WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY?The term educational technology refers to theuse of technology in educational settings,whether it be elementary and secondary schools,colleges and universities, corporate training sites,or independent study at home
Visual education vs Audiovisual education The terms visual education and visualinstruction were used originally because manyof the media available to teachers, such asthree-dimensional objects, photographs, andsilent films, depended upon sight. When sound was added to film and audiorecordings became popular, the termsaudiovisual education, audiovisual instruction,and audiovisual devices were used to representthe variety of media employed to supplementinstruction.
FILMS Silent films were being produced for instructionaluse. Teachers used films only sparingly.REASONS Teachers’ lack of skill in using equipment. The cost of films and equipment. Inaccessibility of equipment needed. The time involved in finding the right film foreach class.
RADIO Radio was the nexttechnology to gainattention. In 1920 the Radio Divisionof the U.S. Department ofCommerce began tolicense commercial andeducational stations. Soonschools, colleges,departments of education,and commercial stationswere providing radioprogramming to schools.DRAWBACKS Poor audio reception The cost of equipment The lack of fit between thebroadcasts and theteachers’ agendas
TELEVISIONInstructional television was the focus of attention duringthe 1950s and the 1960s.FACTORS (1952) The Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC)decision to set aside 242 television channels foreducational purposes led to a rapid development ofeducational television stations.The substantial investment by the Ford Foundation ($170million)
School systems and state departments of educationformed consortia to pool funds to provide for thecost of program development. Congress also provided funds to supportinstructional television via satellite transmission inan effort to help rural schools, in particular, toobtain courses that might not otherwise beavailable to their studentsDRAWBACKS• Substantial costs incurred for programdevelopment and the purchase and maintenanceof equipment.
COMPUTERS (1980s) The appearance of microcomputers (1983) Computers were being used for instructionalpurposes in 40 percent of all elementary schools and75 percent of all secondary schools in the UnitedStates.DRAWBACKS Limited access
Has technology been successful in helping students learnmore effectively and efficiently?Educational technologist Richard Clark claims:"there are no learning benefits to be gained from employingany specific medium to deliver instruction," and that "mediado not influence learning under any conditions," but are"mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influencestudent achievement any more than the truck that deliversour groceries causes changes in our nutrition" (1983, p.445).
History, the History of computers and the History of computers inEducationhttp://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html Baldwin, R. (n.d) School Technology in Educationhttp://www.answers.com/topic/school-technology-in-education Educational Technology In Wikipediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_technology