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WAVES Chapter 10
 
What is a wave? <ul><li>A vibration or disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>SOUND & LIGHT are forms of energy that travel in wav...
Period (T) <ul><li>A period is the time it takes for one cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>1 cycle = 1 complete trip </li></ul><ul>...
Frequency (ƒ) <ul><li># of cycles in one second. </li></ul><ul><li># of waves in one second. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in...
<ul><li>frequency =  1 </li></ul><ul><li>period </li></ul><ul><li>period =    1 </li></ul><ul><li>  frequency </li></ul>
Give it a try… <ul><li>A wave vibrates 100 times in 2 seconds.  What is its frequency? </li></ul><ul><li>100 waves in 2 se...
Give it a try… <ul><li>The Sears Tower moves back and forth at a frequency of about 0.1 Hz.  What is its period? </li></ul...
Parts of a wave
Parts of a wave <ul><li>Crest= High point of a wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Trough=Low point of a wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Ampli...
 
Wavelength (λ) <ul><li>The length of one wave is measured from a point on one wave to that same point on the next wave. </...
 
Speed of a wave <ul><li>The speed of a wave depends on the  medium  it travels through. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium  is the m...
<ul><li>Wave speed  = wavelength  •  frequency </li></ul><ul><li>(m/s) = (m) • (Hz) </li></ul><ul><li>ν =     •   ƒ </li>...
What is the velocity of a wave that is 2 m long with a frequency of 10Hz? <ul><li>λ = 2m </li></ul><ul><li>ƒ = 10Hz </li><...
Types of waves <ul><li>Transverse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The medium moves at a right angle to the direction of the wave. <...
 
Types of Waves <ul><li>Compressional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Compressional wave is when matter vibrates in the same direct...
<ul><li>Longitudinal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The medium moves in the same direction as the wave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Parts of a Compressional Wave <ul><li>Compression: where the wave “squeezes” or compresses the medium </li></ul><ul><li>Ra...
 
 
 
Type of medium <ul><li>The type of medium changes the way a wave moves. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediums with close molecules tra...
Waves through air <ul><li>However, air can still let waves pass at a great speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of sound thr...
What happens to a wave when it runs into something? <ul><li>REFLECT-  Bounce off </li></ul><ul><li>REFRACT- Bend  </li></u...
SOUND NOTES
How does sound travel? <ul><li>Sound is a form of energy that moves in waves through matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound waves...
Properties of Sound Waves <ul><li>Sound waves move out  from a vibrating object in  all directions . </li></ul><ul><li>As ...
How is sound produced? <ul><li>The movement of particles around a vibrating object creates a  sound wave . </li></ul><ul><...
Speed of sound <ul><li>The speed of sound in air at room temperature is about 344 m/s. </li></ul><ul><li>v Sound in Air  =...
Speed of Sound <ul><li>If the particles are closer together, they hit faster and the wave (sound) moves faster. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>When one particle bumps another that bumps another and so on, a sound is made. </li></ul><ul><li>IS THERE SOUND IN...
LOUD  and  soft  Sounds <ul><li>Intensity :  strength of a sound  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which sound is more intense, an ai...
Intensity of a wave <ul><li>The intensity of a wave is shown by the  amplitude . </li></ul><ul><li>An intense sound is LOU...
and  sounds <ul><li>The  pitch  describes high and low sounds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high sound like a flute has a high ...
Pitch of a wave <ul><li>The pitch of a wave is shown by the  frequency . </li></ul><ul><li>A high pitch sound has a high f...
 
