other’s messages I’m with you on that; I agree; I think what you are saying is right Approval Expressing approval, offering praise, encouragement You make a good point; Right on; Good luck as you continue to learn Invitation Asking questions or otherwise inviting response Any suggestions?; Would you describe that for me, I am unfamiliar with the term Personal Advice Offering specific advice to classmates Also the CEC website might have some references Cohesive Responses Greetings & Salutations Greetings, closures Hi Mary; That’s it for now, Tom Vocatives Addressing classmates by name You know, Tamara, …; I totally agree with you Katherine Group Reference Referring to the group as ‘we’, ‘us’, ‘our’ We need to be educated; Our use of the Internet may not be free Social Sharing Sharing information unrelated to the course Happy Birthday!! to both of you!!! Self-reflection Reflection on the course itself, a kind of self-awareness of the group I would never have imagined that we could have been having a discussion like this when we first started this course
  • Strategies to Improve Social Presence
  • Examples Provided by the Literature Instructional Design: Instructors: Students:
    • Develop overviews
    • Provide opportunities for student and teacher profiles within the learning management system
    • Incorporate audio and video within the course content following best practices for teaching and learning and ADA compliance standards
    • Limit class size
    • Structure collaborative learning activities
    • Utilize group work strategies
    • Develop open-ended, critical thinking discussion questions
    • Incorporate reflective activities
    • Utilize continuous and authentic assessment strategies
    • Post introductions and expectations documents before the students are given access to the course.
    • Contribute to discussion forum throughout the week
    • Provide suggested due dates for initial postings that promote mid-week engagement as opposed to weekend only postings
    • Launch discussion threads and summarize each thread at the end of the week
    • Promptly answer e-mail
    • Provide frequent feedback
    • Send progress reports on participation and quality of postings
    • Strike up a conversation
    • Share personal stories and professional experiences
    • Use expressions of emotions, e.g. (smile) or (grin).
    • Address students by name
    • Allow students options for addressing the instructor
    • Contribute to discussion forum throughout the week as opposed to waiting for the weekend
    • Promptly answer e-mail
    • Strike up a conversation
    • Share personal stories and experiences
    • Ask open-ended questions that promote discussion and require critical thinking
    • Use expressions of emotions, e.g. (smile) or (grin).
  • Strategies I Use
    • Learning stories
    • Digital storytelling
    • Regular participation in discussion forums
    • Cyber Cafés
    • Fun activities (e.g., Let’s Rock)
    • Use first names
    • Alternative communication tools (e.g., Twitter)
    • Synchronous video enabled chats
    • Audio / Video feedback
  • Contact Me dd Patrick R. Lowenthal [email_address] www.patricklowenthal.com twitter @plowenthal