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Social and Emotional Education 2008


International Analysis 2008

International Analysis 2008

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  • 1. Social and Emotional Education.An International AnalysisFundación Marcelino Botín Report 2008
  • 2. Social and Emotional Education. An International Analysis Fundación Marcelino Botín Report 2008 educacion.fundacionmbotin.org
  • 3. CreditsPromoted, organized and coordinated byFundación Marcelino BotínPedrueca 1. 39003 Santander (Spain)Work Team DirectorChristopher ClouderAssistant to Christopher ClouderBelinda HeysExternal CoordinatorElsa Punset BannelProduced and publishedFundación Marcelino BotínPedrueca 1. 39003 SantanderTel. +34 942 226 072 / Fax +34 942 226 045www.fundacionmbotin.orgDesignTres DG / Fernando RianchoPhotographsFundación Marcelino Botín Archive. Esteban CoboTranslationMinisteraliaTom Skipp, prologue and chapter on SpainPrintersGráficas CalimaISBN: 978-84-96655-27-0© Fundación Marcelino Botín, 2008Legal Registry:The Fundación Marcelino Botín is carrying out an applied educational project in Cantabria (Spain), called ResponsibleEducation. This project supports and promotes the emotional, cognitive and social development of children and young peoplehelping them to become self-motivating, responsible, mutually supportive and competent – both academically, emotionallyand socially. This report opens a new area of educational study within Responsible Education.The contents and opinions expressed in this report are entirely the responsibility of their authors.The Fundación Marcelino Botín will allow the complete or partial reproduction of this report, as long as its contents are notmisrepresented, modified, altered or used in such way that may harm its legitimate interests or reputation, and only insofaras its contents are reproduced according to academic standards.
  • 4. Index Preface 9 Introduction 19 Country Chapters United Kingdom 43 Sweden 83 The Netherlands 117 Spain 151 United States of America 189 Germany 225Evaluation 253
  • 5. Social and Emotional Education. An International Analysis Fundación Marcelino Botín Report 2008 Christopher Clouder (Director) Bo Dahlin Rene Diekstra Pablo Fernández Berrocal Belinda Heys Linda Lantieri Harm Paschen educacion.fundacionmbotin.org
  • 6. Preface
  • 7. 9PrefaceIn 1964, Marcelino Botín and his wife, Carmen Yllera, created the Marcelino Botín Foun-dation (in Spanish: “Fundación Marcelino Botín”), a charitable foundation set up to workboth in a national and international context, based in Santander. The principal objectiveof the Foundation is to develop and implement initiatives to promote a fairer, freer, moreefficient, and more responsible society.In 2004, in a move to adapt to the new realities and challenges of the 21st century, Fun-dación Marcelino Botín decided to adopt a policy of supporting development in society, byhelping the people living in it to improve their capabilities – that is to say, by focusing ondeveloping the human capital of which our society is composed. Accordingly, it set out topromote, encourage and support a lifelong, for people, thus contributing to the progress andwell-being of each individual and of society as a whole.Our understanding of the concept of well-rounded education in Fundación MarcelinoBotín is that a process of intellectual and academic training should go hand in hand withhealthy physical, psychological and social growth in order to achieve a sufficient level ofwell-being, balance, and personal and social contentment. We consider that Social and Emo-tional Education, of which a detailed discussion is provided in this Report, is an insepara-ble part of the well-rounded education of each individual.In order to support and develop the ongoing applied educational work that has been de-veloped by Fundación Marcelino Botín in Cantabria, known as “Responsible Education”, weare carrying out a global initiative (that embraces research, the setting up of the organi-zation, project implementation, support and assessment), to gather together resources andeducational techniques with a view to facilitating and encouraging emotional, cognitive andsocial development in children and young people – thus helping them to become self-mo-tivating, competent, responsible and mutually supportive members of society.The model for procedure that we have set up is directed and also shared by the three ba-sic educational agents in society: the family, school and the community.By means of this initiative it is also our intention to increase academic success among pupilsand to develop in them certain protective elements to serve as a preventive strategyagainst the type of risks (violence, intolerance, failure, drugs, etc.) that are likely to pres-ent themselves nowadays at an increasingly early stage in life.
  • 8. 10In 2007, after three years of contributing to educational work in Cantabria, workingwith 80 schools (which involves a total of 853 teachers and 16,000 pupils), FundaciónMarcelino Botín recognized the need to: 1| Acquire information about new developments, both in Spain and in other coun- tries worldwide, in the field of well-rounded educational provision and emotional and social development; 2 | Initiate educational research with a view to identifying, sharing, incorporating and developing initiatives that would improve and reinforce the experience of the Foundation, and which could also prove useful to professionals working in other places and in different contexts.Consequently, Fundación Marcelino Botín put forward, and set out to lead, the first in-ternational project in this field. The result to date is the Report you now have in yourhands, and the Foundation’s supporting website, http://educacion.fundacionmbotin.org.For many years now, educational programmes to promote emotional and social devel-opment have been researched and applied in several countries around the world. Thescientific progress made during the same period has made it possible to test and in-vestigate in detail the importance of emotions for the positive growth of people and fortheir well-being.We feel the need to take responsibility for setting up an organised, clearly-structuredsystem that will make it possible to pool knowledge and any advances in research inthis field. Fundación Marcelino Botín supports joint research initiatives and the ex-change and publication of information about the different initiatives being taken indifferent parts of the world. We would like this Report to be the first stage on the roadto creating a Joint International Platform to operate in the field of Social and Emo-tional Education.For over a year now we have been holding a series of meetings at the Head Office ofFundación Marcelino Botín in Santander, with a team of experts from several Europeancountries (Germany, Spain, Holland, Great Britain and Sweden) and the United Statesof America, all of whom come from different contexts and have varying perspectives.The work has been strictly organised and we have all given thought to the question ofSocial and Emotional Education (SEE) and pooled our knowledge and know-how.The Introduction to this Report gives an initial presentation of the theme under con-sideration. It is important to point out that the terminology used in the field under dis-
  • 9. 11cussion is extremely diverse. Terms such as Social and Emotional Learning, EmotionalEducation, Socio-Emotional Development, Emotional Intelligence, and many more, ap-pear, chapter by chapter, in the different texts contained in the Report, and offer anoverview of the educational situation in each of the countries under consideration –together with certain significant and particularly interesting initiatives developedthere. Through the varied terminology that is used, the area of our common interest,which we have decided to call “Social and Emotional Education” – and which, as ex-plained at the beginning of this prologue, is a key part of the well-rounded develop-ment of the individual (in academic, emotional, cognitive and social terms) - begins totake shape.The last part of the Report relates to one of the challenges which still has to be confrontedin this field: namely, the evaluation of the results obtained once the various different SEEprogrammes have been applied. Despite the fact that this last chapter may seem ratherdry to non-specialists, we strongly recommend reading through it as it contributesgreatly to an understanding of the benefits that SEE brings to children and young peo-ple – as shown by the results of scientific research.Faced with the question that we have all asked ourselves, as to the impacts or positiveeffects that SEE might have on the development of children and young people, we de-cided to extend the initial project and to commission a team of experts to make a thor-ough study of the question, with a view to obtaining clear confirmation of the need towork specifically in this field. The conclusion reached is clear: research indicates thatSEE has a positive effect on the well-rounded development of children and young peo-ple – and brings benefits in the area of emotional well-being, of academic achievement,and social relationships.It is important to point out here that this Report is not intended to be a complete guideto all available experiences in the field of SEE worldwide. Many other experts, experi-ences and perspectives, both in the countries mentioned in our Report and in othercountries worldwide, that we were unable to include in our report due to questions oftime and space, have much of value to contribute.With a view to achieving our long-term goal, we have prepared a website –http://edu-cacion.fundacionmbotin.org– to encourage people to provide information about their ownexperiences, learn about the experiences of others, exchange ideas, make new contacts,communicate with different experts, etc. The idea is that this website will provide an In-ternational Platform, for those in the field to pool and share resources, research, knowl-edge… and to serve as a base for continuing to develop new initiatives and projects.
  • 10. 12In reality, the aim of this Report, and the website that complements it, is to serve asa useful work tool, to facilitate the exchange of information and provide educationalsupport – freely available to all those (educational centres, families, administrativeunits, experts…) who may have an interest in, and be concerned about, the questionof providing well-rounded education – and regardless of whether their particular fo-cus be academic or social and emotional, since these areas have recently been foundto be inseparable.Our aim is to look to the future and to work, as a united front, to meet the educationalchallenges presented by society in the 21st century. To provide Social and Emotional Ed-ucation to individuals from childhood onwards may prove helpful to us all and will surelyprove to be indispensable to our progress and well-being.Lastly, we would like to make the following reflections, which have emerged as a re-sult of the preparation of this Report, which could serve as a conclusion, and also indi-cate the way ahead for the future: 1 | Effectiveness of the programmes designed to promote social and emotional development in children and young people in the school context. The promising results that we present in this Report, which are the fruit of scien- tific research, indicate that Social and Emotional Education at school facilitates well- rounded growth in children and young people, stimulates them towards academic achievements, serves as a preventive strategy in the event of possible difficulties dur- ing their development and, furthermore, contributes to the improvement and pro- tection of physical and mental health in young people. We therefore undertake to continue our research work in this field, and to extend the work we have begun in the field of SEE and dig deeper, in order to provide educational centres, families and communities with initiatives and clear programmes which will fulfil the requirements and ensure emotional and social growth in our school pupils. As a result of the ex- perience already acquired by Fundación Marcelino Botín, from working in many very different schools, with a range of educational agents, we can offer guidance and support, and help to adapt and integrate our initiatives and programmes into the spe- cific context of each educational centre, so as to set them on their own particular paths in this educational process. 2 | Social and Emotional Education: integrated into and shared by the entire Educational Community. The prime objective is that our work should be spread and coordinated among all
  • 11. 13the different educational agents (in the contexts of school, the family, communityand institutions, the public administration system, civil society, etc.), so that, step bystep, SEE can become part of the daily curriculum and operate, without exception,at all levels and among all pupils – an interest completely accepted and shared bythe entire educational community, as a basic and inseparable part of the systemwhich develops academic achievement and well-being in people, not only as indi-viduals but also as participants. In addition, Social and Emotional Education devel-ops young people’s abilities to become mutually supportive and responsible, activecontributors to society.3 | The importance of further training.Social and Emotional Education is for everyone and is not just directed towardschildren and young people. To learn to identify, express and regulate our emo-tions, to continuously develop greater self-knowledge, to understand others byputting ourselves in their place, to learn how to care for our own bodies and minds,to take decisions responsibly, to relate sufficiently well to other people, to knowhow to say “no” without creating a situation of conflict, and to know how to solveproblems, etc. – all these skills are necessary if we are to enjoy a balanced life thatis happy and has meaning, and is the fundamental starting-point for developingin a positive manner any kind of work (including academic work). The trainingof adults (teachers, professors, parents, professionals, etc.) is therefore of fun-damental importance, first of all for the improvement of our own well-being, andthen in order to work towards developing the full potential of children and youngpeople. With all our educational experience, we, at Fundación Marcelino Botín, arefirm supporters of the training –both theoretical and practical– of teachers, fam-ilies, and of society as a whole, and we are involved in a continual search for newapproaches and new educational solutions in order to bring these new types oftraining to our society.4 | Certain pre-requisites of success. As suggested in the different worldwide ed-ucational experiences which are included in this Report, and also taking our ownexperience in Cantabria (Spain) into account, we wish to underline the importanceof a series of pre-requisites that need to be met if the emotional and social aspectsof education are to be integrated into the school curriculum. (These pre-requisitesare developed in greater detail in this Report, in the chapter on Spain, in which theexperience of Fundación Marcelino Botín and the question of “Responsible Educa-tion” is included). The development of a Social and Emotional Education project willbe more successful if the following pre-requisites are met:
  • 12. 14 • The voluntary nature of this work: it is a pre-requisite that everyone involved in initiating and/or developing this project will provide their services on a will- ing basis. • Involvement: it is a pre-requisite that teachers will carry out the consider- able task of creating and/or adapting the programmes and initiatives of the project to the specific contexts in which they work, and thus tailor the project to their own particular situations. The suggestions and contributions of teach- ers will therefore be indispensable if the project is to succeed. • An active and shared responsibility: it is a pre-requisite that educational cen- tres, families and local communities support each other and share objectives and tasks, so as to ensure the proper development of the project. • Planning: it is a pre-requisite that all actions undertaken be carefully carried out, following an ordered procedure, and that they are formally recorded. • Close supervision and assistance: it is a pre-requisite that all participants in the Project receive training, support, orientation, assistance and close supervision. • Long term: it is a pre-requisite that the work of the project be planned as a long-term undertaking, so that the results can be assessed over a considerable period of time. • Evaluation: it is a pre-requisite that a continual internal evaluation be carried out, so as to make it possible to reflect on the results obtained and to seek to improve them. A continual external evaluation should also be carried out, both of the process itself and of the psychological impact of the project’s different ini- tiatives and programmes.There is still a long road ahead and we hope to make gradual progress step by step. Weare entirely aware of the need to unite the efforts of everybody concerned. It is our hopethat everybody who feels the need for, and wants to participate in, spreading and de-veloping these initiatives, will do so – thus helping to create an education system thatactively promotes emotional, cognitive and social development from early childhood on-wards, and throughout the entire lifespan of each individual. In short, we aim to workwith people who want to work towards creating a better future for everyone.
  • 13. Fundación Marcelino Botín would like to express its gratitude to all the professionals whohave worked to prepare this Report: for their efforts, their goodwill, and their time, andalso, most particularly, for the enormous capacity for team work they have shown. Ourthanks go to: Christopher Clouder, Bo Dahlin, René Dieskstra, Pablo Fernández Berro-cal, Belinda Heys, Linda Lantieri, Mary Utne O’Brien, Raquel Palomera Martín, HarmPaschen, Elsa Punset Bannel, Fátima Sánchez Santiago and Roger Weissberg.We trust that the overall content and the points of view expressed in this Report are suf-ficiently illustrative and also useful to you. We will look forward to receiving your ideasand experiences via our website: http://educacion.fundacionmbotin.orgFundación Marcelino BotínSantander, October 2008
  • 14. “Not all people have the same opinion about what youthshould learn in order to develop a good character or toenable them to lead the best life. There is also noconsensus about whether education should mainly focuson acquisition of knowledge and understanding orcharacter formation, whether the right type of educationshould consist of disciplines useful for life, to breed apure character, or to enlarge knowledge”Aristotle, Politika
  • 15. Introduction
  • 16. Introducing Social and Emotional EducationChristopher ClouderCaminante no hay camino, se hace camino al andarWayfarer there is no path, We trace our path as we go along.Antonio MachadoThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes the fundamental principles of humanrights and freedoms, and that includes education: “... education shall be directed to the fulldevelopment of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights andfreedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship…. (Article 26.2). Thesecompetencies are in essence social and emotional. In 1996 UNESCO published a significantdocument “Learning: The Treasure Within” compiled by their Commission on Education for the21st Century which makes an excellent adjunct to this report. It highlights the value of diver-sity as an educational principle “Between the extremes of abstract and over-simplifying uni-versalism and relativism which makes no higher demand beyond the horizon of each particularculture, one needs to assert both the right to be different and receptiveness to universal val-ues”. (p.59). These ideas are becoming increasingly influential. It is suggested that educationthroughout life is based on four pillars: Learning to know, by combining a sufficiently broad general knowledge with the op- portunity to work in depth on a small number of subjects. This also means learning to learn, so as to benefit from the opportunities education provides throughout life. Learning to do, in order to acquire not only an occupational skill but also, more broadly, the competence to deal with many situations and work in teams. It also means learning to do in the context of young people’s various social and work experiences which may be informal, as a result of the local or national context, or formal, involving courses, alternating study and work. Learning to live together, by developing an understanding of other people and an appreciation of interdependence –carrying out joint projects and learning to man- age conflicts– in a spirit of respect for the values of pluralism, mutual understand- ing and peace. Learning to be, so as better to develop one’s personality and be able to act with even greater autonomy, judgement and personal responsibility. In that connection, education must not disregard any aspect of a person’s potential: memory, reasoning, aesthetic sense, physical capacities and communication skills.
  • 17. 22 IntroductionTo which was added: Formal education systems tend to emphasize the acquisition of knowledgeto the detriment of other types of learning; but it is vital now to conceive education in a moreencompassing fashion. Such a vision should inform and guide future educational reforms andpolicy, in relation both to contents and to methods.What previous generations had regarded as aneducational system set, as it were, in stone and deliveringtraditional expertise and straight-forward culturaltransmission is now faced with new challenges thatrequire quite radical reformsAll these four pillars, which are concerned with a reformulation of the goals of education,highlight how important for the learning process is how we feel about our learning. Learningtoo requires skills, volition and purpose and all these lie rooted in how we feel about our-selves and our relationship to the world. What are termed “life-skills” are becoming more de-cisive as to how we lead our lives, with the ability to communicate, work with others, andmanage and resolve conflicts. Classrooms are becoming more engaged with the surroundingworld and teachers are the agents of this change. What previous generations had regarded asan educational system set, as it were, in stone and delivering traditional expertise and straight-forward cultural transmission is now faced with new challenges that require quite radical re-forms. To meet the needs of 21st Century children, schools are being called on to developbeyond being cloistered institutions that are removed from adult life. In this great and de-manding undertaking we need to learn from each other beyond national boundaries and shareexperiences internationally in search of the life-long citizenship of our planet, As subsequentlypointed out by Jacques Delors: “Together the four pillars provide balance at a time when manypolicy makers still speak of education only in terms of the economy and labour market. We mustnot overlook the other aspect of education… through which people are empowered to achieveself-mastery”.1 Education is not a commodity, despite consumerist and financial jargon beingimported into educational policy making. Social and emotional learning processes can makean important contribution to enabling people to take hold of their own lives and finding theirparticular equilibrium. “There is a contradiction , which we see as only apparent, between theutilitarian, that is to say economical or useful view of competencies on the one hand, and onthe other, the view of competencies as being liberating forces, enabling individuals to takecharge of their own lives.”2
  • 18. Introduction 23Many cultures are conscious that the present is turbulent and uncertain, full of unforeseenand weighty questions, and that the answers to these will have a deep impact on the futureworld of our children. One of which is a perceived crisis in social cohesion. The identities andgroups that held society together in the past are, like all human endeavours, evolving. ThisWhat are termed “life-skills” are becoming more decisive asto how we lead our lives, with the ability to communicate,work with others, and manage and resolve conflicts.Classrooms are becoming more engaged with thesurrounding world and teachers are the agent of this changeis not to deny the many catastrophic conflicts of the past but recent advances in technology,new discoveries about the human impact on the natural environment, social upheaval and in-creased mobility, and our increasingly globalized world of interdependence bring new andcomplex dimensions. We are no longer so far removed from each other. “Domination, op-pression and human barbarities undeniably persist and aggravate our planet. These are fun-damental anthro-historical problems which have no a priori solution: but they are subject toimprovement and can only be treated by the multidimensional process that will strive to civ-ilize all of us, our societies, the earth.”3 Being human has become an ethical concept. This phe-nomenon cannot be without consequence for the upbringing and education of children. AsSteve Biko pointed out, during his struggle against apartheid in South Africa, the route to-wards living together lies in the humanization of education. Martin Luther King likewise per-ceived that having brought ourselves closer through technological progress our next task isto create global social cohesion. “We are challenged to rise above the narrow confines of ourindividualistic concerns to the broader concerns of humanity… Through our scientific geniuswe have made the world a neighbourhood; now through moral and spiritual genius we mustmake it a brotherhood”. We can connect rapidly and easily but have we the skills to connectwell and wisely? Luther King also warned that “our scientific power has outrun our spiritualpower. We have guided missiles and misguided men.” So where else should one start but inthe early years of life and school?There are international educational initiatives that seek to redress this imbalance. The UnitedNations and UNICEF have initiated a programme on human rights and citizenship educationfor primary and secondary schools, which is running from 2005 to 2009, and is being mon-
  • 19. 24 Introductionitored by the Council of Europe. Although in a recent conference report (November 2007) itwas noted that teachers are inadequately and poorly prepared for the teaching citizenship andhuman rights education. Likewise the World Health Organisation (WHO) has been promotingpsychosocial competence through life skills programmes to prepare individuals for adaptiveand positive behaviour in order to deal with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Aswell as cognitive skills such as critical and creative thinking, this programme seeks to en-hance coping with emotions, empathy and interpersonal relationship skills. The media alsohave a role in shaping our perceptions concerning education and the issues around childhoodand can stimulate debate and activities. In some countries there is a constant reporting ofsuch concerns and in others barely a mention. Nevertheless, across the world questions arebeing raised as to whether our systems and educational institutions actually do meet the needsof the child of today. This is, of course, not to underestimate the many great improvements inchildhood well-being that have been accomplished in the 20th Century. Yet these advancesare still not available to all children and there is much suffering in many parts of the globe thatwith effort and ingenuity could be markedly reduced.However we are not only faced with new challenges in our social relationships with each otherbut also with our relationship to the planet itself. “Among the most important learning thatschooling provides of relevance to sustainability, are the attributes of critical thinking, self-re-flection, media analysis, personal and group decision making and problem solving.” (Organisa-tion for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD.1999).4 We are witnessing an enormousgrowth of travel possibilities as well a great familiarity at one level with other cultures than ourown. Multiculturalism and world citizenship has become an explicit goal for education and ac-cordingly the learning of modern languages and a deep understanding of one’s own culture andthose of others becomes more critical. These tendencies are loosely termed globalisation, whichsome see as creating new opportunities and others as a threat to social coherence.“Globalisation , because of the risk it brings of soulless standardisation, can lead to fragmen-tation and a reduced sense of belonging to a wider community. The excess of unbridled mar-kets… are being met with an excess of nationalism, regionalism and parochialism. These threatenpeace and raise the spectre of resurgent racism and intolerance.”5 (OECD 2001). Our childrenface an age of hyper-complexity. This has implications for how we assist them now in devel-oping the competencies that will be demanded of them in the future.
  • 20. Introduction 25The Task of SchoolsThis sense of the need to change our contemporary educational culture has appeared re-peatedly in recent publications produced by institutions like the OECD and UNESCO. “Ourway forward is to reinforce the socialisation functions of schools, and to recognize more ex-plicitly their nature as communities in their own right. Such an emphasis does not necessarilyconflict with a strong focus on cognitive development but it suggests an acknowledgment ofa comprehensive set of educational outcomes going beyond measurable standards”6 (OECD2001). More recently, in August 2007, UNESCO assembled a panel of experts in Berlinand together they issued the Kronberg Declaration on the Future of Knowledge Acquisitionand Sharing7 – a declaration that again highlights a radical change in perceptions. Amongother things it promotes extensive, value-oriented education as a necessity, in addition tonormal professional knowledge. The 18 international experts from 13 countries were inagreement that the education sector faces dramatic changes. “The educational institutions ofIn western societies the drift to greater individualismraises the question of the future social coherence andsustainability. The increase in family fragmentation with adramatic rise in the divorce figures places new emotionalstrains on a child, faced with feelings of insecurity andrisk over which they are powerlessthe future need to dedicate themselves much more intensively to emotional and social ca-pabilities and convey a more extensive, value-oriented education concept. The importanceof acquiring factual knowledge will decline significantly, in favour of the ability to orientateyourself within complex systems and find, assess and creatively utilize relevant information.The learner will take on a much more active and self-responsible role in the learning process,including the creation of content.” Whereas in the past compulsion and regulation for theyoung was the norm, the last decades of the 20th Century has seen a change to negotiationand consensus seeking in many areas of family and educational life. Certain skills determinethe success of this approach to childhood, from both generational sides. It has now beenclaimed that, over a dozen years, personal and social skills such as self-control and an abil-ity to get on with others, became 33 times more important in determining children’s futuresthan they had been before.8 In western societies the drift to greater individualism raises thequestion of the future social coherence and sustainability. The increase in family fragmen-
  • 21. 26 IntroductionWe are clearly in a process of change and this report willsurvey how this change has already influenced theeducation of our children and how it will in all likelihooddevelop in future yearstation with a dramatic rise in the divorce figures places new emotional strains on a child,faced with feelings of insecurity and risk over which they are powerless.We are clearly in a process of change and this report will survey how this change has alreadyinfluenced the education of our children and how it will in all likelihood develop in futureyears. The teaching and bringing up of children has always been a deeply emotional and so-cial experience. Working intensely with children challenges our humanity and our nature asbeings of thinking, feeling and volition, with our intricate involvement in the lives of othersthrough social engagement. This is not a new discovery. As Dewey wrote in 1897, “In sum Ibelieve that the individual who is to be educated is a social individual and that society is an or-ganic union of individuals. If we eliminate the social factor from the child we are only left withan abstraction; if we eliminate the individual factor from society, we are left only with an inertand lifeless mass. Education, therefore, must begin with a psychological insight into the child’scapacities, interests, and habits.”9 From a teacher’s perspective, when we stand in front of aclass or work with children as individuals or in groups, we guide, encourage, cajole, explain,dispense order, motivate, inspire, enthuse, caution or are just benignly present, and then allour capacities come into play to some measure.Educational practice in schools has to a large extent been dominated by the acquisition ofknowledge for centuries and, although this has often been questioned, and some instancesrejected, as the major emphasis in the past, the sense that our children will require a differ-ent approach has grown consistently stronger in the 21st Century. Previously in conventionalthinking aspects of deep human significance such as love, companionship, happiness and theircontraries were regarded as pertaining to the private and family life of the children and, likedisreputable or disorderly relatives, held at bay from the classroom. Now as a result of method-ological research into human nature through disciplines such as psychology, sociology, andhuman biology alongside a greater understanding of learning skills, we can see that this wasand is actually impossible. The children bring their culture, moods, attitudes and inner lifewith them, even though they have been expected to suppress these in a classroom situation.
  • 22. Introduction 27The task of the contemporary teacher is to make learning relevant and engaging, and the fol-lowing is a good, if incomplete, summary of what that entails: • Connecting learning to student’s lives • Holding high expectations for all students, even those whom others have given up on • Staying committed to students in spite of obstacles • Placing a high value on students’ identities (culture, race, language, gender, and ex- periences, among others) as a foundation for learning • Viewing parents and other community members as partners in education • Creating a safe haven for learning • Daring to challenge the bureaucracy of the school and district • Remaining resilient in the face of difficulties using active learning strategies • Continuing to experiment and “think on their feet” • Viewing themselves as life long learners • Caring about respecting and loving their students10The world of feelings can be explored and utilised to enhance how we work and influence ourchildren’s futures. Whoever is educating the child has to be aware that their feelings and rela-tionships to what they are imparting are intrinsic to the process and have an effect. We cannotreally divorce our personalities from the process of teaching. Our character as expressed for in-stance by our reactions, gestures, tone, underlying assumptions, expectations, creativity and pa-tience is either implicitly or explicitly part of the process. The concept of social and emotionallearning highlights the changing nature of being human for both the learner and the teacher.Pedagogical skill is the ability to use our attributes to serve the children. A lesson is a commu-nal experience and as such can be judged by all the participants in a variety of ways, but what-ever the outcome it has wrought change. A social and emotional education approach has thepotential to help children learn to learn by giving them a sense of self-mastery and an improvedclimate of learning in the classroom. School can be a happy and satisfying experience that pro-vides a training or further development in awareness about our interactions with others. Thiscan and has to be learnt if we aim to create a more socially cohesive world and it is when weare young that we are provided, either in the family or at school, with the optimum opportunityfor developing this in a secure and caring environment. The goal for social and emotional learn-ing / skills for life programmes is to give children the tools and understanding in order to en-hance their resilience and develop their ability to cope capably with the ups and downs of life.So why have the concepts of emotional intelligence, literacy and learning found such resonancerecently and why has that interest gathered strength over the last decades? Are we in any sig-
  • 23. 28 IntroductionSchool can be a happy and satisfying experience thatprovides a training or further development in awarenessabout our interactions with others. The goal for social andemotional learning / skills for life programmes is to givechildren the tools and understanding in order to enhancetheir resilience and develop their ability to cope capablywith the ups and downs of lifenificant way different from all the many generations of teachers and educators that have pre-ceded us? As parents are we looking for something different from a school than our forebears?As academics are we entering a more uncertain, ever-changeable and immeasurable terrain?As policy makers can we have enough long-term vision to deal successfully with what is, insome respects, intangible? Why has the fact that the study of emotions has become the focusof research for a number of different disciplines suddenly given it a higher profile and im-mense ramifications for our children’s learning experiences? Are the traditional models ofschooling still tenable? We stand on the brink of changes brought about by the vast amountof research conducted in the last few years regarding the neurobiology, child development,human emotional capacities and learning processes. Teaching has ceased to be a vocation thathad clear and simple goals, measurable outcomes and straightforward methodology. Increas-ingly, it is a complex and multifaceted realm of endeavour that prepares children for a worldbeyond our imagination.Such potential changes are grounded on a growing evidence based in the area of social andemotional well-being which in recent decades has provided much theory and debate and in-troduced a vocabulary through which to facilitate national and international discussion.Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligences conceived of personal intelligences asbased on an interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence, thereby linking the social and emo-tional dimensions. The concept of ‘emotional intelligence’ itself was first introduced by Saloveyand Mayer (1990) and was later popularised by Daniel Goleman11 (1995) in his book enti-tled ‘Emotional Intelligence’ in which he highlighted the existence of the five domains of emo-tional intelligence: • The skills of understanding our own emotions; • Managing our feelings;
  • 24. 30 Introduction • Self-motivation; • Recognising emotions in others; • And forming positive relationships.Goleman later went further and stated (2001) that emotional competencies are “a learned ca-pacity based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work.” Ac-cording to this definition we are going beyond a potentiality to develop and control certainemotional abilities, to a level of performance and effectiveness. This makes it different fromwhat we usually see as general intelligence because this suggests that emotional intelligenceis a capacity that can be learned and developed. More recently Katherine Weare brings thesedefinitions together by describing emotional literacy as ‘the ability to understand ourselvesand other people, in particular to be aware of, understand, and use information about the emo-tional states of ourselves and others with competence. It includes the ability to understand, ex- The concepts of emotional intelligence, literacy and learning found great resonance recently. We stand on the brink of changes brought about by the vast amount of research conducted in the last few years regarding the neurobiology, child development, human emotional capacities and learning processespress and manage our own emotions, and respond to the emotions of others, in ways that arehelpful to ourselves and others.’ (2004).12 As the field is comparatively new we are dealingwith many interchangeable terms, like social and emotional intelligence, competence, or lit-eracy, which can mean different things according to experience and context. Each cultureand profession seems to have preference for particular terms according to their perspectivebut nevertheless a common understanding is possible and broadly speaking we are referringto the same aspect of a personality. Social and emotional learning has become the paradigmfor these thoughts and consequent practices, yet it is also a comparatively recent term.This goes hand in hand with recent neurological discoveries. Scientists, like Damasio, haveshown that in our brains emotion and thinking are not separable activities but constantly playinto one another. “Emotion appears to be the support system without which the rational build-
  • 25. Introduction 31ing process cannot work… These results and their interpretation have questioned the idea ofemotion as a luxury, as a disturbance or as a mere mark of previous biological evolution.”13Human beings do not think against their emotions or even in relation with them, we all thinkthrough our feelings. And now that the scientific evidence of this is academically well groundedand accepted it is becoming obvious that it affects how we work in an educational setting. LeDoux contends in The Emotional Brain (1998) that, in evolutional terms, there is a trend wherecognitive-emotional biological connectivity is increasing in the brain. “As things now stand,the amygdala has a greater influence on the cortex than the cortex has on the amygdala, al-lowing emotional arousal to dominate and control thinking…Yet there is another possibility…With increased connectivity between the cortex and the amyglada, cognition and emotion mightbegin to work together rather than separately”.14 The human brain has astounding flexibilityand over time the relationships between differing aspects can change and the interconnectionsbecome stronger or weaker. This seemingly simple statement is in fact a radical departurefrom the past in that early cognitive investigators divided the mind into a distinct area forthinking and reasoning and another for emotion, motivation and personality. Le Doux alsopoints out that emotions are notoriously difficult to verbalize as they operate in an area notreadily available to consciousness. These contentions provide an insight into how in a peda-gogical sense everything that an educator, whether teacher or parent, does has an influence,especially as the brain of a child is undergoing rapid growth and transformation, although itmay not be apparent either to the educator or the learners themselves.This is not the place to give a comprehensive survey of recent neurological discoveries but, tosummarize, they point in one direction: “There is not an exclusive brain area that determines in-telligence, nor is there one for emotions or social skills. Scientific knowledge on this issue is crys-tal clear – cognitive, emotional, and social competence evolve hand in hand. When a supportiveenvironment is provided, the emerging structure is sound, and all parts work together”.15 Weknow that decision making, problem solving, creativity, role play, repetition, rehearsal, the per-forming arts and social relationships are essential for strong connections between the limbic sys-tem (the seat of our emotions) and the cortex. A rich physical environment with movement andstimulation and a rich emotional environment are also necessary for the lobes in the cortex todevelop well. Our decision-making circuit doesn’t actually complete its development until weare well into our 20’s. So social-emotional learning has a deep relationship to our growth overtime and a certain age-appropriate awareness is required by adults who take on a responsibil-ity for nurturing children. Other factors like humour also play an important part. For instance,adolescents need fun as it develops the dopamine hormone which helps them to be more em-pathetic by increasing frontal lobe activity (which is not yet fully functioning) and supports pur-poseful acts such as judgement, creativity, problem-solving and planning.
