water erosion

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Pearson 6th Earth Science terms and defintions

Pearson 6th Earth Science terms and defintions

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  • 1. Water erosion
    Chapter 10
  • 2.
  • 3. 1. Water cycle-
    Each part of the
    cycle drives
    the other parts.
  • 4. A.____________- water changing to water vapor
    evaporation
  • 5. A. ____________________ - evaporation from ice;
    sublimation
  • 6. A. __________
    Evaporation
    from plants
    transpiration
  • 7. condensation
    _ -changing water vapor
    into liquid form
  • 8. precipitation
    C. ___________- liquid or solid form of
    water falling to Earth
  • 9. 2. ______________- a network of rills, gullies, which join to form rivers
    River system
  • 10. runoff
    3.________-rainwater that does notsoak into the ground or evaporate
  • 11. 4. Factors that influence runoff:
    A. type of land
    B. slope
    C. amount of rain
    D. time span in which rain falls
    E. amount of vegetation
    F. climate/temperature
  • 12. 5. __________- a stream or river that flows into a larger river
    tributary
  • 13. 6. ____________- also called a______________ the LAND that supplies water to a river system; the land from which a river collects __________
    watershed
    drainage basin
    runoff
  • 14. Largest watershed in the US- Mississippi
  • 15.
  • 16. 7. Water Erosion Features
  • 17. rill and gully erosion
    small streams
    form and erode a groove into the
    land; if it continues a gully will form.
    (channel)
  • 18. stream erosion
    B. ____________ -water continually erodes the same path making a__________
    and ___________ river
    deeper
    wider
  • 19. floodplain
    C.___________ fertile area covered by
    sediment caused by frequent flooding
  • 20. meander
    D. __________- When a river or stream begins to curve back and forth
  • 21. Meandering
  • 22. oxbow lake
    ___________a piece of a meander that has
    been cut off from the main river
  • 23.
  • 24. F. _____________- wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range
    alluvial fan
  • 25. delta
    fan
    G.______sediments dropped in a _____
    shape at the mouth of a river
  • 26. levee
    H.________an earthen barrier built along
    a river
  • 27. groundwater
    8. ____________water that sinks (leaches)
    into the porous parts of Earth’s crust
    (about 90% of all fresh water)
  • 28. 9. ______- a ridge of land that separates watersheds
    divide
  • 29. pond
    10. ______- a small body of still fresh water
  • 30. 11. ________- the place where an organism lives and
    obtains all the
    things needed
    to survive
    habitat
  • 31. 12. ________-a lake (manmade or natural) that stores water for human use
    reservoir
  • 32. wetlands
    13. _________- land covered with water all or part of the year (marshes, swamps, or bogs)
  • 33. 14. ________- where mouth of a river opens to the ocean; fresh and salt water mix
    estuary
    Not as salty
    Nutrientrich
    Important habitat
  • 34. Why is an estuary like a…
    Sponge? An estuary soaks up water. As excess rains flood rivers and streams, wetlands form to absorb water that may otherwise flood dry living areas needed by both animals and people.
    Hotel? As birds migrate hundreds and thousands of miles across North America, they stop in marshes and estuaries to eat and rest before continuing on their journey.
    Egg beater? A coastal wetland is a place for nutrient-rich freshwater from a river or stream to mix with saltwater from the bays. As plants photosynthesize, oxygen is added to the mix. Fishes and shellfish take advantage of this life-giving soup.
    Cradle? An estuary provides a protective haven for young animals: plenty of food and places to hide from predators. Sea grasses and other vegetation give cover.
  • 35. Strainer? The grasses of an estuary act like a sieve. Soil, branches, leaves, and even trash that has washed into the estuary are strained. This allows cleaner water to pass on downstream and into the Gulf of Mexico.
    Cereal? Plants absorb nutrients and help cycle them through the food web. As the grasses of the estuaries decay, or rot, a nutritious food for animals and fertilizer for other plant life are supplied.
    Soap? Estuaries trap, neutralize, and decompose sewage and other wastes. Excess nutrients and chemical toxins are absorbed as well. Through chemical reactions and processing by plants, water is cleaned before it passes downstream.
  • 36. permeability
    low
    15. ___________ rockswith a _______
    density; many spaces
  • 37. impermeability
    16.________________rocks with a ____ density; tightly packed
    high
  • 38. water table
    17. _____________- upper surface of the
    zone of saturation
  • 39. Zone of saturation
    _________________ -area where water fills
    up a permeable layer.
  • 40. Zone of aeration
    B. ___________________- area of crust filled with air
  • 41. 18. __________ underground layer of rock or sediment that holds water
    aquifer
  • 42.
  • 43. spring
    19._____________- where the water table is close to the Earth’s surface, water may ooze out to form a spring; ____________- form when groundwater comes in contact with hot underground rocks.
    hot springs
  • 44. 20. ___________ - water under pressure
    raises to the surface because of the
    abundance of water in an aquifer.
    artesian well
  • 45. permeable
    impermeable
  • 46. geysers
    21. ________- hot springs that are forced upward through a small opening
  • 47. The End
  • 48. young stream
    A. ___________ moves _______, may have white water rapids and waterfalls; high level of energy; erodes ________
    swiftly
    bottom
    sides
    faster than the ______
  • 49. ___________________flows less swiftly;
    erodes waterfall rocks away; more
    gentle gradient; begins to _____________
    (curve back and forth)
    mature stream
    meander
  • 50. old stream
    C. __________flows slowly through a
    floodplain; has ______ meanders
    wide