PRESENTATION OF DATA<br />TEXTUAL<br />TABULAR<br />GRAPHIC<br />
FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF TABLE<br /><ul><li>TABLE NUMBER
TITLE
HEAD NOTE
STUB (RAW HEAD)
BOX HEAD
BODT OR FIELD
FOOT NOTE
SOURCE NOTE</li></li></ul><li>SIGNIFICANCE OF GRAPHS<br />ATTRACTIVE PRESENTATION<br />SIMPLIFY COMPLEXITY<br />READILY IN...
LIMITATIONS<br />ONLY APPROXIMATE PICTURE OF DATA<br />ONLY FOR COMPARATIVE STUDIES<br />CAPABLE OF BEING MISUSED EASILY<b...
SIMPLE BAR DIAGRAM<br />
SUB DIVIDED BAR DIAGRAM<br />
MULTIPLE BAR DIAGRAM<br />
PERCENTAGE BAR DIAGRAM<br />
PIE DIAGRAM<br />
PIE CHART<br />
PICTOGRAMS<br />PICTOGRAMS ARE PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA<br />ATTRACTS LAYMAN<br />DIFFICULT TO CONSTRU...
CARTOGRAMS<br />CARTOGRAMS ARE STATISTICAL MAP PRESENTATION WHICH ARE USED TO GIVE DATA OVER A GEOGRAPHICAL AREA.<br />RAI...
HISTOGRAM<br />
FREQUENCY POLYGON<br />
FREQUENCY CURVES<br />FREQUENCY CURVES ARE SMOOTH CURVED  LINES OVER FREQUENCY POLYGON<br />AREA UNDER POLYGON AND<br />CU...
OGIVES<br />LESS THAN OGIVES <br />MORE THAN OGIVES<br />
OGIVE BY LESS THAN METHOD<br />
OGIVE BY MORE THAN<br />
TIME SERIES GRAPH<br />
INDEX NUMBERS<br />INDEX NUMBER MEASURE CHANGES IN A VARIABLE WITH RESPECT TO TIME<br />
SIMPLE INDEX NUMBERS<br />P01= INDEX NUMBER OF CURRENT YEAR<br />∑P1 = TOTAL OF CURRENT YEAR PRICES<br />∑P0 = TOTAL OF BA...
Construct index number for2000 on the base of 1991 <br />
price in 2000 were 27.96% higher than 1999 price<br />
Construct index number for1980 on the base of 1979 <br />
Price increased 20% in the year 1990 than 1989<br />
Weighted index number(Laspeyers method)<br />Here base year quantities(q0) are taken as weights<br />
Construct weighted index number for1999 on the base of 1998<br />
solution<br />
Construct weighted index number<br />
Measures of central tendencies<br />Average<br />AN AVERAGE VALUE IS A SINGLE VALUE THAT IS USED TO REPRESENT ALL THE VALU...
ARITHMETIC MEAN<br />MEAN IS OBTAINED BY DEVIDING THE SUM OF GIVEN OBSERVATION BY THEIR NUMBER<br />
INDIVIDUAL SERIES<br />FIND MEAN<br />Arithmetic mean        = <br />= 17<br />
Discrete series<br />
CONTINUOUS FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION<br />
MEDIAN<br />MEDIAN IS THE MIDDLE MOST OBSERVATION,AFTER THE OBSERVATION ARRANGED IN ASCENDING OR DECENDING ORDER OF THE MA...
N=11 (n is odd)<br />MEDIAN =<br />MEDIAN-INDIVIDUAL SERIES<br />
IF n IS EVEN median =<br />
Median – discrete series<br />20th ITEM<br />20th item lies in 23  cf the size of item is 10 or median is 10<br />
CONTINUOUS  SERIES - MEDIAN<br />L= lower limit of median class<br />Cf = cumulative frequency of <br />        class prec...