  • 26. 32 IntroductionAs educational systems move towards more competence-based assessments it is particularlynecessary to recognize that competences do function together as constellations and in orderto integrate and relate cognitive and noncognitive aspects of competence.” …it has been rec-ognized for some time that … curriculum based and subject-related competencies and basicskills do not capture the full range of relevant educational outcomes for human and social de-velopment.”16 Intelligence does not evolve independently of the social-emotional side of humandevelopment. Research into our emotional life has increased greatly in the last decades andgenerally accepted working definition of emotion would be “ a mental state lasting usually forminutes or hours that changes priorities of goals or concerns, that makes ready a particularrepertoire of actions and that biases attention and memory.”17 The word is often commonlyused in a less precise fashion to cover moods and attitudes as well.The Teaching of Social and Emotional CompetenciesEmotions change both within the individual and in cultures. To give an example, not so longago, from a common European perspective, mountains were considered barbarous places tobe avoided at all costs. They were arid, dangerous hindrances that inspired horror. Up to theend of the 18th Century people saw no point in climbing a mountain to attain a view and trav-elers across the Alps often asked to be blindfolded so they would not be perturbed by whatthey saw. Then towards the end of that Century and the beginning of the 19th it became thefashion to clamber up hills and mountains just for a divine prospect that was consideredbeautiful, awe-inspiring and influenced the personality of the viewer. The same object calledforth different emotional reactions that are then culturally and socially transmitted and be-come a norm. For a certain class of people not having mountains to climb became a form ofdeprivation. “Although we might like to believe that our experience of altitude is utterly indi-vidual, each of us is in fact heir to a complex and invisible dynasty of feelings, we see throughthe eyes of innumerable and anonymous predecessors.”18 When discussing social and emo-tional learning we are also touching on the realms of imagination, the context of culturalevolution and the world of values. If we wish to inculcate and develop positive competenceswe will also have to define what they are to be able to distinguish them from negative anddestructive aspects of life. Or are the words competence, literacy and intelligence inherentlypositive and who decides?All this is mirrored in our schools, whether consciously or unconsciously, and working withthe concepts behind what we call social and emotional learning helps raise awareness of ourpractices and their implications. It is natural to want a better world for our children yet we alsoknow that they will face a complexity and transformation that we can hardly imagine. Teach-ers and educators have passed from an era when the profession was one of tradition and
  • 27. Introduction 33transmission to one where we have become the agents of change. The future is challengingand unsure, yet we have to assist the children in developing the skills and competencies theywill need if any high ideals are to be striven for with any hope of success. “The need for changefrom narrow nationalism to universalism, from ethnic and cultural prejudice to tolerance, un-derstanding and pluralism from autocracy to democracy in its various manifestations…, placesenormous responsibilities on teachers…”.19 Society expects much from its educators and thosecountries, such as Finland and Korea, who give their teachers the status the vocation deservesare those most successful in educational terms (McKinsey report 2006). Much is spoken aboutthe knowledge economy by governments, business and in the media, but it is just as well toremember Rabelais’s warning from the 16th Century that “Knowledge without conscience is butthe ruin of the soul.” Our knowledge has responsibilities attached and the more accessible andwide-ranging it becomes, the more complex become our moral choices. Knowledge that worksin a healthy conjunction with our emotions can become wisdom.In this report we are assuming that: • the ability to relate well to others, • to cooperate, • to manage and resolve conflict, • to act autonomously, • the ability to act within the larger context, • to form and conduct life plans and personal projects, • to defend and assert one’s rights, interests, limits and needs, • to use language, symbols and texts, • the ability to use knowledge and information interactively and the ability to use tech- nology interactively......are human rights that all children should have access to. Secondly, we are assuming that itis vital that this happens for the sake of the health of future societies.20 These not only haverelevance to active and interactive learning in school. Other institutions such as the family, themedia, religious and cultural organizations are all responsible for the transmission and de-velopment of these competencies and have different impacts at different levels. Competenciesare not synonymous with skills as competencies involve many interrelated skills, includingcognitive skills, attitudes and other non-cognitive components. There are also transversalcompetencies like reflectivity- a critical stance and reflective practice- that is required to meetthe demands of modern life in a responsible way. Skills, being the ability to perform complexmotor and/or cognitive acts with precision, adaptability and ease in themselves, have no in-
  • 28. 34 Introductiontrinsic set of values. The nine competencies listed above do however, and are important forindividuals to meet future global and local challenges. All have a social and emotional aspect,as well as a cognitive one. The human being has to be seen as a whole, not as a fragmentedobject. In educational discourse the concept of working with the “whole child” is once againbecoming a prominent feature.Nell Noddings puts the challenge succinctly “The traditional organization of schooling is intel-lectually and morally inadequate for contemporary society. We live in an age troubled by so-cial problems that force us to reconsider what we do in schools.”21 She balances the commonmisperception that arises when assuming that social and emotional education is only about“The traditional organization of schooling is intellectuallyand morally inadequate for contemporary society. We livein an age troubled by social problems that force us toreconsider what we do in schools.”Nell Noddingshappiness, in that we must educate for unhappiness as well. Children learn that sharing theunhappiness of others paradoxically brings with it a form of happiness. “This is the major con-clusion reached by care theorists, who argue that things we do to improve the relationships ofwhich we are part will work for our benefit as well as others.”22 Social and emotional educa-tion is value based in that it is perceived that in a given cultural or social context some emo-tions are preferable to others. When dealing with other people, love is preferable to hatred.Aggressive self-assertion is not a passport to well-being for either the community or for one-self. Emotional literacy involves being able to work with and even transform emotions whenrelating to others. An attitude of understanding, tolerance, solidarity, empathy and ultimatelycompassion can be practiced and learnt. We can develop skills that enable us to reflect bothin and on our actions and find new ways of being.The debate about character or values education is probably as old as humankind when con-sciously faced with the complexities of educating the next generation. It was certainly an im-portant aspect in the culture of ancient Greek culture. Some philosophers like Socrates, whoselife was devoted to unceasing education with the aim of thinking clearly, doubted that virtuescould be taught at all, although he also believed that people will care for what they love. Plato,on the other hand, held that education should be practiced to educate the “soul”, which for him
  • 29. Introduction 35was a harmonious amalgam of desire, reason and spirit (energy), and should lead to the ac-quisition of four virtues, courage, philosophical wisdom, prudence and righteousness. Thephilosophic or “gentle” element is manifested in the social values of sympathy, fellowship andcooperation. Thus good behaviour is produced because there is “an internal order of the soul”and through the achievements of self–mastery a person can integrate his personality to be-come “the just man”. For Aristotle, “education and habituation are required in order to per-form elements of the task of any capacity or craft”. This holds also for the “activities of virtue”.The correct form of education was one which respected the needs, abilities and limitations ofhuman nature with the goal of producing a harmonious integrated person. In our times thiswould be called a “holistic” approach. He saw our emotions as modes of practical perceptionthat embodied beliefs, desires and virtues. It is a matter of feeling the right things “at the righttime, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, and in the right way”(Nicomachean Ethics 1106d21-23) that therefore had to be educated. Our era may use dif-ferent terminology and concepts, having inherited the fruits of the Enlightenment and manyscientific and medical advances, yet in this field the debate continues as vociferously as ever.There is no one approach with justified claims to permanence, but by being aware of the pos-sibility of different ways we at least respect the individuality of each child and the socialchanges around them.Creating Conditions for Social and Emotional EducationThere are many approaches to the teaching and acquisition of social and emotional compe-tences and we are highlighting only a few of them in this volume. There is much future workand research to be done. In the work with social and emotional learning one cannot be dog-matic as that is self-defeating, so nothing here is prescriptive but rather it is descriptive. How-ever there are already some conclusions to be drawn from general experience. For instance,this cannot work in a school or classroom that is isolated from the family and parents, so newrelationships have to be formed where expectations are clear and understandings are workedfor. This entails a transparency of purpose, well formulated and accountable forms of deci-sion making, taking the views of all stakeholders seriously and welcoming all who wish to beinvolved and carry responsibilities. In other words, turning the school itself into a learningcommunity in which all who wish have the opportunity to participate, thus creating shared val-ues and understandings that enable individuals and groups to trust each other and work to-gether. There is, of course, risk involved, what worked in one place might not work in anotherand emotions have, by definition, the quality of constant movement and unpredictable voli-tion. Nevertheless, “Au fond de l’Inconnu pour trouver du nouveau” (Baudelaire: In the depthsof the unknown, we will find the new) is true of all creative processes. Teaching and living hap-pily in a changing social community is a creative art. To work in this area of endeavour we
  • 30. 36 IntroductionThere are many approaches to the teaching andacquisition of social and emotional competences and weare highlighting only a few of them in this volume. Thereis much future work and research to be donehave to look at and develop ourselves and not regard the children as objects to whom we justdeliver knowledge and precepts.This fresh territory brings with it the possibility of significantly changing the educationallandscape as researchers consider how human beings interact with each other in a way thatgoes beyond purely cognitive theories of human nature. The concept of social and emotionallearning should remain all-encompassing and not end up divided into anti-pathetical schoolsof thought or issues of personalized dogmatic contention and a label for only one particularapproach. Just as Picasso loathed the term “Cubism” because, as he said “When we inventedcubism we had no intention whatever of inventing cubism. We simply wanted to express whatwas in us”.True leadership is service that involves personal emotional development too and that some-times requires an element of selflessness or even sacrifice. The great Polish educator, JanuszKorczak, who perished voluntarily alongside the orphaned children in his care in Treblinkain 1942 wrote: “Find your own way. Learn to know yourself before you know children. It is amistake to believe that education is a science of children and not of man.” In other words, towork with children positively and successfully we also have to know ourselves. Much de-pends on the personality of the educator, whether parent or teacher, and all professionaltrainings and development through experience have consequences for who we are as indi-viduals and it is to this quality of developing personal integrity to which children are sensi-tive. This may sound radical to some but the narrative of social-emotional learning is radicaland transformative. We are not only calling for the reflective teacher but one who will act ac-cording to the outcome of these reflections. Persuasion is the least effective mode of chang-ing behaviour and attitude. Active attainment and modelling are far more powerful. Creatinga caring environment in the school and being consistent are essential foundations, especiallyat a time when schools are being asked to play a greater parental role in society, and withvalues being demanded that are conducive to the children acquiring good citizenship skills andconstructive values.
  • 31. Introduction 37However, it might at this point be worth noting here, there are many experiential ways of ac-cessing the faculty of social responsibility and engagement, including music, poetry, the visualarts and drama. Creativity is being increasingly recognized as a fundamental aspect of learn-ing. We are all in the process of becoming, our brain is always learning and in this processwe find our own individualized paths for life. Our stories differ. This is recognized in the newdrive for personalized learning where the students participate and are actively engaged infinding their own targets, devising their own learning plans and choosing from among manydifferent ways to learn with the appropriate assistance and support. None of this can be di-vorced from how we feel about things. This way of integrating the individual into the educa-tional process has implications for our social bearing and democratic expectations as well.The traditional mass production model of schooling is being challenged through advances inunderstanding our own biology and minds.Curricular and Contextual Approaches to Social and Emotional EducationSocial and emotional learning can be taught as a subject in its own right within the curricu-lum, where lesson programmes are carefully constructed to enable children to consciouslydevelop their social and emotional abilities, and contextually, where it underlies the curricu-lum and methodology and relates to the organization of the school as an institution, parentalinvolvement and co-operation and the school’s relationship to the wider community it serves.The balance relies very much on the context in which it is being developed and examined.Some alternative and progressive schools have worked for many years on an integrated ap-proach, because the whole school attempts to incorporate a supportive ethos and child orien-tated approach. In this context the curriculum itself is a meaningful and interconnectednarrative closely parallel to child development. Every aspect of school life, such as telling astory or recounting an experiment or historical episode, is seen as having a pedagogical as-pect by exemplifying social, intellectual and emotional learning. The teachers engage the chil-dren in self-development by being prepared to engage in it themselves.In more traditional school settings, there is case for direct teaching. However, because of thecomplexity of the task there is still much debate about the effects of curricula and contextualteaching and there are many varying perspectives, as will be shown in the country reports.However there is common ground in the view that the school leadership cannot stand aloofbut must be fully engaged in and committed to the process. The whole school environment isinstrumental in achieving successful outcomes. These steps though should not just be takenby the adult or official world. Children need to participate too, be taken seriously and their in-sights and personalities respected. Whole school means whole school. Children have a re-markable sense of values, and an acute feeling for justice and injustice, even babies have a
  • 32. Introduction 39moral sense. Consequently, to strengthen this they need a say because developing emotion-ally also means taking responsibility and learning from mistakes. In addition, it means re-flecting on emotions in oneself and in others and being able to contextualize emotions bybeing empowered to explore them. Children can also help each other in ways that are some-times imperceptible to adults and need the trust and space to do so. Simple play is often anexercise in this ability, within an imaginative guise.School as a Learning CommunityIn times past parents could be kept at arm’s length behind school fences as though educationwas a secret garden tended by omniscient experts. Now, however teachers, embarking on a SEEstrategy cannot do so in isolation from the immediate circumstances of the child and will needto call on greater resources to call from within the community. Teachers face greater expecta-tions, seemingly limitless needs and enormous responsibilities and unless they are able to sharethis vocational challenge with the wider community and know they are supported by it the im-pression that we are asking too much of them is unavoidable. Similarly, parenting has becomean increasingly complex task as traditional structures disappear, to be replaced by smaller andoften more fluid family units, more mobile lifestyles, a tendency for both partners to be at workand the general pressures of modern life impinging on family relationships. Consequently, thewelfare of the child in a rapidly changing society requires all agencies to cooperate in a mean-ingful and insightful manner. Families need to be to be appropriately involved in the schoolingof their children by right, as they are the child’s first and primary educators. Time and orga-nizational energy needs to be invested in finding ways for their positive participation andschools following these routes have found it pays dividends in many unforeseen and support-ive ways. If all adults caring and carrying responsibility for the education and upbringing of chil-dren could see themselves as “co-educators”, then the barriers between those with professionalskills and those within the family context can become more permeable, to the advantage of thechild The community as a whole can become aware and decide where this new awareness canlead, thereby exercising lifelong learning through practice, listening, seeking to understand,cooperating, appreciating the richness of human diversity and finding common goals. Sup-portive families are critical in order for most children to do well at school, and in an age of manypatchwork families the school community can end up needing greater sensitivity and skillscompared to the previous times of comparative stability. Emotional literacy is called on frommore people than just the immediate circle around the child and the healthy partnership be-tween family and school can be decisive of a child’s future. If social-emotional learning re-spects the education of the “whole child” which seeks to integrate all facets of being fully human,then the whole social, moral and natural environment plays a role.
  • 33. 40 IntroductionDeveloping emotional competence - learning to regulate one’s emotions, behaviours, and at-tention, and social competence – learning to relate well to other children and forming friend-ships- partly depends on two aspects of the child’s upbringing. Success is influenced by achild’s history of relationships with primary caregivers and other children as well as the child’sown physical and mental health. Learning to take another’s perspective is formed by interplaywith others at home, kindergarten and school. “They are important predictors of a child’s abil-ity to get along with peers and the adults in their lives, to learn effectively and ultimately to suc-ceed in school.”23 This begins in babyhood when “Wonder is the first of all the passions”(Descartes 1645) and the more this sense of Wonder can be enlivened throughout schoolingthe more chance there is of remaining open to new emotional experiences and accordinglydeveloping empathetic understanding. A child needs to understand her own feelings in orderto recognize those in others. Some emotions are more appropriate in certain situations thanothers and a capacity for adjustment has to be learnt. Emotions are the inner equivalent ofouter movements and handling them is likewise a skill.Clearly introducing social and emotional education calls for rethinking of the whole of thechild’s educational experience and a weighing up of priorities. For social and emotional edu-cation to be effective however, evaluation procedures will have to be found that provide ac-countability but nevertheless are of such a nature that they encourage, rather than stifle,development and are also a tool for positive and appreciative relationships. Whatever we seekto measure in our developing children will be incomplete. This is what Mannheim called per-spectivity, “The false idea of a detached impersonal point of view must be replaced by the idealof an essentially human point of view, which is within the limits of human perspective, constantlytrying to enlarge itself.”24 We have to also take into account where we are looking from aswell as what we are looking at. By accepting that all learning has an emotional component andthat we live in an increasingly fragmented and tense world, where the ability to cooperate be-comes essential for our survival as a species, we are setting a new challenge to schools andplacing a redefined responsibility on educators.ConclusionLearning from each other at an international and culturally diverse level, both through our suc-cesses and failures, lies at the heart of this report. Regardless of our being adults, in order toproduce this report we have had to become a community of learners too, thus mirroring theprocesses we are seeking to describe. This is a new field and as such has to be approachedwith a certain humility, yet it is also exciting and invigorating. Our contention is that we canall do better and by taking up the challenge of social and emotional education in schools, wecan also provide an opportunity for our children to do so. We all have to look wider and deeper
  • 34. Introduction 41as our times take on greater global challenges and our children will need even greater skillsthan we possess. As adults, we take on the responsibility for bringing up the next generationsand how we work together determines our success. If we have one commonly agreed goal itwould be to live together in harmony with our fellow human beings and the natural worldaround us. Where else can one learn this most effectively but when we are young in our fam-ilies, with our peers and in early years’ provision and schools?The mosaic in the chapters that follow are a snapshot ofthe present practice and understanding from verydifferent cultural and national perspectives, and as this ispioneering work the terms used to describe the venturesare occasionally fluid and even sometimes impreciseThe mosaic in the chapters that follow are a snapshot of the present practice and under-standing from very different cultural and national perspectives, and as this is pioneering workthe terms used to describe the ventures are occasionally fluid and even sometimes imprecise.We are neither attempting to produce a fully comprehensive picture nor a recipe book but bydepicting and discussing what is happening in widely different environments we hope to giveimpetus and inspiration for future developments as a contribution to the well-being of chil-dren. Our science shows us that our heads and hearts are not as divided as we once thoughtand just as our emotional world is never definitive but constantly transformative, so too areour descriptions of it. Our cultures evolve and are never static and likewise our educationalideas and methods should be able to take on new forms if we seriously wish to serve the needsof every individual child.
  • 35. 42 IntroductionNotes1 UNESCO (2002) Learning Throughout Life-Challenges for the 21st Century. Paris. p. 1512 Delors, J. & Draxler, A. (2001) Defining and Selecting Competencies. Hogrefe & Huber Göttingen. p. 2143 Morin, E (2001) Seven Complex Lessons in Education for the Future. UNESCO. Paris. p. 944 OECD (1999) Preparing Youth for the 21st Century. Paris. p. 205 OECD (2001) What Schools for the Future. OECD. Paris. p. 2176 Ibid. p. 527 http://www.futureknowledge.org/background/Kronberg-Declaration.pdf/view8 Freedom’s Orphans (2007) IPPR. London9 John Dewey. (January 1897) My Pedagogical Creed. School Journal vol.5410 Nieto,S. (2003) Why we teach. New York Teachers College Press11 Goleman, D. (1996) Emotional Intelligence. Bloomsbury. London12 Weare, K. (2004) Developing the Emotionally Literate School. Paul Chapman. London. p.213 Damasio, A. (2000). O sentimento de si - O Corpo, a emoção e a neurobiologia da consciência. Lisboa. Publi- cações Europa-America. p. 62 cited by Maria do Céu Roldão in How Useful is Imagination? IERG Conference. Van- couver, 16-19th July 200314 LeDoux, J. (1998) The Emotional Brain. Weidenfield & Niolson. London. p.30315 Schonkoff ,J.P. (2004) Science, Policy and the young Developing Child. Chicago. cited in Zigler et all. A Vision for Universal Preschool Education. CUP (2006). Chicago. p. 13416 Rychen, D. & Salganic, L. (2003) Key Competencies for a Successful Life and Well Functioning Society. OECD: DeSeCo. Hogrefe & Huber Göttingen p.217 Oatley, K & Seema, N. (1998) Rethinking the Role of Emotions in Education. in Olson,R. & Torrance, N. The Handbook of Education and Human Development. Blackwell. Oxford. p. 25818 Macfarlane, R. (2003 ) Mountains of the Mind. Granta Books. London19 Delors, J. et al (1996) Learning: the treasure within. UNESCO. Paris. p. 14120 DeSeCo (2002) Definition and Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and conceptual foundations. Strategy Paper21 Noddings. N. (1992) The Challenge of Care in Schools. Teachers College Press. New York. p. 17322 Noddings. N. (2003) Happiness’ and Education. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p. 3623 Zigler see note 15. p. 24424 Mannheim, K. (1936) Ideology and Utopia. cited in Assessing Children’s Lzearning. Drummond, M.J. (1995) David Fulton Publishers. London
  • 36. United Kingdom
  • 37. Aspects of Social and Emotional Learning in theUnited KingdomChristopher Clouder, in collaboration with Belinda HeysAbstractIn the UK, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own educationalpolicies. This report focuses mainly on the education system in England where the care andeducation of children and adolescents is currently high on the government’s agenda. TheSEAL programme (Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning) is a government sponsoredinitiative which is offered to mainstream schools on a voluntary basis. At least 60% of pri-mary schools and 15% of secondary schools are now using the programme.Social and emotional learning forms part of the compulsory strands of the national curricu-lum such as personal, social and health education (known as PSHE), and citizenship educa-tion. In addition, the promotion of children’s emotional well-being is a key aspect of the HealthPromoting Schools movement, another national initiative that schools are free to take up ona voluntary basis.The British media regularly focuses the public’s attention on issues negatively affecting the men-tal health and behaviour of children and adolescents, such as commercial pressures, violentvideo games and films, permeable family structures, and the high number of school tests thatchildren in England are required to take during the course of their school careers.Three detailed case studies form part of this report: a primary school in a deprived area, oneof the pilot secondary schools for the SEAL programme, and an independent school. Eachschool has taken differing approaches to supporting and promoting their pupils’ social and emo-tional skills and wellbeing.Christopher Clouder FRSA is currently chairman of the Steiner Waldorf Schools Fellowship forthe UK and Ireland and the CEO of the European Council for Steiner Waldorf Education whichis registered in Brussels and speaks for 650 European Steiner schools in 22 countries. He is aco-founder and International Director of the Alliance for Childhood which is a global networkof advocates for the quality of childhood. He writes and gives public lectures widely through-out Europe and beyond on educational matters, such as play and imagination, contemporaryissues and cultural evolution. He has published numerous books and articles on education andchildhood.Belinda Heys is the director of her own company, Future Calling Limited which offers consul-tancy, research and coaching services to individuals and organisations from the public andnon-profit sectors. Her research projects frequently include the piloting of new approaches toinform the development of public policy. She is a graduate of the University of Cape Town andof various specialist programmes in social sciences. Assisting individuals to develop resilience,mastery and increased well-being is a thread that runs through all her work. 45
  • 38. Country Chapter #1 | United KingdomIntroduction parent ensures the child receives an educa-The UK has a regionalised educational policy tion. Although they don’t have to follow thewhich means that the nations of England, national curriculum and they don’t have to sitScotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are, in examinations, many do. They will usually bethis area, all independent of each other, al- visited by an officer from their local author-though they keep a very close eye on one an- ity around once a year to ensure that theother’s developments. This report will be children are progressing. Around half a mil-mainly focused on England where education lion school age children, 7.5% of the total ofand childhood have been a major preoccu- the 8.2 million pupils in 25,2001 maintainedpation for the last fifteen years and are in- and independent schools in England, are increasingly paramount in the domestic politi- private education for which the parents paycal and cultural debate. Over these years the full costs. These schools too are free tothere have been very many reforms and pol- follow their own curriculum but are subject toicy changes that have caused some confusion regular inspections. Private schools are oftenand tension in their wake but are neverthe- known as independent or public schools.less symptomatic of an evolving system which State funded schools are known as main-accepts that the greatest disservice to children tained schools and are divided into primarywould be complacency. After many efforts and secondary schools with the transitionthere is still a high rate of child poverty, a from one to the other coming at the age of 11perceived decline in public behaviour and in England and age 12 in Scotland. Under re-little social mobility. Much effort has been put cent legislation new independent schools withinto the development of infant education state funding are being created and arefrom 5 to 11 in order to give children the se- known as academies. They have greater flex-curity and stimulation they need, and this ibility with regard to the curriculum, are al-process is being expanded to later age ranges. lowed to specialize in subjects of their own choosing and in return are expected to ben- Education in all parts of the UK is in a state efit the community of the schools in generalof flux and has been for more than a decade. by serving areas of educational disadvantage.As well as having a national curriculum inEngland, which according to the Organisation Over the years more emphasis has beenfor Economic Cooperation and Development placed on testing as a way of improving stan-(OECD) is the most prescriptive in Europe, dards and now it is reckoned that children inthere is a constant stream of initiatives com- England take a high-profile test or exam vir-ing from the government to do things better tually every year of their school career2, theand differently. Presently, compulsory edu- highest figure in the world. There is acation runs from the age of 5 to 16, although strengthening reaction to the never-endingthe English government is considering rais- testing culture among teachers, their unionsing this to 18 years of age. The early years and educators in general, so both the pre-play-based foundation stage, which the gov- scriptions of the national curriculum and theernment insists is a framework rather than a amount of testing attached to them are grad-curriculum, continues until the children are ually being eased. This practice of continuousseven years of age. Education is compulsory summative assessment by testing is seen, inbut not schooling as such, so there is a strong some quarters, as a source of stress and isand growing home school movement. It is es- known to its critics as “education by num-timated that between 40,000 and 55,000 bers”. An independent inquiry, The Primary(around 1%) of all school age children are ed- Review (2007)3 into the English primary ed-ucated at home and it is legal, as long as the ucation system expressed deep concern about46
  • 39. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomthe pressure on young children, teachers and with initiatives such as the NHSS – Nationalfamilies caused by national tests at ages 7 and Healthy School Standard. This builds on the11. It was felt that they contributed to a view Health Promoting School approach of twentyof the world and its contemporary problems years or so, initiated by the World Health Or-which contributed to “… a pervasive anxiety ganisation (WHO). Together with the emer-about current educational and social contexts gence of new governmental departments,… and a deeper pessimism about the world in these signify how important children andwhich today’s children are growing up.” How- education have become in national aware-ever the Welsh Assembly scrapped standard ness in a relatively short time, and conse-assessment tests (SATS) at 7 years of age in quently how high in government budgetary2001 in order to “focus more on social skills terms these issues now lie. It is against thisand play” and has since also abolished SATS background that ideas of emotional and so-at 11 and 14, and school performance league cial learning have surfaced and are beingtables too. The Educational Minister of Wales steadily implemented.Over the years more emphasis has been placed on testingas a way of improving standards. Children in England takea high-profile test virtually every year of their schoolcareer, the highest figure in the world. There is astrengthening reaction to the never-ending testing cultureamong educators in generalinsists that personal and social development Social and Emotional Education in Englandwill be key elements in the new curriculumthat is to be introduced in 2008 and that all The Changing Role of SchoolsWelsh schools will receive guidance on emo- The Secretary of State for Children, Schooltional literacy before then. and Families, a high ranking ministerial post, announced officially (in August 2007) that all In England the government department state schools in England will be given the op-that was previously called the Department of portunity to be supported to develop the so-Education and Skills has recently been di- cial and emotional skills of all their pupils, us-vided into two, so at present there is a De- ing the Social and Emotional Aspects ofpartment for Children, Schools and Families Learning (SEAL) programme as the vehicle(DCSF) and another separate Department for this. SEAL is described as a comprehen-for Innovation, Universities and Skills, which sive approach to promoting social and emo-is responsible for further and higher educa- tional skills that underpin effective learning,tion. The rationale for this recent change positive behaviour, regular attendance, staffbeing that the care and education of children effectiveness and the emotional health andneeds the highest level of political represen- well-being of all who learn and work intation in its own right and that everything schools. Alongside this initiative the Children’sthat impacts on them should be considered Plan was launched in December 2007 andas interrelated. In addition, the Department takes this thinking a stage further. In view ofof Health still has its own agenda for children the new challenges facing children and young 47
  • 40. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdompeople in a fast changing world it envisages a bution and achieve economic well-being. Par-“new role for schools at the centre of commu- allel to this is an increasing awareness of thenities”. It aims to improve all aspects of child impact of pupil behaviour and attendance onhealth, build up a national play strategy by teaching and learning and the importance ofbuilding more playgrounds, supervised play developing emotional well-being amongstparks and youth centres, and extends child- staff and pupils in schools, not only in raisingcare in disadvantaged communities. Testing attainment levels and improving behaviourwill begin to focus on “stage not age” because but also in order to provide young peopleit recognises that children do not all develop with the necessary skills to engage positivelyat the same rate, although it is not yet clear with society.The Children’s Plan, in view of the new challenges facingchildren and young people in a fast changing world, envis-ages a “new role for schools at the centre of communities”.It aims to improve all aspects of child health and build upa national play strategy. Testing will begin to focus on“stage not age” because it recognises that children do notall develop at the same rate, and wants to ensure a newrelationship between parents and schoolshow this change will be implemented. This In 2006, the Teaching and Learning 2020approach is also designed to ensure a new re- Review Group reported on the vision of per-lationship between parents and schools. In sonalised learning across schools in 2020.addition, there are proposals to give all pupils The report drew attention to the need forat least five hours of cultural activity every schools to ensure that young people devel-week. Recent government policy reflects a oped skills and attitudes which are valued bychange in focus and approach towards the de- employers, such as knowing how to work invelopment and well-being of children and a team, being able to communicate effectivelyyoung people. The latest being the DCSF Sec- and being resilient in the face of difficulties.retary of State commissioning a review of the In addition, one of the key recommenda-primary curriculum expressly focused on the tions from a recent report by the Institute for“ development of the whole child as well as Public Policy Research (IPPR)4 on the ‘statetheir level of attainment”, on the basis that of youth’ was an increased focus on improv-“personal, social and emotional capabilities ing teaching and learning in the areas ofare closely related to educational attainment, personal and social skills development. Thissuccess in the labour market and children’s change in policy reflects an increasingwellbeing.” Underlying all these plans are The awareness that pupils’ personal, emotionalChildren’s Act legislation and Every Child and behavioural development both supportsMatters agenda (2003) which recognise the their ‘subject based’ learning within theneed for every child to be healthy, stay safe, classroom and, independently, complementsenjoy their childhood, make a positive contri- it. It is increasingly acknowledged that pupils48
  • 41. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomneed to learn, and be taught, about the be- The connection between Citizenship edu-haviours appropriate to particular situations cation and the PSHE programme is quitejust as they have to learn, and be taught, for close, as seen in one secondary school’s (Ivyexample, the suitable arithmetic function for Banks. Lancashire) PSHE curriculum, for in-a problem. stance, which reads:Education for Citizenship • Year 7 Settling in School, Home- work and Setting Targets, Puberty,Resilience Drugs/Choices, Bullying, HealthyIn the following section the differing ap- Eating and Safety, Children’s Rightsproaches to social and emotional education in and Responsibilities, Personal SafetyEngland will be introduced. One approach that and Sex Educationis being piloted in England is through the con-cept of resiliency where children are taught to • Year 8 Decision Making (which in-think optimistically, empathise with others and cludes truancy, alcohol and solventdevelop coping strategies to deal with the set- misuse), Friendships, Families, Cop-backs of daily life. Resiliency lessons are be- ing with lossing rolled out in 21 secondary schools acrossthe country for a three-year trial period • Year 9 Prejudice (which includeswithin the Personal, Social and Heath Educa- racism, disability, stereotyping andtion (PSHE) and citizenship syllabus (which is sexuality), Sex and Relationshipspart of the National Curriculum). PSHE, (which includes contraception, sexu-which includes a range of subjects from eco- ally transmitted diseases and teenagenomic well-being and financial capabilities to pregnancy), Careers and Optionsex and relationships, is already an established Choices, Money Management, Ani-element in schools and practitioners are now mal Rights and Planning for Yearsexploring how their practice relates to the new 10 and 11.push for emotional literacy. From September2002 every school has had to teach a subject • Year 10 Drugs Education, Work Ex-called Citizenship. In the United Kingdom, the perience and Police and Crimeidea of citizens as ‘persons coexisting in a so-ciety’ is expressed in the consultation paper • Year 11 Careers and preparationEducation for Citizenship in Scotland, pub- for leaving school, work for the Na-lished by Learning and Teaching Scotland, as tional Record of Achievement, Homesfollows: “Citizenship involves enjoying rights and Housing, Sex and Relationshipsand exercising responsibilities in various typesof community. This way of seeing citizenship Health Promoting Schoolsencompasses the specific idea of political par- The national Healthy School Standardticipation by members of a democratic state. (NHSS) is a long-standing programmeIt also includes the more general notion that which includes the promotion of emotionalcitizenship embraces a range of participato- well-being as part of the global network ofry activities, not all overtly political, that affect Health Promoting Schools, theoretically de-the welfare of communities. (…) Citizenship is vised by the World Heath Organisationabout making informed choices and decisions, (WHO). It is thought that 3.7 million chil-and about taking action, individually and as dren, nearly half the total number of schoolpart of collective processes.” children and young people in England are attending a “healthy school”. (Weare, 2004) 49