ECHOS <ul><li>When sound waves reflect, they make an echo. </li></ul><ul><li>Sonar  uses echo to locate objects under wate...
LIGHT
Types of Light Waves <ul><li>Light waves are grouped by different frequencies and wavelengths. </li></ul><ul><li>These are...
Electromagnetic Spectrum <ul><li>Energy that is given off by electrons that moves in waves. </li></ul>
 
Look at your pictures and answer the questions: <ul><li>Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the most energy? The least? </li></...
<ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaves </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Light Waves </...
Radio Waves <ul><li>Radio waves are used for radio broadcasts, amateur radio, television, and mobile phones.  </li></ul>
Microwaves <ul><li>Microwaves can be used to study the Universe, communicate with satellites in Earth orbit, and cook popc...
Infrared Waves <ul><li>Infrared waves are used to heat food at restaurants, by police scanners, in your remote control. </...
Ultraviolet Waves <ul><li>UV Waves are used in tanning and in sterilization of equipment. </li></ul>
X-Ray Waves <ul><li>X-Rays are so strong, they can go right through you! </li></ul>
Gamma Waves <ul><li>Gamma rays and X-Rays can cause cancer, but gamma rays can also be used to destroy cancer cells: this ...
 
 
 
LIGHT WAVES- Visible Light <ul><li>VISIBLE LIGHT is a form of electromagnetic energy that we can see. </li></ul>
Visible Light
White Light <ul><li>Sunlight is white light. </li></ul><ul><li>White light = every color of light  </li></ul>
PRISM <ul><li>A prism REFRACTS white light into all its colors! </li></ul>
What color light is refracted the most?
Visible Spectrum <ul><li>Visible Spectrum = the colors that you can see. </li></ul><ul><li>All the colors of the rainbow  ...
Visible Spectrum <ul><li>Red (longest wavelength) </li></ul><ul><li>Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Gree...
I                                                               
 
How does light travel? <ul><li>Light is made up of bunches of energy called  photons . </li></ul><ul><li>Light travels in ...
Speed of light <ul><li>Light travels fastest through empty spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Light waves slow down or get stopped ...
Light & Optics
How do I see Light?
Materials that light hits can be:   <ul><li>Opaque- (Solid)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not let light pass through. </li><...
When light hits a material, the light may: <ul><li>Reflect : Bounce off </li></ul><ul><li>Refract : Bend </li></ul><ul><li...
Reflection
Law of Reflection <ul><li>The angle the light ray hits the mirror equals the angle it bounces off. </li></ul><ul><li>The a...
The Law of Reflection
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Diffusion = the breaking up of light </li></ul>
 
Think about roads…
Look at the curved mirrors. What do you observe about the reflection?
 
 
Sound waves that hit this would all go to the microphone.
What color light is in the middle?     
 
 
Refraction <ul><li>Waves bend when they pass into a different medium. </li></ul><ul><li>This happens because the speed of ...
 
 
 
Refraction explains how lenses work:
 
 
 
 
Your eyes have color sensors. <ul><li>Thousands of  rods & cones  in your eye tell your brain how much red, green and blue...
How do we see colors?                                                     
When ALL of the  colors of light combine… <ul><li>White light is produced. </li></ul>
                 
The Sun gives off &quot;white&quot; light, a mixture of all the colors in the spectrum.  The object looks WHITE because an...
You can use a FILTER to absorb a color of light.
Your TV works using little pixels that look like this: Any color can be made from a combination of these three colors of l...
When colors of pigment, (or paint) combine:
Colors effect our mood! <ul><li>Red = Stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow = Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Blue = Calming <...
Colorblindness <ul><li>Some people have trouble telling the difference between colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Their rods and co...
A F E D C B
 
<ul><li>The last test is the easiest to use. </li></ul><ul><li>A person with normal color vision will see a “5” in the dot...
Sometimes your eyes get tired! <ul><li>Your rods & cones get used to what they see and it takes them some time to go back ...
 
Sometimes, your eyes play tricks on you!
 
Which guy is the tallest?
 
How many shelves are here?
 
