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O clima em Israel

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  • 1. State of Israel COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL Special Issue | UN Copenhagen Climate Change Conference | December 2009 Printed on Recycled Paper Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection www.environment.gov.il
  • 2. FROM KYOTO TO COPENHAGEN: A WORD FROM ISRAEL'S MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Israel is a small, densely of water resources (including drip irrigation and wastewater populated country charac­ reuse), sophisticated agriculture and afforestation, desalination, photo: Dani Machlis, Ben­Gurion University of the Negev A solar "tree" based on concentrated photovoltaics/ terized by an expanding solar energy, and innovative approaches to prevent and population and economic combat desertification. Based on this accumulated experience growth against a backdrop with limited water resources, intense solar radiation and high of land and water scarcity. temperatures, Israel can well contribute technological solutions Under a "business as usual" for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Today we are ready to scenario, forecasts indicate serve as a regional laboratory and center of excellence to prepare that mounting energy for and adapt to changing climatic conditions. consumption coupled with escalating traffic congestion In recent years, we have begun to take steps to improve the will bring about significant efficiency and conservation of energy systems, effect changes in increases in greenhouse gas energy consumption patterns, advance the use of natural gas in emissions by 2020. Israel is power stations and industry, promote clean, public transportation determined to change this systems, encourage green building and give higher priority to trend. renewable energy sources (with an emphasis on solar energy). Additional steps will be introduced, taking account of both the Although a small contributor decisions taken at Copenhagen and the results of our studies on to global warming, Israel greenhouse gas mitigation options. regards itself as a full and active partner in global Israel's delegation to the Copenhagen Climate Change efforts to promote a low Conference includes representatives of government ministries, carbon economy. Just a local authorities, the industrial sector, the electricity sector, little more than six months academic and research institutions and environmental non­ ago, our cabinet approved governmental organizations. All are committed to combating the establishment of a climate change. Their hopes and visions are reflected on the Ministerial Committee on following pages. Environmental Protection and Climate Change, As we gather in Copenhagen to negotiate the post­2012 climate underlining the new agreement, we must explore joint efforts for reducing emissions, priority given to climate ensuring global environmental protection, and improving the change in Israel. At present, quality of life for all, regionally and globally. No country can an interministerial directors­general committee is working on overcome the challenge alone. Protecting our planet from formulating a national climate change plan for Israel which will the ravages of climate change requires concerted efforts and consist of both mitigation and adaptation measures. In parallel, mutual assistance. Israel stands willing and able to shoulder its several studies are ongoing on mapping mitigation options, responsibilities to the best of its ability together with members adapting to climate change and preparing a greenhouse gas of the global community. At the same time, our advanced abatement cost curve for Israel. technologies provide us with new opportunities to find innovative solutions to the challenges lying ahead, in terms of Since its creation some 61 years ago, Israel has invested major both mitigation and adaptation, and to transfer these innovative efforts in research and development in order to overcome the technologies to countries worldwide. country's scarcity of natural resources, especially energy, land and water. It has faced these challenges by developing cutting MK Gilad Erdan edge technologies in such fields as efficient management Minister of Environmental Protection, Israel COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 3. PREPARING FOR POST-KYOTO Haifa bay/photo: Ilan Malester Israel is preparing a program of mitigation, adaptation and technology development to confront the challenges of climate change At the 13th Climate Change Conference in Bali, which took place › Promotion of research and development and transfer of in December 2007, Parties to the United Nations Framework information and technology in the fields of water, forestation, Convention on Climate Change adopted a road map which solar energy, land management, and more. charts the course for a future international agreement on tackling climate change, which will come into effect after the commitment Boosting Research on Climate Change period of the Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012. Four major building blocks were identified at Bali as crucial to the process because › In 2005, the Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Environmental they will determine how the new agreement, whose draft is Protection issued a call for proposals for research studies expected to be completed in 2009 at the 15th Climate Change on the impacts of climate change in Israel and means of Conference in Copenhagen, will be implemented: mitigation, adaptation. Ten research projects were approved for funding adaptation, technology and finance. Israel, for its part, classified on subjects as diverse as the impacts of vegetation on the as a non­Annex I country under the Climate Change Convention, urban microclimate and changes in biodiversity as a result of has taken heed of the message and is going forward on all climate change. fronts. › In September 2008, the Chief Scientist issued an additional call for proposals for research studies on climate change on Preparing for the Post-Kyoto Era the following subjects: climate change forecasts for Israel until the year 2030, analysis of climate change trends in Israel Israel, which ratified the Climate Change Convention in 1996 over the past 30 years and anticipated impacts of climate and the Kyoto Protocol in 2004, does