  • 42. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdompoints out that this approach has 12 criteria West Kidlington Primary School has a cur-for a health promoting school, 3 of which riculum framed around 22 values, from “re-are directly connected to social and emo- spect” to “simplicity”.tional well-being: The charity Beatbullying claims that • Active promotion of self-esteem of “Teaching children emotional intelligence is all students by demonstrating that central to the successful prevention of bully- everyone can make a contribution to ing behaviour all through our lives” and that the life of the school primary schools where the bullying preven- tion programme has been initiated have seen • The development of good relations an average of a 40% reduction in instances. between staff and students and the (BBC 3/5/2007). daily life of the school The USA Pen Resiliency Project (PRP) has • The clarification for staff and stu- been particularly influential in the UK having dents of the social aims of the school trained hundreds of professionals over the last ten years. It uses a mixture of lectures, She adds that in her view five other crite- role-playing and games to show teachers howria also have a direct bearing: to apply conceptual ideas drawn from social and cognitive theory in their classrooms and • The development of good links be- in the world around them. In 11 evaluations tween school, home and the community of its impact so far it has been shown to cut teenage depression rates by half and bad be- • The active promotion of the health haviour by a third. and well-being of the school staff SEAL: Social and Emotional Aspects of • The consideration of the role of staff Learning exemplars in health related issues Gradually, over the last six years, the ideas about emotional and social learning have • The realisation of the potential of spe- been percolating through the system, al- cialist services in the community for ad- though in financial terms it is unclear as to vice and support in health education how much money the government will invest in it. The approach commissioned and de- • The development of the educational signed by the Department for Children, potential of the school health services Schools and Families (DCSF) and offered to beyond routine screening towards mainstream schools is called SEAL (Social the active support of the curriculum and Emotional Aspects of Learning) known for a short time in both the primary and sec- In England schools are given a lot of inde- ondary sectors as SEBS (Social, Emotionalpendence in their approach, following any so- and Behavioural Skills). From the outset itcial and emotional education programme they was not intended that SEAL would be a cen-think is suitable and many devise their own trally imposed programme but rather that ittoolkits in cooperation with other agencies, would provide a framework and guidance towhich, of course, is part and parcel of being support schools to develop pupils’ social anda socially and emotionally literate community. emotional skills within each school’s uniqueThree examples of this are: circumstances. Schools are being offered ex- amples on a whole school basis with the sup-50
  • 43. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomport of publications, specialist advisors and versity of Southampton, whose two publica-professional development courses for prac- tions, Developing the Emotionally Literatetising teachers. SEAL (Social and Emotional School (2004)7 and What Works in Develop-Aspects of Learning) was begun in primary ing Children’s Emotional and Social and Com-schools, and is now available to both pri- petence and Wellbeing? (2003)8 have becomemary and secondary schools. The domains it standard works for UK practice.Over the last six years, the ideas about emotional andsocial learning have been percolating through the system,although in financial terms it is unclear as to how muchmoney the government will invest in it. The approachoffered to mainstream schools is called SEAL (Social andEmotional Aspects of Learning). From the outset it was notintended that SEAL would be a centrally imposedprogramme but rather that it would provide a frameworkand guidance to support schools to develop pupils’ socialand emotional skills within each school’s uniquecircumstancescovers are self-awareness, managing feel- She has carried out a meta-analysis of theings, motivation, empathy and social skills.5 main systematic reviews in this area, andSocial mobility seems to be in a state of stag- concluded that successful programmes havenation, according to a report on recent the following characteristics:changes in intergenerational mobility inBritain, which came to the conclusion that • They include explicit teaching andwithout improvement this was accompanied learning programmes that developby a greater incidence of educational in- key skills, attitudes and behaviours,equality.6 This lack of mobility has ramifica- in pupils and stafftions in that it prolongs the cycle of depriva-tion, reduces the opportunity for well-being • They take a whole school approachfor a sizable section of the community and and link with existing work inreduces children’s faith in their futures and schools, including and especially ontheir aspirations. The difference between how the promotion of good behaviour andchildren in wealthy families experience so- sound learningcialisation and those from families with fewerresources has negative long-term effects on • They involve parents and the com-social cohesion. munity One of the architects of this potentially • They are supported by outsidedramatic change in educational practice has agencies, working together in a co-been Professor Katherine Weare of the Uni- ordinated and coherent way 51
  • 44. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom • They are coherent and well planned The first interim evaluation report was is- sued in 2006. In 2008 there will be an eval- • They last for many years, and do uation of the small group work aspect of the not expect instant results Primary SEAL programme and an evaluation of the Secondary SEAL programme will ap- • They start early, in the primary or pear in 2010. The initial idea was to con- even infant school centrate on primary education for 4 to 11 year olds. At the time of writing 60% of all • They encourage appropriate cli- primary schools, (of which there are about mates –that foster warm relation- 17,500) have adopted the SEAL programme ships, encourage participation, de- and 20% more are expected to do so within velop pupil and teacher autonomy, the 2007/8 academic year. and foster clarity about boundaries, rules and positive expectations Partly in response to the success of Pri- mary SEAL, a specially designed SEAL pro- • They promote teachers’ emotional gramme for secondary schools9 was devel- and social competence and well-be- oped and successfully piloted in 60 varied ing, and provide appropriate staff de- secondary schools. The programme is now velopment being rolled out to 15% to 20% of secondary schools, out of a total of 3,300, with the hope Hence the policy that SEAL represents is that every school which wishes to will be in-not a prescriptive programme that can be cluded by 2011. In educational terms this ismanufactured, duplicated and then imitated an extraordinarily fast and dramatic changeacross institutions or cultures, but an ongo- considering it is not compulsory but entirelying process of development. voluntary for schools to take the SEAL pro- gramme up or not. The first feasibility study for the currentSEAL programme (Weare & Gray 2003) The SEAL Secondary Programme Guidancewas completed in 2003 and has been the manual10 for schools is built on the two-yearfoundation for implementation and research. experience of primary schools as well as theInterestingly, it was undertaken by the Health secondary pilot and it highlights implemen-Education Unit at the University of Southamp- tation tasks derived from this experience:ton and covered both health and schooling is-sues. This report lists the benefits of social and • Creating a clear and shared visionemotional learning that were identified as de- of the importance, purpose andsired outcomes in the research literature, outcomes of implementing SEALthrough experience in the field and among five with all members of the schoollocal authorities who were pioneering work in community;this area. These include: • Identifying and celebrating what • Greater educational success the school is already doing well to • Improvements in behaviour promote social and emotional skills, • Increased inclusion, what they might enhance and what • Improved learning they might introduce; • Greater social cohesion • And improvements in mental health. • Reviewing the current curriculum on offer and identifying where social52
  • 45. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomand emotional skills are currently • Involving pupils, staff, parents andpromoted, and considering how this carers;learning might be enhanced; The Primary SEAL programme is focused• Considering what other schools are particularly on a suggested curriculum, withdoing in this area and what can be supporting material on whole school imple-learned from them; mentation. In Secondary SEAL the emphasis is on creating the right environment to support• Working with members of the the development of pupils’ social and emo-school community to create a shared tional skills. In addition to the materials madevision of the role and importance of available, teachers and schools themselves de-social and emotional skills within the velop further the curriculum and lesson plans.school community; It is important that the programme is sup- ported by a committed leadership and man-• Identifying appropriate individuals agement group who are able to introduce andand groups to take a lead on SEAL at sustain the programme. These schools areboth strategic and operational levels; supported by their local educational authorities and provide an example for others.• Planning action and recording thisin the school development plan; It is recognised that introducing SEAL into secondary education will be much more chal-• Raising awareness of the impor- lenging than in primary because of the pres-tance of social and emotional skills, sure to produce good examination results andemphasising the links to whole- the tradition of subject teaching and teacherschool processes, for example school specialism. There is a tendency for secondaryimprovement, teaching and learning, teachers to focus on the subject they areraising standards, increasing equal teaching rather than the development of theopportunities, celebrating diversity whole child / young person. At the momentand increasing inclusion; there is no intention to include SEAL compe- tencies in any testing regime as it is there• Identifying staff development needs, solely to support and strengthen the students.planning and delivering whole-staff Both teachers and students are expected toprofessional development, using a participate in this formative process and therange of strategies including whole developments that come about through theschool training, peer mentoring, indi- SEAL programme will eventually profoundlyvidual or group study and coaching etc.; affect the school’s relationship with its parents too. What is essential is the whole school en-• Adapting, modifying and developing vironment in which the SEAL programmethe curriculum to ensure that it pro- can operate and that there is sufficient supportmotes social and emotional skills in a for all concerned.11 Teachers and studentssystematic, coherent and compre- become learners together. Programme coor-hensive way that matches the needs dinators and implementers work alongsideof all pupils; each other and existing staff are helped in ac- quiring new and creative skills. Each school• Considering the wider implications of decides what fits their particular situation theintroducing SEAL: reviewing, adapting best. Learning materials are being providedand modifying policies in the light of this; already and being developed for successive 53
  • 46. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomage ranges, conferences are being held up Curriculum Authority (QCA) has launched aand down the country and the media is fol- new curriculum for secondary schools in thelowing the debate intensely. light of this change of vision. Cross curricu- lar dimensions of this new curriculum in- The fast diffusion of the primary SEAL clude: identity and cultural diversity, com-programme has come about through a form munity participation, creativity and criticalof fractal dissemination and clusters of thinking. The aim of SEAL is to proactivelyschools are cooperating just as the teachers promote the broad emotional health of schoolthemselves are finding new levels of coop- pupils through the development of their so-eration among themselves. Advisors are cial and emotional skills.trained to work with teachers and leadershipteams and the SEAL team in the Department School inspectors (Ofsted) are becomingare guided academically by an advisory convinced of its value. They concluded inboard of about 25 specialists in the social their latest report (Developing Social, Emo-and emotional learning field. The ground tional and Behavioural Skills in Secondaryhad also been partially prepared by non- Schools. July 2007)13 based on a survey of agovernmental organisations, such as Anti- pilot project in 11 secondary schools, after itdote,12 which has propagated the need to had been launched in 54 schools across sixtake emotional learning seriously for many local authorities in 2005, that “The pro-years. Looking ahead, these innovative prac- gramme was equally successful in the chal-tices have implications for teacher education, lenging contexts of lower attaining schoolsboth initial training and continuous profes- and in higher attaining schools located insional development, which have not been more affluent areas, the quality of the lead-taken up yet, and teachers will need good ership rather than the context of the schooltools for reflective practice. (Reflective intel- was the main factor in ensuring success … Af-ligence is the ability to become aware of ter five terms, the greatest impact in the pilotyour own mental habits and to transcend schools was on the teachers’ attitudes to-limited patterns in thinking and also involves wards the idea of the programme and theirreflecting on your emotions and behaviour.) understanding of how to develop systemati-It is a necessary competence for a practi- cally the skills that pupils needed within sub-tioner to work with SEAL fruitfully. SEAL ject lessons. As a result there were discernableenables children to take responsibility for improvements in some teachers’ skills in de-themselves and their own successful learn- veloping pupils’ social, emotional and behav-ing, become confident individuals and re- ioural competencies. Where the programmesponsible citizens. Learning to teach a SEAL was most effective, teachers adjusted teach-programme should, however, sensitise ing methods to take account of the pupils’teachers to pick up mental health and emo- specific needs across the curriculum or in ational problems earlier and refer the children number of subjects. As a result, pupils workedto the appropriate specialists. better in teams, were able to recognise and articulate their feelings more effectively, and It can be foreseen that the arts, such as showed greater respect for each other’s dif-drama and music, may play a more signifi- ferences and strengths. In particular their re-cant role in the school and cease to just be silience – the ability to cope with challengeperipheral activities given in little discrete and change - improved.” The aim of the pro-chunks within the structure of the National gramme was to help teachers develop pupils’Curriculum, but seen as being central to skills in five areas:healthy child development. The Quality and54
  • 47. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom • Self-awareness; during the lesson as I’ve realised that • The management of feelings; I can do it after all, although it’s hard.’ • Motivation; • Empathy; In an outstanding history lesson, the • And forming positive relationships teacher developed pupils’ motivation and resilience very well. Through solv- Data from the participating schools was ing a ‘murder mystery’, he built upanalysed by the University of Sussex and it suspense and intrigue. Pupils becamepresented a positive impression of students’ captivated and, consequently, theiremotional and social functioning. Having concentration was excellent and evenbeen experienced, the programme became pupils who sometimes found it diffi-quickly part of the way things were done in cult to concentrate applied them-the schools, the greatest impact being on selves throughout the lesson to a taskteachers’ attitudes. It was less successful which involved careful observationwhere teachers said they had not been given and listening, as well as cooperation.enough guidance or had not fully grasped Resilience was particularly well de-the underlying philosophy. veloped since the pupils were not given the desired outcome at the start In the OFSTED report they give a few ex- of the lesson: the individual tasksamples of good practice such as: were clear and carefully explained, but the ‘big picture’ did not become During a mathematics lesson with a evident until the end of the lesson. lower attaining set, the teacher con- Even the plenary became a ‘cliff- tinually focused on aspects of the hanger’, ready for the next lesson. pupils’ feelings about their work, say- ing, for example: ‘I could see from This change of perspective to develop that some of your faces that you were which works in the classroom and is age-ap- anxious about this part. Don’t worry if propriate, in spite of the lack of base-line it’s confusing: if it is, I’ll modify the data, is beginning to affect educational policy main part of the lesson to make it less throughout the UK and examples from this difficult.’ This was very effective in report, like the following, are inspiring new creating an atmosphere in which ventures with the blessing of government. In pupils were encouraged to recognise another school, the head teacher believed and acknowledge their anxiety so that strongly in developing pupils’ social, emo- they could receive support. At the end, tional and behavioural skills and initially em- the teacher asked the pupils to review phasised improving the school’s ethos, using their feelings about each part of the the social, emotional and behavioural skills lesson, giving them some written materials for support. The school’s own eval- questions and some vocabulary which uation during the fifth term of the pilot listed they could use, such as ‘feeling more some far-reaching improvements: confident’, ‘brilliant’ and ‘worried’. Pupils took this activity seriously and • an improved atmosphere were able to articulate how they had • fewer fights in school felt about the lesson at the start and • more courtesy and respect and im- the end; for example ‘I was really proved relationships between staff worried about these equations at the and pupils start but my confidence has grown • a reduced number of exclusions for 55
  • 48. Country Chapter #1 | United KingdomEncouragement, inspiration and convincing are thetechniques chosen for dissemination of the SEALprogrammes. It could almost be called a revolution in themaking. Whole new areas of school activity are beingopened up with, as yet, unforeseen effects. Neverthelessthere is a steadfast commitment behind SEAL and thesense that for the sake of the well-being of children therehas to be radical change rude and aggressive behaviour and re- awareness, self-regulation, motivation and duced litter and graffiti. empathy as well as social skills. SEAL assem- blies celebrate these skills each half term. Encouragement, inspiration and convinc- Children are provided with consistent positiveing are the techniques chosen for dissemina- encouragement and specific recognition whention of the SEAL programmes. It could almost they do demonstrate positive behaviour. Thebe called a revolution in the making. Whole use of R Time (a structured programme fornew areas of school activity are being opened schools that develops positive relationshipsup with, as yet, unforeseen effects. Never- between children through a simple processtheless there is a steadfast commitment be- called ‘Random Pairing’ in conjunction withhind SEAL and the sense that for the sake of interesting, non-threatening and easilythe well-being of children there has to be achievable activities for children from Nurseryradical change. The gesture to schools and to Year 7) in morning meetings four days apractitioners is that “this exists and you can week in addition to time spent delivering SEAL,be part of it.” The emotional health and well- reinforces opportunities to practice skillsbeing of children is increasingly perceived as needed to develop positive relationships.vital a part of schooling as academic and cog- Through the PSHE curriculum the fundamen-nitive prowess. The art of teaching is not tal rights of all those in school are also rein-only about what we teach but also how we forced. Playground buddies and play leadersteach and within the SEAL programme it is support positive behaviour on the playgroundintended that the programme empowers and at lunchtime. The same positive ethos iseverybody in the school community. This is promoted at lunchtimes and the same be-recognised for instance in the policy docu- haviours rewarded. Teachers and other adultsments of local school authorities, such as Hal- adopt a positive and empathetic mannerton, an area of disadvantage on Merseyside, when responding to children and to each other. Rewards are given consistently, with atSchool systems for promoting least five times as many rewards given outpositive behaviour each week when compared to sanctions.Positive behaviour is consistently reinforcedand the staff model appropriate behaviour in The Big Red Bustheir interactions with each other and with the The creativity sector too is making a contri-children. The school teaches the SEAL cur- bution with small theatre companies put-riculum, where pupils learn the skills of self- ting themselves at the disposal of schools56
  • 49. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomwith positive effects. Here too there are al- plex, as market perspectives intrude moreready encouraging signs. An example would and more into the educational landscape….”be The Big Red Bus, which is supported by (Hargreaves & Fullan 1998)14the Government’s Creative Partnershipsprogramme. The bus visits school play- Characteristics of an Emotionallygrounds with two actors on board, who have Healthy Schoolpreviously briefed themselves on the schools But how would such a socially and emo-particular problem areas as highlighted by tionally literate community be recognised? Athe teachers. They stimulate interactions characterisation of an emotionally healthywith the pupils to look at these problems to- school according to a consortium of institu-gether and the teachers themselves can tions in Bristol involving schools, health-withdraw into the background. In one in- care and the city council, as part of the Na-stance they enacted a scene on the top deck tional Child and Adolescent Mental Heathof a red London double-decker bus, which Services (CAMHS), would be one with thehad trundled into the school playground, following attributes:where a minor argument escalates intosomething far more serious, as the children • Distributive leadershipseated in the bus looked on. The children • Supportive relationshipsthen role-played similar episodes and were • Good communicationthen asked to suggest alternate outcomes • Openness, honesty and trustand evolve scripts to calm down the situa- • Regular celebrations of successtion. All suggestions are given acting space • Whole community participation inand working time in the school such as in policies and practicestheir artistic, writing and acting lessons • Inclusive approacheswhich are directly related to their experi- • A recognition of all achievementsence in the bus. The teachers’ perception • Independent and group approacheswas that this much improved social behav- to learningiour in the playground and when tensions • Creativity and innovationwere rising among various children a re- • No fear of failureminder of “What happened in the big red • Explicit morale raising activitiesbus?” was enough to deflate the situation. • Clarity of expectationThe improvements in behaviour may be • Appropriate boundariesread as unscientific or even the product of • A willingness to examine feelingsthe teachers’ wishful thinking, to which the and valuesprofession is rightly and healthily prone, but • High levels of continuous profes-nevertheless it is highly probable that the sional developmentobserved improvements in relationships inthe school through such an artistic and col- As a government Minister of Healthlaborative approach did occur and made a pointed out “Young people today are growingdeep impression on the children. Reaching up in a very different environment to that offor support and inspiration beyond the tra- their parents or grandparents. New problemsditional school fence is a fruitful and vital mean that children and young people need theapproach. “Going wider with purpose, in- skills and resilience to deal with conflict in newtegrity and emotional depth is an imperative and changing contexts.”, hence the idealism ly-for teachers in many parts of the world now ing behind these initiatives and their intrinsic– as their pupils become more culturally di- foundation on a set of values. With thisverse, as technology becomes more com- plethora of initiatives and their assorted 57
  • 50. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomacronyms it becomes like traversing a rather young people learning social and emotionaldense forest, but it signifies that perspectives skills which can help them embrace changehave radically changed even if it all seems a and challenge with optimism, and developlittle uncoordinated at times. As the Prime emotional resilience in dealing with compet-Minster’s senior advisor on education recently itive and challenging situations. Confident in-said “Over the last few years there has been a dividuals need to feel emotionally secure,huge emphasis on exams, and a huge amount have a sense of well-being and sustain satis-of money going into school buildings, but al- fying personal relationships. Responsible cit-most no emphasis on children’s wellbeing”15 izens develop positive relationships, respect and value other people, understand how theirSocial and Emotional Education in Scotland actions affect others and promote fairness.Scotland, having an independent educational While effective contributors engage in expe-policy, has the 5 to 14 guidelines for Scottish riences that are fun, enjoyable and challeng-local authorities and schools which cover the ing and become involved in activities thatstructure, content and assessment of the cur- help others. These are all expressed as na-riculum in primary schools and in the first tional aspirations and ways of thinking thattwo years of secondary education. Schools then have outcomes within and beyondare not legally required to follow these school and influence colleges and even theguidelines. Now they have embarked on “A workplace. This involves rethinking the de-Curriculum for Excellence”16 programme for sign of school buildings to make them morethree to eighteen year olds. This is intended conducive to learning, putting greater stressto be implemented by enthusiastic and com- on experiential education and piloting newmitted teachers “who have a sense of com- Skills for Work courses, where students de-munity with their colleagues and who share in velop a range of employability skills. The of-responsibility for the success of the school and ficial documentation recognises that formalall that happens in it.” It is acknowledged that learning and teaching has become increas-to achieve this goal the teachers’ professional ingly prevalent at an earlier age but states thatdevelopment and initial teacher training will “research indicates that developmentally ap-need to be developed in a way that sustains propriate practice is most conducive to ef-and nurtures them. They are expected to ex- fective learning” and that “there is no longemplify the four capacities that stand central term advantage to children when there is anto the whole programme: over-emphasis on systematic teaching before 6 or 7 years of age.” This is again a new de- • Developing successful learners parture and, as yet, too early to assess but • Developing confident individuals nevertheless reflects a radical rethink of how • Developing responsible citizens a school could serve the children and its lo- • And developing effective contributors cal community in the future that is contigu- ous with social and emotional educational These four strands run throughout the developments elsewhere, and attempts to givewhole school curriculum and guidance is it a widely applicable and cohesive founda-given as to how they can be implemented in tion. It is striking how much of the vocabu-all subject areas such as the expressive arts, lary of social and emotional education perco-health and well-being, languages, mathemat- lates through the whole programme and isics, religious and moral education, science, seen as a core element of a future schoolsocial studies and technologies. Emotional lit- curriculum backed by the Scottish govern-eracy is included in all the strands. Nurturing ment. Typical of all these above considera-successful learners involves children and tions is a clearly identifiable unifying ele-58
  • 51. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomment that seeks to bridge a perceived frag- can assist in pointing at the pitfalls as well asmentation between and within children’s ed- the opportunities. It will certainly be difficultucation in school, contemporary social trends to accommodate an ethos empowering theand the home environment. teacher as a creative and free practitioner with the demands of the present testing andCriticism of social and emotional learning examination system.programmes in the UKIt could not be expected that such funda- Why have social and emotional learningmental changes, for example the fast and programmes been introduced into the edu-wide roll-out of SEAL, would be universally cational systems in the UK?welcome. Concerns have been expressed, for For all this to be taken on so precipitouslyexample, about the large-scale industrialised there had to be shift in the educational cli-approach to introducing the teaching of social mate and this has proved to have happenedand emotional literacy in schools, when the in both positive and negative ways. Variousfield is still relatively new and much has still reports on the state of childhood have un-to be empirically proven (at least to the crit- derlined the urgent necessity for a new ap-Public attention in the UK has been directed to manychildhood ailments of late that have negative social andemotional consequences. For instance, there is growingawareness that children are not challenged enough astheir ability to play declines and experiences of naturebecome limited because of safety fears, urbanisation,media induced paranoia and the fascination with the“virtual world”. Although some symptoms of changingchildhood may be unique to an Anglo-Saxon culture thereare other countries throughout Europe where similarconcerns are also expressedics’ satisfaction). The fear has been expressed proach to well-being in childhood and thethat dwelling on emotions could lead to self- question is now in how far schools andobsession and over-reliance on professionals teachers should be playing a part in the so-to sort out people’s emotions, rather than the cial and cultural remedies. Of late there havestated goals of improving young people’s con- been a great number of research-based con-fidence and resilience.17 There is also a per- cerns that have gripped the attention of theception that the training received by teachers media, educators and the public such as Anat this stage is too rudimentary. As with any Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Coun-new venture a balance has to be struck be- tries (UNICEF 2007)18 that placed the UKtween enthusiasm, idealism, and facts on the very low in its rankings in relationship toground. Critical observations, although as yet other comparative counties. This did attractnot based on sufficient empirical evidence, a lot of attention and led to a government re- 59
  • 52. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomport on the issue “Children and Young Peo- younger and younger children are caught upple Today” (DCSF 2007)19 which acknowl- in a culture of a bullying and violence.20 Per-edged there were severe problems with dep- meable family structures, which are becom-rivation and mental health among children ing the norm, can, if not handled with care,and teenagers and that disorderly behaviour create deep insecurity in children and un-has increased substantially in the last twenty dermine their sense of self-worth. Childrenyears. Its conclusions were not as bleak as are losing opportunities to play physically asthe UNICEF report but it also highlighted an some schools cut back on play time and par-increased level of anxiety among children, ents are under the impression that unsuper-mentioning that younger children are wor- vised outside play is dangerous.21 Insteadried about friendships and bullying and older children are offered the temptation of bed-ones about examinations and their future. rooms equipped with all the devices needed toCommercial pressures were also cited as of live in a virtual world.particular concern. Overall, parents identifiedthat improvements in education were a Mental and Physical Health Concernsmeans that could keep young people out of As well as the above, a plethora of concernstrouble and help them on the path to success. has appeared in the media, for instance:Schools were seen as providing the best lo-cal service and greater parental involvement • An epidemic of childhood obesityin school life could bring more positive ex- with consequent effects on futureperiences of education for the children. It health is clearly visible in the U.K.was also felt that schools could give moreemphasis to “life-skills”. • There are signs of similar increase of depressive states at a younger age Public attention in the UK has been di- than hitherto, although more diffi-rected to many childhood ailments of late cult to measure22that have negative social and emotional con-sequences. For instance, there is growing • Children’s mental health figures areawareness that children are not challenged causing great concern. The propor-enough as their ability to play declines and tion of 15 year olds with behaviouralexperiences of nature become limited be- problems has doubled in Britain incause of safety fears, urbanisation, media in- the last 25 years. (JCPP 2004)23duced paranoia and the fascination with the“virtual world”. Although some symptoms of • The number of children disclosingchanging childhood may be unique to an An- self-harm has increased by 65% inglo-Saxon culture there are other countries the last two years24throughout Europe where similar concernsare also expressed. The school testing • One in ten children between oneregimes that are being increasingly practiced and 10 suffer from psychologicalin schools are putting more pressure and problems that are “persistent, severestress on children and causing more anxiety, and affect functioning on a day-to-and even a worrying sense of unredeemable day basis” (BMA 2006).25 A studypersonal failure, at a vulnerable young age. carried out by the children’s charityThe extensive use of video games and a taste NCH found a 100% increase in thefor extremely violent video and films is lead- prevalence of emotional problemsing to a tendency to an aggressive response and disorders since the 1930’s.when faced with a challenging situation and60
  • 53. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom • Consumption of alcohol among 11 memory.30 Pre and post-computer cognitive to 15 year olds has doubled in 14 tests show a decline in verbal memory “ years …strong emotional experiences such as play- ing a computer game or watching a thrilling • According to the UNICEF report movie, could decisively impact the learning (UNICEF 2007) British children are process… because recently acquired knowl- among the unhappiest and unhealth- edge is very sensitive in the subsequent con- iest in Europe. Although some of the solidation period.” (Paediatrics November findings of this report are contested, 2007).31 A follow up investigation into com- it cannot be easily dismissed and ex- mercial activity on children’s favourite web- poses a situation that is increasingly sites, “Fair Game”,32 found that although there found to a greater or lesser extent in were online rules for fair-trading and data other countries too protection these are, in certain instances, flouted, and advertisements and commercial It is not without good reason that the me- messages become difficult for children todia-catching concept of a “Toxic Childhood”26 identify and are used dishonestly to manip-has gained general currency as an expression ulate children, potentially bringing additionalof concern and is much debated. emotional strain into the family context. All these influences naturally have an impactCommercialisation of Childhood on children’s values and their relationshipsWe hear of an increased commercialisation with others, especially children from less af-of childhood that nurtures cynicism (Langer fluent backgrounds.2005).27 The research report “Watching,Wanting and Well-being: a study of 9 to 13 The present and first ever Children’s Com-year olds”28 has shown significant associa- missioner for England, Professor Sir Alberttions between media exposure (watching) Aynsley-Green, who is also an eminent paedi-and materialism (wanting), and between ma- atrician, sounds a warning note, “There is aterialism and self-esteem (well-being). “We loss of time for children to be children, the in-have shown that the relationship between cessant commercialisation of childhood by thematerialism and self-esteem is bound up with advertising industry, and the relentless sexuali-family dynamics. This provides some support sation of children at a very young age… the me-for the theory that materialism is associated dia demonises children”. The dramatically in-with impaired social relationships, which in creasing use of behavioural control drugs suchturn are associated with how children feel as the stimulants Ritalin and Concerta, at pres-about themselves.” Consumer culture has its ent prescribed to around 55,000 children forprice, one of which is an increase in child- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderparent conflict as children develop a lower (ADHD),33 is being questioned as they couldopinion of their parents and argue with them stunt children’s growth and tend to work nomore, leading consequently to a more di- better than behavioural intervention therapy. Itvided society.29 School is also affected in that is fairly well accepted that 10% of all 5 to 15TV and computers are omnipresent. Chil- year olds have a clinically diagnosed disorder,dren sit in front of them before they go to ranging from anxiety to depression and autism,school and when they come back from although the figure is sometimes contested asschool, a third of families accompany meal- being a result of modern diagnostic criteria.times with TV programmes and even the Nevertheless the decline in social behaviourscomputer. In addition, excessive computer and an increase in aggressive tendencies are notgaming has been shown to impair sleep and contested in the same way.62