Are these bricks in straight rows?
Look at the center and move closer to the screen!
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Are the long lines parallel?
Look at the center & move your head.
Are the purple lines parallel?
Curved or straight?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Ps300 Waves

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Transcript of "Ps300 Waves"

  1. 1. WAVES Chapter 10
  2. 3. What is a wave? <ul><li>A vibration or disturbance. </li></ul><ul><li>SOUND & LIGHT are forms of energy that travel in waves. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Period (T) <ul><li>A period is the time it takes for one cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>1 cycle = 1 complete trip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 trip back & forth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around and back to the same point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 wave = 1 cycle </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Frequency (ƒ) <ul><li># of cycles in one second. </li></ul><ul><li># of waves in one second. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in Hertz (Hz). </li></ul><ul><li>1 Hz = 1 cycle per second </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>frequency = 1 </li></ul><ul><li>period </li></ul><ul><li>period = 1 </li></ul><ul><li> frequency </li></ul>
  6. 7. Give it a try… <ul><li>A wave vibrates 100 times in 2 seconds. What is its frequency? </li></ul><ul><li>100 waves in 2 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>100 waves per 2 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>50 waves/ 1 second </li></ul><ul><li>50 waves/ second = 50 Hz </li></ul>
  7. 8. Give it a try… <ul><li>The Sears Tower moves back and forth at a frequency of about 0.1 Hz. What is its period? </li></ul><ul><li>ƒ = 0.1 Hz </li></ul><ul><li>T = 1/ ƒ </li></ul><ul><li>T= 1/ 0.1 Hz </li></ul><ul><li>T= 10 sec </li></ul>
  8. 9. Parts of a wave
  9. 10. Parts of a wave <ul><li>Crest= High point of a wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Trough=Low point of a wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Amplitude (A)= Distance from the midpoint to the crest. </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength (λ)= The length of one complete wave. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Wavelength (λ) <ul><li>The length of one wave is measured from a point on one wave to that same point on the next wave. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crest to crest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trough to trough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midpoint (past crest & trough) to midpoint </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Speed of a wave <ul><li>The speed of a wave depends on the medium it travels through. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium is the material it passes through. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Wave speed = wavelength • frequency </li></ul><ul><li>(m/s) = (m) • (Hz) </li></ul><ul><li>ν =  • ƒ </li></ul>
  13. 16. What is the velocity of a wave that is 2 m long with a frequency of 10Hz? <ul><li>λ = 2m </li></ul><ul><li>ƒ = 10Hz </li></ul><ul><li>=  • ƒ </li></ul><ul><li>= (2m)(10Hz) </li></ul><ul><li>= 20m/s </li></ul>
  14. 17. Types of waves <ul><li>Transverse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The medium moves at a right angle to the direction of the wave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Light </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Types of Waves <ul><li>Compressional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Compressional wave is when matter vibrates in the same direction as the wave travels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are also known as Longitudinal waves. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>Longitudinal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The medium moves in the same direction as the wave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Sound waves </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Parts of a Compressional Wave <ul><li>Compression: where the wave “squeezes” or compresses the medium </li></ul><ul><li>Rarefraction: Where there is space in the wave with no compression. </li></ul>
  18. 25. Type of medium <ul><li>The type of medium changes the way a wave moves. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediums with close molecules travel quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why waves travel better in liquids and solids than in gases. </li></ul>
  19. 26. Waves through air <ul><li>However, air can still let waves pass at a great speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of sound through air is 344 m/s ! </li></ul><ul><li>That is really fast! </li></ul>
  20. 27. What happens to a wave when it runs into something? <ul><li>REFLECT- Bounce off </li></ul><ul><li>REFRACT- Bend </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFRACT- Break up </li></ul><ul><li>GET ABSORBED- Soak into </li></ul><ul><li>PENETRATE- Pass through </li></ul>
