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Chapter 4  Social  Structure &  Social  Interaction

Chapter 4 Social Structure & Social Interaction






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    Chapter 4  Social  Structure &  Social  Interaction Chapter 4 Social Structure & Social Interaction Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 4:
      • Social Interaction – the ways that people interact with one another
      • Macrosociology – Analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of society, such as social class and the relationships of groups to one another; usually used by functionalists and conflict theorists
        • Large-Scale Features of Social Life
      • Microsociology – Analysis of social life that focuses on social interaction; typically used by symbolic integrationists
        • Focus on Social Interaction
      • Sociological Significance of Social Structure
        • Social Structure – the framework that surrounds us, consisting of the relationships of people and groups, which gives direction to and sets limits on behavior
        • Guides Our Behavior
        • Behavior Decided by Location in Social Structure
        • Culture
        • Social Class – according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, prestige, and power; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor.
      • Social Class Divides People by…
        • Income
        • Education
        • Occupational Prestige
        • Social Status – the position that someone occupies in society or in a social group
        • Status Set – all the statuses or positions that an individual can occupy
        • Ascribed statuses – positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
          • Sex
          • Race-ethnicity
        • Achieved Statuses – positions that are earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity on the individual’s part
        • Status Symbols – items used to identify a status
        • Master Status – a status that cuts across all other statuses that an individual occupies
        • Status inconsistency - ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called Status Discrepancy
          • Examples: a 14 year old college student…..or a 40 year old married woman who is dating a 19 year old college sophomore
      • Role – the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
        • The difference between a role and a status..
          • Occupy Status
          • Play Role
      • Group – people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a Social Group
    • Sociological Significance of Social Institutions
      • Social Institutions – the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs
        • Ten Social Institutions in Industrialized Societies
        • See page 105
      • Mass Media as an Emerging Social Institution
        • Media is starting to shape public opinion
      • Functionalist Perspective
        • Functional Requisites – the major tasks that a society must fulfill if it is to survive
        • Replacing members, Socializing new members, producing and distributing goods and services, Preserving order, providing a sense of purpose
      • Conflict Perspective
        • Powerful Groups Control Institutions
        • Small Groups Garner Lion’s Share of Wealth
        • Social Institutions Affect Gender Relations
        • Main Purpose is to Preserve Social Order
      • What Holds Society Together?
        • Social Integration : the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion
      • Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
        • Mechanical Solidarity : Durkheim’s term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
        • Organic Solidarity : Durkheim’s term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs
        • Division of labor : the splitting of a group’s or a society’s tasks into specialties
      • Gemeinschaft : a type of society in which life is intimate; a community in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
        • Ex. Amish Communities (see page 109)
      • Gesellschaft : a type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest
        • Ex. United States
      • Stereotypes : assumptions of what people are like, whether true or false
        • Classify Others By Visible Characteristics
        • Ideas About Characteristics Guide Our Behavior
      • Page 111
      • Personal Space
        • Intimate Distance, Personal Distance, Social Distance, Public Distance
      • Touching
      • Eye Contact
      • Applied Body Language
        • TSA using this to fight terrorism (reading facial expressions, looking for nervousness, ect.)
      • Body Language : The ways in which people use their bodies to give messages to others, much of which is done subconsciously
      • Dramaturgy : an approach pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called dramaturgical analysis
      • Impression Management : people’s efforts to control the impressions that others receive of them
      • Front stage : where performances are given
      • Back stage : where people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations, and plan future performances
      • Role Performance : The ways in which someone performs a role, showing a particular “style” or “personality”
      • Role Conflict : conflicts that someone else feels between roles because the expectations attached to one role are incompatible with the expectations of another role
      • Role Strain : Conflicts that someone feels within a role
      • Sign Vehicles : the term used by Goffman to refer to how people use social setting, appearance, and manner to communicate information about the self
      • Teamwork : the collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly
      • Face saving behavior : techniques used to salvage a performance that is going sour
      • We become the roles we play.
      • Ethnomethodology : The study of how people use background assumptions to make sense out of life
      • Background Assumptions : deeply embedded common understandings of how the world operates and how people ought to act
      • Harold Garfinkle experiments page 118
      • Thomas Theorem : William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas’ classic formulation of the definition of the situation: “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”
      • Social Construct of Reality : the use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real