not currently have any change until the year 2030 in different areas. binding limitation on its greenhouse gas emissions. This is in contrast to developed countries which are obligated to reduce › In September 2009, the Ministry of Environmental Protection their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% organized a seminar on climate change in Israel, aimed at below their 1990 levels during the first commitment period of assessing expected impacts until 2030-2040, in such areas as the Kyoto Protocol. However, Israel is well aware that climate temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and biodiversity. change mitigation (action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance sinks) and adaptation (initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate Toward Greenhouse Gas Reduction change) are no longer options, but rather imperatives. Therefore, it has initiated several steps to prepare for the post­Kyoto era. Statistics on greenhouse gas emissions in Israel are not encouraging, to say the least. Based on Central Bureau of Efforts are currently focusing on the following areas: Statistics data, Israel emitted more than 76 million tons of greenhouse gases per year (CO2 equivalent) in 2007, a rise of › Definition of reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions more than 20% since 1996. In contrast to many developed in all relevant sectors (energy, waste treatment, transport, countries, whose greenhouse gas emissions are on the decrease, industry and agriculture). Israel's emissions are expected to continue to increase under › Preparation of a national action plan to achieve the targets by a business as usual scenario, largely due to an increase in its 2025. population (natural increase and immigration), rise in standard › Preparation of a vulnerability assessment to climate change of living and special circumstances including land and water and an adaptation plan to confront potential risks and scarcity. Clearly, the challenge lies in stabilizing emissions and opportunities. changing the trend. DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL
  • 4. Emissions of Direct Greenhouse Gases in Israel (tons) Disribution of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector (2007) 90,000 11.6 11,52 Agriculture Commercial and Domestic, 1% and Forestry, 3% 80,000 Industry 76,770 11.4 73,513 74,650 (esp. cement and lime), 12% 72,438 72,683 72,136 70,000 11.2 62,705 Waste, 20% 60,000 11,03 11 Total 1,000 tons Total per capita 50,000 10,78 10.8 10,67 40,000 10,69 10,61 Transportation, 20% 10.6 10,58 30,000 Electricity 10.4 (generation and oil re ning) 20,000 56% 10,000 10.2 Contribution of Direct Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Total 0 0 CO2 eq. Emissions (2007) 1996 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Source: Israel Bureau of Statistics Methane, 9% Nitrous oxide, 4% Fuel combustion accounts for about 76% of Israel's greenhouse gas emissions, of which some 56% originate in electricity and energy production (some 42 million tons) and another 20% in vehicular emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main component of greenhouse gas emissions in Israel (some 87%), followed by methane (CH4) which is largely emitted by landfills and nitrous Carbon dioxide, 87% oxide (N2O) from agriculture and industry. Switching to natural gas in › All units approved within the framework of an emergency plan will be based on natural gas operation – 1760 megawatts the electricity sector The switch to natural gas in Israel's electricity generation system will play Toward Reduced Pollutant Emissions an important part in Israel's greenhouse gas mitigation strategy In parallel to the use of natural gas, the Electricity Corporation Over the past decade a strategic revolution has taken place in Israel's expects to invest some 2 billion dollars over the coming decade in the electricity generation system: a switch to natural gas. Since natural country's existing coal-fired units in order to adapt them to European gas was first introduced into the Eshkol power plant in Ashdod in conditions. These projects are expected to reduce pollutant emissions February 2004, the share of natural gas in the electricity production significantly in comparison to today's levels. system has reached 40% or some 3,700 megawatts. The move has According to Electricity Corporation assessments, these steps are already reduced emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases expected to bring about a 25% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and will continue to do so in the future. from the electricity generation system in 2030, in comparison to the emissions that were anticipated in a business as usual scenario, Changes in Israel's Electricity Generation based on emission factors for 2005. System – 2001-2013 It is anticipated that more than 60% of the Israel Electricity Calculating Emissions and their Costs in the Long Term Corporation's installed production capacity in 2013, some 14,000 As part of Israel's preparations for the Copenhagen Climate Change mg, will be based on natural gas: Conference, the Electricity Corporation carried out simulations of › Eight units which were fueled by heavy oil (in Ashdod, Tel Aviv different development plans in the electricity generation system for and Haifa) were converted to natural gas – 1620 megawatts the years 2020-2030 in order to assess the implications of different › Production units which were fueled by diesel fuel have or will be greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios on the electricity converted to natural gas – 2230 megawatts sector. › 8 combined cycle units were or will be constructed for natural gas operation – 2950 megawatts COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 5. What's Been Done to Tackle › In 2007, the Ministry of Environmental Protection initiated the Climate Change in Israel? preparation of an adaptation assessment, whose first phase was completed in 2008. › Israel ratified the Climate Change Convention in 1996 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2004. › In 2008-2009, several regulations and standards on energy efficiency and energy labeling of electrical appliances were › The Ministry of Environmental Protection in cooperation with published, in addition to regulations and standards published the Central Bureau of Statistics publishes its greenhouse gas in