Chapter 3 Socialization

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Chapter 3 Socialization

  1. 1. Chapter 3
  2. 2. What is Human Nature? <ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture - Oscar and Jack (page 66) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Environment - the entire human environment, including direct contact with others </li></ul><ul><li>Feral Children - children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from other humans </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Human Nature? <ul><li>Isolated Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See opening vignette (page 65) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutionalized Children (page 67) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeels and Dye orphanage experiment in the 1930s </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is Human Nature? <ul><li>Deprived Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The Harlow’s monkeys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1962) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each monkey had 2 artificial “mothers”, 1 wire mother that had nourishment in a bottle, one soft mother covered in terry cloth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The monkeys would feed from the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wire mother and then go back to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soft mother for infant/mother intimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bonding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. In Sum…
  6. 6. Socialization into the Self and Mind <ul><li>Socialization – the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group – the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropriate for them </li></ul><ul><li>Self – the unique human capacity of being able t see ourselves “from the outside”; the views we internalize of how others see us </li></ul><ul><li>Cooley and the Looking Glass Self – a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We Imagine How We Appear to Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We Interpret Others’ Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We Develop a Self-Concept </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Socialization into the Self and Mind <ul><li>Taking the role of the other – putting oneself in someone else’s shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act </li></ul><ul><li>Significant other – an individual who significantly influences someone else’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized other – the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general”; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self </li></ul>
  8. 8. Socialization into the Self and Mind (Page 71) <ul><li>Mead and Role-Taking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Socialization into the Self and Mind <ul><li>Piaget and the Development of Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage – (birth – 2) don’t recognize cause and effect, listening, looking, coming into contact with the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoperational Stage – (2-7) develop ability to use symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete Operational Stage – (7-12) causation, concrete reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Operational Stage – (after age 12) abstract thinking, formal operations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions <ul><li>Freud and the Development of Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id – Freud's term for our inborn basic drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego – Freud's term for a balancing force between the Id and Superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superego - Freud's term for the conscience, the internalized norms and values of our social groups </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions <ul><li>Kohlberg and the Development of Morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes people go through 4 stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amoral (birth to 7ish)– no right or wrong just personal needs to be satisfied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconventional (7-10) – have learned rules and follow them to avoid trouble, view right and wrong as what pleases authority figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional (about age ten) – morality means following norms and values they have learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Conventional (Kohlberg believes most people don’t reach) – individuals reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong and judge a behavior according to these principles </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Personality, Morality, and Emotions <ul><ul><li>Carol Gilligan and Gender Differences in Morality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questioned Kohlberg’s research because he only used boys in his studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewed 200 men & women & concluded women are more likely to evaluate morality in terms of personal relationships an men are more likely to think along the lines of abstract principles that define right and wrong. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researches tested Gilligan’s conclusions and found both men and women use personal relationships and abstract principles to make moral judgments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More research is needed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Socialization into Emotions (page 76) <ul><li>Global Emotions (6) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expressing Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>What We Feel </li></ul><ul><li>Research Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are surely more that 6 global emotions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Self and Emotions as Social Control <ul><ul><li>What stops most of us from doing really crazy stuff most of the time? Are We Free? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society within us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations of Family and Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Mirror </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Socialization into Gender <ul><li>Gender Socialization – the ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Messages in the Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Messages from Peer Groups – a group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Messages in the Mass Media – forms of communication such as Radio, Advertising, Television, Video Games, that are directed to mass audiences </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Socialization into Gender <ul><li>Gender roles – the behaviors and attitudes considered appropriate because one is male or female </li></ul><ul><li>Page 314 </li></ul>
  17. 18. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>Agents of Socialization – people or groups that affect our self concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The First Group with Impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Family and Social Class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day Care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest Function – the intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions (kids learn reading, writing arithmetic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latent Functions – unintended beneficial consequences of people’s actions (kids learn the social facts of life) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Agents of Socialization <ul><ul><li>Peer Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports and Competitive Success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resocialization – the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mild - New Boss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense - Alcoholics Anonymous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Institutions - Boot Camp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Institution – a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by officials who run the place </li></ul>
  19. 20. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>Degradation Ceremony – a term coined Harold Garfinkle to describe an attempt to remake the self by stripping away an individual’s current identity and stamping a new one in its place </li></ul>
  20. 21. Socialization Through Life <ul><li>Life Course – the stages of our life as we go from birth to death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood - Birth to ~12 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence - 13 to 17 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional Adulthood - 18 to 29 yrs – a term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood; also called adultolescence </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Socialization Through Life <ul><ul><li>The Middle Years - 30 to 65 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Middle Years - 30 to 49 yrs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later Middle Years - 50 to 65 yrs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Older Years ~65 yrs on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Older Years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later Older Years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Sociological Significance of the Life Course <ul><li>Does Not Merely Represent Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Social Factors Influence Life Course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you live </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Location Very Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race-ethnicity </li></ul></ul>

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