06 Ps300 Making Measurements & Using The Metric System Notes Ke
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06 Ps300 Making Measurements & Using The Metric System Notes Ke Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Making Measurements & Using the METRIC SYSTEM Physical Science 200 p.204-205
  • 2. Types of OBSERVATIONS
    • Quantitative:
      • Tells us how many.
      • Describes “Quantity”
      • Describes observations with numbers .
    • Qualitative:
      • Tells us about it.
      • Describes “Quality”
      • Describes observations with words.
  • 3. Qualitative Vs. Quantitative
    • His shirt is red.
    • There are 2 apples left.
    • The table is 5 meters long.
    • A blue crystal formed on the bottom of our 100mL beaker.
    • Her shirt is 100% cotton.
  • 4. What are units?
    • Steve has 10.
    • There are 43.6 of salt.
    • Numbers do not make sense if there is no unit.
    • A unit tells us what the number measures.
    • In science class there are NO NAKED NUMBERS- make them appropriate with a unit!
  • 5. Precision Vs. Accuracy
    • Precision is how closely repeated measurements match each other .
      • If you can measure something 1000 times and every time you get the same measurement, you are precise.
    • Accuracy is how closely a measurement matches the correct or expected value .
      • If you measure something very closely to the measurement that it is supposed to be, you are accurate.
    • A ball player's height can be measured precisely, but still not be accurate.
  • 6. How tall is that horse?
    • In the past it was common to measure the height of a horse in hands.
    • Measure the height of your desk in hands and write it below:
    • Is this a good system for measuring?
  • 7. The International System of Units
    • ALL SCIENTISTS us the International System of Units.
    • We abbreviate it as SI.
    • Some good things about measuring in SI:
      • It is based on multiples of 10 .
      • There are no fractions- we use decimals in the metric system.
      • All scientists use the International System of Units.
  • 8. Who uses the SI system?
    • In everyday life, just about everyone except for US!
    • These countries do not use the metric system:
      • The United States of America
      • Liberia
      • Myanmar
    • ALL SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD USE THE SI SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT!
  • 9. What are prefixes?
    • Pre means “before”
    • A prefix is a small part of a word that comes before the word.
    • Metric prefixes equal a number.
  • 10. Common Metric Prefixes 0.000 000 001 or 10 -9 n nano- 1 000 000 000 or 10 9 G Giga- 1 000 000 or 10 6 M Mega- 0.001 (one thousandth) m milli- 0.01 (one hundredth) c centi- 0.1 (one tenth) d deci- 10 da deka- 100 h hecto- 1000 k kilo- Meaning Symbol Prefix
  • 11.  
  • 12. How can you put those numbers in your calculator?
    • Try these:
      • 10 4
      • 10 -4
      • 10 -2
      • 10 2
      • 10 3
  • 13. Adding prefixes
    • When we measure, we can add a prefix to change the value.
    • 1 nanosecond = how many seconds?
      • Find nano- on your chart.
      • What does it mean?
    • 1 nanosecond = 10 -9 seconds
    • 1 kilometer = 1000 meters
    • 1 milligram = 0.001 grams
  • 14. Rules for writing metric symbols
    • Do not use a period.
        • 7 s [not 7sec.]
    • Leave a space.
        • 6 kg [not 6kg]
    • Do not add an s to the symbol.
        • 10 Kilometers = 10 km [not 10 kms]
    • Do not capitalize, unless it is supposed to be capital.
        • Milliliter = ml [not Ml]
    • Do not use p for per.
      • miles per hour = mi/hr [not mph]
  • 15. Write the correct units
    • mm = millimeter
    • mg = milligrams
    • L = liter
    • Mg = Megagram
    • m = meter
    • dam = decameter
    •  
    • g = gram cm = centimeters ns = nanosecond
  • 16. Which number is bigger?
    • 4 cm or 4 hm
    • 10 km or 10 mm
    • 12g or 12 kg
  • 17. What will we measure?
    • Length
      • Distance between two points.
    • Mass
      • Amount of material in an object.
    • Temperature
      • Amount of heat a material has.
    • Volume
      • Amount of space an object takes up.
  • 18. What are BASE UNITS?
    • A base unit is the standard unit of measurement that we will use to measure .
    • We will add prefixes to the base units .
  • 19. Measuring LENGTH
    • The SI base unit of measurement for length is the METER .
    • 1 meter = 1m
    • Your desk is about one meter tall.
    • You can use a METRIC RULER or a METERSTICK to measure length.
  • 20.  
  • 21. Other units of length
    • If you wanted to measure between cities, you would use KILOMETERS.
    • A kilometer is equal to 1,000 meters.
    • If you wanted to measure small lengths, you would use a centimeter or a millimeter.
    • There are 100 cent imeters in a meter.
    • Just like there are 100 cent s in a dollar.
    • There are 1000 millimeters in a meter.
  • 22. SURFACE AREA
    • Surface area is the space that a surface covers.
    • If you wanted to buy carpet or floor tile, you will have to know the SURFACE AREA of the floor.
  • 23. Calculating SURFACE AREA
    • To find the area of a rectangle, multiply length X width.
    • AREA = Length X Width
    • What is the area of this rectangle?
    • 10cm
    • 5cm
    • A = L X W
    • = 10 cm X 5 cm
    • = 50 cm 2
  • 24. Practice!
    • How much carpet do you need to cover the floor in a room that measures 7 meters long and 5 meters wide?
    • L = 7 m
    • W = 5 m
    • A = L X W
    • A = 7 m X 5 m
    • A = 35m 2
  • 25.  
  • 26. Measuring VOLUME of a liquid
    • The SI base unit of measurement for volume is the LITER .