previous years. emissions inventory on an annual basis. › In 2009, a draft protocol of guidelines for the establishment of › In 1998, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, in a voluntary mechanism for greenhouse gas emissions registry cooperation with the S. Neaman Institute for Advanced and reporting in Israel was prepared, with expectations that a Studies in Science and Technology, prepared an initial study pilot registry will be launched in 2010. on options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Israel, based on conditions in 1996. › In September 2009, the Ministry of Environmental Protection commissioned a study from McKinsey and Company for the › In 2004, a Designated National Authority for authorizing preparation of a carbon abatement cost curve for Israel that Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Israel was quantifies reduction measures across sectors. established and, to date, 46 projects have been submitted for approval, of which 16 are registered with the United Nations. › In 2009, Israel began preparing its Second National Communication on Climate Change in Israel to be submitted › In 2005, Israel Standard 5281 for buildings with reduced to the UN. environmental impact (green buildings) was published by the Standards Institution of Israel. › In 2009, a major energy conservation campaign was inaugurated by the Ministry of National Infrastructures, the › In 2007-2008, the Ministry of Environmental Protection Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Israel Electricity commissioned updated studies on options for mitigating Corporation to raise awareness of energy efficiency among greenhouse gas emissions in Israel, consisting of forecasts the general public. for greenhouse gas emissions by sectors and options for mitigation for each scenario, accompanied by cost benefit › In 2009-2010, educational programs on energy efficiency analyses to the national economy. targeted at kindergarten, elementary school and junior high school have and will be incorporated into the formal › In 2007, a landfill levy came into effect in Israel. According educational system. to the law, the fees collected are deposited and managed in a separate fund and are used for the development and › In 2009, an energy management standard, ISO 50001, was promotion of alternatives to landfilling which are less harmful distributed for public comment with the expectation that pilot to the environment. programs in a number of companies will begin in 2010. Photovoltaic panels at BGU's Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center test site/ photo: Dani Machlis, Ben­Gurion University of the Negev DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL
  • 6. Energy-Related Government Decisions › January 13, 2008: Approval of a government proposal on the promotion of clean energy use by means of green taxes. As of August 2009, purchase tax rates on vehicles are linked to the emission rates of five pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, particulates and carbon dioxide. › August 21, 2008: Approval of a government proposal on the promotion of research, technology development and energy production in the field of renewable energy. The goals of the new plan, slated for implementation in 2008-2012, are to increase renewable energy sales and increase research and development investments in the field. One proposal calls for establishing a research and development center for renewable energy technologies in the Negev over a five year investment period. › September 18, 2008: Approval of a government proposal on energy efficiency, which aims to bring about 20% savings in anticipated electricity consumption by 2020. The program Israel's Adaptation to Climate Change relates to energy efficiency as a means of tackling climate Alongside the preparation of inventories, forecasts, scenarios and change. Among the proposed measures: energy savings mitigation measures, adaptation to climate change is on Israel's in the home and in government structures, green building, agenda. Without doubt, there is strong evidence to suggest that higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances, global warming has largely been caused by human activities, but information programs on wise use of electricity and whatever the cause, one thing is certain: adaptation strategies establishment of an energy efficiency fund. must be formulated and implemented in order to address the › January 29, 2009: Approval of a government proposal on dire impacts of climate change which are already evident today establishing targets and formulating tools for the promotion and will be further aggravated in the near future. And what's of renewable energy, especially in the Negev and Arava arid more, these impacts, according to the Fourth Assessment Report regions. The decision calls for generating 10% of Israel's of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), are electricity from renewable sources by 2020, with 5% by 2014, expected to be more severe in the Mediterranean Sea basin than and for identifying and allocating lands in the Negev and in many other parts of the world. Arava for the construction of power plants from renewable In fact, Israel has witnessed a warming trend since the beginning energies. of the 1970s, with average temperatures expected to rise by 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2020 and by up to 5 degrees Celsius by the Meeting the Challenges of Climate Change end of the century compared to 1960­1990, based on moderate IPCC scenarios. Recent years have also witnessed an increase in Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an especially difficult the frequency and length of extreme weather events, including challenge in Israel, a country undergoing economic growth years which are either exceedingly wet or exceedingly dry, with against a backdrop of continuous increases in both population predictions pointing to further increases in the number and and energy consumption. Yet Israel is determined to address frequency of such events (e.g., drought years, floods, heat waves). the difficulties. Current efforts are concentrating on assessing Precipitation is expected to decrease by 10% by 2020 and by 20% greenhouse gas emissions under different scenarios while by 2050 while sea level rise in the Mediterranean is predicted to identifying the steps necessary to reduce these emissions in an