  21. 28. SOUND NOTES
  22. 29. How does sound travel? <ul><li>Sound is a form of energy that moves in waves through matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound waves are longitudinal waves or compressional waves . </li></ul>
  23. 30. Properties of Sound Waves <ul><li>Sound waves move out from a vibrating object in all directions . </li></ul><ul><li>As a sound wave travels further from the object, the wave gets weaker. </li></ul>
  24. 31. How is sound produced? <ul><li>The movement of particles around a vibrating object creates a sound wave . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your vocal cords vibrate air molecules. They vibrate other air molecules and so on until the air molecules by the listener’s ear vibrate their ear drum. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. Speed of sound <ul><li>The speed of sound in air at room temperature is about 344 m/s. </li></ul><ul><li>v Sound in Air = 344 m/s </li></ul>
  26. 33. Speed of Sound <ul><li>If the particles are closer together, they hit faster and the wave (sound) moves faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Does sound move faster in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air or water? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water or steel? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 34. <ul><li>When one particle bumps another that bumps another and so on, a sound is made. </li></ul><ul><li>IS THERE SOUND IN SPACE? </li></ul>
  28. 35. LOUD and soft Sounds <ul><li>Intensity : strength of a sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which sound is more intense, an airplane or talking? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which has more energy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intensity is measured in Decibels . </li></ul><ul><li>Your ear hears intensity as volume of a sound. </li></ul>
  29. 36. Intensity of a wave <ul><li>The intensity of a wave is shown by the amplitude . </li></ul><ul><li>An intense sound is LOUD so it has a high amplitude. </li></ul><ul><li> LOUD SOFT </li></ul>
  30. 37. and sounds <ul><li>The pitch describes high and low sounds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high sound like a flute has a high pitch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A low sound like a tuba has a low pitch. </li></ul></ul>HIGH LOW
  31. 38. Pitch of a wave <ul><li>The pitch of a wave is shown by the frequency . </li></ul><ul><li>A high pitch sound has a high frequency and a short wavelength. </li></ul>
  32. 40. ECHOS <ul><li>When sound waves reflect, they make an echo. </li></ul><ul><li>Sonar uses echo to locate objects under water. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound uses echos to “see” inside the human body. </li></ul>
  33. 41. LIGHT
  34. 42. Types of Light Waves <ul><li>Light waves are grouped by different frequencies and wavelengths. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the different types of electromagnetic waves. </li></ul>
  35. 43. Electromagnetic Spectrum <ul><li>Energy that is given off by electrons that moves in waves. </li></ul>
  36. 45. Look at your pictures and answer the questions: <ul><li>Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the most energy? The least? </li></ul><ul><li>Which ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE has the longest wavelength? The shortest? </li></ul><ul><li>As frequency increases, what happens to energy? </li></ul><ul><li>As frequency increases, what happens to wavelength? </li></ul><ul><li>As the wavelength increases, what happens to the frequency of the waves? </li></ul>
  37. 46. <ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul><ul><li>Microwaves </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Light Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet Waves </li></ul><ul><li>X-Ray Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Gamma Waves </li></ul>
  38. 47. Radio Waves <ul><li>Radio waves are used for radio broadcasts, amateur radio, television, and mobile phones. </li></ul>
  39. 48. Microwaves <ul><li>Microwaves can be used to study the Universe, communicate with satellites in Earth orbit, and cook popcorn. </li></ul>
  40. 49. Infrared Waves <ul><li>Infrared waves are used to heat food at restaurants, by police scanners, in your remote control. </li></ul>
  41. 50. Ultraviolet Waves <ul><li>UV Waves are used in tanning and in sterilization of equipment. </li></ul>
  42. 51. X-Ray Waves <ul><li>X-Rays are so strong, they can go right through you! </li></ul>
  43. 52. Gamma Waves <ul><li>Gamma rays and X-Rays can cause cancer, but gamma rays can also be used to destroy cancer cells: this is called radio-therapy or radiation. </li></ul>
  44. 56. LIGHT WAVES- Visible Light <ul><li>VISIBLE LIGHT is a form of electromagnetic energy that we can see. </li></ul>
  45. 57. Visible Light
  46. 58. White Light <ul><li>Sunlight is white light. </li></ul><ul><li>White light = every color of light </li></ul>