  • 54. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom Robin Alexander, former professor of Ed- clientele. All three are very different and yetucation at Warwick and Leeds and now at have in common a wish to work in a moreCambridge University who is heading The Pri- rounded way with their pupils in order tomary Review 2007 and is travelling around foster their well-being through a social andthe country speaking to people inside and out- emotional learning programme.side education found “unease about the pres-ent and pessimism about the future” and also Case Study 1: Hele’s Schoolremarked that “Every generation has its night-mares and problems to contend with”. The re- Introductionport, although only in its initial stages, does Hele’s School is a state secondary school, inalso point to a way forward “where schools had the South West of England. There are 1300started engaging children with global and local pupils, from 11 to 18 years of age. The ma-realities as aspects of their education they jority of the pupils live within two to threewere noticeably more upbeat ….. the sense of miles of the school. The pupil body is made“we can do something about it” seemed to up of students of all abilities and socio-eco-make a difference.” But there is a sense of ur- nomic backgrounds. 75% of students stay ongency for change in the air, and that something into the sixth form (i.e. to the last year ofthat has the range of social and emotional ed- school). The community from which theucation is needed, as summed up by the head pupils come is an established one and is notof the children’s charity National Children’s particularly culturally diverse. Most pupilsHomes “We know from our own research the are native English speakers with 40% of theincreasing importance of emotional well-being pupils from single parent families. The inci-in childhood in determining life chances and dence of mental illness among adults in thelater social mobility”. community in which Hele’s is based is high for the area. In April 2007 the European Commis-sioner for Freedom, Security and Justice, Hele’s was one of the pilot schools for theFranco Frattini announced that “families and secondary SEAL programme, and was thusschools are in crisis” in Europe, not just in the involved both in trialling the various aspectsUK. Faced with all these symptoms is it any of SEAL and also contributed to the devel-wonder that people turn to early childhood opment of SEAL. Hele’s chose to be part ofcentres and schools to help find the solu- the secondary SEAL pilot “because the sen-tions? It is hardly surprising then that schools ior leadership team believed that SEAL fittedand other educational institutions are having in with what they already did, but broughtto rethink their purposes and practices. So coherence, clarity and explicitness to exist-what are they to do? ing priorities.” We will now look at three schools that have The school has three specialisms: Lan-embarked on educational innovation within guages, Maths and Information Technology,an English context. Hele’s is a mainstream and Vocational Education. As part of being aschool in the south-west peninsula that has specialist language school, Hele’s actively cul-adopted the SEAL approach as outlined above. tivates its international links. An example ofGallions serves a deprived and constantly how the specialist language status impactsshifting urban population on a housing estate on the curriculum is that each year a groupin the east of London and Wellington is an ex- of students “has a quarter of their lessonsample of established private boarding school taught in French.”34with traditional values and a well-heeled 63
  • 55. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom Hele’s has very much taken a whole school themselves. “Students –feel that they con-approach to embedding and developing SEAL tribute to the way the school is run and, even(Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning). when commenting on what they see as lessA key priority for the senior management favourable aspects, criticise constructively.team of the school is to maintain and further Older students mentor younger ones –”35develop the culture of the school – creatingthe conditions for good relationships, for The school works hard at serving the needslearning and development. Some of the ways of all pupils. The Student Support Base worksin which it is possible to observe this is that with individual pupils and groups of pupilsdeveloping social and emotional skills and who are experiencing particular behavioural,awareness is not just a task for the pupils but social or emotional difficulties. Where neces-is central to the school’s approach to contin- sary the support base staff can call on the as-uing professional development for all staff sistance of a range of external agencies, for(senior management, teaching and support example, the local Child and Adolescent Men-staff). For the students, SEAL is integrated tal Health Services. The Student Support Basewithin the curriculum and is also built into is described in more detail below. One of thethe time between lessons. For example, the strengths of Hele’s is that it pays attention toschool employs and trains 18 of the oldest identifying those pupils at risk, and then to putpupils in the school to “patrol” the school at in place strategies to reduce those risks. Thelunchtimes, to see what is needed and to pro- headmaster and the deputy heads are con-vide support to pupils. The result of this is that stantly taking the view of “if I were a pupilpupils can eat their sandwiches in the class- here, what needs to be changed and im-rooms at lunchtimes, which in most second- proved?” A similar approach is taken to staff.ary schools is unheard of, as often the class- The question “What needs to be put in placerooms end up being trashed. SEAL is to make the work of the staff more effective,embedded in the curriculum, and in addition more enjoyable and of a higher quality?” iseach year group has one personal develop- constantly being looked at.ment lesson per week, in which SEAL istaught directly, for example, working on im- Hele’s staff put in a lot of hard work to helpproving communication skills. primary school pupils manage the transition from primary to secondary school. There are The views and feedback of pupils and staff three main primary schools in the area thatare regularly sought. Pupils were asked what feed pupils to Hele’s and the school has builtthey considered the top issues that needed to up excellent collaborative working relation-be addressed to make the school a better ships with these schools. Staff work together,place. The first issue was the toilets – that for example, to identify pupils who may findthey needed to be upgraded, and secondly the transition from primary to secondarythat bullying needed to be stopped. The sen- school difficult, and then Hele’s puts struc-ior leadership team took this feedback seri- tures and strategies in place to support theseously and have upgraded the student toilets particular pupils. “Many parents commentedand are working hand in hand with the Stu- on the very smooth transition from primarydent Support Base staff to address any inci- school.”36 Children who have had difficultiesdents of bullying as they come up, but also at other schools (for example, children whomake clear to pupils entering the school that are on the autistic spectrum, or those withbullying is not tolerated, and how to go about physical disabilities) usually fit in well atreporting it should they witness any inci- Hele’s. The school is supported in this by thedents of bullying, or experience bullying “transition team” of the local education au-64
  • 56. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomthority, which helps to support the integration you are late. For example, one of the codesof pupils. The school has a culture in which is to calm yourself down before opening thediversity, in the widest meaning of the word, classroom door, and come into the class-is positively (or at least neutrally) viewed. room quietly, making sure to cause as little disturbance as possible.MeasurementSince the beginning of the SEAL pilot in au- Social and emotional aspects of learningtumn of 2004 the school has been moni- permeate the approach to teaching. For ex-toring the incidence of absenteeism, late- ample, many lessons end with a plenary ses-ness, and the number of detentions and sion and teachers use this time to promoteexclusions. In addition, the school monitors reflection. The promotion of tolerance forthe academic progress of pupils, and has diversity is addressed in the curriculum in theclear pathways and strategies in place to following ways: pupils have one lesson of re-identify pupils who are struggling (whether ligious education per week (with the empha-it be academically, socially or psychologi- sis being on understanding other religionscally), to communicate the issues to whoever and cultures). Pupils consider ethical issues inneeds to be informed, be it parents, other the Social Education GCSE (GCSE’s are na-teachers, the student support base or exter- tional examinations, usually taken at agenal agencies. The latest school inspection 15/16). The 6th Form pupils have lessons inreport, by OFSTED,37 the national inspec- philosophy, ethics and critical thinking. Thetorate body, concludes: school works hard at encouraging the pupils to aim high and to have realistic rather than “Systems for monitoring and tracking low expectations of themselves. An example students are exemplary. Thorough of this is that pupils doing humanities subjects analysis of data contributes to de- are encouraged to choose a “dream grade” for tailed self-evaluation in departments themselves, with the teachers in the depart- as well as at whole school level.” ment promoting the belief that the minimum that you can get is a C, if you do the work that Since the introduction of the SEAL pro- you are set in lessons and for homework.gramme, pupil attendance has improved,punctuality has vastly improved, and the Student Support Services and the Studentnumber of temporary and permanent exclu- Support Basesions has dropped from 795 in 2004/5 to The student support services are an essential723 in 2006/7. The attendance of teachers, aspect of the implementation and develop-support staff and teaching assistants has also ment of SEAL at Hele’s School. Recently, thebeen monitored since 2004, and the number school has moved all the student services toof days absent due to illness has dropped the western side of the school building. Theacross the board. student support base is close to the first aid room, the office where absences are re-The General Curriculum ported, and the student services receptionHele’s has developed a number of codes of area where students can go to ask for help,conduct to assist the pupils in managing information or advice. This area is sensi-their behaviour, and to make clear what tively located near a door to the playground,kind of behaviour is expected in the school. in a quiet part of the school. Previously, stu-For example, there is a school lateness code dents had to bring their concerns and ques-which is pinned to every classroom door. tions to the main school reception area at theThis provides guidelines as to what to do if front door, in view and earshot of parents, 65
  • 57. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomvisitors, delivery personnel, and others, which order to meet the deadlines and demands forwas far from ideal. the different subject areas. In addition to the nurture group, Year 7 pupils (aged 11 to 12) The student support base is run by two (who are in the first year of secondarycounsellors, supported by others, such as the school) are mentored by pupils in Year 9parent support advisor who is a retired police (aged 13 to 14).officer. Among other things, s/he can offermediation, for example, between a pupil and Another group run by the student supporttheir parent/s, when this is called for. The counsellors over 18 months is called “Raisingcounsellors work closely with external agen- Aspirations”. The school identified a group ofcies when needed, such as the local author- boys in Year 8 (age 12 to 13) who wereity educational psychology department. The poorly motivated, and who did not see muchcounsellors offer one-to-one support to of a future for themselves. This group of 14pupils as well as ongoing groups for pupils pupils meets once a month, and in additionwith particular needs. The one-to-one work each group member receives regular men-with pupils consists of an hour a day for up toring. “They are attempting to inspire theseto 2 weeks, moving to once a week, then to students with support, advice, examples ofonce a fortnight and so on. External agencies celebrities who did not start life as a success,are called upon for input, assistance and ex- one-to-one work and inspirational posterspertise as needed. For example, the student around the school about the value of havingsupport base run a “Nurture Group” during high expectations and dreams.”38the first term of the school year for thoseBefore the advent of the SEAL programme at Hele’s thestudent support base took pupils with difficulties out of theclassroom and provided them with 6 weeks of full-timeeducation. Evaluation of this approach showed that it wasnot effective – it contained the problem for those 6 weeksbut did not bring about any changepupils who were identified as needing extra The student support base staff work hardsupport in moving from primary to second- to build a culture of connectedness aroundary school. During the first term the coun- each child – co-working with a range ofsellors work with the pupils in the nurture agencies to ensure the best for the needs andgroup to help boost their confidence, and to situation of each teenager, striving to keep thehelp them manage the emotions that come up communication open and flowing with allas a result of the transition, and to find their who need to be involved. For example, theplace socially in the nurture group as well as support base staff foster strong communica-in their year group, and in the school as a tion and links with parents, the head of thewhole. The 2007/8 nurture group has con- pupil’s year, the pastoral support managertinued on into the second term, with a focus and all teachers who teach that pupil. Theon “organisation and homework” – how to support plan for the student is shared with allorganise yourself, your time, your work in their subject teachers. The counsellors try to66
  • 58. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomtake the pupil out of a mixture of subject les- tunity of the SEAL programme to deepen theirsons during the course of a week so that they work on staff well-being and add a new em-do not miss all their maths lessons that week, phasis on skills, for and by staff. For example,for example. Occasionally the counsellors will paying for staff to self-refer for counsellingsit in on classes so as to observe one or more with no school involvement; offering a supportof the pupils whom teachers have raised con- group for staff in their first few years of teach-cerns about, or pupils with whom the student ing, holding meetings at times the supportsupport base is already working. In addition, staff can attend, etc.”42“The school reaches out beyond students togroups of parents who may need extra sup- A culture of consultation and continuousport.”39 This task is taken on by staff of the improvement exists within the school, wherestudent support base. staff suggestions are welcomed, as are the re- search, developing and piloting of new ap- Before the advent of the SEAL programme proaches to teaching and learning within theat Hele’s the student support base took pupils school. Teachers share best practice, bothwith difficulties out of the classroom and pro- within and between departments. In addi-vided them with 6 weeks of full-time educa- tion, teachers work in pairs to give each othertion. Evaluation of this approach showed that feedback on performance, and to assist oneit was not effective – it contained the problem another in the development of new skills.for those 6 weeks but did not bring about any “Senior management team, teaching and as-change. “When pupils returned to mainstream sociate staff work together as a very effectivelessons they tended to revert to their previous team to provide a cooperative, calm andbehaviour.”40 The student support base staff happy atmosphere where the quality of carenow “work with many more pupils in a less in- provided for every student is as important astensive way, allowing them in mainstream the quality of their learning.”43classes, but holding weekly groups in whichsocial and emotional skills are taught explic- Conclusionitly… They {also} offer an individualised in- The recent inspection of the governmenttensive approach to those who have the most school inspectorate body (OFSTED) ratedacute need, covering behaviour recovery skills, Hele’s as an outstanding school. Visiting theassertion and anger management.”41 school the impression that one gains is that fostering a climate in which staff and pupilsStaff can thrive is the current and long-term goalThe senior leadership team places a high pri- of the school. The school is open to innova-ority on the development, welfare and emo- tion and puts considerable effort into build-tional health and well-being of staff. For ex- ing links with other schools, cultures andample, an important chunk of the school agencies. The school has integrated socialbudget is spent on staff training and devel- and emotional aspects of learning into theopment. The SEAL programme, the values whole school –into the culture of theupon which it is based, and the task of build- school–, the continuing professional devel-ing a culture in which everyone in the school opment of all staff, into the general curricu-is working on developing their social and lum and into its provision for students withemotional awareness and competence, were particular behavioural, social and emotionalall carefully introduced in a step by step man- needs. A parent, quoted in the recent OF-ner, to enable staff to get used to the ap- STED report, said that the school “genuinelyproach, and to begin to engage with it, and get treats children and their parents as individ-excited about it. “They have taken the oppor- uals, listens to their needs as well as observes 67
  • 59. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomthem, and reacts appropriately with great Antidote, a voluntary organisation dedicatedskill and professionalism.” to developing social and emotional skills, was appointed. She brought in an advisor from Antidote who started to help the teachers ac-Case Study 2: Gallions Primary School, knowledge that they could make a differ-London ence. The advisor worked with them individ-Gallions primary school is situated in the un- ually and in groups. They were being listenedderprivileged neighbourhood of Newham in to and their ideas appreciated and conse-the east of London and has about 450 chil- quently their morale rose. Whereas beforedren aged between 3 and 11. An area that they would say “We have a problem. We’llwas once in close proximity to a thriving Lon- leave it to you” the emotional climate changeddon docklands is now the domicile of a tran- and the principal began to hear “We have asient and low income population in social problem but we’ve thought of a couple of so-housing that makes up one of the most de- lutions that might work”.prived areas in the country. Problem familiesfrom across London were moved into this 15 The advisor also worked with the chil-year old estate at the outset and there was no dren by encouraging them to draw picturesreal infrastructure to support them. When the of what made them happy and sad and alsoschool first opened, many of the children how to recognise other children’s feelings. Itwere on the verge of being excluded from was clear that the children needed some sortschool and 68% were on the special needs of forum in which they could express them-register. Yet the school itself exudes hopeful- selves and so the school experimented withness and happiness. The building is nine years circle time. The teachers began to trust theseold and placed in a large green area. Its di- changes and were able to let go of the tensionmensions are child-friendly, with internal a little. The staff then completed question-courtyards with well-kept gardens, communal naires as to how they saw the school in termswork spaces as well as light-filled classrooms. of emotional literacy and a more positiveIts aim is to give the children a fresh start in picture emerged than either the principal oran environment that conveys the feeling that advisor had expected. The children alsothey are important and cared for. worked with questionnaires and conversa- tion and what they felt about school was ex- From the beginning the vision was that plored. What were they good at? And wherethis would be a creative school where the were they weak? Why did they fight soarts would play a crucial role. However the much? Why did they come to school withfirst years were a struggle, as the children in certain attitudes?the older classes had not experienced theschooling that would give them a basis to Philosophy for Children (P4C)benefit from the good intentions and cre- It was then decided to introduce an approachative approaches to teaching. The younger called Philosophy for Children (P4C) to thechildren were fine but naturally influenced by school under the guidance of a Hungarianthe older ones. Many children in year 5 (9 & advisor. It was not easy to begin with but step10 year olds) could neither read nor write, by step there were breakthroughs. One boyhad low sense of self-worth, avoided school who came from a very deprived and dis-work with the expectation that they could turbed background read a book called “Notnot do it anyway and were aggressive. The Now Bernard” and was able to recognisestaff were quickly worn down and tired. An himself in the story, in that he was never lis-inspiring principal, who worked alongside tened to at home and could bring this insight68
  • 60. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdominto the P4C session. This recognition helped also of the personal and ethical world aroundthe children to see the purpose in what they them.” (http://sapere.org.uk/what-is-p4c/)were doing. These sessions have now beenrunning for 6 years and the impact, teachers P4C is a questioning, social and demo-claim, is huge. All staff, not only the teach- cratic approach to learning, which enablesers, undergo training to various levels in children to develop their thinking and rea-P4C. Previously all the children’s behaviour soning abilities, as well as their social aware-was managed through the traffic light system. ness and social skills.This system means that children receivewarnings about their behaviour and move A list of the research that has been doneinto the amber zone. If they do the right into P4C can be found at http://cehs.mont-thing and follow the school rules, they move clair.edu/academic/iapc/research.shtml#affback into the ‘safe’ green zone. If a childcontinues to not follow the school rules The children have one hour of P4C a weekwhilst in the amber zone, they move into the where they are listened to, encouraged tored zone and then receive class sanctions. speak from direct experience, share whatThrough P4C the children have become they believe in, experience that their opinionsmore able to manage their own behaviour. are valued and develop skills in listening andThe programme began with a difficult year 4 verbal communication. In these sessions aclass and by year 6 the positive impact could teacher uses a story, a picture, a news item,be clearly observed. Now it is run from nurs- a piece of music or an artefact to stimulateery upwards. Playground behaviour has im- thinking and imagination. The children areproved and the children can play healthily encouraged to express their thoughts andand are able to solve things between them emotions, to challenge what is being said andverbally rather than through physical ag- to ask questions that intrigue them (Anti-gression. One colleague is a qualified trainer dote 2004). They also celebrate their culturaland coordinator for P4C in the school and identity and learn to understand the lifestylesconstantly champions the work. of the other children. “Now we have Philoso- phy every Monday, we kind of learn more Philosophy for Children (P4C) is an ap- and people change. I think philosophy is a re-proach to learning developed by Professor ally good thing for children because it helps usMatthew Lipman and associates at the IAPC learn” (Katy, Year 4). This is now being in-at Montclair State College, New Jersey, USA. troduced into other schools by teachers who have experienced it first hand and are con- In the wake of student unrest in the late vinced of its merits.1960’s and early 1970’s Lipman sought to findan educational approach to encourage children These lessons, that are deliberately in-to be more “reasonable”, in other words, to be tended to deepen the children’s thinking andable to reason and be reasoned with. The goal emotional responses, always follow the sameof the Philosophy for Children (P4C) cur- format. First there is a warm-up game, to de-riculum for 6 – 16 year olds is to help chil- velop children’s basic skills, e.g. turn taking,dren to develop the faculty of making good how to ask a ‘good’ question, the importancejudgements. The model of learning developed of eye contact whilst speaking. An imagina-by Lipman is called “communities of enquiry” tive teacher can turn this into an effectivein which the teacher and the children “col- participatory experience. For instance, eachlaborate with each other to grow in under- child is asked to think what number theystanding, not only of the material world, but would like to be and then to imagine them- 69
  • 61. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomselves as that number. When they have cho- with the children working hard to keep upsen the number they then individually explain with the complicated rhythms and enjoyingwhy they chose that particular number. If the concentration needed. This also has theone child cannot give an explanation the rest advantage of occupying the children in move-of the group are encouraged to suggest one, ment during sessions such as P4C that mightwhich develops a friendly collaborative ele- require quite a bit of attention while not dis-ment. One child decided to be number 2 be- turbing the flow of the lessons. All in all onecause its shape facilitated climbing trees by observes a deep and positive effect on theusing its arms as hooks. Another thought be- children and an intense but pleasurable age-ing number 1 would give the opportunity to appropriate learning experience, where theyfly up to other planets and come back down feel they are being taken seriously, whereagain. Or another chose 0 because he had just they can make a contribution and it is enjoy-got a newborn baby brother who did not able. This obviously pervades the rest of theirhave to go to school and was the centre of at- school work and experience, but much doestention. They then review the previous ses- rest on the personality of the teacher to bringsion where the children are encouraged to it off. However, the general ethos of theremember what occurred, followed by an in- school is very supportive and the children aretroductory stimulus which can be anything, well able to vocalise their thoughts and emo-either related to the school’s study theme of tional responses, some at a very adult level.the time or something the teacher feels theclass would relate to. This is followed by de- The school has developed such an expert-velopment of questions usually first in pairs ise in P4C that they have produced a trainingand then going round the circle so each child resource ‘Thinking Allowed’ to help schoolscomes with an idea such as “why did they in- and other settings introduce this idea.44vent numbers? What would we do withoutnumbers?” The teacher constantly expresses The Arts at Gallionsappreciation for each child’s input and they Another unique aspect of Gallions Primaryare often praised, showing a positive emo- School is that every child plays a string in-tional involvement in the process and an un- strument from year 2 onwards, the schoolderstanding and interest in each child’s indi- having bought all the instruments from fundsviduality. She sometimes gently helps them they raised in several different ways, includ-with their English formulation. Then the ing a charitable grant and donations fromquestions are grouped into discreet sub- local businesses. The lessons take a consid-groups of interest by the children, facilitated erable amount of financial support, but theyby the teacher, followed by a vote on which find that the learning and discipline of play-question should be explored together, so all ing an instrument helps develop the chil-children are involved in this decision. This is dren’s concentration and social skills andfollowed by a discussion and further enquiry raises their self esteem, not only in the schooluntil the teacher concludes the session with a but in their families and community too. The‘final word’ from each child. teachers learn to play these instruments alongside the children. The school work hard The school has a policy of the teacher clap- to subsidise this activity by arranging Artping their hands in a rhythm when attention Conference days when teachers from otherwanders or to start the lesson, instead of us- schools can learn about P4C and othering a raised voice. The children then imitate unique aspects of Gallions’ creative ap-the rhythm she uses and have to follow her proaches to teaching, as well as a variety ofas she changes it. It then becomes a game other courses. The children practice at70
  • 62. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomlunchtime and the orchestra, which children ances and festivals of work. All children par-are invited to join, practices on Friday morn- ticipate regardless of ability. On top of thisings before school starts. There is also now a there are 4 maths lessons a week and the Fri-popular choir and they undertake perform- day music sessions. There is a worry aboutances in other parts of the country alongside what will happen when the children moveother partner schools. These have been well into secondary education where the approachreceived and in fact their infectious enthusi- is so radically different, so they are hoping toasm has had a marked effect on other pupils. become an all-through school (serving chil-At the same time their SATs scores are im- dren up to 16 years of age) by building onproving to above average. their spare land. There are no longitudinalFrom the beginning the vision was that this would be acreative school where the arts would play a crucial role.However the first years were a struggle, as the children inthe older classes had not experienced the schooling thatwould give them a basis to benefit from the goodintentions and creative approaches to teaching. Gallions’teachers use music, dance, drama and art to teach, forinstance, science and geography So far only two parents have removed studies yet of how the children fare later buttheir children because they disapproved of the school hears anecdotally that compared tothe schools approach of teaching through others their children are more artistic andP4C and the Arts. Gallions’ teachers use mu- have a better attitude to learning when theysic, dance, drama and art to teach, for in- go on to secondary school. Inspectors’ reportsstance, science and geography. Pupils in the confirm the school to be outstanding nowfirst year have a write-dance session where even though there are many children withthey move in straight lines and curves ac- special needs. The school is very wellcompanied by music and singing. These equipped and staffed so that there is appro-movements are then transcribed onto a large priate support for all children either withroll of paper laid out onto the floor and they special needs teachers or with teaching as-walk round to admire each other’s work. So sistants. Wandering around the school one isintellectual, linguistic, musical, kinetic, social struck by the quality of the children’s workand aesthetic skills are developed together. displayed everywhere, from high quality al-This approach has had to pervade the whole most professional photography, to deeply re-curriculum to be effective. The whole school flective poetry, skilled paintings and drawingworks on research projects which last from and imaginative pottery.3 to 12 weeks and which take up 12 hoursteaching time each week. At the end of each Conclusionresearch project there are displays and pre- A newspaper report on Gallions school45 re-sentations of the children’s work and 70% to marked that such an urban environment80% of the parents attend these perform- was the last place where one would expect 71
  • 63. Country Chapter #1 | United KingdomLatin to be sung with determination, at a in society and those who have had familyschool where 65% speak English as a second connections with the school in the past, an-language. As the then principal said “We other unusual approach to education is beingwant to give people the opportunity to pioneered in what for many, would seem tochange their lot in life. They should not be be a conservative institution based on long-sentenced to poverty and a life of crime. It’s standing and well-tried practices. This un-not just a question of giving everyone a mu- likely approach to emotional and social learn-sical instrument. I want them to have the ex- ing is being driven by the headmaster,perience and knowledge that children from Anthony Seldon, who is a journalist, a psy-rich families have.” Because of its success chologist and the biographer of two recentGallions is now being consulted by the Qual- prime ministers. The school has introducedifications and Curriculum Authority on their fortnightly lessons in well-being and happi-review of the Primary National Curriculum ness for years 10 and 11 (14 - 16 year olds)and is seen as flagship school from which as a reaction to the traditional focus ofothers are learning. The commitment to the schooling on just linguistic and logical math-children’s well-being and emotional and ematical intelligences, embracing the multiplemental health is palpable in how the children intelligences as expounded by Howard Gard-bear themselves and the general ordered ner. Seldon’s view is that schools have beenliveliness of the school. A statement that ap- dictated to by the “three dragons”: universi-pears on the walls delineates the school ties, employers and government and haveethos: “In our class we respect others, listen replaced education with instruction.to others, work hard, look after property, are (Guardian 29/5/2007)46always in the right place and follow instruc-tions”. Its prescriptions seem to be well fol- The school has developed an eight aptitudelowed without any overt authoritarian disci- model: personal, moral, spiritual, physical,pline among children who are happy to be at cultural, logical, linguistic and social which isschool, and where innovative social emo- used to create an “aptitude file” for each stu-tional practices are well incorporated into dent so that they can see their individualthe whole school environment. strengths and weaknesses.47 These eight ap- titudes are placed into pairs:Case Study 3: Wellington CollegeAt the other end of the social scale, Welling- moral and spiritual, where spiritual-ton College, founded to celebrate the victor of ity is defined as being independent ofWaterloo, is an exclusive private school set faith and the task of a school is toamong very extensive grounds some 50 kilo- help develop a child as a moral agent;metres south-west of London. It is reachedalong a formidably long drive running be- personal and social which not onlytween swathes of playing fields. The mid 19th includes a greater understanding ofCentury building, with its cloister like char- personal emotions but also how theacter, looms large and imposingly among its mind and body work and the abilitymany other buildings which are discretely to work harmoniously with others;interspersed within a lush tree-strewn Eng-lish parkland. The architecture speaks of tra- cultural and sporting aptitudes, whichdition, academic learning, classicism and or- he feels schools are increasingly ne-der. Here, however, among the ideals of glecting and thereby detrimentallyanother age and a long-standing traditional affecting a child’s potential;approach, accessible only to the very affluent72
  • 64. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom numerical/logical and linguistic which tional intelligence, and is far more a reflective have had a dominant place in educa- activity than traditional classes… So the tion heretofore because they readily essence is that pupils learn more about them- lend themselves to assessment where- selves, which will be information they will be as the others don’t. able to use for the rest of their lives.” (The In- dependent 19/4/06).48 This programme at Wellington College onlycommenced for older students in autumn The structured well-being programme is2006 and is already in the process of under- based on Positive Psychology and the Sci-going a thorough revision. However, it has ence of Well-being. The school developed thecaught national attention, presumably as so- programme in co-operation with Dr Nickcalled public schools, which are usually res- Baylis of the University of Cambridge. It is aidential, are seen as bastions of tradition and direct approach to equipping pupils with so-good standards, and it is widely and profi- cial and emotional competencies and a rangeciently publicised. The school’s website says of life skills.Wellington College claims that the aim is to equip thechildren “with an understanding of what makes livesthrive and flourish, and how they can improve theirchances of experiencing happiness, good health, a senseof accomplishment and lasting companionship. Thesewill not be lessons like history of physics, where it isprimarily the intellect that is involved, and where thequestion of knowledge is all important. This is aboutemotional learning and emotional intelligence, and is farmore a reflective activity than traditional classes… So theessence is that pupils learn more about themselves,which will be information they will be able to use for therest of their lives”the aim is to equip the children “with an un- A few of the themes covered in the ex-derstanding of what makes lives thrive and tensive programme are as follows:flourish, and how they can improve theirchances of experiencing happiness, good The Key Skills of Well-being for ex-health, a sense of accomplishment and lasting ample, the practice of visualisingcompanionship”. Seldon writes “These will not ourselves succeeding in the tasksbe lessons like history of physics, where it is that we undertake, building up ourprimarily intellect that is involved, and where self-confidence by aiming for bite-the question of knowledge is all important. sized goals;This is about emotional learning and emo-74
  • 65. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom Our Relationship with our Emotions nancial income and happiness. A sense of for example, managing anxiety and personal well-being is not just a matter of in- exploring ways to defuse the fears creased wealth. Layard has since shifted his that hold us back. attention to schooling where he is expound- ing an “educational revolution”. He insists Our Relationship with Others in this that an excessive culture of individualism in module, themes such as friendship, the Anglo-Saxon world prevents children conflict resolution, and sexuality are from achieving happiness. “I am talking about considered, with a variety of appro- something bigger than a programme: I am priate skills and approaches to these talking about a reversal of a major cultural issues being learned and practiced. trend towards increased consumerism, inter- personal competition and interest in celebrity The topics are taught through a wide range and money.”51 His booklet Happiness and theof approaches including personal reflection, Teaching of Values (2007) calls for schools todiscussions, role play, movement, simulations teach the children the secrets of happinessand stress management techniques. Seldon’s which he lists: if you care about other peopleeclectic mix of influences includes the psy- relative to yourself, you are more likely to bechologist John Kabat-Zinn and his research happy (Lyubomirsky et al. 2005),52 if youinto meditative practices which the pro- constantly compare yourself with other peo-gramme recommends to its students as a form ple, you are less likely to be happy (Schwartzof imaginative practice, the Indian philoso- et al. 2002),53 choose goals that stretch you,pher and poet Rabindranath Tagore, and Mar- but are attainable with high probabilitytin Seligman, considered the founder of Posi- (Nesse, 2000),54 and challenge your negativetive Psychology. Seligman concluded that thoughts, and focus on the positive aspects ofpsychology has overly concerned itself with your character and situation (Seligman,abnormality and illness rather than factors 2002).55 He equates this to social capitalthat lead to fulfilment and happiness. Seldon’s which is closely related to our perception ofapproach and his aim to educate his students trust in each other and which many perceiveto be “fully rounded human beings” have the as being at threat within UK society and lookpotential to break the mould of a previously to schools to rectify. Layard’s call to strive forfairly traditional and privileged sector of edu- a new concept of the common good and hiscational practice.49 He has vociferously and contention that the principle of seeking theskilfully brought this into the public domain greatest happiness by developing compas-and ensured a national debate on educational sion towards oneself and others has struck apurposes where like-minded educators and chord which has fundamental educationalparents can make themselves heard.50 implications. It has been instrumental in bringing about the Resiliency pilot scheme This both echoes and takes into account mentioned above, leading to comments fromthe recent work of Richard Layard who also high placed commentators such as “ Well-be-approached the subject from the angle of ing will be the major focus of government inpositive thinking and utilitarianism. He is di- the 21st Century, in the way that economicrector of the Economic Performance Centre prowess was in the 20th Century and militaryat the London School of Economics and his prowess in the 19th Century”.56best selling book Happiness (2005), based ona utilitarian philosophical approach, has had Future Perspectivesa wide impact. Layard contends that there is At the policy level throughout the countryno simple correlation between increased fi- there is a commitment to engaging in social 75
  • 66. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomand emotional learning in the classroom and properly pursued. Teachers will need to feelschool communities. How that works out in supported as well as inspired and further bu-practice is still to be seen, although the ex- reaucratic burdens should at all costs beamples above give some indications. How avoided. Parents will also need to be broughtthat fits in comfortably with the many other in more consciously so that what the schoolsuch initiatives of a similar nature and the does achieve can be taken up into home life.continuing of the present rigorous assess-ment regime is also open to question. The The latest evaluation report Secondarypresent accountability culture and data led Social, Emotional and Behavioural Skills (SEBS)decision-making is unlikely to be able to be Pilot Evaluation (2007)57 came up with in-compatible with such programmes as SEAL teresting and encouraging conclusions. Itand could undermine its potential benefits. highlighted that the implementation of such aThe emphasis on measurable results obvi- programme was a “dynamic process”, where-ously deters risk taking and creativity in the by schools gradually expanded their work inThe latest evaluation report Secondary Social, Emotionaland Behavioural Skills (SEBS) Pilot Evaluation (2007)came up with interesting and encouraging conclusions. Ithighlighted that the implementation of such a programmewas a “dynamic process”, whereby schools graduallyexpanded their work in social and emotional educationand it was viewed by staff as a long-term project, not aquick fix. When interviewed, the practitioners listed anumber of factors they felt to be important “maintaining awhole school approach, changing cultures and attitudes,involving the right people, commissioning resources andlinking with the bigger picture”classroom. What seems to be missing is any social and emotional education and it wasclear policy regarding initial teacher training viewed by staff as a long-term project, not afor any of these programmes and instead quick fix. Networking between schools was anthere is reliance on continuing professional important aspect where good practice and thedevelopment. This hardly seems satisfactory exchange of ideas could take place. When in-given the enormity of the task. The govern- terviewed, the practitioners listed a numberment’s bid to allow schools a greater freedom of factors they felt to be important “maintainingin setting their own curricula and specialisms, a whole school approach, changing cultureswithin a strong framework of accountability, and attitudes, involving the right people, com-could at least give possibilities for greater in- missioning resources and linking with the big-novation and imaginative approaches, if ger picture.” From their experience they also76