Median class80/2=4040 lies in 140-160 class<br />=140+6.67=146.67<br />
MODE<br />MODE IS THE MOST FREQUENT OBSERVATION<br />INDIVIDUAL SERIES-BY INSPECTION U CAN FIND<br />11,12,11,13,10  MODE=...
MODE- CONTINUOUS SERIES<br />L1 = Lower limit of modal class<br />F1,f2 = frequof classes just preceding and <br />    Suc...
Compute mode<br />Highest frequency is 30<br />Modal class-20-25<br />20+2.4 =22.4<br />
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Statistis presentatio

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Statistis presentatio

  1. 1. PRESENTATION OF DATA<br />TEXTUAL<br />TABULAR<br />GRAPHIC<br />
  2. 2. FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF TABLE<br /><ul><li>TABLE NUMBER
  3. 3. TITLE
  4. 4. HEAD NOTE
  5. 5. STUB (RAW HEAD)
  6. 6. BOX HEAD
  7. 7. BODT OR FIELD
  8. 8. FOOT NOTE
  9. 9. SOURCE NOTE</li></li></ul><li>SIGNIFICANCE OF GRAPHS<br />ATTRACTIVE PRESENTATION<br />SIMPLIFY COMPLEXITY<br />READILY INTELLIGIBLE<br />FACILITATE COMPARISON<br />SAVE TIME<br />HAVE GREAT MEMORISING EFFECT<br />CAN LOCATE MEDIAN MODE Etc.<br />
  10. 10. LIMITATIONS<br />ONLY APPROXIMATE PICTURE OF DATA<br />ONLY FOR COMPARATIVE STUDIES<br />CAPABLE OF BEING MISUSED EASILY<br />LIMITED AMOUNT OF INFORMATION<br />MEAN ONLY FOR LAYMAN<br />
  11. 11. SIMPLE BAR DIAGRAM<br />
  12. 12. SUB DIVIDED BAR DIAGRAM<br />
  13. 13. MULTIPLE BAR DIAGRAM<br />
  14. 14. PERCENTAGE BAR DIAGRAM<br />
  15. 15. PIE DIAGRAM<br />
  16. 16. PIE CHART<br />
  17. 17. PICTOGRAMS<br />PICTOGRAMS ARE PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF STATISTICAL DATA<br />ATTRACTS LAYMAN<br />DIFFICULT TO CONSTRUCT<br />NOT GIVE MINUTE DETAILS<br />
  18. 18. CARTOGRAMS<br />CARTOGRAMS ARE STATISTICAL MAP PRESENTATION WHICH ARE USED TO GIVE DATA OVER A GEOGRAPHICAL AREA.<br />RAIN FALL IN INDIA<br />DENSITY OF POPULATION<br />
  19. 19. HISTOGRAM<br />
  20. 20. FREQUENCY POLYGON<br />
  21. 21. FREQUENCY CURVES<br />FREQUENCY CURVES ARE SMOOTH CURVED LINES OVER FREQUENCY POLYGON<br />AREA UNDER POLYGON AND<br />CURVE ARE SAME<br />
  22. 22. OGIVES<br />LESS THAN OGIVES <br />MORE THAN OGIVES<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. OGIVE BY LESS THAN METHOD<br />
  25. 25. OGIVE BY MORE THAN<br />
  26. 26. TIME SERIES GRAPH<br />
  27. 27. INDEX NUMBERS<br />INDEX NUMBER MEASURE CHANGES IN A VARIABLE WITH RESPECT TO TIME<br />
  28. 28. SIMPLE INDEX NUMBERS<br />P01= INDEX NUMBER OF CURRENT YEAR<br />∑P1 = TOTAL OF CURRENT YEAR PRICES<br />∑P0 = TOTAL OF BASE YEAR PRICES<br />
  29. 29. Construct index number for2000 on the base of 1991 <br />
  30. 30. price in 2000 were 27.96% higher than 1999 price<br />
  31. 31. Construct index number for1980 on the base of 1979 <br />
  32. 32. Price increased 20% in the year 1990 than 1989<br />