  47. 59. PRISM <ul><li>A prism REFRACTS white light into all its colors! </li></ul>
  48. 60. What color light is refracted the most?
  49. 61. Visible Spectrum <ul><li>Visible Spectrum = the colors that you can see. </li></ul><ul><li>All the colors of the rainbow </li></ul>
  50. 62. Visible Spectrum <ul><li>Red (longest wavelength) </li></ul><ul><li>Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Indigo </li></ul><ul><li>Violet (shortest wavelength) </li></ul>
  51. 63. I                                                               
  52. 65. How does light travel? <ul><li>Light is made up of bunches of energy called photons . </li></ul><ul><li>Light travels in waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Light is an example of a transverse wave . </li></ul>
  53. 66. Speed of light <ul><li>Light travels fastest through empty spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Light waves slow down or get stopped by matter. </li></ul><ul><li>In air at room temperature, speed travels at: </li></ul><ul><li>v = 300 000 km/s = 3 X 10 8 m/s </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, sound travels at 344 m/s, so light is about 1,000,000 times faster! </li></ul>
  54. 67. Light & Optics
  55. 68. How do I see Light?
  56. 69. Materials that light hits can be: <ul><li>Opaque- (Solid) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not let light pass through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A door is opaque. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transparent- (See-through) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lets light pass through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A window is transparent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translucent- (Not clear) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lets some light pass through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A glass of lemonade is translucent. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 70. When light hits a material, the light may: <ul><li>Reflect : Bounce off </li></ul><ul><li>Refract : Bend </li></ul><ul><li>Get Absorbed </li></ul>
  58. 71. Reflection
  59. 72. Law of Reflection <ul><li>The angle the light ray hits the mirror equals the angle it bounces off. </li></ul><ul><li>The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. </li></ul>
  60. 73. The Law of Reflection
  61. 78. <ul><li>Diffusion = the breaking up of light </li></ul>
  62. 80. Think about roads…
  63. 81. Look at the curved mirrors. What do you observe about the reflection?
  64. 84. Sound waves that hit this would all go to the microphone.
  65. 85. What color light is in the middle?    
  66. 88. Refraction <ul><li>Waves bend when they pass into a different medium. </li></ul><ul><li>This happens because the speed of light changes. </li></ul>
  67. 92. Refraction explains how lenses work:
  68. 97. Your eyes have color sensors. <ul><li>Thousands of rods & cones in your eye tell your brain how much red, green and blue light hits your eye. </li></ul>
  69. 98. How do we see colors?                                                     
  70. 99. When ALL of the colors of light combine… <ul><li>White light is produced. </li></ul>
  71. 100.                  
  72. 101. The Sun gives off &quot;white&quot; light, a mixture of all the colors in the spectrum. The object looks WHITE because an equal mixture of RED, BLUE, and GREEN light is reflected off the object and interpreted by our eyes and brain as WHITE.
  73. 102. You can use a FILTER to absorb a color of light.
  74. 103. Your TV works using little pixels that look like this: Any color can be made from a combination of these three colors of light.
  75. 104. When colors of pigment, (or paint) combine:
  76. 105. Colors effect our mood! <ul><li>Red = Stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow = Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Blue = Calming </li></ul><ul><li>Which would you eat? </li></ul>
  77. 106. Colorblindness <ul><li>Some people have trouble telling the difference between colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Their rods and cones do not detect differences. </li></ul>
  78. 107. A F E D C B
  79. 109. <ul><li>The last test is the easiest to use. </li></ul><ul><li>A person with normal color vision will see a “5” in the dot pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>A person with Red/Green color blindness (the most common) will see a “2” revealed in the dots. </li></ul>
  80. 110. Sometimes your eyes get tired! <ul><li>Your rods & cones get used to what they see and it takes them some time to go back to normal. </li></ul>
  81. 112. Sometimes, your eyes play tricks on you!
  82. 114. Which guy is the tallest?
  83. 116. How many shelves are here?
  84. 118. Are these bricks in straight rows?
  85. 119. Look at the center and move closer to the screen!
  86. 127. Are the long lines parallel?
  87. 128. Look at the center & move your head.
  88. 129. Are the purple lines parallel?
  89. 130. Curved or straight?
  90. 139. X
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