increase by 0.5 meters in 2050 and one meter by 2100. Additional economically viable manner. Among the measures which have impacts include reduced flows to Lake Kinneret and reduced already been proposed are energy savings, both in buildings and recharge of groundwater aquifers, agricultural damages, impacts in street lighting, by means of energy efficient light bulbs. Also on on public health, and biodiversity changes. the agenda are energy conservation, energy efficiency in power plants, industrial plants and residential buildings, clean public To address these issues, the Ministry of Environmental Protection transport and more. set up an interministerial steering committee, headed by the COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 7. Anticipated Impacts of Climate Change in Israel › Water: Reduction of at least 25% in water availability by the end of the 21st century. › Coasts and seas: A10 cm rise in sea level may lead to coastline retreat of 2-10 meters and to the loss of 0.4-2 square kilometers of coast every 10 years. › Public health: Increase in mosquito populations and their distribution may increase the risk of disease. › Agriculture: Damage to crops due to decrease in water Ashkelon desalination plant/ availability and 20% increase in water demand and due to Photo: IDE Technologies Ltd. pests better suited to warmer climate. Some crops may benefit from increased CO2 levels. › Biodiversity: Migration of Mediterranean species northward and their replacement by desert ecosystems from the Negev. However, most Mediterranean species seem to be resilient to the forecasted changes, so that the Israeli landscape is expected to remain relatively stable. A sharp decrease in Chief Scientist, to check the potential impacts of climate change precipitates in the south has caused extensive changes in land on Israel. The objective of the committee was to recommend cover and underlying biota, creating runoff and soil erosion. ways of preparing and adapting to climate change in a way that › Energy: Average long-term increase in electricity demand in would reduce potential damages, on the one hand, and promote the order of 3.2% per year due to increased demand for air the development of new concepts and technologies to address conditioning and cooling. the problems, on the other hand. Desertification/Photo: Jenny Rollo With the aid of working groups, made up of experts in different disciplines, a draft document was presented for comment during a workshop held in the beginning of 2008, with the participation of some fifty experts, directors general of government ministries and numerous stakeholders. By the summer of 2008, the results of the two year process were evident in the form of an initial yet comprehensive report which addresses the anticipated impacts of climate change on Israel and presents interim recommendations on adaptation measures in each of the following sectors: water, drainage, agriculture, seas and coasts, urban environment, public health, biodiversity, energy and the economy. Plans now call for According to initial estimates, inaction has a high economic cost. these interim recommendations to be developed into a national Failure to take the necessary actions to adapt to climate change plan on climate change adaptation. today would carry a high price tag by the year 2020: inaction in Bumper to bumper traffic/Photo: Ilan Malester responding to the water scarcity problem may cost the economy 450 million shekels per year (about $120 million), neglecting the impacts of sea level rise may cost 6 billion shekels, flood damages are expected to cost 340 million shekels a year, while damages to agriculture may reach some 3 billion shekels a year. Mitigation and Adaptation Technologies Clearly, technology is linked both to mitigation and adaptation, and Israel is poised to play its part in the development and transfer of new technologies to address these twin issues. Today, DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL
  • 8. its initial report on adaptation to climate change is ready, its Hadera power station/Photo: Ilan Malester carbon abatement cost curve is nearing completion and new technologies to meet the challenges of both mitigation and adaptation are being advanced. The emphasis of Israel's climate change mitigation plan and adaptation plan will be on reducing economic, social and ecological damages, on the one hand, and exploiting opportunities by developing innovative technologies and exporting expertise, on the other hand. After 2012, Israel may well be subject to formal commitments for greenhouse gas reductions, but hopefully, it will also have much to contribute to the world community in terms of technology to meet the challenges of climate change. the challenges of developing mitigation options for reducing Clean Air Law, 2008 greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand, and mechanisms for adaptation to climate change, on the other hand, are generating July 22, 2008 will long be remembered as the day in which new opportunities for companies in Israel and worldwide to find Israel's Knesset (parliament) passed the Clean Air Law. The innovative solutions to the challenges lying ahead. law, which was enacted following some three years of deliberation, will come into effect in January 2011. Based on its rich experience in developing cutting­edge The aim of the law is: to improve air quality and prevent and technologies in such fields as water management, recycling and reduce air pollution, inter alia, by establishing prohibitions reuse of treated wastewater, desert agriculture and afforestation, and obligations according to the precautionary principle, the challenges presented by climate change may well serve in order to protect human life, health and quality of life and as a lever to position Israel as a regional and global center of to protect the environment including natural resources, knowledge on adaptation to climate change. Dr. Yeshayahu Bar­ ecosystems and biodiversity, for the public and for future Or, Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, generations, while considering their needs. strongly believes that in about 20 years, Europe will experience some of the conditions that Israel faces today. Therefore, Israel The 97-clause law provides a comprehensive framework has a great deal to offer to the international community in terms for the treatment and prevention of air pollution