  • 67. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdomfelt the impact of the SEBS pilot and the fu-ture secondary SEAL programme would raisestandards of achievement, create a morepositive school environment, improve pupil be-haviour, improve interaction between pupilsand staff and improve attendance. Optimism,like pessimism, is infectious and in itself avaluable pedagogical tool. The ground workhowever has to be done in the schools them-selves through building a greater sense of col-legial trust, good relationships, common un-derstanding, transparent decision-makingand a shared perspective of child developmentand children’s needs. Official policy can onlyprovide a conducive framework and supportfor change. There is also a clear dichotomy be-tween saying on to one hand that schools arefree to follow this path, but also on the otherthat all schools will have embarked on sucha programme within the next five years. Thedanger is that SEAL, and other such endeav-ours too, will fall victim to the prevalent tar-get-setting measures, as has been alreadymooted for creativity in schools. Much remainsto be done and advocates of this approach havea formidable task ahead of them. The “deliv-ery” model of education is deeply entrenchedand in spite of its well-documented short-comings will take much effort to be trans-formed into a more child-orientated ap-proach. Every child’s potential is importantand, at least in the UK, that recognition to-gether with the will to develop new, creativeand more humanised practices in schools givessome grounds for hoping for a positive sea-change. Time will tell. 77
  • 68. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom 24Notes The Truth about Self Harm. (2006) Celia Richard- son. The Mental Health Foundation 251 Office for National Statistics (ONS 2004) BMA (British Medical Association) (2006) Child2 Mansell, W. Education by Numbers -The Tyranny of and Adolescent Mental Health. London. BMA 26 Testing (2007) London: Politico’s Palmer, S. (2006) Toxic Childhood. London: Orion3 Primary Review 2007 Books 274 Margo,J. Dixon,M. & Pearce,H. (2006) Freedom’s Langer, B. (2005) Consuming anomie: children Orphans. London: IPPR and global commercial culture. Childhood Vol. 25 DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2005) Issue 2:295 28 Excellence and Enjoyment: social and emotional as- Nairn,A. & Ormrod,P. (2007), Watching, wanting pects of learning: guidance. London: DfES Primary and wellbeing: Exploring the Links London: a study National Strategy of 9 to 13 year olds National Consumer Council 296 Blanden, J. et all. London School of Economics. De- Compass (2006) The Commercialisation of Child- cember 2007 hood. London: Compass 307 Weare, K. (2004) Developing the Emotionally Lit- Phillips, H. (2007) Mind-altering Media. London: erate School. London: Paul Chapman New Scientist. 21/4/07 318 Weare,K. & Gray,G. (2003) What works In Devel- Pedriatrics November 2007 Violent Television oping Children’s Emotional and Social Competence Viewing During Preschool Is Associated With An- and Well Being? London: DfES tisocial Behaviour During School Age. Dimitri A.9 DfES (2007) Social and Emotional Aspects of Learn- Christakis, MD, MPH and Frederick J. Zimmerman, ing for secondary schools: guidance. London: DfES PhD 32 Secondary National Strategy for School Improvement Fielder, A. Gardener,W. Nairn, A. & Pitt, P. Fair10 DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (April Game. National Consumer Council & Childnet In- 2007), Secondary National Strategy for School ternational. London (December 2007) 33 Improvement Archives of Disease in Childhood (2004) 3411 Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning for sec- OFSTED report 35 ondary schools (SEAL), Case Study Booklet OFSTED report 36 http://www.bandapilot.org.uk/secondary/re- OFSTED report 37 sources/appendix2/sns_ssealcs0004307.pdf Ofsted (November 2007) Hele’s School Inspection12 Antidote (2004) Thinking Together - Philosophy Report 38 for Children and Whole-School Emotional Literacy. Case study 39 London: Antidote OFSTED report 4013 Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) (2007) Case Study 41 Developing social, emotional and behavioural skills Case Study 42 in secondary schools) London: Ofsted www.of- Case Study 43 sted.gov.uk/publications/070048 OFSTED report 4414 Hargreaves,A & Fullan, M. What’s Worth Fighting Thinking Allowed is available from Gallions Primary for in Education? Open University Press 1998 School – orders@gallions.newham.sch.uk 4515 Happiness is a Class in Positivity. The Independent The Independent 14/7/05 46 19/7/07 Guardian, The. The Pursuit of Happiness16 A Curriculum for Excellence. Learning and Teach- 29/5/2007 47 ing Scotland. Scottish Executive (2006) www.acur- Wellington College. PSHE Department. The Well- riculumforexcellencescotland.gov.uk being project: Resource Files and The Skills of Well-17 Ecclestone, K. (2007) All in the Mind. The being: a course overview. June 2006 48 Guardian. (27-02-2007) Seldon, A. Lessons in Life: Why I am teaching hap-18 UNICEF (2007) Child Poverty in Perspective - An piness. The Independent 19/4/2006 49 Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Countries. Seldon, A. An End to Exam Factories. RSA Journal. Paris: Innocenti Research Centre. Report Card 7 London October 2007 5019 Children and Young People Today: evidence to sup- BBC news. Pupils need happiness lessons. port the development of the Children’s Plan. (De- (3/5/2007) 51 cember 2007). London. DCSF The Guardian 14/6/07 52 BMA (British Medical Association) (2006) Child Lyubomisrky, S. King, L .& Diener, E. (2005) The and Adolescent Mental Health. London. BMA benefits of Frequent Positive Affect. Psychological20 NCB (National Children’s Bureau) Video Gaming in Bulletin 131: 803 53 Children and Adolescents. London: Highlight 226. Schwartz, B. Ward, A. Montreosso, J. Lyubomirsky,S. NCB Weare,K. & Lehman,D(2002) Maximising versus sat-21 Gill.T. No fear- growing up in a risk Averse Society. isfying: Happiness is a Matter of Choice. Social Psy- Gulbenkian Foundation London. 2007 chology 83:1178 5422 London School of Economics (2006) The Depression Nesse,R.(2000) The Evolution of Hope and De- Report – A New Deal for Depression and Anxiety Dis- spair. Journal of Social Issues 66: 429 55 orders. London: Centre for Economic Performance Seligman,M. (2002) Authentic Happiness. Free23 Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP Press 56 2004) November (Geoff Mulgan, The Times 18/2/08)78
  • 69. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom57 Smith, P., O’Donnell, L., Easton. C. & Rudd, P. (2007) References Secondary Social and Behavioural Skills NFER (Nat- ional Foundation for Educational Research SEBS) Pi- lot Evaluation. London: DfES Office for National Statistics (ONS 2004) Mansell, W. (2007) Education by Numbers - The Tyranny of Testing Politico’s. London The Primary Review 2007 www.pimaryre- view.org.uk Margo,J. Dixon,M. & Pearce,H. (2006) Free- dom’s Orphans. IPPR. London DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2005) Excellence and Enjoyment: social and emotional aspects of learning: guidance. London: DfES Primary National Strategy Blanden, J. et all. 2007 London School of Economics. December Weare, K. (2004) Developing the Emotionally Literate School. Paul Chapman. London: Weare,K. & Gray,G. (2003) What works In De- veloping Children’s Emotional and Social Competence and Well Being? DfES London DfES (2007) Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning for secondary schools: guidance. London: DfES Secondary National Strat- egy for School Improvement DfES (2007), Secondary National Strategy for School Improvement DFES (2007) Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning for secondary schools (SEAL), Case Study Booklet http://www.ban- dapilot.org.uk/secondary/resources/ap pendix2/sns_ssealcs0004307.pdf Antidote (2004) Thinking Together - Philos- ophy for Children and Whole-School Emo- tional Literacy. Antidote. London Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) 79
  • 70. Country Chapter #1 | United Kingdom (2007) Developing social, emotional and Richardson, C. (2006) The Truth about Self Harm. behavioural skills in secondary schools. The Mental Health Foundation. London Ofsted. London. www.ofsted.gov.uk/pub- lications/070048 BMA (British Medical Association) (2006) Child and Adolescent Mental Health. London.Hargreaves, A & Fullan, M. (1998) What’s Worth Fighting for in Education? Open Palmer, S. (2006) Toxic Childhood. Orion University Press. Buckingham Books. LondonHappiness is a Class in Positivity. The Inde- Langer, B. (2005) Consuming anomie: chil- pendent 19/7/07. dren and global commercial culture. Childhood Vol. 2 Issue 2:295Scottish Executive (2006) A Curriculum for Ex- cellence. Learning and Teaching. www.acur- Nairn, A. & Ormrod,P. (2007) Watching, riculumforexcellencescotland.gov.uk wanting and wellbeing: Exploring the Links a study of 9 to 13 year olds. Na-Ecclestone,K. (2007) All in the Mind. The tional Consumer Council. London: Guardian. 27/02/2007 Compass (2006) The Commercialisation ofUNICEF (2007) Child Poverty in Perspective Childhood. Compass. London - An Overview of Child Well-being in Rich Countries. Paris: Innocenti Research Cen- Phillips, H. (2007) Mind-altering Media. New tre. Report Card 7 Scientist. 21/4/07. LondonChildren and Young People Today: evidence to Dimitri A. Christakis, M. & Zimmerman, F.J. support the development of the Children’s Violent Television Viewing During Pre- Plan. (December 2007). London. DCSF school Is Associated With Antisocial Be- BMA (British Medical Association) haviour During School Age. Pedriatrics. (2006) Child and Adolescent Mental November 2007 Health. London. BMA Fielder, A. Gardener,W. Nairn, A. & Pitt, P. FairNCB (National Children’s Bureau) Video Game. National Consumer Council & Child- Gaming in Children and Adolescents. net International. December 2007. London Highlight 226. London Archives of Disease in Childhood (2004)Gill, T. (2007) No Fear- growing up in a risk Averse Society. Gulbenkian Foundation. Ofsted (November 2007) Hele’s School In- London spection ReportLondon School of Economics (2006) The De- Thinking Allowed-available from Gallions Pri- pression Report–A New Deal for Depres- mary School. sion and Anxiety Disorders. Centre for orders@gallions.newham.sch.uk Economic Performance. London. The Independent 14/7/05Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. JCPP November 2004 The Pursuit of Happiness. The Guardian. 29/5/200780
  • 71. Country Chapter #1 | United KingdomWellington College. PSHE Department. The Additional Sources Well-being project: Resource Files and The Skills of Well-being: a course Evans, D. (2001) Emotion. OUP. Oxford overview. June 2006 Rychen, S & Salganic, H. (2003) Key Com-Seldon, A. Lessons in Life: Why I am teaching petencies for a Successful Life and a Well- happiness. The Independent 19/4/2006 Functioning Society. Hogrefe& Huber. GöttingenSeldon, A. An End to Exam Factories. RSA Journal. October 2007. London Smith, P., Easton, C. & Fletcher-Campbell, F.(2006) Evaluation of SEBS. Draft Eval-Pupils need happiness lessons. BBC news. uation Report. NFER (National Founda- 3/5/2007 tion for Educational Research) London.The Guardian 14/6/07 Weare, K. (2000) Promoting Mental, Emo- tional and Social Health; a Whole SchoolLyubomisrky, S. King, L .& Diener, E. (2005) Approach. Routledge. London The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect. Psychological Bulletin 131: 803Schwartz, B. Ward, A. Montreosso, J. Lyubomirsky, S. Weare,K. & Lehman,D (2002) Maximising versus satisfying: Hap- piness is a Matter of Choice. Social Psy- chology 83:1178Nesse, R.(2000) The Evolution of Hope and Despair. Journal of Social Issues 66: 429Seligman, M. (2002) Authentic Happiness. Free PressMulgan. G The Times 18/2/08Smith, P., O’Donnell, L., Easton. C. & Rudd, P. (2007) Secondary Social and Behav- ioural Skills NFER ( National Foundation for Educational Research SEBS) Pilot Evaluation. DfES. London 81
  • 72. Sweden
  • 73. Social and Emotional Education in Sweden:Two Examples of Good PracticeBo DahlinAbstractThis chapter starts with a description of the Swedish school system and the situation of so-cial and emotional education in Swedish schools. In Sweden, special programs for social andemotional learning are often associated with interventions in or prevention of bullying. Noparticular social and emocional program has been implemented on a national level, but sev-eral are in use in various schools around the country. However, no systematic scientific eval-uations of these programs, as employed within the Swedish context, have yet been completed.The chapter goes on to describe two examples of social and emotional education. The firstrecounts a success story of one particular school which changed “from the worst to the first”through several creative and imaginative pedagogical innovations focused on the social andemotional aspects of schooling. The story illustrates among other things the benefits of gath-ering external resources and institutions around the school, turning it into a cultural centrefor the neighbourhood. The second example summarises some results of an evaluationstudy of Swedish Steiner Waldorf schools. The evaluation provides suggestive evidence thatthese schools cultivate a successful form of social and emotional education. The two exam-ples illustrate indirect forms of social and emotional education, focused on values and the cul-tivation of positive feelings.Bo Dahlin is professor of education at Karlstad university, Sweden. He graduated from Stock-holm university in 1974 with a BA in philosophy and mathematics. He subsequently turnedto education and did his PhD on religious education in Swedish comprehensive schools. Hispresent research is focused on the social and spiritual aspects of education. 
  • 74. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenThe Swedish school system In the 1990’s, there was a debate con-In the early 190’s the Social Democratic cerning the need for an earlier school start.government in Sweden established a 9 year As a result, parents and children were givengeneral comprehensive school system. The the option of beginning school one year ear-idea was based on social justice (equality), lier. Consequently, at the age of  childrenand the argument that “a common school can enter a so-called preschool class, and al-for all children” would contribute to future most all children are doing so. The preschoolsocial cohesion by reducing actual and po- (Kindergarten) is governed by the Ministry oftential conflicts between social classes. Education. There is a separate national cur-School started at the age of 7 and finished at riculum for kindergartens for children up tothe age of 1. In those days, far from every- the age of , but the preschool class is part ofone was expected to continue into the upper the comprehensive school curriculum. Thesecondary school (for students 17–19 years idea is that the preschool class should have aof age). preparatory character; it should be based less on teaching and instruction and more on play By public schools we mean either com- and practical activities. The realization of thisprehensive (state or municipal) or inde- idea has proven somewhat difficult. In anpendent schools, the latter having curricula evaluation of what was going on in the pre-which are under the general governance of school classes, carried out by the Nationalthe state, but which have been allowed spe- Agency for Education (2001), it was pointedcific exceptions to the national curriculum out that they had become too much like or-plan or school regulations. dinary school, i.e., there was too much teach- ing and instruction going on. Grades were given from the third class(ages 9/10). However, from the 190’s on- Social and emotional education in Swedishwards, grades were abolished until class  schools: a general overview(ages 14/1). In order to keep parents in- The Swedish national curriculum plan offormed of the progress of their child, they 1994 and the policy documents precedingmeet with the teacher, or teachers, once a and following it started to put more empha-year. Grades have recently become more sis on the school’s fostering and upbringingrelevant since now every student is expected functions. These aspects of schooling had notto go on to the 3 years of upper secondary been as strongly focused upon for severalschool (finishing at age 19). The structure of decades. Schools, it was decided, should notthe upper secondary level has been re- only transmit knowledge but also actively up-formed many times during the last decades, hold the basic values of democracy. Later on,in order to accommodate the increase and at the end of the 1990’s, the notion of a “ba-the changes in the student population. At sic foundation of values” common to allpresent it consists of a number of eligible schools became a recurrent theme withinprograms with very different “profiles”, the Swedish educational discourse. The presentmost common being Natural Science, Social national curriculum plan states the followingScience, Child Care, Nursing, Industrial objectives in relation to norms and valuesTechnology, Art and Media. Since all pro- (The National Agency for Education, 200;grams award a qualification necessary for section 2.1):those entering higher (tertiary) education,they contain a “kernel” of the core subjects: Schools shall strive that each studentSwedish, English and Mathematics. • Respects the equal value of all people
  • 75. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden • Refuses to accept people being re- that if it did not exist, who would have the right pressed and offensively treated, and to define such a foundation of values? A third contributes to the support of other question was how the idea could be locally im- people plemented in the different schools. Concern- ing the first two questions, although there is • Feels empathy and understands a core set of values mentioned in the nation- other people’s situations, and devel- al curriculum plan (see the above quote) there ops a will to act also with their best is not a strong consensus as to the actual interests in mind meaning and significance of these values as they affect school work. As for the third ques- Everybody that works in a school shall: tion, for those schools that have actively tried to implement the notion of “basic values”, • Contribute to the development of this has mostly meant a way of establishing the students’ feelings of commu- and maintaining locally formulated guidelines nity, solidarity and responsibility for behaviour that students (and teachers) for people who are also outside have to follow when they are at school. their own group There are also projects which aim to foster in- tercultural communication, celebrate the di- • Contribute through their activi- versity of cultures and promote intercultural ties to an atmosphere of solidarity understanding and appreciation. in the school No general, nationwide strategy for social • Actively work against the harass- and emotional education has so far been ment and oppression of individuals adopted by the Swedish schools. School lead- or groups ers are responsible for implementing the val- ues stated in the national curriculum, but the • Show respect for the individual per- way that they do this is up to them. A variety son and base everyday work on a of programs have been adopted at the local democratic attitude levels, mostly by both independent and mu-No general, nationwide strategy for social and emotionaleducation has so far been adopted by the Swedish schools.School leaders are responsible for implementing thevalues stated in the national curriculum, but the way thatthey do this is up to them Research projects and practical imple- nicipal schools, and sometimes by a wholementations of the notion of a “basic founda- municipality (in Sweden, the national cur-tion of values” were started. One major ques- riculum is decided by the government, but thetion was of course whether such a foundation municipality is the head of all schools within itsof values existed in reality and not just on pa- jurisdiction). Lately, some students who haveper. A second, more philosophical one, was been bullied have taken legal action against 7
  • 76. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenIt seems that lasting effects can only be achieved bysystematic and “holistic” approaches. Occasional projectsor activities isolated from the core work of the school havelittle or no effect. Approaches focused only on eliminatingrisks of various kinds also tend to have short-term effects.It is important, in addition, to stimulate companionship,constructive dialogue and interpersonal relationshipstheir schools and have won. This may be one • That there are supportive adultsreason why local headmasters are now taking available during breaks and also af-the work against bullying more seriously. ter school (e.g. “leisure pedagogues”) Some years ago, the Swedish National • That there is active cooperationAgency for School Improvement mapped out between the school and other insti-which anti-bullying programs, or programs tutions and organisations in theaimed at students’ social and emotional de- communityvelopment, were in use in Swedish schools.They related this to national and interna- • That the adults have a holistic viewtional research on such programs (The of children’s needs and developmentSwedish National Agency for School Im- and a common approach to theirprovement, 2003). They found that neither work, based on warmth and enthusi-the municipalities nor the schools did any asm, as well as swift sanctions againstrigorous assessments of the programs and rule breaking and/or behaviour thatthere was almost no research on their effects is not toleratedin Swedish schools. However, some of thepractices identified were in agreement with The report also notes that lasting effectswhat research has found to be effective. can only be achieved by systematic andThese practices were the following: “holistic” approaches. Occasional projects or activities isolated from the core work of • That the leadership set clear goals the school have little or no effect. Ap- and establishes clear limits for toler- proaches focused only on eliminating risks able behaviour of various kinds also tend to have short-term effects. It is important, in addition, to stim- • That time is given for regular talks ulate friendship and companionship, con- about basic values structive and respectful dialogue and inter- personal relationships. • That good relationships are devel- oped between the school and the local The survey of methods and programs in politicians and that the school feels use in Swedish schools showed a number of supported by the local authorities such programs. Some were of a Swedish ori- gin; others were “imported” from other coun-
  • 77. Country Chapter #2 | Swedentries and subsequently more or less adapted  | The Lions Quest, an internationalto the Swedish profile. The methods were organisation based in USA (seecategorised into four general types (see Table www.lions-quest.org/story/1). However, please note that the categories index.php).are not mutually exclusive and contain manyoverlapping elements. Among the methods of prevention and in- tervention was included the so-called Ol- As can be seen from the table, the report weus-method, developed by the Norwegianclassifies most methods as “strengthening the psychologist Dan Olweus. This method hasbasic foundation of values”. Five out of these been systematically assessed and shown to benine methods were imported and adapted effective. According to Olweus, the responsi-from abroad, mostly from USA: bility for prevention and intervention must Type of method National Imported/Adapted Methods for strengthening the basic foundation of values 4  Methods for conflict resolution 3 3 Methods of prevention and intervention 2 1 Methods of peer support 3 -Table 1. Categories of pedagogical methods used in the work against bullying in Swedish schools, anda number of methods of a national or foreign origin (based on The Swedish National Agency for School Improvement, 1 | Second step, developed by the or- rest with all school personnel in order to cre- ganisation Committee for Children ate a safe and secure learning environment (USA) (see www.cfchildren.org; for the students. The social climate of the www.gislasonlowenborg.com, and school must be warm and caring, but there www.cesel.dk); must also be clear rules and sanctions against behaviour that is not tolerated. The rules and 2 | Project Charlie, developed in the sanctions must be well known to the stu- Minneapolis (USA), mainly as a dents and the parents. In a bullying situation, program against drug abuse (see an individual intervention plan should be es- www.jacksonmo.com/orgs/pro- tablished in cooperation with the students jectcharlie.html); involved and all their parents. 3 | The EQ-stair, an adapted model The international methods used for conflict (see Wennberg, 2000) based on the prevention were as follows: concepts of emotional intelligence proposed by Peter Salovey and Daniel 1 | Non-violent Communication Goleman (USA); (NVC), developed by Marshall B Rosenberg (USA), a method for de- 4 | International Child Development veloping contact, communication and Programmes (ICDP) - Guiding inter- open dialogue between people (see action, developed by ICDP, an inter- www.nonviolentcommunication.com national Non-Governmental Organi- /index.htm); sation registered in Norway (see www.icdp.info/May%20200.htm); 2 | Forum play, developed by the Brazilian Augusto Boal, based on role 9
  • 78. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden playing conflict situations ing recent decades of diagnoses of attention (see http://en.wikipedia.org/ deficit disorders and related problems, but wiki/Forum_Theatre_ this has not led to any serious public discus- (Augusto_Boal); sions. There are also occasional media fea- tures on, for example, the early sexualization 3 | The Icelandic model, developed in of girls through clothing, but to date there Iceland by professor Sigurd Abaljar- have not been any continuous, long term nasdottir in cooperation with re- public discussions about the conditions of searchers at Harvard University childhood in general. (USA) and based on learning to com- municate feelings and to imagine As stated above, there are no specific social non-violent solutions to conflicts and emotional programs widely implemented (Frånberg, 2003, p. 22ff). in Sweden. Therefore the two studies of the Swedish school system presented below are In February 2007, the Swedish govern- not about particular SEL-programs of the di-ment decided to invest 10 million SEK (ap- rect or instructional kind - to choose one suchprox. 1 03 000 EURO) per year until 2010 program rather than another would, underto pinpoint and roll out effective anti-bully- the circumstances, be somewhat arbitrary.ing programs in schools. The Swedish Na-tional Agency for School Improvement was The first study is a narrative about a par-given the following tasks: 1) to compile and ticular school in Rinkeby, located in the sub-describe effective and evidence based meth- urbs of Stockholm. The reason for choosingods against bullying; 2) to carry out system- the Rinkeby school is that it is a particularlyatic assessments of methods that had not yet illustrative example of how an extremelybeen assessed; and 3) to offer and provide negative situation, particularly in terms ofcourses for teachers in quality-proven meth- the students’ social and emotional develop-ods on a nationwide scale. At present, there ment, can be turned into a very positive one.is no general and systematic training of Another reason is that the case of theteachers in this matter. Concerning the first Rinkeby school makes an interesting story: atask, a report was published in November good story speaks to our heart and our imag-2007 (The Swedish National Agency for ination, therefore it can often inspire moreSchool Improvement, 2007), which con- action than conventional research reports.cluded that of all the different programs em- The so-called evidence-based research orployed, only the Olweus program has been practice now on the move among some edu-assessed on a scientific basis, although not in cational researchers and policy makers is,Sweden. However, a number of systematic after all, not without its shadows; see Biestaevaluations of different programs are now (2007) for a particularly well formulated cri-(as of March 200) being carried out in tique of this trend within present educationalSwedish schools, and the preliminary results research (see also Flyvbjerg, 2001, who ar-of one such project were recently published gues that the most suitable form of social re-(Kimber, Sandell, & Bremberg, 200). search is the close study of one particular case, not the search for general laws or cor- Unlike in the UK, for example, there have relations of a causal character).not been any intense or widespread publicdiscussions about the conditions of childhood The second study is an evaluative com-in Sweden. The National Agency for Educa- parison of Swedish Steiner Waldorf schoolstion (2000) has registered an increase dur- with comprehensive schools regarding the90
  • 79. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenstudents’ development of civic and moral beyond repair. Politicians seriously consid-competencies and democratic attitudes. (The ered closing down the school.term “municipal” is a bit misleading since allschools in Sweden are under the rule of the Seventeen years later, in 2007, themunicipality. Waldorf schools and other so- Rinkeby school has been entirely rebuilt atcalled “independent schools” function, how- the cost of 30 million SEK (approx. 3 1ever, under somewhat more liberal condi- 000 EURO). It is the pride of local politicianstions.) The Steiner Waldorf schools are part across the political spectrum. People are mov-of the Swedish public school system in the ing into the area and parents vie for a placesense that they have to follow the same na- for their children at the school. The numbertional syllabus, they are under the jurisdiction of students is increasing; about 2% of theof the municipalities, and they are part of the students do not live in Rinkeby but activelymunicipal school budget (schools are not al- choose to come to this school. The nationallowed to ask parents to pay school fees in or- competition in mathematics has been won byder to avoid contributing to social injustice). students from the Rinkeby school two yearsOne reason for including the study of Steiner in a row, and for four years several studentsWaldorf schools is that they have a long have had 100% correct solutions in the in-standing pedagogical tradition (since 1919) ternational Maths competition Känguru. Aswhich places an explicit emphasis on the de- early as 199, a survey indicated that the stu-velopment of all sides of the human being, dents at the Rinkeby school were the oneswhich of course includes children’s social, most satisfied with their school in the wholeemotional and moral development. of Stockholm. In 200, the headmaster of the school was given a Knowledge Award, not only for the good results in Maths and Sci-Study 1. “From the worst to the first” - The ence, but also for turning the school into anstory of the Rinkeby school integrated part of the neighbouring commu- nity. The Rinkeby school has been visited byIntroduction international news media (the BBC and oth-The Rinkeby school is located in one of the ers) and it has received a European award forpoorest areas of Stockholm’s southern sub- the prevention of youth crime. How did thisurbs and is home to a melting pot of cul- miraculous transformation happen?tures.1 9% of the student population atRinkeby comes from immigrant families, The new Headmasterrepresenting about 70 nationalities. The When the school leadership resigned, one ofschool was built at the beginning of the the teachers, Börje Ehrstrand, was called by1970’s for the lower secondary classes the Director of the Municipality School Board(class 7-9, age 13-1). Throughout the and was asked if he would take on the job as190’s, the state of the school gradually Headmaster. He agreed to do so under certaindeteriorated. In 199, it was in complete conditions. One was that all the municipalchaos. One classroom was nearly burnt out resources for child care, social services, andand there was graffiti on all possible sur- leisure activities were co-ordinated and inte-faces. Many parents tried their best to move grated with the resources of the school. An-from the area and 30% of the students opted other was that 1 million SEK (approx. 10for another lower secondary school. At the 300 EURO) be transferred from the socialend of 199, the school’s leadership and service budget to the school budget, so thatmost of the staff resigned from their jobs, two more special needs teachers and twofeeling that the situation was hopeless and more leisure pedagogues (adults leading after 91
  • 80. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenschool, extra curricular activities) could be that you can gladly send your children to theemployed. A third was that he himself was Rinkeby school?” Some of the older teachersgiven a free hand as to who was employed, were pessimistic about this initiative. “Parentsespecially in leading positions (at that time all lose interest in their kids’ school work afterpositions were centrally appointed). He es- class ”, they said. However, Ehrstrand hadpecially wanted to create a new position –a met many parents who were interested in“school manager”– responsible for budgeting their children’s school work and could notand for personnel administration in order to believe that they would suddenly stop beingfree the Headmaster from an excess of bu- interested at class 7.reaucratic tasks (this is a serious drawbackfor many Headmasters in Sweden today). Af- Over 200 parents came to the meeting.ter some discussions, the Director agreed to Many of them had met both Ehrstrand andthese conditions and managed to persuade the Director of Social Services before andthe Director of Social Services to reallocate had developed trust in them. They knew thatthe 1 million SEK. (Ehrstrand’s approach to they would be listened to and that their opin-negotiations is that a “No” is always the be- ions would be seriously considered. Theginning of a “Yes”). Therewith Ehrstrand had meeting resulted in the following action plan,begun cooperation between the school and with the following priorities:other social institutions (incidentally, this isone of factors that research has found to be 1 | Clean up the school and restoresignificant for effective work on social and all damageemotional learning). 2 | Create order and safety in the Börje Ehrstrand is himself an immigrant classroomsfrom Finland, from a region called Österbot-ten, where many people still have Swedish as 3 | Increase the students’ motivationtheir native tongue. He grew up in a small to learn and their trust in the futurevillage in which all adults knew where thekey to the school building hung, so that the Meetings were also held with the relevantschool could be used for any common activ- teachers’ union representatives and the newlyity. In the days when he started Primary founded Student Council. All agreed on theSchool, the dialect of Swedish that was his same list of priorities.mother tongue was not allowed in the school;only “high Swedish” was to be spoken. This Cleaning up the school was first on the list.was probably an important background ex- The calculated cost of removing all the graf-perience when later he trained as a special fiti was 3 million SEK (31 00 EURO).needs teacher with foreign languages as his However, the Building Council of Stockholmmain subject. refused to give this money since at the time they were subject to budget restrictions. ThenThe first restorative actions some parents calculated that if they did theWhen Ehrstrand took over, the school had no work themselves in their free time, the costsParents Association. In order to actively in- would be a tenth or less of the calculatedvolve the parents, a letter of invitation was sum. This time Ehrstrand went to the Real Es-sent out, signed by the Headmaster and the tate Office and the money was granted. Par-Director of Social Services. A meeting was ents, teachers and students went to work af-proposed to discuss the question: “What do ter school time, removing graffiti andyou as parents think we can do together so restoring damaged interiors. Students were92
  • 81. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenalso allowed to create imaginary pictures on this has the advantage that the students havesome of the walls. Sometime later a new ac- access to such class activities in which theytivity was introduced, called the Golden Paint- can take part with fewer problems, for in-ing Brush: each afternoon from 4 - 7 pm two stance the practical subjects. The reason isstudents are assigned the task of keeping that one wants to make the reintegration ofwatch and removing all the graffiti produced these students as easy as possible. If each stu-during the day. The students work together dent is relocated somewhere else, the reinte-with the cleaner and the caretaker and the gration becomes much more difficult. How-task is obligatory for all 7th-graders for at ever, it is still a question whether this practiceleast two days. As a consequence of these ac- will continue or change in the future. Thetions the restoration costs decreased from drawback is that the needs and the problems Cleaning up the school was first on the list. The secondpriority was to create order and safety in the classroomsand in the school in general. When the students realisedthat the teachers and the parents stood united concerningthe establishment of order and peace - violence, bullyingand other such behaviours gradually decreased700 000 to 1 000 SEK per year already the of each student are so different that it is dif-first year (from 73 700 to 100 EURO). As ficult to have them in the same group.a consequence the money available to hiretwo new teachers. To be suspended from school for a period means having to stay at home, watched by the The second priority was to create order parent(s) – a tough penalty for a teenager.and safety in the classrooms and in the school Here the school can be seen as acting in ac-in general. A principle and practice of “im- cordance with “clear limits for tolerable be-mediate action” was established. It meant that haviour” and “immediate sanctions againstwhen, for instance, a student was seen to be rule breaking”, two of the factors found to beacting violently there was an immediate stu- significant for effective work against bullyingdents’ care conference which came to a judg- and violent behaviour (see above, p. ).ment and a decision as to what the conse-quences should be. The student’s parents The two new learning support teacherswere informed the same day and the very were especially qualified in communicationnext day the student was either redeployed in skills, as well as in teaching reading and writ-the school’s day care centre for a time, or ing. They were in charge of the day care cen-suspended from school for a period. How- tre and the lessons for students with specialever, today the day care centre has been re- educational needs. The morning lessons, un-placed with ”Co-instruction Groups”, gather- til lunch, were spent in reading exercises,ing ”problematic” students into smaller aloud or silently, and communications aboutgroups for special instruction. It takes place what was read. In the afternoons, the twowithin the locality of the school and as long as new leisure pedagogues were given the taskthe group is not too large (4 – 9 students), of ensuring that those students who ex- 93
