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02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S
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02 Dr. James Sherley Biotechnology Cloning Nano Technology S

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  • 1. Biotechnology and the Family Cloning, Genetic Engineering, and Nanotechnology James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Biological Engineering Biological Engineering Division Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biotechnology Process Engineering Center Center for Environmental Health Science Center for Cancer Research
  • 2. <ul><li>OUTLINE </li></ul><ul><li>The origins of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of technology on the human </li></ul><ul><li>family </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-, Geno-, Bio-technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human stem cell biology </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology and the human embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Moral and ethical challenges </li></ul>
  • 3. Science : the human process of discovery From birth, all humans practice science. Seeking knowledge and understanding of the world is instinctive in human beings. We don’t learn how to do it; we know how to do it.
  • 4. So, what makes a scientist ?
  • 5. So, what makes a scientist ? Motivation to discover that which is unknown. INCREASE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD, INCLUDING OURSELVES, HUMAN BEINGS
  • 6. Technology is the application of human knowledge.
  • 7. Technology is the application of human knowledge. But, to what end?
  • 8. Good ends? Improve the human experience; improve the quality of life for all ideally - the engineer’s creed Medicine Manufacturing Building Communication Food Education Entertainment Travel
  • 9. Bad ends? Improve the quality of life for only some ; Imperialism, conquest, destruction, oppression Weapons Environment Toxins Disease ( e.g., lung cancer)
  • 10. “ Prometheus’s Gift” SCIENCE  TECHNOLOGY  SOCIETY “ Pandora’s Box”
  • 11. “ Prometheus’s Gift” SCIENCE  TECHNOLOGY  SOCIETY “ Pandora’s Box”
  • 12. “ Prometheus’s Gift” SCIENCE  TECHNOLOGY  SOCIETY “ Pandora’s Box” SOCIETY is the HUMAN FAMILY TECHNOLOGY’S IMPACT Before: the nature of living
  • 13. “ Prometheus’s Gift” SCIENCE  TECHNOLOGY  SOCIETY “ Pandora’s Box” SOCIETY is the HUMAN FAMILY TECHNOLOGY’S IMPACT Before: the nature of living Now: Biotechnology questions the very nature of human life
  • 14. Nanotechnology Manipulation of biomaterials and physical materials at a nanoscale. Genotechnology (genetic engineering) Manipulation of genes, DNA sequences that encode the functions of life Biotechnology Manipulation of cells ; encompasses nanotechnology and genotechnology
  • 15. Nanotechnology Manipulation of biomaterials and physical materials at a nanoscale. Nanoscale ~ about the size of a particle from dividing up a grain of sand into a million pieces ( i.e ., a nanometer in diameter)
  • 16. Nanotechnology Applications Building up materials from such small units can speed up manufacturing and make materials with novel properties ( e.g ., increased strength) Nanoscale surfaces have novel interaction properties New methods for imaging single molecules New devices for more efficient controlled drug delivery SAFE?
  • 17. Genotechnology Applications Genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) Gene therapy - problems Genetic testing, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) [Eugenics - amniocentesis, PGD embryonic deaths] SAFE?
  • 18. Genotechnology Applications Genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) Gene therapy - problems Genetic testing, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) [Eugenics - amniocentesis, PGD embryonic deaths] SAFE? MORAL?
  • 19. Genotechnology Applications Genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) Gene therapy - problems Genetic testing, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) [Eugenics - amniocentesis, PGD embryonic deaths] SAFE? MORAL? Natural errors; prevent hardship
  • 20. The Biotechnology of Reproduction Artificial insemination (sperm transfer) In vitro fertilization (sperm and egg in glass) Human embryonic stem cell research Human Cloning SAFE?
  • 21. The Biotechnology of Reproduction Artificial insemination (sperm transfer) In vitro fertilization (sperm and egg in glass) Human embryonic stem cell research Human Cloning SAFE? ETHICAL? MORAL?
  • 22. The Biotechnology of Reproduction Artificial insemination (sperm transfer) In vitro fertilization (sperm and egg in glass) Human embryonic stem cell research Human Cloning SAFE? ETHICAL? MORAL? WHAT IS HUMAN?
