Chapter 8 – Deviance & Social Control Charlie Ann Osborn 1 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
What is DEVIANCE? “It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that make something deviant.” Howard Becker, 1966 DEVIANCE– the violation of rules or norms What is DEVIANT in one culture may be quite normal in another CRIME – violation of norms that have been made LAW STIGMA – characteristics that discredit people Ex. Mental handicap, blindness, deafness Things that keep people from being considered “normal” even though they shouldn’t 2 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
How NORMS make social life possible Social Order – A group’s customary way of doing things that people depend on to keep things normal. Ex. You expect the grocery store clerk to sell you what you want to buy not to tell you there is an additional $20 fee for the 13th customer of the day and you are it…because you are used to our customary way of doing things. 3 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
How NORMS make social life possible Social Control– A group’s formal and informal way of enforcing its norms. Informal – examples = rules, regulations, social embarrassment if you don’t follow the norm…. Formal –examples = Laws, Police, Military, severe punishment for not following the norm i.e., prison, execution 4 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
Sanctions (just like we talked about in Chapter 2) 5 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology Negative Sanctions- expressions of disapproval for breaking a norm that can range from a frown to an execution. Positive Sanction-a reward or positive reaction for following norms ranging from a smile to a prize. :O)
Degradation Ceremonies 6 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology Degradation Ceremonies – term coined by Harold Garfinkle to describe rituals designed to remake the self by stripping away and individual’s particular social identity and stamping a new one in its place A formal attempt to brand someone as an outsider Look at the picture on page 207 of the women whose heads were shaved for sleeping with the enemy (the Nazis)
Why the DEVIANCE? Genetic Predispositions 3 theories Low intelligence leads to crime The “XYY” chromosome –an extra female chromosome in males that leads to crime Body type – people with “squarish, muscular” bodies are more like to commit street crimes (mugging, rape, burglary) Personality Disorders The view that a personality disturbance causes an individual to violate social norms Deviant Burglar!!!!!!! 7 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
Why the DEVIANCE? Differential Association Edwin Sutherland’s idea associating with some groups results in learning an “excess of definitions” of deviance, and, by extension, in a greater likelihood that one will become deviant In English= Monkey see, Monkey do These groups can be friends, family, neighbors 8 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
Why the DEVIANCE? Control Theory The idea that two control systems 1. inner (conscience, fear of getting in trouble, morals, religion), and 2. outer (family, police) keep people from deviating. ***Labeling Theory – the idea that the labels given to people affect their own and others’ peoples perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity. Ex. Call a kid a hoodlum when he’s 10 and he might grow up to be one It’s not cool to label people. 9 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
Look at page 218….Kansas is more dangerous than the average state Criminal Justice System – The system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people accused of committing crimes Corporate Crime – crimes committed by executives to benefit their corporations White collar crime- embezzlement, price fixing, false advertising (see picture and caption on page 219) Street crime – rape, murder, burglary 10 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology Crime!!!
***Recidivism The proportion of released convicts who are rearrested Prisons don’t really rehabilitate prisoners for society, so they end up getting in trouble again. Capital punishment The death penalty, death by lethal injection or other means for punishment of crime(s) committed Very controversial topic ***Kansas has executed 0 since 1977, Oklahoma 79, TX 355, see page 227 11 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology Crime!!!
The Killing of several victims in three or more separate events Charles Manson 12 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology Serial Murder
Serial Murder Dennis Rader - BTK Killer, less than 250 miles from here! Ted Bundy – executed in Florida in ‘89, confessed to over 30 murders 13 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
***Hate CrimesSuggested viewing Crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred (dislike, animosity) of someone’s race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. 14 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology
To make deviance a medical matter, a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians The homeless mentally ill Does one cause the other? See page 231 End 15 Osborn-Chapter 8 Sociology Medicalization of Deviance