by setting of technologies for effluent irrigation, combating desertification, responsibilities and imposing obligations on the government, agriculture and forestation in desert conditions and salinity local authorities and the industrial sector. reduction. Significantly, the law defines a pollutant, inter alia, as a material whose presence in the air causes or is liable to cause Developing Israel's Road Map on Climate Change changes in climate and weather. The Ministry of Environmental Protection is advancing an integrated policy aimed at reducing both greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollutants. Two parallel developments are helping to meet these objectives: the accession process to the OECD, which is already catalyzing Israel to adopt environmental policies and meet environmental standards that are effective and economically efficient and the enactment of a Clean Air Law in Israel. As Israel prepares for the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention in Copenhagen, Denmark, its initial study on potential mitigation options has been completed, Tower reflector/Photo: Weizmann Institute of Science, Solar Research Unit COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 9. A CLIMATE CHANGE PLAN FOR ISRAEL Mitigation and adaptation measures will be at the heart of Israel's climate change action plan It is only apt that Israel's Cabinet approved an important and economic and insurance aspects. They are charged with Photon Energy Transformer Astrophysics Laboratory (PETAL), environmental decision on the day its parliament celebrated closing the gaps in existing knowledge on the impacts of climate World Environment Day in June 2009 – a decision to prepare a change in Israel based on different scenarios, surveying available climate change plan for Israel. The decision followed an earlier means for minimizing damage and vulnerability and identifying largest dish-shaped solar concentrator in the world/ resolution, on May 24, 2009, to establish a Ministerial Committee Israeli technologies for dealing with climate change that may photo: Dani Machlis, Ben­Gurion University of the Negev on Environmental Protection and Climate Change, headed by assist other countries. Environmental Protection Minister Gilad Erdan. More on Climate Change in Israel In accordance with the decision, a directors­general committee was established, headed by the director general of the Ministry Global warming and the urgent need to reduce greenhouse of Environmental Protection, Dr. Yossi Inbar, and including the gas emissions call for joint action by countries worldwide. In the directors general of all relevant ministries. Its mission: to prepare a Mediterranean Sea basin, even more than in other parts of the climate change policy for Israel and to formulate a national action world, the impacts of climate change are reflected in warming plan which will include a plan for the reduction of greenhouse gas and drying trends, on the one hand, and in an increase in emissions (mitigation) and a plan on the country's preparedness extreme weather events (floods and heat waves), on the other and readiness for climate change (adaptation). hand. Since these trends are associated with adverse impacts on the water sector, agricultural production, drainage systems, the To facilitate the process, professional working groups on different energy sector, the coastal environment and more, adaptation fields of mitigation and adaptation have been set up. The working and preparedness are prerequisites. groups on mitigation are charged with preparing scenarios and identifying means for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, Although Israel was classified as a non­Annex I country (a each in its particular field (e.g., energy, transport, agriculture, developing economy) under the Climate Change Convention, planning and building, etc.), including calculating the costs a comparison of carbon dioxide emissions per capita between of each means. The working groups will recommend national Israel and other European countries shows that Israel is not far targets for potential greenhouse gas emissions reduction based behind some of the countries with developed economies which on current Israeli studies and on the results of the international are listed in Annex I of the Convention. In order to quantify Israel's climate change negotiations for a global agreement (post 2012). mitigation potential, the Ministry of Environmental Protection They will specify existing and proposed reduction measures, the commissioned an initial study on options for greenhouse gas reduction potential of each measure, the cost of implementation, emissions reductions in Israel. The study anticipated a further rise recommendations for implementation, action plans and in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the timetables. year 2025, under a business­as­usual scenario, in relation to 2000. More than 90% of the emissions will come from the energy and Working groups on adaptation will concentrate on such transport sectors, with the rest coming from industrial processes areas as climate change models, the urban sector, agriculture, and waste. biodiversity, public health, drainage and runoff, water resources DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL 9
  • 10. CO2 per capita emissions in major countries and in Israel in 2006 (tons) 20.00 19.02 19.00 18.00 16.52 16.00 14.00 12.00 11.14 Stack of Ashkelon power plant/Photo: Ilan Malester 10.00 9.86 10.00 9.49 9.15 8.86 Source: International Energy Agency 8.00 7.61 7.22 6.17 5.97 6.00 4.27 3.97 4.00 2.00 1.13 0.00 ia A a Ge ia S. y a n l UK ly a n ce a ico a ae an ad re r ic in di pa Ira US Ita l ss an ra ex Isr Ch In Ko rm Af Ru n Ja st Fr Ca M Au S. Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions the number of people employed in the cleantech sector in Israel in Israel and by developing and transferring new technologies which will contribute to the global effort to combat climate change. At present, an additional study is being carried out by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology for a cost­benefit analysis of these and additional Forecast of Business as Usual CO2e emissions growth, 2005-2030 potential mitigation measures and for identifying the barriers and introducing solutions for these measures. In parallel, in September MtCO2e Israel 140 2009, the ministry commissioned a study from McKinsey and Company for the preparation of a carbon abatement cost curve 120 for Israel that quantifies a range of measures across sectors. The Source: McKinsey Company quantification will have two elements – quantity of carbon abated 100 +96% and cost of abatement per lever. Initial findings indicate that Israel will almost double its greenhouse gas emission by 2030. 