  33. 33. Weighted index number(Laspeyers method)<br />Here base year quantities(q0) are taken as weights<br />
  34. 34. Construct weighted index number for1999 on the base of 1998<br />
  35. 35. solution<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Construct weighted index number<br />
  38. 38. Measures of central tendencies<br />Average<br />AN AVERAGE VALUE IS A SINGLE VALUE THAT IS USED TO REPRESENT ALL THE VALUES IN THE SERIES<br />TYPES OF AVERAGES<br />ARITHMETIC MEAN<br />MEDIAN<br />MODE<br />
  39. 39. ARITHMETIC MEAN<br />MEAN IS OBTAINED BY DEVIDING THE SUM OF GIVEN OBSERVATION BY THEIR NUMBER<br />
  40. 40. INDIVIDUAL SERIES<br />FIND MEAN<br />Arithmetic mean = <br />= 17<br />
  41. 41. Discrete series<br />
  42. 42. CONTINUOUS FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION<br />
  43. 43. MEDIAN<br />MEDIAN IS THE MIDDLE MOST OBSERVATION,AFTER THE OBSERVATION ARRANGED IN ASCENDING OR DECENDING ORDER OF THE MAGNITUDE<br />
  44. 44. N=11 (n is odd)<br />MEDIAN =<br />MEDIAN-INDIVIDUAL SERIES<br />
  45. 45. IF n IS EVEN median =<br />
  46. 46. Median – discrete series<br />20th ITEM<br />20th item lies in 23 cf the size of item is 10 or median is 10<br />
  47. 47. CONTINUOUS SERIES - MEDIAN<br />L= lower limit of median class<br />Cf = cumulative frequency of <br /> class preceding median class.<br />F = frequency of median class<br />C = class interval of median class <br />
  48. 48. Median class80/2=4040 lies in 140-160 class<br />=140+6.67=146.67<br />
  49. 49. MODE<br />MODE IS THE MOST FREQUENT OBSERVATION<br />INDIVIDUAL SERIES-BY INSPECTION U CAN FIND<br />11,12,11,13,10 MODE=11<br />DISCRETE SERIES– ITEM WITH HIGH FREQUENCY<br />VALUE 12 HAS HIGH FREQENCY THEREFORE<br />MODE = 12<br />
  50. 50. MODE- CONTINUOUS SERIES<br />L1 = Lower limit of modal class<br />F1,f2 = frequof classes just preceding and <br /> Succeeding modal class<br />C = class interval of modal class<br />
  51. 51. Compute mode<br />Highest frequency is 30<br />Modal class-20-25<br />20+2.4 =22.4<br />
  52. 52. LOCATING MODE GRAPHICALLY<br />
  53. 53. DISPERSION<br />DISPERSION MEASURES THE EXTEND TO WHICH THE ITEM VARY FROM SOME CENTRAL VALUE<br />THEY ARE AVERAGES OF DEVIATION TAKEN FROM AN AVERAGE<br />
  54. 54. RANGE<br />SIMPLEST MEASURE OF DISPERSION<br /> RANGE = L-S<br />L = LARGEST ITEM<br />S = SMALLEST ITEM<br /> COEFFICIENT OF RANGE=<br />
  55. 55. COMPUTE RANGE AND COEFFICIENT OF RANGE<br />RANGE =L-S<br />L=230<br />S = 30<br />230-30=200<br />COEFFICIENT OF RANGE=<br />
  56. 56. CORRELATION<br />CORRELATION IS A NUMERICAL MEASURE OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES<br />TYPES<br />POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CORRELATION<br />LENEAR AND NON LENEAR CORRELATION<br />LINEAR THE RATIO=1:7<br />
  57. 57. THANK YOU <br />GOD BLESS YOU<br />
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