  • 23. BIOTECHNOLOGY - CELL BIOLOGY Potten et al ., 2003 CELLS: MICRO-SCALE 1/100 OF A GRAIN OF SAND Trillions in the human body Organs and Tissues
  • 24. Cells are Complex (micro-, nano- ) mitochondrion (DNA) lysosome vacuole/vesicle endoplasmic reticulum golgi Nucleus DNA GENETIC MATERIAL ribosomes RNA Protein Synthesis
  • 25. Cells are Engines Work Move Morph Secrete Synthesize Induce Current Hold Charge Transform Chemicals Heat Chemical Energy
  • 26. The Special Work of Life: Self-Duplication “ Cell Division” 2n 2n G1 4n S DNA S YNTHESIS 4n 2n 2n G2 M (n = parental complement of DNA)
  • 27. Cell Hierarchy of Human Development Embryonic cells - divide, change, form the body Adult stem cells - divide, don’t change, replace specific types of mature cells Mature specified cells - some divide, many don’t divide, perform specialized functions
  • 28. © 2001 Terese Winslow, Caittlin Duckwall Embryonic Cells Adult Stem Cells  Mature Cells Cell Hierarchy of Human Development
  • 29. Adult Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells – responsible for renewal of mature tissue cells by asymmetric self-renewal Asymmetric Self-Renewal Symmetric Divisions Differentiation Terminal Arrest Death
  • 30. © 2001 Terese Winslow, Caittlin Duckwall Embryonic Stem Cells “ Treat All Adult Tissues!” Adult Stem Cells Stem Cells For Biomedicine
  • 31. Two Main Types of Stem Cells 1) Embryonic Derived from embryos “ Easily” identified and isolated Pluripotent (“treat all tissues”) Easy to grow Problems Moral and ethical issues Form tumors 2) Adult Derived from adult tissues No identifiers and hard to isolate Multipotent or unipotent Hard to grow Solutions Informed consent possible Do not form tumors
  • 32. Sources of Human Embryonic Stem Cells 1. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) sperm + egg = IVF embryo (complete nucleus) IVF embryo  dissociate = ES cell culture (PGD Approach?) 2. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transplantation (SCNT) “ Therapeutic Cloning ” egg - incomplete nucleus = enucleated egg enucleated egg + complete nucleus = cloned embryo cloned embryo  dissociate = ES cell culture 3. Genetically-engineered SCNT - Defective Embryos “ Altered Nuclear Transplantation;” “Oocyte-Assisted Re-programming” 4. Human-Animal Chimera Embryos (Human DNA)!!??
  • 33. CLEAR DILEMMAS FOR THE HUMAN FAMILY Moral Human embryos are living human beings. Shall we destroy them for the potential gain of others? Ethical Human embryos cannot consent to their sacrifice. Egg donor recruitment and treatment “ Fetal-farming” for eggs Are the promises of human embryonic stem cell research valid, plausible?
  • 34. DEFINING LIVING Energy Sunlight Organic Molecules Self Duplication
  • 35. DEFINING HUMAN BEINGS ≠ Somatic Cell Zygote Single-cell Embryo
  • 36. DEFINING HUMAN BEINGS Egg Enucleated Egg Sperm Somatic Cell Nucleus Natural Fertilization; In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Somatic Cell Nuclear Transplantation (SCNT)
  • 37. DEFINING HUMAN BEINGS Zygotes - Pre-development, Living, Single-cell Human Being Activated Human Genome Natural Fertilization; In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Somatic Cell Nuclear Transplantation (SCNT)
  • 38. CLEAR DILEMMAS FOR THE HUMAN FAMILY Moral Human embryos are living human beings. Shall we destroy them for the potential gain of others? Ethical Human embryos cannot consent to their sacrifice. Egg donor recruitment and treatment “ Fetal-farming” for eggs Are the promises of human embryonic stem cell research valid, plausible?
  • 39. Adult Stem Cells “ Embryonic stem cells cannot be used to treat adult tissues.” <ul><li>Tumor formation </li></ul><ul><li>Change when </li></ul><ul><li>producing mature </li></ul><ul><li>cells </li></ul><ul><li>2. No asymmetric </li></ul><ul><li>self-renewal </li></ul>Asymmetric Self-Renewal Symmetric Divisions Differentiation Terminal Arrest Death
  • 40. WHAT?!
  • 41. “ Scientists will be scientists.” and “ Technologists will be technologists.” Motivation to discover that which is unknown. Motivation to make something “useful.”
  • 42. “ Prometheus’s Gift” SCIENCE  TECHNOLOGY  SOCIETY “ Pandora’s Box” HUMAN FAMILY
  • 43. “ Prometheus’s Gift” SCIENCE  TECHNOLOGY  SOCIETY “ Pandora’s Box” HONEST, COMPLETE DISCLOSURE HUMAN FAMILY

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