80 60 As Israel prepares for the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention in Copenhagen in December 2009, 40 it remains committed to taking on the challenge of implementing mitigation and adaptation measures which will benefit both the 20 country, on a national level, and the global environment. The 0 preparation of a climate change plan for Israel is expected to reduce 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 local air pollution while boosting the Israeli economy, by increasing 10 COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 11. Industry and Climate Change FACING UP TO The Manufacturers Association believes that the challenge of CLIMATE CHANGE: climate change can be transformed into an opportunity to THE ISRAEL promote a holistic policy in Israel that incorporates national MANUFACTURERS interest while reaching a win­win situation – where economic ASSOCIATION growth based on efficiency and conservation is a joint interest of SPEAKS OUT both industry and the environment. Israel's national priorities Website: http://www.industry.org.il/Eng/ include promoting a market based economy; supporting Workshop on Energy Efficiency in Industry a diverse industry; providing In June 2009 a German­Israeli Workshop on energy efficiency, employment; enabling eco­ nomic growth and attaining initiated and supported by the German Federal Ministry of good environmental standards. In line with these priorities, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, took place Israel's climate policy should promote a range of binding policy at the Israel Manufacturers Association in Tel Aviv. Its aim was to actions, develop market based mechanisms, support technology demonstrate the considerable energy efficiency potential in the transfer – emphasizing RD as a national priority, and maintain different branches of industry and to illuminate the concrete competitiveness while securing employment, maintaining advantages for companies that participate in the international growth and preventing carbon leakage. carbon market. It is the view of the Israel Manufacturers' Association that an The workshop afforded Israeli participants, including international climate agreement must produce measurable, representatives of industry, NGOs and government ministries, an reportable and verifiable actions. It is the responsibility of every opportunity to learn from the experience of German technology major emitting country to reduce its emissions in order to achieve providers and energy efficiency service companies. The the results needed to lower the risk of global climate change. This presentations underlined the win­win implications of energy new regime should include, if possible, sector­based agreements efficiency: financial savings to companies and reductions in with efficient technologies leading to universal targets for greenhouse gas emissions. emissions cuts. To achieve emission reduction targets it is important to develop an enabling market economy. We should support innovation and competition, a sound and reliable GHG registry, a cap and trade system, fully bankable allowances, sufficient liquidity and Haifa oil refineries/photo: Ilan Malester access to large international carbon markets (such as the EU Emission Trading Scheme). At the same time, it is important to prevent prices that could cause economic harm and avoid price distortion. In terms of climate change adaptation, investment in RD of efficient technologies to confront the impacts of climate change should be a national priority, with a view to positioning Israel as a leader in this field. Promotion of desalinization plants and recycling of treated effluents for agricultural uses are only the beginning. The time has come for special efforts to be invested in solar energy which could make a significant contribution, both nationally and globally. DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL 11
  • 12. Establishing a Voluntary Mechanism for of Environmental Protection, a pilot project of the greenhouse gas registry is expected to begin in 2010. The accounting and an Accounting and Reporting System reporting mechanism is expected to serve as an important tool of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Israel in the management of Israel's greenhouse gas emissions and will help it meet its obligations within the framework of the post­ On February 13­14, 2008, an international workshop on establishing Kyoto agreements, including the possibility of emissions trading. a voluntary mechanism for a greenhouse gas registry and reporting system was convened in Israel. The workshop was organized by the Air Quality and Climate Change Division of the Ministry of Environmental Clean Development Mechanism in Israel WORKSHOP ON Protection in cooperation GHG ACCOUNTING The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows emission- with the Manufacturers reduction projects in developing countries to earn certified REPORTING SYSTEM IN ISRAEL Association of Israel and the emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one German Federal Ministry ton of CO2. These CERs can be traded and sold, and used of Environment, Nature by industrialized countries to meet some of their binding Conservation and Nuclear emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. Safety. Projects must qualify through a rigorous and public The aims of the workshop included: registration and issuance process designed to ensure real, measurable and verifiable emission reductions that are › To examine the significance of greenhouse gas accounting additional to those which would have occurred without the and reporting; project. › To improve the capacity of Israeli companies to take part in future emissions trading mechanisms; By the end of 2009, 46 projects were presented for approval to Israel's Designated National Authority (DNA) for the CDM › To identify projects for reducing emissions in industry and in the areas of waste, agriculture, fuel switch, energy and improving energy efficiency; industrial efficiency. › To