  • 82. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenpressed violent or aggressive behavioural pat- as in the context of society at large, and eventerns triggered by frustration or disappoint- in an international context. The second is ament, and directed towards anyone nearby holistic view of learning and children’s devel-expended all their physical energy. Football opment from preschool onwards. The third isand other physically demanding sports were a holistic view of the individual child, includ-played all afternoon, so that when the school ing not only knowledge acquisition but also theday was over these students (almost all of development of social competence, and phys-them boys) no longer had any great urge to ical as well as mental health.spend time fighting or making trouble in thecity centre. According to Ehrstrand, such dis- A school open to the worldorderly students are often both intelligent The first principle implies that the schooland perceptive. They need honest and in- must be more open to the world and seektense interactions with teachers who are able communication and cooperation with exter-to respond with their heart. nal institutions and organisations more ef- fectively than is generally the case. This im- When the students realised that the teach- plies gathering together many different kindsers and the parents stood united and really of resources (the Rinkeby school has created“meant business” concerning the establish- strong links of cooperation with many dif-ment of order and peace - violence, bullying ferent institutions- see Figure 1 below.) Inand other such behaviours gradually de- the state/municipal field, there is close co-creased. The classrooms became calmer, the operation between the Leisure centres, Socialteachers felt more relaxed and consequently services, the Health service, the Police, thethey taught better. Teachers began to like Church and the Mosque, and the so-calledtheir work and students began to learn. Culture School (see Figure 1). Thus, the first two steps in the priority list One of the first resources included in thewere successfully carried out. Of course, this school was the local Leisure Centre, opendoes not mean that all problems disappeared, from 4 to 11 pm every weekday, and untilbut the frequency of violence, bullying, and midnight on Fridays and Saturdays. This waseven crime has been radically reduced in the made possible by scheduling the staff in aschool and in its neighbourhood. The average non-traditional way. But there are also somegrades of the students have increased and in sports and special teachers, who deal withthe spring of 200 seven students from the free time activities, not necessarily connectedRinkeby school ( boys and 2 girls) scored to the school buildings, and who work there100% in a national Mathematics contest and during school hours and keep the students ac-were the best in Sweden. This last fact may be tive during the breaks. The Leisure staff cantaken as an indication that also the third pri- easily get to know all the students, and theirority, to increase the motivation to learn, has presence seems to have a positive and calm-been realised. How this was done is the sub- ing effect on the school as a whole. This co-ject of the following sections. incides with the existing evidence in SEL prac- tice that supportive adults, available duringThe holistic view of education and the breaks and also after school, have a positivebringing together of resources effect on the social and emotional climate.The holistic view of education that describesthe work of the Rinkeby school has three ba- Other partner organisations are culturalsic principles. The first is that the school has to institutions, business firms and institutions ofbe seen in relation to the community, as well higher education (for example, a business94
  • 83. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden Institutions in close cooperation witn the Rinkeby school Municipality resources: Economy and business: Leisure centres, culture school, Institute for Business Manage- social service, health service, ment, and various business firms police, church/mosque The Rinkeby school Culture: Higher education: Theatres, Royal Institute of Technology, sports clubs Stockholm School of Economics, and othersFigure 1. Institutions in close cooperation with the Rinkeby school.manager in Kista, a neighbouring suburb meant a lot for the self-confidence of thesewith a prospering commercial centre, actually girls, who were not necessarily academicallybecame the successful mentor of a student motivated. (The business generated a profit ofdeemed “beyond all hope”.) At present, there about 70 000 SEK, (7400 EUROS), whichare about 300 different business firms con- the group spent on a holiday in the Canary Is-nected to the school, as well as 1 institutions lands in Spain.) Ehrstrand’s methods forof higher education, such as The Royal Insti- building up this community cooperation weretute of Technology (KTH), that taps into the varied and flexible: for example, he thought“talent reserve” of immigrant girls (perceived that the local police took little notice of theby research in Science Education as often school, so he announced on the police radiogifted, but lacking the motivation to proceed that a free lunch was offered to all policewith Science and Technology studies). This personnel in the area,2 and gradually policecooperation has been fruitful; Rinkeby girls officers arrived and mingled with students inwith non-Swedish backgrounds are increas- the dining hall.ingly taking technology programmes at theKTH. Another example of external support In these varied ways, the Rinkeby schooland networking is the way in which mentors has implemented a holistic view of school or-from the Stockholm School of Economics ganisation by incorporating many externalhelped a group of 1 girls in class  (age resources and establishing cooperative in-14/1) to establish a simple delivery firm, teractions with external organisations andwhich continued to operate through class 9. institutions. This can be seen as one basicThe firm operated under special clauses re- factor in a holistic and systematic approach togarding taxes and other areas, but allowed students’ social and emotional development.the students hands-on learning about work-ing life, being an employer and setting up A holistic view of children’s developmentyour own business. This experience also The holistic view of children’s development 9
  • 84. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenhas also been found to be a significant factor Swedish, in order to emphasise the globalfor effective social and emotional learning. In aspect of scientific and technological devel-the Rinkeby school, this implies giving sup- opment. Teachers and students at The Royalport to the children from preschool onwards, Institute of Technology offer half-day classesevery step up the educational ladder, with in scientific experiments, and laboratoryspecial emphasis on the transition from class work on Saturdays. Although these fall out- (age 12/13) to 7 (in the Swedish school side the obligatory school timetable, manysystem, this transition implies admission students take part, and not only those fromfrom the “primary” to the “lower secondary” the Science unit. It is not seen as boringlevel, even though formally such levels do “school work”, but as an interesting activitynot really exist.) that can be shared with friends. In order to strengthen the cooperation be- There is also a third study pathway calledtween preschool and school, two study path- the Sports unit. This is not chosen until classways have been developed, called the Europe 7 (age 13/14) - students pick either bas-unit and the Science unit. Already in pre- ketball or soccer as their speciality. This pathschool it is possible to start following one or is often popular with those students who arethe other of these study programs.3 The Eu- less devoted to academic study, although mo-rope unit focuses on foreign language learn- tivation for academia can also increase asWhen they join the school, students and their parents signan agreement to follow the rules of the school. Eachstudent also belongs to a mentoring group, which meets ona regular basis. The mentors monitor the acquisition ofknowledge, but also the social development and the healthof each student in their grouping, Information Technology and Communi- some of the teachers teach both basketballcation, and economics. In preschool, children and, for instance, maths and physics. Thestart in playful ways to learn English from the penalty for not following the rules in theage of 3 to 4. However, care is taken that the classroom may be the exclusion from achild really has the ability to take part in sports training session, which no studentssuch activities and that it does not undermine wants to miss! One year, the school’s soccerthe development of their mother tongue or team put together from students in this unitSwedish. The cooperation with the parents is became Swedish Masters - an intense expe-of course essential in this area, as well as in rience in learning how to create a positivemany others. As a matter of fact, the parents team spirit despite big differences in socialrepresent the majority of the Rinkeby School and cultural backgrounds.Board, with one representative for each classand one for each study pathway. Social competence and health When they join the school, students and their The Science unit focuses on Science and parents sign an agreement to follow the rulesTechnology. It is called “Science” even in of the school. Each student also belongs to a9
  • 85. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenmentoring group, which meets on a regular class. About three weeks after the start of thebasis. The mentors monitor the acquisition of autumn semester, the school counsellors visitknowledge, but also the social development the new classes: that is when the studentsand the health of each student in their group. sign an agreement to follow the rules of theThe mentoring group includes discussions of school and to abstain from all violence, bul-social and moral questions in general and, lying and sexual harassment. The class is toldmore specifically, in relation to the rules of that in October or November the schoolthe school. In cases of poor behaviour, the counsellors will come again to talk to eachmentor immediately contacts the student who student individually.has misbehaved and perhaps also his or herparents (usually within a quarter of an hour). If a student in these individual talks saysIn serious cases, an emergency group is set that he/she has been bullied, the schoolup. The leader of this group is in close con- counsellor asks whether he should intervenetact with the leader of the Leisure Centre and immediately, or if the student wants to wait tothe Social Services, so that different remedial see if things improve. If action is taken, theactions might be considered and carried out bullies are summoned to a meeting with thewithout delay. school counsellor and the leader of their study programme. They are confronted with In surveys which indicate whether stu- what they have done and told to stop imme-dents like their school, the Rinkeby school diately. According to the school counsellors,usually scores higher than other schools in this simple action works in 99% of the cases.the Stockholm area. 94% of the Rinkeby stu- Systematic and preventative work on stu-dents say they are “quite satisfied” or “very dent wellbeing is time-consuming, and con-satisfied” with their school. The correspon- sequently the staff working in this area isding average for Stockholm is 1%. Accord- larger than that at most schools: two schooling to the school’s Student Council, the rea- counsellors, one nurse, one full-time studyson seems to be that Rinkeby students counsellor and one part-time psychologist,experience no bullying in their school. They looking after five hundred students.feel that the school climate is positive and thatteachers and students can easily communi- The school also views the cultural activitiescate with each other. On the negative side, of the Culture School (see below) - such asthey sometimes complain about some of the music, singing and dancing - as making arules, such as “no chewing gum”, “no mobiles” positive contribution towards the mentaland “no hats indoors”. health of students. As for physical health, free breakfast (see Footnote 1 above) to stu- The school is working in a systematic way dents who might request it is another exam-to deter bullying episodes. When preparing ple of a simple but effective measure to im-for the transition to class 7 (age 13/14), prove their health and their ability to study. Instudents at the Rinkeby school are visited by primary school, teachers run with the chil-one of the school’s two school counsellors in dren 00 metres every day, regardless ofthe spring of class . Around that time, stu- the weather. Each day the distance is multi-dents and parents also meet with the teach- plied by the number of participants and eachers to discuss the choice of a study profile. week the sum is calculated in the maths les-The school counsellor talks individually with son and drawn on a map of Europe - some-each student and asks, among other things, times inspiring even the geography lesson.whether s/he has been bullied or if s/he Similarly, the preschool Science unit is oftenknows of any bullying taking place in the out in Nature looking at plants and animals. 97
  • 86. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenThe Culture School and the school as a cul- Since the Rinkeby school has studentstural centre from so many different ethnic backgrounds,Each municipality in Sweden has a so-called Cul- the Culture School offers classes not only inture School, which is an association of artists traditional Swedish or Northern Europeanwho offer art classes and other forms of coop- musical instruments, but also in instrumentseration with ordinary schools to promote artis- from the Middle East.tic and creative activities among young people. Reading, writing, and communicating: the After school, students can choose to go to basis of learningthe Culture School to learn to play an instru- The plurality of languages spoken by stu-ment, individually or in a group; or they can dents from over seventy nations would gen-participate in drama lessons and prepare and erally be considered to give rise to a peda-put on a play or a show. In Rinkeby, the ad- gogically complex situation, but Ehrstrandministration and activities of the local Culture dwells on the positive potential, as he con-School has moved under the same roof as the siders all mother tongues as valuable re-Each municipality in Sweden has a so-called CultureSchool, which is an association of artists who offer artclasses and other forms of cooperation with ordinaryschools to promote artistic and creative activities amongyoung peopleschool, thus increasing the possibilities of ac- sources for the future labour market, whentive cooperation. The Director of the Culture intercultural cooperation will be increasinglySchool has his office in the school and who- common, and thus all language abilities willever wants to can knock on his door for a talk be useful. Hence, at the Rinkeby school, lan-at any time- this is especially important in an guage and communication abilities arearea where many parents do not speak viewed as the foundation for learning and theSwedish well enough to feel comfortable future progress of the students. Language andmaking a phone call. literature are seen as key to success in life, and all children have a right to these keys. On the website of the Stockholm Culture This implies that reading, writing and en-School (www.kulturskolan.stockholm.se) one gaging in dialogue is a major part of all teach-can read that their mission is as follows: ing, in all subjects. Twice in each semester, students take an easily accessible reading and All children and young people, regardless writing test which closely monitors their lan-of their circumstances, abilities and living guage development.4conditions, are offered a real chance to in-fluence and participate democratically in cul- Early on the Rinkeby school library be-tural life, which includes artistic experience, came an area in which new investments wereknowledge acquisition and artistic creation. made. A second professional librarian wasAll children are entitled to discover their pre- hired, so that now there are two librarians.ferred means of artistic expression. Even though the library takes up a big part of9
  • 87. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenthe budget (more than is common in The meetings with the Nobel laureates inschools), Ehrstrand considers that the in- Literaturevestment is worthwhile. Students learn not In accordance with the idea that young peo-only from reading textbooks, but also from ple need positive, living models they can looknovels and stories. These also give an insight up to, the school has established the traditioninto other cultures and other peoples’ lives. that each year the students meet the NobelThe teachers of Swedish language and liter- laureate in Literature. The preparation forature have frequent “book talks”, in which this meeting is usually the task of studentsstudents share their reading experiences. from class  (age 14/1). They first studySuch talks have the potential to widen and the life of Alfred Nobel and the work of thedeepen the interpretive horizons around Nobel foundation. When the prize winner isemotions, thus contributing to the ability to announced, they research the facts abouthandle them. In this way, additional time is her/his life and start to read some of her/hiscreated for discussions about basic values work. But they also read books of previous(again, one of the practices that has been laureates, especially from the various homefound to be significant for successful work countries of the students. Then they composewith social and emotional learning). a small book about the Nobel foundation, about what they have read and about them- The school library is open every day selves, consisting of personal stories, poemsfrom  am to 4 pm and it is perceived as an or pictures, which they want to share with theactivity rather than a physical place. The li- author. This is translated into the motherbrarians at the school are professional chil- tongue of the laureate and sometimes sent todren and youth librarians. They take part in her/him with the letter of invitation to thethe planning of projects and have regular meeting (also written by the students). The“book talks” with groups of students, espe- meeting is often held at the Rinkeby school li-cially in class 7 and with those students whose brary, but sometimes it takes place in a pub-language ability is weaker. The librarians at lic library in Stockholm.Rinkeby have invested more resources intextbooks and encyclopaedias than in com- When V S Naipaul was awarded the Nobelputers, because they claim that students Prize in 2001, the students preparing the meet-find what they need much faster in books ing with him developed a rather critical attitudethan on the internet: the search on the web towards him, on the basis of what they foundis complex and time-consuming, and there- out about his writings. Among other things, hisfore often degenerates into mere play. Every negative opinions about religion in general andtime students want to use the computer, they about Islam in particular offended some stu-need permission from their teacher. At the dents. Naipaul, however, was very friendly atlibrary, students may also get help with their the meeting and was visibly touched when thehomework; either from the librarians or, at children read aloud their poems and person-especially scheduled times, from two pen- al stories from the book given to him. It wassioners who volunteer for this work. Special evident that he appreciated the meeting and af-days, and even whole weeks, are set aside and terwards he said it was the most important thingdevoted solely to reading literature (this that had happened to him during his visit tohappens on a regular basis.) It is reported that Sweden. The positive turn of the whole eventRinkeby students read a greater number of made the students reflect on how they had beenbooks than other Swedish students of the influenced by the image of Naipaul presentedsame age. in the media, and how such an image could dif- fer from reality.100
  • 88. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden Imre Kertész, who received the prize in even had one common prophet, Abraham.2002, openly cried when he saw and heard Abraham was told by God to leave hiswhat the students - many of them coming homeland: he became an immigrant, justfrom Muslim families - had experienced like most of the students and their parents,through reading his book Fateless. In the who had left their homes to come to Sweden.meeting with J M Coetzee who was awarded This made the theme of “breaking up” athe prize in 2003, the author told the students suitable subject for biographical writing, inthat his book Boyhood now no longer be- which Religious Studies was integratedlonged to him but to the children of Rinkeby. within the framework of Swedish language (Swedish Language and Literature is con-“The Children of Abraham” - an intercul- nected with Religious Studies in other waystural approach to religious studies too, as well as with other subjects, as seen inThe Rinkeby school, with its student popula- the previous section.)tion from nearly 70 different nations, is ameeting space and a potential melting pot The curriculum development of Religiousfor many different cultures. Most traditional Studies led to the establishment of a Foun-cultures contain a strong religious element. dation for Religious Studies called The Chil-Since the Swedish national curriculum in- dren of Abraham. Their basic method ofcludes a non-confessional study of the main teaching is based on the IE-method, mean-world religions, the situation of the Rinkeby ing “Identification leads to Empathy”. On theschool creates special conditions for the field foundation’s website (www.abrahams-of religious studies (RS). Muslim students, barn.org/info.asp/id/70) the method ishowever, seemed unhappy with the manner described as follows:in which religious studies was approached. The students take roles and act out On the initiative of one of the religious parts from the Bible stories, from Jew-studies teachers, Dorothea Rosenblad, a ish and Islamic legends and fromteam was set up with the task of putting to- other literature. The IE-Method opensgether a new curriculum for religious edu- up the common cultural heritage tocation. The idea was to promote tolerance students from different cultural back-and mutual understanding between different grounds. They acquire knowledgereligions. The team consisted of a rabbi, an about themselves and about others.imam, a priest and the teacher herself. They This helps to enhance mutual respect.worked together for one year, trying to find At the same time, the students de-the common elements of Judaism, Islam, velop their linguistic skills and theirand Christianity. They found three common ability to find words for subtle feelings.elements: all three have a holy book, rulesand norms for good behaviour, and The work of building bridges between cul-prophets. In the new curriculum of Reli- tures and religions is not only done in RS,gious Studies, these elements were therefore however, as it is also an important aspect inemphasized; the holy books have parts the teaching of Swedish and Literature. Thewhich are very similar (for instance, parts of students write about books they have read,the Quran uses or refers to stories in the connected to a certain theme, for instanceBible, and the Old Testament is part of the love. They then talk about what they haveHebrew tradition); and the rules and norms written and in the process different moralare sometimes the same (for instance that values are discussed.one should make no image of God). They 101
  • 89. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden Recently a group of journalists from Am- particular pathway - are left without the ex-man (Jordan) visited the Rinkeby school. ample and the inspiration of their more pro-They were interested in the way Religious ficient peers. Another debate revolves aroundStudies was taught, since in Jordan too how to best take care of students with learn-Moslems, Jews and Christians live together. ing difficulties and social problems, i.e.,They have done so for hundreds of years but whether the “co-instruction group” (men-the present tensions between the Islamic East tioned above) is the right way of approachingand the Christian West has made it more dif- this problem, or not. It is part of the ap-ficult to teach tolerance and mutual under- proach of Ehrstrand and his staff that nostanding. The visit resulted in the establish- problem is solved once and for all: workingment of a library in Amman, with the in schools, they believe, means being pre-purpose of promoting literature on interfaith pared to accept frequent changes.dialogue and a general resource centre fordifferent schools. What can be learnt from the Rinkeby school?Are there no problems? Looking at the list of “success factors” fromThe story told so far has been almost totally The Swedish National Agency for School Im-positive- are there really no problems at all provement (2003) report described above,in the Rinkeby school? Obviously, there are. one notes that the Rinkeby school hasThe public image of Rinkeby as an area with worked on virtually all of these factors. Thissocial and economic problems has not dis- illustrates the general fact that social andappeared, although it has been greatly mod- emotional learning always takes place in oneified. The school has a structure and a spirit form or another and that it is always (posi-of cooperation in order to deal with the tively or negatively) influenced by the way theproblems that arise, as far as possible- even school is organised, as well as by what takesthough some problems may be too much to place in the classroom.handle, even in this school. For instance,about 20% to 30% of the students leave the The perspective and the actions taken byschool in class 9 (age 1/1), without hav- Ehrstrand and his staff can be seen as oneing passed the Swedish language tests. On example of what it means to invest in stu-the other hand, around 70% of the students dents’ social and emotional education. Inusually obtain grades above the Pass level. terms of our classification of approaches toAgain, one must take the specific circum- social and emotional education, it is to a largestances into account: many students are extent of the indirect type. Although therefugees and start learning Swedish as a school has not employed any particular SEL-second language at a late age (10 years old program, its pedagogical methods are often ator more). least partially in agreement with many such programs. Here it may also be noted that the There are many issues which are contin- concept of emotional intelligence, althoughuously discussed among the staff. One is central to many SEL-programmes, is alsowhether the separation of clever and ambi- somewhat contested (see Waterhouse, 200).tious students from those less talented It does not seem to play, in a rigidly concep-and/or less ambitious is advisable (this ac- tual way, any prominent role in the ideas oftually happens because of the possibility of Ehrstrand and his staff, even though theychoosing a study pathway, like Languages or would probably not avoid referring to it inScience). Within these subjects, the less tal- talks and discussions. However, the absenceented students - those who do not choose a of consensus around a scientific definition of102
  • 90. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenthe concept does not of course exclude the a common principle of SEL-programmes, thatmore pragmatic use of the term, pointing to a “culture of connectedness” must be createdvery similar educational aims. around the children. Links must be built be- tween the parents, the school, the community The Rinkeby school explicitly teaches val- and the world. Schools must establish com-ues rather than social and emotional skills. munications with business firms, Health andThis is in agreement with studies in social Social Services institutions of higher educa-psychology, which have made it clear that tion, and cultural institutions. Schools mustindividuals readily adapt to the group’s gen- become cultural centres for the community.eral norms and values. According to ThomasScheff (1997), the reason for this is our As for the school’s internal work, by settingneed to feel “pride” and to avoid “shame” in up clear and strict rules of behaviour and by deal-our relationships with other people. Hence it ing immediately and coherently with any seri-is of basic importance to establish the right ous breaking of rules, the Rinkeby school es-kind of norms and values in the classroom tablishes a firm principle of non-negotiability.and in the school as a whole. Among the val- Some social researchers, e.g. Tomas Zieheues communicated to the students are non- (192, 194), have pointed to the tendency thatviolence and non-aggression; making ef- today moral norms and values become more andforts in one’s studies; and being generally more negotiable. This entails a relativization ofwell behaved. norms and values and produces a general un- certainty as to the need to uphold and apply par- Put very simply, the message of the ticular rules or norms of behaviour. It is a preva-Rinkeby school to other schools is twofold: to lent trait in the present cultural life of adults, andthe politicians and the school leaders it is: children “download” this trait from the adult cul-“Gather all resources under one roof”; and to ture (see Corsaro, 200), using it to deal withthe teachers it is that “language and commu- rules and regulations in their interactions withThe relativization of norms and values produces a generaluncertainty as to the need to uphold and apply particularrules or norms of behaviour. It is a prevalent trait in thepresent cultural life of adults, and children “download”this trait from the adult culture. This is becoming a stressfactor for adults working with childrennication form the foundation for learning in all adults/teachers. Teachers can no longer expectsubjects”. In terms of the gathering of re- that a rule once established is to remain so; theysources under one roof, this gives us some have to be prepared to re-negotiate its validitystrong indications with regard to the possible again and again. This is becoming a stress fac-“social architecture” of education in the future: tor for adults working with children (natural-schools must not work in isolation from the ly, these conditions are more or less acute in dif-neighbouring community; and the resources ferent countries and cultures; Ziehe writes in aof the community must flow into the school in German context).active cooperation. This is in agreement with 103
  • 91. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden Another thing which Tomas Ziehe points sense of belonging to the school, as well asout is that teachers today have to actively earn fostering a feeling of trust and hope (“I toothe respect of their pupils. In the past, the can make something of my life” and “Thereschool and the teacher possessed an “aura of is a place for me in the world”).authority” which was more or less taken forgranted. It made teachers’ work simpler, be- In these ways, the Rinkeby school coun-cause this aura gave them a certain cultural teracts at least three of the negative featuressupport which legitimized more or less any- of modern societies that undermine positivething they did. Today, this is no longer the case. motivations towards studying and social en-As a teacher or as an adult, you have to prove gagement among young people:that you deserve the respect that you expectfrom the students. Naturally, the ability to 1 | The negotiability of norms andachieve this is not common to every teacher, valuesand constitutes another stress factor for theadults working with children today. 2 | The schools’ and the teachers’ loss of aura However, by cooperating with the CultureSchool and turning the school into a cultural 3 | Social alienation and pessimismcentre for the whole neighbourhood, the regarding the futureRinkeby school has gained an aura of mean-ing for both adults and children. The visits of Although in agreement with many of theNobel laureates in Literature, students win- research findings of “what works” in schoolning national and international Maths com- development, the development strategies em-petitions, and the school being internationally ployed by Ehrstrand and his staff seem to beThe Rinkeby school´s strategy is not “evidence-based” inthe research sense and thus no energy is invested intheoretical speculation about the possible causes andeffects of what has been put into practice. A possibledrawback is that the actions taken are linked to a fewkey personalitiesrecognised and positively reported in the in- based, not on any particular research or the-ternational media have of course greatly con- oretical model, but on pedagogical intuition,tributed to creating and establishing this imagination and hard work. On the one hand,aura. Further significant elements are the the school is very strict in upholding its rulesregular meetings between students and those against bullying, violence, sexual harassmentadults who have succeeded in one area or and racism, as well as on lesser forms of un-another; as well as the cooperation with acceptable behaviour. A clear message is de-business corporations and institutions of livered concerning the standards for goodhigher education, which take an active in- behaviour. However, it is very important toterest in the students’ futures. This most cer- note that this would not be so effective if thetainly contributes to the students’ positive school did not also offer many interesting104
  • 92. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenchoices and possibilities for the young people. and reported in Dahlin (2007). The aim ofAll in all, the students perceive that their this part of the study was to investigate howteachers and their parents really care about far Steiner Waldorf students develop the val-them and believe in their future. ues and social competencies necessary to become active members of a democratic and The Rinkeby school’s strategy for devel- multicultural society. Since this is a far-opment is not “evidence based” in the re- reaching and complex question, only cer-search sense, but all the awards given to the tain aspects of the problem were selectedschool over the years should be evidence for study within the framework of the proj-enough that the strategy works. Teachers ap- ect. The chosen aspects have, to a large ex-plying for a job at Rinkeby have to be pre- tent, been decided upon by the material forpared for continuous change, and they have comparison and instruments of measure-to have the ability to see how things can be ment available from earlier empirical studiesconnected to create synergistic effects. How- on similar questions.ever, Ehrstrand also appreciates the resistersand the conservatives, because “…even a Basic principles of the Steiner WaldorfCadillac needs brakes”. school curriculum Since many readers may not be familiar with The advantage of this approach is that no the basic ideas and ways of working inenergy is lost in theoretical speculation about Steiner Waldorf schools, a short account ofthe possible causes and effects of what has this “alternative” educational movement isbeen put into practice. A possible drawback given here. The first Steiner Waldorf schoolis that the actions taken and the energy ex- was started in 1919 in Stuttgart, Germany. Itpended are linked to a few key personalities. was a “whole child” educational impulseIf these people withdrew from the work, based on the ideas of the Austrian philoso-things might start to fall apart. On the other pher and educator Rudolf Steiner. Followinghand, the organisation, the practices and the the First World War, the social and politicalroutines worked out by the staff are so well situation was one of chaos and confusion. Itentrenched by now, that they are likely to go was Emil Molt, director of the Waldorf Asto-on functioning even when the present lead- ria cigarette factory, who asked Rudolfership retires. Furthermore, the example set Steiner to help with the creation of a schoolby the Rinkeby school is so positive and in- for the children of his employees. Steinerspiring that it may serve as an ideal model to agreed and the first seminars for the school’sinspire others to do similar things. Perhaps teacher trainees were actually held on thewhat we can learn above all from the Rinkeby factory floor. This was the beginning of theexample is to trust our own vision of what is worldwide Steiner Waldorf school move-possible, and not to take “no” for an answer ment, at present consisting of about a thou-in our efforts to put our visions into practice. sand schools in all parts of the world. Even though Steiner Waldorf schools are some- times assumed to be Euro-centric because ofStudy 2. Steiner Waldorf schools and civic- their European origin, the curriculum seemsmoral competence to have a universal appeal. It appears to be able to adapt to cultures as diverse as theIntroduction favelas of Brazil; the black townships ofThis case study is part of a more extensive South Africa; Egypt and Israel; India; China;evaluation of eleven Swedish Steiner Waldorf Japan and the Philippines.schools, carried out between 2002 – 200 10
  • 93. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden Steiner Waldorf education is based on a teacher and a stable group of classmates giveswide and deep understanding of human na- the opportunity for intimate relations to growture and of human development from in- between the children themselves, and be-fancy to adulthood. The different develop- tween each child and the teacher. A well es-mental stages, seen as 7-year cycles, are tablished practice in Steiner Waldorf schoolsbased on the three levels of the human being: is for the teacher to greet each child with a“body, soul and spirit” (Rawson & Richter, handshake in the morning when they enter2000). More specifically, attention is given to the classroom. This gives the teacher the pos-the physical body and the physiological life sibility to make contact with each child, per-processes; the life of feeling, willing, thinking haps dealing with any personal matters orand perception; and the formation of identity noting anything unusual about the child’sor individuality. The characterisation of the emotional state. Another common recom-cognitive psychological development of the mendation among Steiner Waldorf teachers ischild has certain parallels with that of Piaget to reflect each day on each child in their(Ginsburg, 192). Each stage and each level class, trying to understand his/her characteris seen as equally important and must be met and particular needs. However, the particularwith the appropriate educational methods needs of an individual child are, as far as pos-and environments. Each stage contributes sible, not addressed through directly turningIn the early ages Waldorf teaching is focused on feeling,will and imagination. The purely mental, cognitive orintellectual aspects of learning are not particularlystressed. All instruction is therefore presented artisticallythrough storytelling, play and imaginative pictures.Teaching is addressed to the “head, heart and hands”something essential to the development of to him or her alone, but indirectly, workingthe individuality and unless treated according with the whole class (this is a major differ-to its age-appropriate needs, the child’s de- ence from, for instance, the Montessori ap-velopment will end up being somewhat lop- proach.) This is part of the striving for a bal-sided. Integral to this education is the en- ance between “the individual and thecouragement of a balanced development collective”: a feeling of community and soli-towards “physical, behavioural, emotional, darity should permeate the whole class; whilecognitive, social and spiritual maturation” at the same time each and every child should(Rawson & Richter, 2000). be appreciated for his/her particular gifts and abilities. Children are considered to be ready forprimary school at the age of 7. In the early In the early ages all teaching is focused onages, there is often one class teacher that feeling, will and imagination. The purelyteaches all subjects and accompanies the chil- mental, cognitive or intellectual aspects ofdren from class 1 (age /7) through class  learning are not particularly stressed. All in-(age 14/1), i.e. from childhood into early struction is therefore presented artisticallyadolescence. These years spent with one through storytelling, play and imaginative10
  • 94. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenpictures. The children are also encouraged to that each class is in principle kept together allexpress their knowledge in artistic ways, as a these years provides the possibility to workcomplement to their written work. Teaching with the social and interpersonal aspects, andis addressed to the “head, heart and hands” establish a positive feeling of togetherness(Easton, 1997). That is, there is not only and belonging, where every child is appreci-cognitive learning but also emotional, moral, ated for his or her unique personal qualities.aesthetic and practical learning (through thearts and crafts). The emphasis in the early Investigating how far Steiner education isgrades on the use and development of imag- successful in what it aims to achieve is not anination is, among other things, considered to easy task, as pointed out by Woods, Ashley,contribute to the capacity to empathise with and Woods (200) in their national evalua-other people. Waldorf teachers believe that tion of Steiner Waldorf schools in the UK.imagination is easily unleashed by listening to Aims such as encouraging a balanced growththe teacher reading or, best of all, story- towards physical, behavioural, emotional,telling. Using audio-visual media, it is thought, cognitive, social and spiritual maturation androbs the children of the opportunity to create to contribute to the process whereby the per-their own inner pictures and hence counter- son is able to express his or her “spiritualacts the development of imaginative life. core” may take many years to unfold in a person’s life. Some of the research reviewed In class  (age 14/1), the intellectual in the study of Woods et. al. point, however,aspects of knowledge come more to the fore. to some distinctive educational benefits ofChildren are not considered ready for inde- Steiner Waldorf schools. One study by Riverspendent thinking and judgment until this age. and Soutter (199) provided evidence sup-There is no longer a class teacher - classes portive of the view that Steiner Waldorf ed-are taught by different specialist teachers. ucation encourages ethical and social devel-Abilities of exact observation, comparison, opment. The results highlighted thereflection, analysis and synthesis are culti- integration of moral learning into most ofvated. All children are taught mathematics, the subjects, the real life contextualisation ofscience, social studies and humanities, but learning and the effectiveness of the schoolthe arts and crafts activities also continue. ethos and teacher/pupil relationships. An-The Steiner Waldorf curriculum is based on other study by Payne, River-Bento, and12 years of schooling and children are dis- Skillings (2002), although focusing on wayscouraged from focusing too much on one of working with children with attention deficitlimited field of study, even in the upper orders and not based on ordinary school ac-classes. Connections between the sciences tivity, nevertheless, indicated that Steinerand the humanities are consistently stressed, Waldorf education is beneficial both for aca-for instance by going deeply into the biogra- demic development and social abilitiesphies of famous scientists and inventors. (Woods, Ashley, and Woods, 200, p. 31). In the following section, the results of a recent Steiner Waldorf education deals with chil- evaluation study of Swedish Steiner Waldorfdren’s social and emotional education mostly schools, related to the issue of social andin an indirect way. The teachers are trained emotional education, will be presented.in perceiving “the whole child”, i.e. its life ofwilling, feeling, and thinking, as well as the The first comparative study: civic-moralindividuality behind its actions and behaviour. competenceThe comprehensive view of the development In order to compare the Steiner Waldorf stu-of the child from age 7 to age 19, and the fact dents’ ability to take a standpoint on complex 107