    • 1 Liter = 1L
    • You will use different units and tools to measure volume of a liquid or a solid.
    • You can use a GRADUATED CYLINDER to measure the volume of a liquid.
  • 27.  
  • 28.
    • Graduated cylinders measure in mL or milliliters.
    • The plastic ring around a graduated cylinder prevents breaking.
    • To read a graduated cylinder:
      • Move to eye level.
      • Read the bottom of the meniscus .
  • 29. How much water is in this graduated cylinder? Image from ChemPages Laboratory Resources http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/JCESoft/Programs/CPL/Sample/modules/gradcyl/grad100mL.htm
  • 30. VOLUME of a solid
    • If you are trying to find the volume of a solid, you cannot pour it into a graduated cylinder.
    • Methods:
      • Water displacement
      • Calculating volume
  • 31. Water Displacement
  • 32. What steps will you take to measure with water displacement?
    • Put water in the graduated cylinder.
    • Record the measurement.
    • Tilt the graduated cylinder to the side.
    • Gently lower the object into the graduated cylinder. (Make sure that the whole object is under water.)
    • Record the measurement.
    • Water & Object – Water = Object’s volume
    • REMEMBER 1 ml = 1 cm 3 = 1 cc
  • 33. Calculating Volume of a Block
    • To find the volume of a regular (block or box shaped) solid, you need to measure the length, width and height IN THE SAME UNIT and multiply these three numbers together. V= L X W X H
    • What is the volume of the black cube?
    • What is the volume of the bigger cube?
    • Volume = length X width X height
    • V = 3 cm X 2 cm X 2 cm
    • V = 12 cm 3
  • 34. Units of VOLUME
    • 1 liter = 1 L
    • 1 milliliter = 1 mL
    • 1 centimeter cubed = 1 cubic centimeter = 1 cm 3 = 1 cc
    • 1 L = 1000 mL
    • 1 mL = 1 cm 3
    • 1 L = ___________cm 3
  • 35.  
  • 36. Measuring MASS
    • The SI base unit of measurement for mass is the GRAM .
    • 1 gram = 1g
    • A paperclip is about 1 gram.
    • You can use a TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE or an ELECTRONIC SCALE to measure mass.
  • 37.  
  • 38. Using an electronic balance
    • They are very sensitive.
    • DO NOT place heavy objects or press down with your hand.
    • DO NOT put liquid, powder or crystals directly on the tray.
  • 39. Other units of mass
    • If you wanted to measure large masses you would use KILOGRAMS.
    • 1 Liter of pop has a mass of about 1 kilogram.
    • If you wanted to measure the mass of smaller objects, you would use milligrams or centigrams.
    • When have you heard someone say milligrams?
  • 40.  
  • 41. Measuring TEMPERATURE
    • The SI base unit of measurement for temperature is Kelvin (K) .
    • A more common unit is DEGREES CELSIUS.
    • 1 degrees Celsius = 1ºC
    • You can use a THERMOMETER to measure temperature.
  • 42.  
  • 43. Look at the picture to compare ºF and ºC.
  • 44.  
  • 45. Measuring TIME
    • The SI base unit of measurement for time is the SECOND .
    • 1 second = 1s
    • We will use a STOPWATCH to measure time in science class.
  • 46. Time (s)
  • 47. How do you change from one unit to another?
    • From another system to metrics or changing metrics FACTOR LABEL METHOD .
    • From metrics to metrics, MOVE THE DECIMAL.
  • 48. from Industry Week , 1981 November 30
  • 49. FACTOR LABEL METHOD
    • Write down what you know.
    • Write down what you know about those two units.
    • Multiply by a fraction.
    • Cancel out like units.
    • Do the math.
  • 50. Let’s Practice!
    • 600 mm = ? m
    • 1 m = 1000 mm or 1 mm = 0.001 m
    • 600 mm X 1 m = 0.6 m
    • 1000 mm
  • 51. 0.35 liters = ? milliliters
  • 52. 1050 grams = ? kilograms
  • 53. 4 years = ? days
  • 54. 20 kilograms = ? milligrams
  • 55. 3500 seconds = ? hours
  • 56. Moving the decimal Metric unit conversion is simply a matter of moving the decimal in the correct direction and the correct number of places.                           
  • 57.
    • Write this chart:
    • Find the unit you are starting with.
    • Find the unit you want to change to.
    • Count the number of spaces you have to move.
    • Which way did you move?
    • Move the decimal in that direction that number of spaces.
      • 10 -3
      • 10 -2
      • 10 -1
      • 10 1
      • 10 2
      • 10 3
    0.001 0.01 0.1 gram (g) meter ( m) liter (L) second (s) 10 100 1000 m c d da h k milli centi deci BASE UNIT deca hecto kilo
  • 58.
    • Convert these:
      • 35 ml = ? dl
      • 2000 mm = ? km
      • 0.752 hg = ? cg
      • 10 -3
      • 10 -2
      • 10 -1
      • 10 1
      • 10 2
      • 10 3
    0.001 0.01 0.1 gram (g) meter ( m) liter (L) second (s) 10 100 1000 m c d da h k milli centi deci BASE UNIT deca hecto kilo
  • 59. How can we remember the order of the chart?
    • K ids H ave D ropped OVER D ead C onverting M etrics
    • K ilo H ecto D eca OVER D eci C enti M illi
    • meter
    • liter
    • gram
    • What is your mnemonic device?
  • 60. DENSITY
    • Pages 94- 95
  • 61. ORGANIZING DATA
    • Pages 210-211
  • 62. ANALYZING DATA
    • Pages 212-213
  • 63. Images copied from:
    • http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/brownridge.html#changing-prefixes
    • http://invsee.asu.edu/Modules/size&scale/unit2/unit2.htm