examine possibilities for cooperation between Israel and Annex I countries, including Germany; 16 CDM projects have been registered with the United Nations between February 2006 and July 2009, with a potential › To improve the capability of Israeli industry to meet the annual reduction of 1.8 million tons of CO2. standards set in international agreements such as the post­ Kyoto agreements (after 2012). CERs issued by Israel to date have reached 249,843 tons. In order to achieve the aims of the workshop, the following were presented: › An Israeli initiative on the establishment of a voluntary system for reporting greenhouse gas emissions within the framework of Israel's preparedness for the post­Kyoto agreements. › International tools and standards for calculating and registering emissions. Haifa Industrial Zone/Photo: Ilan Malester › An overall survey of the carbon and CDM market in Israel. › Israeli technologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Subsequent to the workshop, a professional work team was set up for promoting the establishment of the registry in Israel, with representatives of the relevant ministries, the private sector, local government and the general public. With the aid of the Neaman Institute, which is currently preparing a greenhouse gas reporting protocol for Israel and methodologies on behalf of the Ministry 1 COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 13. CLIMATE PROTECTION ON THE LOCAL LEVEL Israel’s cities pledge to reduce air Main Components of the Convention Ramat Gan National Park/Photo: Forum15 pollution and greenhouse gases In signing the convention, the mayors of eighteen cities in Israel Recognition that cities are responsible for a significant amount committed themselves to developing municipal master plans of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions, but can also for the reduction of air pollution and protection of climate, to play a central role in providing solutions for climate change and joining the CCP campaign, to setting clear, measurable targets for improved quality of life, has prompted the mayors of eighteen reducing urban greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, and major cities in Israel to sign a unique convention in February 2008 to achieving the first results of the following five CCP milestones – The Convention of the Forum 15 for Reducing Air Pollution and within three years: for Climate Protection (CCP Israel). During a festive ceremony, › Establish a basic inventory and forecast for key sources of air attended by Israel's President, Mr. Shimon Peres, and the pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the city. country's Interior, Transportation and Environmental Protection Ministers, the mayors signed an Israeli version of the Climate › Set targets for air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions Change Protection (CCP) Campaign, initiated by the International reduction (no less than 20% by 2020 in comparison to 2000). Council for Local Environmental Organizations (ICLEI) – Local › Develop and adopt a short to long term local action plan to Governments for Sustainability, in which they resolved to promote reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. environmental quality and join the efforts of cities worldwide to › Implement all measures and actions derived from the local combat global warming. action plan in the city and municipality. › Monitor and control air pollution and greenhouse gas Forum 15 – The Israeli Forum of Self Government emissions and report on the actions and measures Forum 15 brings together fifteen municipalities in Israel, which implemented within the framework of the local action plan. receive no financial aid from the government and are managed as closed economies on the basis of their independent financial On the Road toward Implementation resources. The cities of the Forum include nearly 3 million residents (approximately 40% of Israel’s population) but it is To implement the Convention, the signatories are required to estimated that more than 80% of Israel's population makes use follow a detailed course of action, including four main stages, of the municipal and metropolitan services provided by these each of which dictates a series of activities: cities. › Preliminary stage – establishing a municipal steering committee, holding training workshops, receiving budget The following cities are members of the Forum: Ashdod, Beersheba, approval, and selecting a professional consulting/ Givatayim, Herzliya, Hadera, Holon, Haifa, Kfar Saba, Netanya, supervision team to accompany the municipality Petach Tikva, Rishon Lezion, Rehovot, Ramat Gan, Ra'anana, and in the preparation and Tel Aviv­Jaffa. The municipalities of Jerusalem, Ashkelon and Bat implementation of the Yam joined these cities in signing the Convention on Reducing plan. Air Pollution and Climate Protection. DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL 1
  • 14. Green roof on office building and Yarkon Park, Tel Aviv Sustainable cties exhibition/Photo: Forum15 /Photo: Forum15 › Planning stage – performing an urban survey to map and and fuels, energy conservation and environmentally friendly characterize emissions and their sources, formulating a vision construction, garbage and recycling, and green spaces. Within and guiding policy, defining quantitative reduction targets each area, the municipalities will undertake specific initiatives by 2020, preparing an urban master plan and entering into such as planting gardens on roofs to reduce carbon dioxide, projects that are immediately available. switching to cost­effective lighting in public buildings, recycling and encouraging alternative transportation strategies such as › Integration and implementation stage – Integrating the biking, walking, car­pooling and improved public transport. urban master plan throughout the municipality, planning, budgeting and implementation of individual projects, Adv. Eitan Atia, General Manager of Forum 15, notes that the education and public awareness campaigns, legislation and convention is a first of its kind initiative in Israel, obligating enforcement, monitoring and control to review compliance a governmental authority to measurable, quantitative with targets. improvement in air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, › Re­evaluation and periodic updating of the plan every five which will be monitored and