  • 95. Country Chapter #2 | Swedensocial and moral questions with that of stu- and to what extent school teaching had dealtdents in municipal schools, a questionnaire with the problems presented in the tasks.was used that had been devised for a sub- There were also a number of questions aboutproject in The Swedish National Agency for the students’ thoughts around ethics andEducation’s national survey in 199. The morals, as well as a test to measure the de-sub-project dealt with “the civic-moral as- gree of self-esteem (Rosenberg, 199).pect” of teaching in Social Studies, and aimedto examine the students’ ability to: The questionnaire was delivered to stu- dents in class 9 (age 1/1) and 12 (age 1 | Identify and explain current social 1/19) at the 11 Steiner Waldorf schools and moral problems participating in the study. The Social Studies teachers were asked to administer, hand out 2 | Propose solutions for these and collect completed questionnaires. The problems frequency of response was 77%, which cor- responds to 32 students. The comparison 3 | Give reasons for their proposals. group from The Swedish National Agency for Education’s evaluation in 199 comprised In order to investigate these abilities as 407 students in class 9 (age 1/1) and up-essential aspects of “civic-moral competence”, per secondary class III (age 1/19) from aa response-based evaluation model was used total of 19 municipal schools. With respect tothat focused on the students’ solutions to a gender distribution there were no great dif-number of real social and moral dilemmas ferences between the two groups. However,presented to them. The evaluation instru- there were differences in the students’ socialment was formed as a questionnaire and backgrounds, which as far as possible haveconsisted of two tasks that dealt with current been taken into consideration when com-social and moral problems. There was a pic- paring the groups.ture with each task that related to the specificproblem. The pictures were deliberately am- The results of this evaluation were mani-biguous, so that the students were able to fold and complex. Only those results whichmake their own interpretations of the real are of particular interest for this report areproblem and to build their own questions presented here, in a simplified form.around them (the idea is similar to the wayone works with Philosophy for Children, ex- The two tasks that the students were askedcept that the “stories” presented for reflection to deal with in the evaluation questionnaireare not fictional but real). The first task dealt had a rather complex character. Furthermore,with the problem of hostility towards immi- they did not have only one definitely right an-grants and the rise of neo-Nazism. The sec- swer. Hence, they differed a lot from the kindond raised the problem of prenatal genetic of tasks students are commonly given inresearch on human embryos. schools. It is therefore of some interest to see how the students reacted to the tasks, since In addition to these two problem-solving these reactions in themselves indicate their at-tasks, the questionnaires contained a number titudes towards social and moral problems. Forof complementary questions with answers this reason, some questions about the taskson a graded scale. The purpose of these was, themselves were included in the questionnaire.among others, to gather data on how the stu-dents reacted to the evaluation tasks, how Results showed that most of the students inmuch effort they spent working on the tasks both age groups thought that the tasks were10
  • 96. Country Chapter #2 | Sweden Question W9 W12 ∆% M9 M12 ∆% 1. Thought the tasks were easy to understand 1 2 +11 13 13 0 2. Thought the tasks were important 34  +24 2 22 -3 3. Thought the tasks were interesting 23 41 +18 12 1 +4 4. Considered themselves good at Social Studies 31 39 +8 3 19 -16 . Thought Social Studies was interesting 4  +21 44 3 -8 . Thought the school’s teaching of 27 0 +23 4 22 -24 Social Studies was good 7. Would feel responsible as an adult 22 33 +11 1 1 +1 for the problems illustrated in the tasks . Felt responsible for the moral 24 3 +11 17 17 0 development of society 9. Discussed moral issues at home 14 20 +6 1 10 -5Table 2. Comparison of the frequency of positive answers to a number of questions from The SwedishNational Agency for Education’s national evaluation in 199. Percentage of each age group and type ofschool. (W9 = Steiner Waldorf class 9 etc; M9 =municipal school class 9 etc; ∆% = per cent difference).generally rather difficult to respond to. How- the age groups was only marginal (see Tableever, comparing the two age groups, the 2 ). The opinions about Social Studies wereSteiner Waldorf students to a greater extent also more positive amongst the Steiner Wal-thought that the tasks were important, inter- dorf students, while it actually became in-esting and easy to understand compared to creasingly negative among the students inthe municipal students (for exact numbers, municipal schools (questions  and  in Tablesee Table 2 , questions 1, 2 and 3). 2). Besides, involvement in moral issues seemed to increase with age among SteinerSteiner Waldorf students felt a greater re- Waldorf students, but was rather constantsponsibility for social and moral issues among the students in municipal schools. InSteiner Waldorf students felt to a greater ex- all these respects the proportion of “positive”tent responsible for social and moral issues, Steiner Waldorf students tended to be greatercompared to the students in municipal schools. even in class 9 (age 14/1).In both age groups, more Steiner Waldorf stu-dents felt a responsibility for the future moral Since this was not a longitudinal study, wedevelopment of society, and that they would be cannot definitely say that Steiner Waldorfresponsible as adults to do something about students generally develop in this way be-the circumstances described in the two eval- tween class 9 (age 14/1) and class 12 (ageuation tasks (for exact numbers, again see 1/19). The results, however, indicate thatTable 2, questions 7 and ). such a development may take place. This would mean that Steiner Waldorf studentsSteiner Waldorf students’ involvement in social experience to a greater extent a positive de-and moral issues increased with their age velopment regarding interest and engage-When comparing the two age groups, it was ment in social and moral issues.evident that the number of Steiner Waldorfstudents who thought the tasks were impor- Steiner Waldorf students seemed more in-tant, interesting and easy to understand in- clined to refer to love, fellow feeling andcreased considerably between class 9 and civil courageclass 12. Among the students in the munici- When comparing the students’ answers topal schools however, the difference between the two evaluation tasks, the Steiner Waldorf 109
  • 97. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenstudents, to a somewhat greater extent than conduct is often connected with positive selfthe municipal students, were inclined to re- esteem. In order to investigate whether therefer to moral qualities like love, fellow feeling, was a connection between positive self es-solidarity and the “civil courage” to stand up teem and civic-moral competence (as de-for what you think is right. The greatest con- fined in this study), Rosenberg’s self-evalua-trast concerned civil courage (in the context tion test was included in the questionnaire.of fighting neo-Nazism and hostility towards The results showed that the Steiner Waldorfimmigrants): in total 1 % of the Steiner students had a somewhat higher averageWaldorf students referred to this moral qual- score (30.0 as compared to 27.2). On theity, compared to 7 % among the municipal other hand, the Steiner Waldorf group wasstudents (p < .001). considerably more heterogeneous in this re- spect (s = . as compared to 2.9). The dif- The answers of the Steiner Waldorf stu- ference between the two groups was statisti-dents seemed also to be characterised by cally significant (p < .001). However, stronggreater thoughtfulness, more confidence in and unambiguous correlations between self-inherent human goodness, and less trust in esteem and civic-moral competence couldthe view that recruiting more policemen or not be observed in this study.establishing stricter laws could solve moralproblems at a social level. For instance, con- The second comparative study: attitudes to-cerning the problem of neo-Nazism, 3 % of wards, and opinions about, the school,the municipal students thought that “stricter teachers and parentslaws and more policemen” would solve the In this study, parts of The Swedish Nationalproblem, compared to 24 % of the Steiner Agency for Education’s evaluation survey fromWaldorf group (p < .001). 2003 were used in order to gain further evi- dence on the extent to which Steiner WaldorfSteiner Waldorf students suggested to a schools develop moral and social values. Thisgreater extent solutions based on stopping study focused only on students in class 9 (ageor limiting Nazi and racist ideologies 1/1). The evaluation, in the form of a ques-Since Nazism and racism are topical social tionnaire with fixed response alternatives, fo-phenomena, the study analysed to what ex- cused chiefly on the attitudes of the students.tent the students disassociated themselves Therefore, it cannot be said to measure thefrom these ideologies. The majority of stu- students’ ability to take a stand on social anddents in both types of school disassociated moral issues, to the same extent as the ques-themselves from Nazism and racism. The tionnaire from 199. From The Swedish Na-number of students that suggested anti-Nazi tional Agency for Education’s questionnaire aand anti-racist solutions, i.e. solutions aimed selection of questions concerning the students’at counteracting or stopping Nazism or social and moral experience and attitudes wasracism, was however even larger among made. Also included were questions on theSteiner Waldorf students: 93 % of the Steiner students’ attitudes to and opinion of the school,Waldorf group suggested such solutions, the teachers and the parents.compared to 72 % of the municipal students(p < .001). 19 Steiner Waldorf students responded to this survey. The number of responding stu-Steiner Waldorf students had a higher self dents from municipal schools was 941. Theesteem on average disproportion between the samples reflectsResearch into moral development has indi- the different sizes of the two populationscated that persistent and committed moral (even if all Swedish Steiner Waldorf students110
  • 98. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenSimilar to the Rinkeby school presented above, the SteinerWaldorf approach to social and emotional education wouldbe classified as mainly indirect, emphasising values ratherthan particular skillsin class 9 would have been included, the num- open and tolerant attitudes to students withber would not be above 400.) However, there learning difficulties, compared to the stu-were differences in the social background of dents in municipal schools. They also hadthe two student groups and this has been more open and tolerant attitudes both to-taken into consideration in the comparisons. wards immigrants and extremist religious groups. In all these areas, the differences be-Steiner Waldorf teachers are seen to attach tween the two groups were about 20 % (pgreater importance in their teaching to hu- mostly < .01).man dignity, equality and the environmentThe comparison showed that Steiner Waldorf Only with regard to criminals andstudents, to a greater extent than those in Nazis/racists/skinheads was the relationmunicipal schools, thought that their teachers between the two groups the opposite, i.e.attached importance to the human dignity of Steiner Waldorf students showed a less tol-all people, equality between the sexes, care of erant attitude, compared to the students inthe environment and disassociation from bul- municipal schools.lying in their teaching. They also found, to agreater extent, that the teachers attached im- Less variation between girls’ and boys’ atti-portance to cooperation and that the students tudes in Steiner Waldorf schoolswith the greatest learning difficulties received Although the girls in general had more openthe most help. In all of these areas, the num- and tolerant attitudes than the boys in bothber of Steiner Waldorf students who an- respondent groups, the differences betweenswered favourably about all or most of their the sexes in these respects was considerablyteachers was around 10 % higher (p < .0). less among the Steiner Waldorf students. Among the students in municipal schools all Steiner Waldorf students experienced bul- differences between girls and boys were sta-lying or unfair treatment to a lesser extent, tistically significant: among Steiner Waldorfcompared to the municipal students. As for students, most of the differences were statis-bullying, 0. % of Steiner Waldorf students tically non-significant.said they were bullied every day in school,compared to 3 % of the municipal students (p What can be learned from the Steiner Wal-< .0). They also experienced to a greater ex- dorf schools?tent that a teacher or another grown-up im- The results presented above suggest thatmediately intervened if a student was being Steiner Waldorf schools are quite successfulbullied (4 % versus 24 %; p < .01). in educating active, responsible and demo- cratic citizens. However, the Steiner WaldorfSteiner Waldorf students had more tolerant students’ specific social and cultural back-attitudes towards deviant social groups ground in the form of parents’ values and so-Steiner Waldorf students had generally more cial involvement (these were investigated in 111
  • 99. Country Chapter #2 | Swedenanother part of the project) may also play a whereas  % had worked with it in class 12significant role in the observed results. It is (age 1/19). In comparison, 4 % of thehard to say which is the most important, the municipal school students had worked withSteiner Waldorf pedagogical methods or the this question already in (or before) class 9social background of the students. But the (usually including the holocaust and neo-schools’ teaching methods certainly have Nazism). Thus the Steiner Waldorf schoolssome significance. This is indicated by Sol- seem to defer complex cognitive moral andhaug (2007), who reports a Norwegian study social issues until the students have reachedcomparing Steiner Waldorf and municipal a certain level of maturity. This may actuallyschools at the upper secondary level. Similar be the reason why interest in social andto the results reported here, Solhaug found moral questions among Steiner Waldorf stu-that Steiner Waldorf students scored signifi- dents increased with age (see Table 2 above).cantly higher on tolerance and social en- In parallel, the comparatively and continu-gagement, as well as on interest in social is- ously lower interest among municipal stu-sues. The municipal students, on the other dents may have to do with a premature starthand, scored higher on factual knowledge in cognitive moral reflection and discussion.and on the intention to participate in future If this were true, it would point to the im-parliamentary elections. A statistical analysis portance of considering what pedagogical ac-showed that the home background of the tions regarding social and emotional educa-students accounted for most of the statistical tion are appropriate at which age level.variance. However, the analysis also showedthat the schools themselves had a significantinfluence on the results, albeit small. If we ask about the specific pedagogicalmethods that contribute to the observed re-sults, one can only hazard a guess. Similar tothe Rinkeby school presented above, theSteiner Waldorf approach to social and emo-tional education would be classified as mainlyindirect, emphasising values rather than par-ticular skills. The intentional emphasis on feelings andimagination in the lower classes (age -9), aswell as the emphasis on human and moralvalues in all subjects, even in science andmaths, might be relevant factors. In addition,complex cognitive questions and discussionsin the moral and social spheres are not takenup until well after puberty. In contrast, in themunicipal schools, such questions are dealtwith much earlier. For instance, in the firststudy described above only 12 % of theSteiner Waldorf students said they hadworked with the problem of hostility towardsimmigrants in or before class 9 (age 1/1),112
  • 100. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenNotes:1 Data for the Rinkeby study has been gathered from a book about the Rinkeby school (Busk, 2003), from a two hour lecture by the Headmaster Börje Ehrstrand given in Karlstad (Sweden) at the 19th of March 2007, and from about one hour’s informal talk with him after the lecture. In addition, infor- mation from websites and reports in daily papers has been used. Börje Ehrstrand has also reviewed and corrected some minor facts of the first draft of this report.2 In Sweden all students are offered free school lunches. However, at the Rinkeby school they are also offered breakfast, as many students, according to research, eat too little at home in the mornings. This was an initiative of the Student’s Council.3 In Sweden, many attempts have been made to strengthen the cooperation between preschool and school. They often fail due to the very different professional traditions of preschool teachers and school teachers. However, the two study programs strengthen the cooperation between the preschool and school.4 Research has found language ability to be an im- portant factor of social and emotional learning (Wa- terhouse, 200). Some thinkers even maintain that literacy is essential not only for learning in general, but also for the sense of our selves and our identity as modern human beings (Sanders, 1994). If this is true it raises serious questions concerning the flight from books and reading that we see among many young people today. Libraries, both public and at the schools, are important resources for coun- teracting these tendencies.114
  • 101. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenReferences Swedish classrooms for the promotion of mental health: results from an effec-Biesta, G. (2007). Why ‘what works’ won’t tiveness study in Sweden. Retrieved work: Evidence-based practice and the March , 200, from http://heapro.ox- democratic deficit in educational re- fordjournals.org/cgi/content/ab- search. Educational Theory, 57; 1-22 stract/dam04v1?maxtoshow=&HITS=1 0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&au-Busk, Y. (2003). Rinkebyskolan. Framtidstro thor1=kimber&andorexacttitle=and&an- - ledarskap - helhetssyn. Stockholm: dorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfull- Natur och Kultur. [The Rinkeby School. text=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&s Belief in the future - leadership - holis- ortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT tic vision] Payne, K. J., River-Bento, B. and Skillings, A.Corsaro, W. A. (200). The sociology of child- (2002). Initial report of the Waldorf hood. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press ADHD research project. Research Bul- letin, 7; 32-33. [Journal of the ResearchDahlin, B. (2007). The Waldorf School - Cul- Institute for Waldorf Education, USA] tivating humanity? A report from an eval- uation of Waldorf schools in Sweden. Rawson, M. & Richter, T. (2000). The edu- Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies cational tasks and content of the Steiner Waldorf curriculum. Forest Row, Sussex:Easton, F. (1997). Educating the whole child, Steiner Waldorf Schools Fellowship ‘head, heart and hands’: Learning from the Waldorf experience. Theory into Prac- Rivers, I., & Soutter, A. (199). Bullying and tice, 36; 7-9 the Steiner school ethos. School Psychol- ogy International, 17; 39-377Flyvbjerg, B. (2001). Making social science matter: Why social inquiry fails and how it Rosenberg, M. (199). Society and the ado- can succeed again. Cambridge: Cam- lescent self-image. Middletown, CN.: bridge University Press Wesleyan University PressFrånberg, G. (2003). Mobbning i nordiska Sanders, B. (1994). A is for Ox. The collapse skolor - kartläggning av forskning om och of literacy and the rise of violence in an nationella åtgärder mot mobbning i electronic age. New York: Vintage Books nordiska skolor. Nordiska Ministerrådet, Scanprint A/S. [Bullying in Nordic Scheff, T. J. (1997). Emotions, the social schools - a review of research into and bond, and human reality: Part/whole national interventions against bullying in analysis. Cambridge, MA.: Cambridge Nordic schools] University PressGinsburg, I. (192). Jean Piaget and Rudolf Solhaug, T. (2007). Steinerskoler i et Steiner: Stages of child development and demokratisk perspektiv: En sammen- implications for pedagogy. Teachers Col- likning med offentlige skoler i Norge. lege Record, 84; 327-337 Nordisk Pedagogik, 27(2); 10-171. [Steiner schools in a democratic per-Kimber, B., Sandell, R., & Bremberg, S. spective. A comparison with public schools (200). Social and emotional training in in Norway] 11
  • 102. Country Chapter #2 | SwedenThe National Agency for Education (200). Lebens- und Sinnstrukturen für die Läroplan för det obligatoriska skolväsendet, Schulkrise (pp. 11-133). Frankfur/M: förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet. Stock- Diesterweg. [‘I guess today I am again not holm: Fritzes. [Curriculum plan for pub- motivated…’ About the self-image of stu- lic schools, preschool classes and leisure dents and teachers today] centres] Waterhouse, L. (200). Multiple intelligences,The National Agency for Education (2001). the Mozart effect, and emotional intelli- Integration förskoleklass, grundskola och gence: A critical review. Educational Psy- fritidshem. Stockholm: Fritzes. [Integra- chologist, 41; 207-22 tion of preschool class, comprehensive school and leisure centre.] Wennberg, B. (2000). EQ på svenska. Stock- holm: Natur och Kultur. [EQ in Swedish]The National Agency for Education (2000). Elever i behov av särskilt stöd ökar. Avail- Woods, P., Ashley, M., & Woods, G. (200). able at http://www.skolverket.se/ Steiner schools in England. Research re- fakta/bild/stod.shtml. [Retrieved 01- port RR645. Bristol: University of West 11-2000] [The increase in the number England of pupils with special needs.]The Swedish National Agency for School Im- provement. (2003). Olikas lika värde: om arbetet mot mobbning och kränkande behandling. Stockholm: The Swedish Na- tional Agency for School Improvement. [The equal value of the different: about the work against bullying and offensive treatment]The Swedish National Agency for School Im- provement. (2007). Granskning av utvärderingar av program mot mobbning. Stockholm: Myndigheten för skolutveck- ling. [Review of assessments of programs against bullying]Ziehe, Tomas (192). Plädoyer für ungewöhn- liches Lernen. Idéen zur Jugendsituation. Hamburg: Rowohlt. [Arguments for un- conventional learning. Ideas about the youth situation.]Ziehe, Tomas (194). ‘Ich bin heute wohl wieder unmotiviert...’ Zum heutigen Selb- sbild von Schülern und Lehrern. In F. Bohnsack (Ed.), Sinnlosigkeit und Sin- nperspektive. Die Bedeutung gewandelter11
  • 103. The Netherlands
  • 104. Social and Emotional Education, or Skills for Life, in theNetherlands: a Review of History, Policies and PracticesRené F.W. DiekstraAbstractThis chapter provides an overview of the history, policies and present situation with regardto social and emotional education programmes in primary and secondary public schools in theNetherlands. In the Netherlands these programmes tend to be known as Social Skills or So-cial Competencies Training, or Skills for Life or Life Skills Programme.There is no national curriculum in the Netherlands, as there is, for example, in the United King-dom. However, primary schools, all work towards the same central goals and as a result thecore curricula tend to be quite similar to one another. In spite of this fact, there is a great het-erogeneity across public schools in Holland with regard to the social emotional learning pro-grammes that are adopted, and the take up of such learning programmes tends to be both var-ied and patchy.A particular focus of this report is the role that schools can and ought to be playing in the pro-motion of mental health and in taking a preventative approach to reducing the incidence ofsocial, emotional and mental problems in the general population of children and adolescents.In 1989 the Dutch Government’s Scientific Advisory Council commissioned a study on Youthand Development with a specific emphasis on preventive youth policies and programmes. TheCity of Rotterdam was the first to take up the recommendations of the report and launched aprogramme consisting of a number of different strands called “Growing up in the City”. TheSkills for Life programme for 14 to 17 year olds was one of these strands. The overall aim ofthis programme is: “Acquiring and / or increasing skills that enable young people to effectivelydeal with the social, emotional and moral demands and challenges of everyday life.” This suc-cessful programme that has since been further developed and is now disseminated through-out the Netherlands is described in some detail.René F. W. Diekstra is a Professor of Psychology and Head of the Department of Youth and De-velopment at the University for Professional Education, The Hague, and professor of psychol-ogy for the Roosevelt Academy, Honors College of the University of Utrecht. He developednational youth programmes such as the succesfull Monitoring the Youth and Skills for Life pro-grammes. He also worked for the World Health Organization Headquarters as manager of theprogramme on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Health and Development. He has writ-ten over 300 scientific articles and over 40 books on topics such as suicide in adolescents,youth development, and preventive interventions. He just completed a national study on whatadults understand about Child Development. The results of this study will form the basis of aCanon of Child Development. 119
  • 105. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsIntroduction promoting social and emotional skills carryThe purpose of this paper is to present a these labels (Skills for Life, see Gravesteijn &concise, ‘state of the art’ overview of the his- Diekstra, 1998, 2004, 2008, Life Skills, seetory, policies, and research on the effective- www.leefstijl.nl).ness of Social Emotional or Skills for Life ed-ucation programmes in the public school Although no valid information is availablesystem in the Netherlands, both on the pri- on how many schools in the country, at onemary and secondary levels. It also provides a time or another, have implemented, and/ordetailed and illustrative example of the con- still implement, social skills or social compe-tent and practice of such programmes. tencies programmes, it seems reasonable to assume that a substantial percentage and pos- As will become clear from what follows, sibly even a majority have done so at one timesuch an overview meets with a number of or another. The latter estimate is presumablyobstacles and uncertainties. more realistic for primary than for second- ary schools. As to the number of schools that First of all there is the issue of terminology. have implemented, and/or are still imple-Within the Dutch school system, the term so- menting, the ‘Levensvaardigheden’ or ‘Leef-cial emotional education, or learning, is quite stijl’ programme, it seems valid to assume thatuncommon. Consequently policies, programs it runs into many hundreds (see www.leef-and activities that in purpose, content and stijl.nl, personal communication Gravesteijn).method are similar or even identical to what But both for these programmes as well as forare labeled as Social Emotional Education or (other) social skills or social competenciesLearning (SEL) policies and programmes else- programs, no information is available as towhere, particularly in the United States, are how many schools, having launched thedifficult to identify, and therewith obtaining a programme, have successfully maintainedrepresentative overview of what takes place in their implementation over consecutive cohortsthe Dutch school system in these respects is of students.practically impossible at present. As a matterof fact, only recently (2007), supported by a There is also no data available at this pointnational governmental subsidy, a website on the criteria or considerations used bycalled Sociaal Emotionele Ontwikkeling1 (So- schools to opt for a particular programmecial Emotional Development) has been and, with the exception of the Lev-launched that is meant to be instrumental both ensvaardigheden and Leefstijl programs,in introducing such terminology into the edu- whether teachers are specifically trained tocational system as well as assembling exam- deliver such programmes to their students.3ples of good practice, to provide information It therefore seems reasonable to assume thatand support and to stimulate schools to em- there is a huge variety in the type, length,brace social and emotional education. conditions and maintenance of implementa- tion of social emotional education pro- More commonly in use are the terms So- grammes throughout the country. Conse-cial Skills Training or Social Competencies quently, the specific set of social, emotionalTraining (e.g. Bijstra et al., 1994, van and possibly moral skills taught to studentsOverveld en Louwe, 20052). Also in use are also shows a wide variety both in terms ofSkills for Life (‘Levensvaardigheden’ in type and number of skills.Dutch) and Life Skills (‘Leefstijl’ in Dutch).This is probably due to the fact that two of the The picture that has been sketched thus farbest known school programmes devoted to suggests that in actual fact it is the policies120
  • 106. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsThe picture sketched thus far suggests that it is the policiesand convictions of school boards, school directors andpossibly teachers, and not so much the developmentalneeds of children and youngsters, that determine whether,in what ways, their social and emotional development willbe attended to within the school contextand convictions of school boards, school di- and at worst gives cause for concern. Morerectors and possibly teachers, and not so and more data is becoming available on themuch the developmental needs of children importance of social and emotional educationand youngsters, that determine whether and in schools, both for the social and emotionalin what ways their social and emotional de- development of children and youngsters asvelopment will be attended to within the well as for their cognitive development andschool context. It also suggests that if schools scholastic achievements (see, for example,explicitly pay attention to social emotional Weissberg et al., 2007, Diekstra, 2008).education, the choice of the methods and ap-proaches is often not evidence-based. If true, However, there is also reason for opti-this state of affairs cannot simply be attrib- mism given two recent developments. First,uted to a lack of empirical data on the effec- since 1st January 2006 all primary and sec-tiveness of programmes since, as will be pre- ondary schools are required to include edu-sented further on in this chapter, there are a cation for active citizenship or civic engage-number of programmes developed within the ment in their curriculum goals and activities.Dutch language area that have been evaluated It is to be expected that education for activemore or less satisfactorily in terms of desired citizenship will contain important and sub-outcomes, or which at least look promising. stantial components of social and emotional,Also, a system has been adopted and made or skills for life, education. However, no for-accessible to schools by one of the national mal regulations or demands regarding con-organizations for youth development and tent and didactic forms have been formulatedcare,4 in order to classify available pro- or specified as yet. In actual fact, it is left togrammes in terms of evidence of effective- schools themselves to decide upon how citi-ness. In addition to this, there is also an ex- zenship education will be implemented. But ittensive international body of knowledge on is to be expected that in the relatively shorteffective programmes (see, for example, term, some official guidelines will be pro-www.casel.org). The latter, however, up to vided as to how to implement education fornow, may be less known or accessible to citizenship. The National School Inspectoratesschools and is only relevant to them once the have been charged, from 2008 onwards,programmes have been translated into Dutch with the task of assessing whether schoolsand adapted to the Dutch school system. adequately address active citizenship in terms of the time devoted to the theme and the rel- In summary, the national picture of social evance of the activities. At least the followingand emotional education, or skills for life ed- three criteria will be applied to guide this as-ucation, in primary and secondary schools in sessment. One is the knowledge of childrenThe Netherlands, is at best mixed and patchy, and adolescents regarding basic values and 121
  • 107. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsIn the light of the developments described above, civiceducation and social emotional education might becomeone side of the coin of education completing the other side,that of cognitive-scholastic education, therewithenhancing the overall development of children andyoungstersnorms for living and participating in a dem- In the following, the history and presentocratic society. Another is the ability to ef- state of knowledge and practice in the Nether-fectively and respectfully deal with cultural lands regarding social emotional education,diversity. And a third is the acquisition of skills for life education, social skills educationknowledge and skills to actively contribute to or social competencies education will be con-the community, such as the neighbourhood, cisely summarized. Given the confusion cre-town, or social organizations. Related to this ated by this multitude of terms usually con-is the requirement for all secondary school sidered to be synonyms, in the followingstudents to complete what is labeled as ‘social section/s the generic terms Social Emotionalinternship’. This implies that they have to or Skills for Life education will be used. In theengage in volunteer work or other types of opinion of the author this term expresses mostcommunity service for a period of (summa- appropriately the vision that lies at the heart oftive) six weeks during secondary education. the movement striving towards a balance be- tween the prevailing emphasis in the educa- The second promising development is a di- tional system on cognitive-scholastic compe-rective by the Ministeries of Education and tencies and a symmetrical emphasis on social,Health to subsidize schools only for those emotional and moral skills. It is the convergentcivic education and related programmes that and mutually reinforcing acquisition of thesehave been assessed as evidence-based or as four types of skills that provides children with‘promising’, implying that at least some em- the skills for life needed at the time they arrivepirical evidence is available with regard to at the threshold of adulthood.their effects. Although schools can still decideto financially support their own ‘favourite’ A short history of Social Emotional or Skillsprograms or activities, such a directive pre- for Life Education in the Netherlandssumably will have a formative effect, both inthe short and the longer term. To be a citizen of the world, marked by a due consciouness of obligation to the In the light of the developments described Community in which we are placed, isabove it may well be that civic education and the highest aim (of education).”social emotional education will become oneside of the coin of education completing the Desiderius Erasmus5other side, that of cognitive-scholastic edu-cation, therewith enhancing the overall de- The field of schooling and education hasvelopment of children and youngsters. always been an arena of conflicting value122
  • 108. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlandssystems, approaches and practices. Conflict- tral tenet and objective of education is toing values in the educational system are mar- raise children to become ethically responsi-ket values versus character formation values ble, critical, independently thinking andand obedience/authority values versus au- compassionate human beings. Knowledge,tonomy/democratic values.6 such as technical skills are important to learn as far as they make material survival and This certainly also holds true for the economic independence possible, but only toNetherlands. Some of the greatest minds in the extent that they provide the time andthe history of the country, such as Desiderius opportunity for rational and ethical develop-Erasmus (1466?-1536) and Baruch de Spin- ment. Spinoza sees these two concepts, ra-oza (1632-1677) have devoted important tional and ethical, as being closely related,parts of their works to the question of what because it is through the development of hiseducation and schooling is for and how it rationality that man becomes an ethical be-should be implemented. ing. Development of rationality means first of all to develop one’s capacity to accurately Erasmus wrote, among a number of oth- perceive and understand one’s own nature.er educational works, a book especially This implies self knowledge and therefore,meant for adolescents, their parents and growth in self knowledge, including knowl-teachers, on good manners and civilized be- edge about one’s relationship to the rest ofhavior in everyday human interactions. In it, nature, is an essential part of the process ofhe pointed to the importance of schools in education and a precondition to the devel-promoting such qualities.7 In another book, opment of virtue and character (Puolimatka,his main work on the education of youth, ‘De 2001, p.401). In Spinoza’s own words: “..hePueris’ (1529), he stated that education who is ignorant of himself is ignorant of the(from the latin ‘e-ducare’ = to draw out) is the foundations of all the virtues, and conse-effort to turn ‘uncivilized’ human nature quently, of all the virtues..”.12 But self knowl-into peaceful and social dispositions and to dis- edge is only virtuous if it leads to the devel-courage vices and disrespectful tendencies or opment of the capacity to steer, to havedrives. According to Erasmus, schooling control over one’s emotions. Learning toshould start as early as possible, preferably think or to becoming rational is the precon-not later than at the age of four, and teach- dition for learning to control emotions. In hisers have a role in the overall development of own words: “As for the terms good and bad,children which is at least as important as that they indicate no positive quality in things re-of parents. In Erasmus’ words: “They deserve garded in themselves, but are merely modesas much respect as parents,…. they are so to of thinking, or notions which we form fromspeak the mental parents..”.8 Such is the em- the comparison of things with one another.phasis that Erasmus puts on the overall de- Thus one and the same thing can be at thevelopment of children and youngsters through same time good, bad, and indifferent. For in-schools that he summarizes his own position stance, music is good for him that is melan-on education as follows: “Men are not born, choly, bad for him that mourns; for him thatbut educated”.9 is deaf it is neither good nor bad”.13 Although Spinoza’s educational theory has However, for Spinoza, to become rationalnot been widely discussed in the centuries and to acquire self-knowledge, is not worth-after his death, it had and still has great sig- while in itself, but only as far as it leads to thenificance (see Rabenort, 1911, see also control over emotions for the best interests ofPuolimatka, 2001).10 For Spinoza,11 the cen- all. Being well-educated, that is, being a vir- 123
  • 109. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlandstuous or moral person, for Spinoza meant as such existed as yet. The law forbade faith-first and foremost to be of use to others. based schools. In 1806 The Netherlands be-Hence Spinoza’s famous saying: “A moral came a monarchy and its first king wasperson wants nothing for himself that he Louis Napoleon, the brother of the emperordoes not want for others”. In summary, for of France. In 1814, after the abdication ofSpinoza, being educated is, formulated in the emperor, the monarchy went over topresent-day terms, first and foremost, a mat- the House of Orange, which still rules today,ter of the acquisition of emotional, social and and William the First became the first kingmoral literacy. of that lineage. From the very beginning of his reign, heavy emphasis was put on edu- The positions of Erasmus and Spinoza per- cation, clearly because the demand for ap-vasively influenced many later generations, propriately educated and trained employeesand their influence is still clearly visible today within industry was rapidly increasing. In(as, for example, witnessed by the dozens of the following years, the prohibition of faith-schools, organisations and honours that are based schooling, an off-shoot of the Frenchnamed after each of them). However, their po- Revolution and Napoleonic ideology, wasOf the total number of over 7000 primary schools in theNetherlands today, about two thirds are faith-basedschools and less than one-third are public schools. Thereare about 160 Montessori schools, 30 Free schools and313 Dalton schoolssition that schools had to foster both emotional, heavily attacked from several sides, both bymoral and civic development, besides practi- Protestants and Roman Catholics. The Con-cal/technical development has waxed and stitution of 1848 settled the issue and ruledwaned in the centuries following their deaths. that in principle ‘everyone has the right to provide education’. Consequently, all overThe Dutch school system the country Roman Catholic and ProtestantIn the centuries that Erasmus and Spinoza schools were founded alongside publiclived in and up until 1806, the Netherlands schools. In 1901 education became obliga-was a Republic composed of a number of tory for all children aged 6 to 12 years. Butmore or less autonomous provinces and the State only subsidized public, non-faith-cities. Education was either private, home- based schools. This led to a new crisis thatbased or organised in schools and seminar- was solved by the Constitution of 1917ies that were essentially self-governing. Un- which ruled that both public and faith-basedder the influence of the Napoleonic schools would be subsidized by the State.domination of Europe and therewith also of This is still the situation today, implying, forthe Netherlands, the first Education laws example, that also Islamic schools, a conse-were passed (in 1801, 1803 and 1806). quence of the growing percentage of theThe law of 1806 stated that every child had population that adhere to Islam as religion,the right to attend school, but no obligation are being subsidized (see table 1).124
