C05 Henslin9e
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C05 Henslin9e C05 Henslin9e Presentation Transcript

    • This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
      • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
      • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;
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    A Down-to-Earth Approach 9/e SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research
    • Macro - Broad Matters
    • Micro - Individualistic Matters
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What is a Valid Sociological Topic?
    • What Everyone Knows May Not Be True
    • Move Beyond Guesswork
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Common Sense and the Need for Research
    • Selecting a Topic
    • Defining a Problem
    • Reviewing the Literature
    • Formulating a Hypothesis
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 A Research Model
    • Choosing a Research Method
    • Collecting Data
    • Analyzing Results
    • Sharing Results
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 A Research Model
  • Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
    • Surveys
    • Selecting a Sample
      • Random Sample
      • Stratified Random Sample
    • Asking Neutral Questions
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Questionnaires
    • Self-Administered
    • Allow the Largest Sample
    • Low Cost
    • Loss of Researcher Control
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Interviews
      • More Researcher Control
      • Time Consuming
      • Interviewer Bias
    • Structured Interviews
      • Open-Ended Questions
    • Establishing Rapport
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Participant Observation (Fieldwork)
    • Researcher Participates
    • Problems with Generalizability
    • Done for Exploratory Work
    • Generates Hypotheses
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Secondary Analysis
    • Analyze Data Collected by Others
    • Researcher Cannot Be Sure of Data Quality
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Documents
    • Examine Books, Newspapers, Diaries, etc.
    • Limited Scope
    • Cannot Study Topic Unless Access is Granted
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Experiments
    • Experimental Group
    • Control Group
    • Independent Variables
    • Dependent Variables
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
  • Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
    • Unobtrusive Measures
    • Observe People Without Them Knowing
    • Question of Ethics
    • Hawthorne Effect
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Research Methods
    • Available Resources
    • Access to Subjects
    • Purpose of Research
    • Researcher’s Background and Training
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Deciding Which Method to Use
    • Quantitative Research Methods
      • Emphasis on Precise Measurement
      • Uses Statistics and Numbers
    • Qualitative Research Methods
      • Emphasis on Observing, Describing, and Interpreting Behavior
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Deciding Which Method to Use
    • Poke into Private Areas of Lives
    • Threatens Those with a Stake
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Controversy in Sociological Research
    • Affects Orientation and Attitudes
    • Interviewer Bias
    • Women and Men Lead Different Lives
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Gender in Sociological Research
    • Openness, Honesty, and Truthfulness
      • Forbids Falsifying Results
      • Condemns Plagiarism
    • Subjects’ Informed Consent
    • Subjects’ Anonymity
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Ethics in Sociological Research
    • Protecting Subjects: The Brajuha Research
    • Misleading Subjects: The Humphreys Research
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Ethics in Sociological Research
    • Neither Research nor Theory can Stand Alone
    • Theories Must Be Tested
    • Findings Must be Explained with Theory
    Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 How Research and Theory Work Together
  • A Down-to-Earth Approach 9/e SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research