overseen. To our best knowledge, years. implementation of this project on both the local and national levels makes it unique, not only in Israel but in the world. The In order to provide the municipalities with the necessary support Convention underscores the interdependence of national policy tools for implementation, Forum 15 set up a task force for and local policy, based on the understanding that both separate steering and control, consisting of experts from Forum 15, from and collective action are required to reach the desired goals.” the participating municipalities, from government ministries, and from environmental organizations and academic bodies – a unique mix of stakeholders working together on behalf of air pollution abatement and climate protection. The Local Sustainability Center (initiated by the Heschel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Porter School of Environmental Studies at Tel Aviv University and ICLEI) and the Ministry of Environmental Protection were central partners in the process of developing the initiative and in setting up the task force. At present the municipalities are advancing into the planning stage. They have conducted their baseline emissions inventory and forecast, based on energy consumption and waste generation, and should soon define their annual goals for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This will be followed by Israel President Shimon Peres at signing ceremony the development of a local action plan describing the policies and of Forum 15 Convention/Photo: Forum15 measures that the local authority will take to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution in four main areas: transportation Website: http://www.forum15.org.il/ 1 COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE IN ISRAEL
  • 15. ISRAEL'S ENVIRONMENTAL NGOs: VOICES ON BEHALF OF CLIMATE ACTION Paths To mitigation and adaptation policy, voicing conduct a side­event to share its policy Sustainability: the views of civil society and environmen­ and regulatory recommendations with Major NGO tal NGOs. While they have the opportunity international counterparts. Coalition to impact policies as they are being According to Tzipi Iser Itzik, IUED’s Addresses developed, the organizations maintain executive director, the time for tackling Climate Change a watchful eye on the government as climate change is right now: “IUED believes it proceeds towards determining its The Paths to Sustainability coalition is a that Israel has a moral duty to join the position for the Copenhagen Climate powerful example of the role that Israeli ranks of responsible nations rising to the Conference, and will continue to monitor civil society plays in creating a sustainable global challenge. Israel had led the field the implementation of climate related future for all of us. The coalition was in innovations in irrigation technologies, decisions. created in 2002 by a group of more than desert agriculture, forestation in arid 25 leading environmental organizations regions, and solar energy. We should now who sought to increase their effectiveness Website: www.sviva.net/develop/eng/ be using this expertise to advance global in influencing policy and public opinion, solutions to climate change.” by pooling ideas and resources. Website: www.adamteva.org.il The coalition uses a variety of strategies, Israel Union for including production of written policy Environmental The Israel Energy Forum: papers and reports, participation in official Defense: Promoting Sustainable committees, national and international Advocating Energy for Israel forums and conferences, meetings with for Climate senior officials and intensive media work, Protection The Israel Energy Forum to advocate a more cohesive approach (IEF), established in 2007, The Israel Union for Environmental to sustainability and climate change by is the only environmental Defense (Adam Teva V’Din) has advocated government. organization in the country focusing for a national climate change action plan exclusively on promoting sustainable In 2009, the coalition's 7th annual policy since 2007. As a national environmental energy for Israel. paper, Israel and the Climate Crisis, called watchdog, IUED encourages and catalyzes the government to move forward boldly government action on climate change as Its primary goals include reducing the in creating a comprehensive climate a high priority on the national agenda. . environmental damage related to rising policy and changing Israel's status from electricity consumption, including IUED is a member of the government’s a developing country to a developed mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. interdisciplinary committee of experts country. The paper calls attention to the accompanying the preparation of a Some of IEF's major achievements to date risks of the climate crisis as well as to national climate change plan, spear­ include: economic opportunities, which could headed by the Ministry of Environmental › Advocating specific regulatory allow Israel to build a thriving economy Protection. It is monitoring the process changes that meets the social and environmental and offering alternative scenarios, while › Shaping public debate challenges of the 21st century. drafting regulatory frameworks to speed › Building coalitions and providing The coalition member organizations the implementation of mitigation and professional knowledge are represented in the inter­ministerial adaptation measures. As a recognized governmental committee on climate observer organization in the UNFCCC Website: www.energia.org.il/en/home change and its sectoral work teams on Copenhagen conference, IUED will DECEMBER 009 WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.IL 1
  • 16. MULTILINGUAL WEBSITES NOW ONLINE :‫למידע בעברית‬ www.environmen For information in t.gov.il english: www.environmen t.gov.il/english Children's website : www.sababa.sviv :‫إلضافية باللغة العربية‬ a.gov.il ‫للتفاصيل ا‬ http://arabic.sviva .g ov.il Production: Publications, Information and Internet Division, Ministry of Environmental Protection Inquiries: P.O.B. 34033, Jerusalem 95464, Israel. Email: ronyg@sviva.gov.il Cover photos: Negev views by Dani Machlis, Dept. of Publications and Media Relations, Ben­Gurion University of the Negev Editor: Shoshana Gabbay | Graphic design: Studio Gideon Dan, Jerusalem Everything you wanted to know about the environment in Israel