  • 110. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsTable 12005–2006 School Year. Students and type of primary schools (public, faith-based) in the Netherlands Type Students Schools N % N % Size* Public Schools 477.500 30,8% 2.393 33,5% 200 Non-public schools, out of which 1.071.900 69,2% 4.741 66,5% 226 the following are: Roman-Catholic 522.800 33,7% 2.098 29,4% 249 Protestant (different types) 416.800 27,6% 2109 28,6% 203 Islamic 9.200 0,6% 47 0,7% 195 Hindu 1.500 0,1% 5 0,1% 309 Jewish 400 0,0% 2 0,0% 187 TOTAL 1.549.500 100,0% 7.134 100,0% 217Source: adapted from Yearbook Education in numbers 2007, Central Bureau of Statistics, the Netherlands* Average number of students per school Apart from ‘regular’ public schools and As to social and emotional development, afaith-based schools, there are also Montessori number of basic goals have been formulated,schools in the country both for primary and in particular the following:secondary education as well as so-called‘Vrije scholen” (‘Free schools’), often also • Students learn to take care of theirdesignated as Rudolf Steiner or Anthropo- own physical and mental health assophical schools, similar to what is elsewhere well as those of othersdesignated as Waldorf schools, and there arealso Dalton schools. Of the total number of • Students acquire self-efficacy, both inover 7000 primary schools in the country to- social exchanges with others, in roadday, about two thirds are faith-based schools traffic participation and as consumerand less than one-third are public schools.There are about 160 Montessori schools, 30 • Students learn the key characteris-Free schools and 313 Dalton schools. tics of the Dutch and European State institutions and of their role as citizen Compared to the beginning of obligatory ed-ucation in 1901 the number of years of com- • The students learn to respect gen-pulsory education has more than doubled. erally accepted values and norms,School attendance today is obligatory from age and to behave accordingly.145 onwards up to age 18. Generally speaking,although there is no national curriculum in The However, schools are autonomous in theNetherlands as there is, for example, in way they educate pupils in these aspects.Great Britain, primary schools are uniform in Generally speaking, faith-based schools haveterms of their central goals and therefore to a long tradition of paying attention to thesea large extent also in terms of their core cur- aspects through the prism of their religiousriculum, But there are substantial differ- values, customs and practices. They also placeences in school culture, the values and norms a strong emphasis on teachers as moral andthat are emphasized, didactic methods or behavioural models for the students. But fo-strategies, parent-school links and relation- cused class teaching of social, emotional andships with the surrounding Community. moral skills, e.g. through structured pro- 125
  • 111. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsThe obligation of both primary and secondary schoolssince 2006 to invest in “education for citizenship” ofchildren and youngsters, as well as the proposedformulation of stricter guidelines for its implementation,might also lead to greater emphasis on, and increased useof, systematic social, emotional and moral educationprogrammes. But it remains to be seen whether this willindeed be the casegrammes, has not been part of that tradition. guidelines for its implementation, might, as aIn public schools, the situation was and still is side-effect, also lead to greater emphasis oneven more equivocal or diverse. Therefore, in an increased use of systematic social, emo-summary, it remains unclear to what extent tional and moral education programmes. Butprimary schools succeed in educating their it remains to be seen whether this will indeedstudents in the four aspects mentioned above. be the case. As to secondary education the situation is For several reasons the ‘status quo’ as de-even more ambiguous. Here also a substan- scribed above with regard to social, emo-tial number of central goals have been for- tional and moral education in primary andmulated, divided into a number of categories, secondary schools in the country, character-of which ‘individual and society’ is the one ized by both an enormous heterogenity asthat appears to be most akin to social, emo- well as a lack of leadership, is surprising. Fortional and moral education.15 However, only one, the potential of schools to foster thetwo of the twelve goals within this category overall development of children and young-can be considered to pertain, be it in a rather sters, in particular with regard to their men-indirect manner, to social, emotional or moral tal health and social wellbeing, has been rec-education. One of these refers to ‘respectfully ognized for centuries, first as explaineddealing with criticisms by others’ and the re- through the advocacy of eminent scholarsmaining one with ‘the ability to respect di- like Erasmus and Spinoza, but also at the be-versity in beliefs and life styles’. However, in ginning of the twentieth century by promi-documents provided to secondary schools nent scientists like Sigmund Freud (1856-with suggestions for how to implement these 1939) and Bertrand Russell (1872-1970),goals no reference is made to the use of sys- whose works were well-known and widelytematic social, emotional or moral educa- read in the Netherlands. Secondly, with thetional programmes.16 increase in the number of years of obligatory schooling, the realization that schools, and As was stated in the introduction, the ob- therefore teachers, in and of themselves, haveligation of both primary and secondary pervasive parental influence, became com-schools since 2006 to invest in “education for monplace (cfr. Erasmus’ position that teach-citizenship” of children and youngsters, as ers are mental parents). Common to thesewell as the proposed formulation of stricter two reasons is the stance that teaching is first126
  • 112. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsOn the one hand, the potential of schools to foster theoverall development of children and youngsters has beenrecognized for centuries; on the other, with obligatoryschooling the realization that schools, and thereforeteachers, have pervasive parental influence, has becomecommonplace. The educational system, however, has beenslow to embrace itand foremost a pedagogical and social-psy- these are to be the purpose of edu-chological process, and therewith the influx of cation, it is a question for the sciencepedagogical and psychological knowledge and of psychology to consider what can bemethods into the school system is of para- done towards realizing them, and, inmount importance. Although this position particular, what degree of freedom ishas been advocated for over more than a likely to prove most effective.”century, as will be shown in the followingsection, the educational system has been slow Bertrand Russell, 193217to embrace it. Around 1900, when obligatory schoolingSchools, development and health for all children up to age 12 was adopted in the country as well as in a number of other “The conception which I should sub- European countries, the emphasis was put stitute as the purpose of education is first and foremost on the role of the school civilization, a term which, as I mean it, in preparing children for the labour market. has a definition which is partly indi- This consequence of the (first) industrial vidual, partly social. It consists, in the revolution was to become criticized from a individual, of both intellectual and number of different angles as far as it was moral qualities: intellectually, a cer- the main or sole purpose of education. One tain minimum of general knowledge, was the observation that schools did not or technical skill in one’s own profes- hardly affect social stratification or social sion, and a habit of forming opinions class membership. In other words, schooling on evidence; morally, of impartiality, just reproduced and therewith perpetuated kindliness, and a modicum of self- social inequality and injustice (Russell, control. I should add a quality which 1926).18 Another criticism, voiced by many is neither moral nor intellectual, but social scientists, was that the dominant perhaps physiological: zest and joy of school system disciplined and rewarded pas- life. In communities, civilization de- sive behavior, thereby having profoundly mands respect for law, justice as be- unfavourable influences on the emotional tween man and man, purposes not and psychological development of children involving permanent injury to any and adolescents (Adler, 1929).19 Quite a section of the human race, and intel- number of critics from all over Europe went ligent adaptation of means to ends. If as far as accusing the school system of caus- 127
  • 113. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlandsing pervasive emotional and behavioural fer them support and backing at aproblems in a considerable percentage of time of life at which the conditions forchildren and youngsters. A telling illustration their development compel them toof this are the events that led up to the first relax their ties with their parentalscientific symposion ever on the mental home and their family. It seems tohealth of youth. me indisputable that schools fail in this, and in many respects fall short of In 1910, Freud and a number of his asso- their duty of providing a substituteciates such as Alfred Adler and Wilhelm for the family and of arousing inter-Stekel organized in Vienna what was in all est in life in the world outside(...) Thelikelihood to become the first scientific sym- school must never forget that it has toposion ever on mental health among sec- deal with immature individuals whoondary school students. The catalyst for this cannot be denied a right to linger atmeeting was the fact that the recently estab- certain stages of development andlished ‘middle’ schools (the first grades of even at certain disagreeable ones”which are today known as secondary educa- (see Friedman, 1967).21tion) were reportedly witnessing an alarmingnumber of suicides and suicide attempts by In other words, schools are not the cause ofstudents. Both the media and the parents suicide among their students, but they do notpointed to the school system as the presumed sufficiently realize their preventive potential.culprit of these dramas. Being the most fa-mous psychologist of his time and readily at Despite the fact that the echo of the ideashand, Freud was asked to speak out about this about the potential and necessary role ofaccusation. Instead, he and his colleagues de- schools in students’ emotional and social de-cided to take an in-depth look at the issue and velopment voiced by Freud and his co-work-among other things organized a symposium. ers, Alfred Adler in particular, hovered overThe theme of the meeting was formulated as: the school systems of a number of European“On Suicide. In particular Suicide among sec- countries, the Netherlands included (Freudondary school students”.20 For three days, regularly visited this country and spent hispsychologists, psychiatrists, journalists and holidays here), hardly any attention was de-teachers presented papers and discussed the voted to them in the following decades. Theissue. Freud did not present but chaired the public school system did not take on the so-meeting and commented upon presentations. cial, mental and emotional development andMost notable is the following commentary, in wellbeing of their pupils as a focal task. Thiswhich Freud both criticized the hypothesis might have been due to the economic and po-that schools propel students towards self de- litical events that took place in first quarter ofstructive behaviours, and criticized schools the century, in particular World War I.for refraining from doing what they could topromote the mental health of their pupils: In the wake of the horrors of this war, a number of educational reformists expressed “Do not let us be carried too far, how- and promulgated the position that if schools ever, by our sympathy with the party could make an essential contribution to the which has been unjustly treated in future of mankind and the survival of the hu- this instance(...) A secondary school man species it was through education for should achieve more than not driving peace and democracy. (see Korzybski, its pupils to suicide. It should give 1921).22 Psychoanalysts like Alfred Adler23 them a desire to live and it should of- also took an increasing interest in enhancing128
  • 114. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsFor a number of years after World War II, attention tosocial and emotional aspects of development was judged tobe a luxury that Society could not afford. Consequently,education was characterized for decades by schooling inthe traditional and rigid sense of the word- authoritarian,uniform, with an emphasis on passivity and obedience anddriven by market valuesthe development and mental health of chil- community feeling is normal, and its absencedren and youth through the school system. is abnormal, according to the opinion of Indi-According to Adler, the responsibility for op- vidual Psychology.”.25timal development has to be shared equallybetween parents and teachers. Therefore, Although such ideas were generally ac-teachers have to be trained in parent educa- cepted and often even welcomed by educa-tion, with the aim of fostering democratic at- tional policy makers, school boards, teacherstitudes and competencies in children. Schools and the general public, hardly any provisionhave also a crucial role in the promotion of was made within the school system or cur-mental health and the prevention of mental riculum to systematically attend to these. Ap-problems in children and therefore child parently the assumption was made thatguidance bureaux should be attached to schools by their mere existence and teachersschools. In Vienna, Adler succeeded in setting by their vocational calling already contributedup a network of such bureaux within the substantially to the social, emotional andschool system. There were 28 of these facil- moral education of children.ities in operation in 1934 when they weredismantled by the Nazis who took over Aus- Then came World War II. It was the de-tria in that year. Adler’s ideas were dissemi- struction caused by this war, particularly innated in the Netherlands by Alexander terms of physical infrastructure, materialMüller, among others, who was one of his goods and standard of living, that made itclosest associates, and lived and worked in necessary in the eyes of many to school newAmsterdam from 1927 until the beginning of generations in the technical and practicalWorld War II.24 Müller particularly stressed knowledge and skills needed to rebuild soci-Adler’s point of view that schools should ed- ety. For a number of years, attention to socialucate children for health and community ori- and emotional aspects of development wasentation and emphasized the close relation- judged to be a luxury that society could notship between these two qualities. He afford. Consequently, the first two decades af-eloquently expressed this as follows in a lec- ter WWII were characterized by schooling inture given in Rotterdam on the 10th January the traditional, rigid sense of the word, i.e. au-1934: “Community feeling should be com- thoritarian, with an emphasis on passivitypared to health. A state of health is considered and obedience, uniform and driven by mar-normal, and a state of illness is considered ab- ket values.normal. In this same sense, the possession of 129
  • 115. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsAn important contribution to rethinking education alsocame from a number of international organizations, suchas UNICEF, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and theWorld Health Organisation. The latter, with its definitionof health as ‘a complete state of physical, mental and socialwell-being and not merely the absence of disease’, did notonly become increasingly influential in the health carearena but also in the educational system Then something happened that took the ential in the health care arena in sensu strictu,generation in power and certainly most but also in the educational system.politicians and educational policy makers bysurprise. The so-called ‘baby boomer’s’ rev- Since the introduction of compulsoryolution of 1968-1969 completely overthrew schooling at the beginning of the 20th centurythe prevailing educational culture. First uni- schools were required to pay attention to hy-versity students, then younger adolescents giene in their buildings and to the health ofand finally even children demanded the right children, since they often brought diseasesto co-construct and co-decide school struc- into the schools that infected other childrenture, curriculum content and even grading as well. Therefore, as early as 1902 in somemethods. As one of the student leaders26 at Dutch towns, school doctors were appointedthe time put it: ‘If you want us to become re- – usually family practitioners who attended tosponsible, democratic members of society, schools as a ‘side-job’. In addition, around thisyou should gives us responsible, democratic time so-called Municipal Health Centres wereschools and schooling’. It became the established, which were especially set up toarchimedic starting point for rethinking ed- address school health care issues. While inucation, but also for rethinking development. the first half of the century, school doctors were mostly engaged with the prevention of An important contribution and impetus to and intervention in physical conditions andthis came also from a number of international disorders, in the decades that followed theorganizations that were founded after and as vast majority of children who were seen werea result of WWII. While their influence was physically healthy, but nevertheless schoolsmall in the late forties and fifties, they were doctors and nurses observed that quite a fewincreasingly heard and listened to in the six- of them were exhibiting emotional or be-ties. The most influential organisations in this havioural problems, quite often of more thanrespect were UNICEF, the United Nations Chil- moderate severity. Once this awareness arosedren’s Fund, with its emphasis on education, and data about overall health, in the sense ofand WHO, the World Health Organisation, with the WHO’s definition of Health, were col-its emphasis on the overall health of children. lected in more systematic ways, a worrisomeThe latter, with its definition of health as ‘a phenomenon emerged.complete state of physical, mental and socialwell-being and not merely the absence of dis- If parameters of health were used that in-ease’ did not only become increasingly influ- cluded mental and psychosocial conditions130
  • 116. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlandsand behaviours that had relatively long term among them the waning role of religious in-implications for health such as dropping out stitutions as normative influences on behav-of school, sexual activity, substance abuse, iour, the increasing fragility of the family asinclination to violence, depression and sui- a social institution as expressed in an expo-cidality, the data did not provide support for nential increase in the frequency of divorce,the view of improving health and social well and the enormous increase in developedbeing among children and adolescents countries of the use and abuse of and de-(Diekstra, 1989, 27 Rutter and Smith, pendency on mind-changing chemical sub-1995).28 In addition, it appeared that what stances such as alcohol, soft- and hard drugsusually were considered to be adult prob- (Diekstra, 1989b).29 Given these develop-lems and disorders, such as serious criminal ments as well as the extension of the numberIn the early eighties, it was no longer a rarity for parents,teachers and health care workers to be confronted withchildren as young as 12 or 13 years old who committedacts of lethal aggression, suffered from severe clinicaldepression or took their own lives- all previouslyconsidered to belong to the adult period of lifeacts, sexual aggression, substance depend- of years of obligatory schooling plus extra-ence and abuse, depressive disorders and curricular activities with the consequenceserious and even fatal self destructive be- that children and youngsters spent more timehaviours, were on the rise in early and mid- at school, behavioural and mental problemsadolescence. In the early eighties, it was no became more conspicuous and consequentiallonger a rarity for parents, teachers and within schools.health care workers to be confronted withchildren as young as 12 or 13 years old, “If development is a task, skills are required”who committed acts of lethal aggression, It was also in the late seventies and earlysuffered from severe clinical depression or eighties that a paradigm shift took placetook their own lives. through the disciplines of developmental psy- chology and related sciences. A central tenet One of the clear-cut explanations for this of this shift was to conceptualize develop-development was the fact of the rapidly low- ment as a set or series of tasks, appropriatelyering age of the onset of puberty since the be- called developmental tasks, that children andginning of the century. It has also been firmly youngsters had to master in order to becomeestablished that with the earlier onset of pu- well-functioning adults (Diekstra et al,berty, adult diseases, disorders and behav- 1992).30 An early and important proponentioural practices begin to appear at an earlier of this approach was the Swiss psychologistage (Rutter and Smith, 1995). Jean Piaget who identified what has since been recognized as basic social-cognitive de- But other factors played a role as well, velopmental tasks. Other important develop-such as certain socio-cultural developments, mentalists who contributed to the emergence132
  • 117. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlandsof the developmental task approach were into training programmes for people whoJohn Bowlby and Michael Rutter in Great were not (yet) patients. Conspicuous andBritain and Jerome Kagan in the United highly popular examples of this movementStates. Tasks require the availability of com- were so-called Assertiveness training pro-petencies for their completion and therewith grammes. It is not by coincidence that manythe developmental tasks approach became of the competencies and themes of assertive-an important impetus to the social and emo- ness training of that time have become parttional competencies movement, later also of- and parcel of social and emotional compe-ten designated as the Social Emotional or tencies programmes in schools today. ASkills for Life education movement. telling and impressive example of this were the efforts of a group of psychologists in New As one of the major proponents of this York who in the late 70’s and early 80’s de-movement described this relationship cided to translate the basic ideas and meth-(Sprunger,1989):31 “If development is a task, ods of cognitive-behavioural and rational-skills are required”. emotive therapy into a social-emotional curriculum for primary schools. This ap- The Competencies or Skills for Life ap- proach was called Rational-Emotive Educa-proach is basically a preventative approach. It tion or REE (Knaus, 1974). This programmecapitalizes on what can be done at a particu- was translated into Dutch and piloted at a fewlar time and stage with, for or unto children primary schools in the country (Diekstra,and youngsters in order to increase their Knaus and Ruys, 1982).34 However, as is of-probability of successfully completing devel- ten the case with ‘early birds’, political, pol-opmental tasks at a later point in time and icy and public support lagged behind and thetherewith preventing mal-development or initiative was shelved for a number of years.developmental arrest. This shift towards pre-vention of problems instead of waiting for From social-emotional to civic educationthem to occur and then treating or curing In the same period in which the therapeuticthem, coincided with a paradigm shift in the movement reached its zenith and spread intorealm of psychotherapy and counselling (see the educational system, albeit not in a system-Knaus, 1974,32 Corsini, 1995)33. The 70’s atic way, the accompanying increasing em-and the 80’s have often been labeled as the phasis on personal development was met withdecades of the ‘therapeutic movement’, a eu- an increasing negligence of the importance ofphemism for a heavy and often exclusive community orientation and community life.emphasis on personal problems and personal The term Self-actualization (as coined byor individual development as opposed to so- Abraham Maslow)35 indicating the highestcial engagement. In particular, the behav- stage of personal development, was consideredioural and cognitive behavioural therapies to be enhanced by social affiliations or rela-that became so successful and widespread in tions but should under no condition be con-the 70’s and 80’s acquired influence and strained by it. Community life was a conditionpopularity far beyond the clinical realm. A for self fulfillment not a goal in and of itself.question that was more and more often Consequently, the promotion of ‘civic engage-raised was whether what was taught to peo- ment’, ‘civic education’ or ‘community serviceple who suffered from disorders could also be orientation’ was not considered to be a centraltaught to people in order to prevent them goal of the educational system.from developing disorders in the first place.As a result, an ever growing number of ther- However, as Leigh and Putnam formu-apeutic methods for patients were converted lated in a pivotal paper entitled ‘Reviving 133
  • 118. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsCommunity’ (Leigh and Putnam, 2002),36 A | Fostering adjustment and the ca-the wave of individualism and enhancing pacity for self-regulation or the selfpersonal potential that flooded large ma- control of emotions and impulses;jorities in the developed countries in the fi-nal decades of the 20th century led to a B | Enhancing the ability to think in-counter-reaction. An increasing awareness dependently and in a way that allowsof the fact that many contemporary societal for constructive participation in dem-ills were a consequence of community ocratic processes of discussion andbonds and community orientation and com- decision-making;mitment that were too fragile or no longerexisted, particularly in the ever expanding C | Promoting social involvementurban areas with a highly diverse and ever- and community orientation and serv-changing populations, made it unavoidable ice, in particular with those in needthat the issue of civic engagement and citi- (see Veugelers, 2003).40 Defined aszenship education sooner or later had to such, to many in the Netherlands asbecome a high priority on the political and well as in other European countries,public agenda. At the centre of this devel- the issue of social-emotional andopment stood the question: “What kind of civic education in and by schoolscitizens do we want our children to become have recently become two sides ofand what should be the role of schools in the same coin. In The Social AgendaIn the same period in which the therapeutic movementreached its zenith and spread into the educational system,the accompanying increasing emphasis on personaldevelopment was met with an increasing negligence of theimportance of community orientation and community lifetheir civic education?”.37 A number of in- for The Netherlands41 (2006), it isternational organizations, in particular the explicitly stated that education to-Council of Europe,38 and many educational wards good citizenship should be-policy makers as well as social scientists come a core task of the educationalstarted to study the definitions and opera- system, both at the primary, second-tionalizations of civic education. In the ary and higher levels and that at leastNetherlands, a number of national organi- 5% of the curricula should be de-sations39 and authors promoted the impor- voted, in a systematic and control-tance of construing civic education as an in- lable manner, to this task. Although,tegral part of the mission of the educational as stated in the introduction, this statesystem, both at primary and secondary lev- of educational affairs certainly hasels. Civic education became commonly de- not been attained yet and develop-fined as comprising three components: ment towards it is slow, the mere fact that civic education has, since134
  • 119. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlands 2006, become a formal requirement programme on Psychosocial and Behavioral for primary and secondary schools, Aspects of Health and Development (a pro- has given it a major boost. For many gramme that was co-financed by the schools, the obligation to engage in Carnegie Corporation of New York), a special civic education has sparked or re- volume on Preventive Interventions in Ado- newed their interest in social emo- lescence was produced (for dissemination tional or Skills for Life education pro- among member states and their representa- grammes. Frequently, schools are tives).42 This volume consisted of a descrip- discovering for the first time that tion of a number of social emotional or skills there is a substantial and empirically for life programmes, such as the Lions Quest substantiated knowledge based in Life Skills programmes. An offshoot of these these respects, not only internation- activities was that in 1993 the WHO at its ally but also nationally. Mental Health Division in Geneva established a special unit on Skills for Life in education, In the following section, we will briefly that became instrumental in disseminatingdescribe how that national knowledge base information and assisting countries andcame about followed by an overview of the school systems in developing and imple-programmes developed and evaluated within menting such programmes. This unit pro-the Dutch language area. duced a number of policy and working doc- uments in which, among other things,Social emotional or skills for life pro- terminology, the composition of programmesgrammes in the Netherlands: how did they and programme material was provided. Itcome about and how effective are they? also organized a number of global and re-The story of the emergence of Social Emo- gional meetings of educational policy makers,tional or Skills for Life education programmes school directors and teachers to promotein the Dutch public school system, both at a Skills for Life programmes.primary and secondary level, has itsArchimedal point in or around the year With regard to the Netherlands, WHO ac-1989. Of course, there were scattered earlier tivities in this area, among other stimuli, ledinitiatives by particular schools and by pro- the the Cabinet’s Scientific Advisory Councilfessionals and scientists outside of the public of the Netherlands to decide, in 1989, toschool system. (The example of the Rational commission a study on Youth and Develop-Emotive Education programme for primary ment with special emphasis on preventiveschools referred to above is one of them). youth policies and programmes. The produc-However, as is often the case with ‘early tion of the report, included, among otherbirds’, political, policy and public support things, a chapter on the ‘State of Youth’ andlagged behind and these early initiatives a national youth strategy was published inmostly became shelved after a longer or 1992 (Diekstra et al. 1992).43 Essential com-shorter period of time. ponents of that strategy, among others, were: A major impetus to social emotional edu- A | The development of a Nationalcation in the Netherlands was given by the Monitor on mental and social well-fact that in 1989 the World Health Assembly being of children and youth;chose as its focal theme for that year TheHealth of Youth, with particular emphasis on B | A national programme on edu-mental and social health and wellbeing. Un- cating the educators (parents, teach-der the editorship of the manager of WHO’s ers, other caregivers); 135
  • 120. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlands C | The development of a balanced A second component is Preventive Par- set of preventive, corrective, popula- enting, which is in essence a programme for tion-oriented and individual-oriented monitoring the mental and social wellbeing of interventions that were both evi- parents of (newborn) children and providing dence-based and client-tailored. A them with social, psychological and material crucial role with regard to fostering assistance, support or treatment where indi- social and emotional development, cated. The programme is based on the fact be it in collaboration with parents that the single most powerful predictor of and social (youth) organizations, was developmental problems in (very) young assigned to the school system. children is the presence of psychological dis- orders in one or both parents. It took, however, almost three years beforethe recommendations of the report were ac- A third is the translation, implementationtually embraced by politicians and policy and evaluation of the Good Behaviourmakers at the regional and local level. The Game,45 an intervention programme for pri-first to do so was the municipal government mary school children, aimed at reducing andof the greater City of Rotterdam. For a num- preventing disruptive behavior in the shortber of years, the city had had the highest and the longer term.prevalence of problem youth, school drop-outs and youth-at-risk in the country. In And the fourth is the construction, imple-1995 the city’s government decided to em- mentation and evaluation of a Skills for Lifebark on a city-wide preventive youth policy programme for secondary schools.46and invited outside advisors to develop andpilot such a policy. In that same year, the pro- The Skills for Life programmeposed policy and action document entitled The programme is intended for young peopleTurning Points44 was approved by the gov- from 14 to 17 years of age, the so-calledernment and the programme called ‘Growing mid-adolescents, and for all types of schools.up in the City’ began. The overall aim of the programme is: In the framework of this chapter, the fol- ‘Acquiring and/or increasing skillslowing components of that programme are that enable young people to effec-relevant: tively deal with the social, emotional and moral demands and challenges of One is the Youth Monitor. Every other everyday life.’year, the state of all children and youth (0-18 years) in the city is monitored, with re- An important and basic principle of Skillsgard to their mental, behavioural and social for Life is that the target groups are involvedwellbeing and development. The data col- as much as possible and have a say in the con-lected are fed back to the municipality, so- tent and construction of the programme. Forcial organizations, police and schools (in this purpose, before the teaching programmethe form of a tailored report for each indi- is actually developed, an inventory was madevidual school). Based on the emerging state of conflict ridden everyday situations that fre-of youth in neighbourhoods and schools quently happen to adolescents and are difficultwithin a particular time period, pro- for them. A number of panel meetings weregrammes, projects and other activities are organized, during which adolescents, theirproposed, put in place, evaluated, redirected parents / guardians and their teachers were(and sometimes terminated). interviewed regarding critical incidents and136
  • 121. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlandsevents and about the ways they should be ap- plemented skills programme, is an effectiveproached or tackled within the school setting. method for preventive interventions.It was remarkable to see how often the an-swers of parents and adolescents were differ- An example of how skills are built upent. Parents mostly view adolescents from through the programme is as follows:their own frame of reference and experiences, Effective communicationwhich do not always match with the reality oftheir children. These children belong to a new • Adequate verbal and non-verbalgeneration with new ideas, views and feelings. communication skills. (General)For the acquisition of skills, it is therefore im-portant to use both the vision and experience • Assertive communication in theof the adults as well as the innovative ideas and case of group pressure, for instanceexperiences of adolescents. in a case of collective bullying. (Prob- lem-Oriented) A few examples of the situations men-tioned were: The Theoretical Background of “I find it difficult to say No if a class- Skills for Life mate offers me a joint or a cigarette. The programme is based on two psychologi- I often say Yes, because I’m afraid that cal theories: Bandura’s social learning theory if I would say no, I would no longer be (Bandura, 1986) and the rational-emotive part of the gang.” therapy (RET) developed by Ellis (footnote A student (1962, 1994). The basic principle of social- learning theory is that an important part of “What I find remarkable is that there behavioural change may be brought about by are a lot of quarrels among students the influencing of mental processes. There because of all the gossiping.” are various techniques for achieving this: A teacher • Learning through practicing “Sometimes I feel bad inside and I • Learning through observation don’t know how to deal with that.” • Learning through internal control A student (such as first counting to ten before acting) On the basis of available literature, an in- • And Learning through persuasionventory was made of the skills that adoles-cents need to be able to handle conflict-filled Expectations are that the influencing ofeveryday situations. In the first classes, the learning and mental processing by means offocus is on general skills. These skills are re- these four techniques has a positive effectlated to the thoughts, feelings and behaviour on the belief in self-efficacy. This belief inof adolescents. In the following classes, more self-efficacy is an important determinant ofproblem-oriented skills are provided, through behaviour and behavioural change. In par-the presentation of common conflict situa- ticular, the generalisation or transfer of newlytions. In the Skills for Life programme, these learned behaviour. Accordingly, the aim ofproblem-oriented skills are put on top of ba- the Skills for Life programme is to “address”sic skills, as if they were building blocks. both behaviour and related mental processesVarious research projects show that acquir- for the purpose of acquiring social and emo-ing skills in this way, as part of a broadly im- tional skills. 137
  • 122. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlands RET is a form of social-cognitive modifi- offered a 3-day training course, duringcation. The primary focus of this is that which, by means of the student’s materialschanges in thinking, operationalized as ‘self- and a teacher’s manual (footnote 22) they are’talk, will lead to, facilitate or support familiarized with the basic principles and arechanges in behaviour, thereby alleviating or trained to teach the programme. Shortly be-improving emotional and social problemat- fore the teachers start the programme, thereics or ineffective feelings and behaviours. The is a refresher course of half a day. Finally,method emphasizes changing self-defeating halfway through the programme there are aor ineffective thinking patterns that cause number of booster sessions, during whichemotional and social distress and behavioural the various techniques (for example, facili-problems into thoughts or ‘self-instruc- tating role plays, giving feedback) are prac-tions’ that are more effective, rewarding and ticed again and a preparatory talk is givenreasonable. RET has proven to be widely ef- about the remaining classes.fective, both with adults in clinical settingsas well as with children and youngsters in From 1996 to 2005, an estimated 20,000educational settings (see Engels, Garnefski, students followed the Skills for Life classes.Diekstra, 1993). Eight hundred teachers took the teacher training course. The evaluation on the pro-Programme Set-Up gramme shows that Skills for Life is success-Skills for Life is a programme that consists of ful in a large number of areas, both in thea number of standard classes, plus three op- short and the long term. Some of the vari-tional modules. The modules were developed ables that were measured were:based on the results of the Rotterdam YouthMonitor. Several common psycho-social • Belief in self-efficacyproblems that were found were added as • Effectively expressing negative emo-modules to the standard programme (one of tionsthe modules focuses, for example, on dealing • Relationships between students andwith aggressive behaviour). In total, Skills peers, and between students andfor Life consists of 23 classes. A class may be teachersas long as a standard lesson (45 minutes) or • Suicidal thoughts and attemptedbe spread out across several lessons. suicide A few examples of the standard class In addition, teachers indicated in the eval-themes are: uation interviews that they themselves have changed as a result of teaching the Skills for • Learning to recognize what you are Life programme: doing (in conflict situations) • Leaning to recognize what you are say- “Skills for Life teaches the teacher to ing to yourself (in conflict situations) be attentive to the problems of stu- • Stimulants and Gambling dents. You react more quickly to the • Being Bullied – how do you deal signals you pick up.” with it? • Sexuality “Skills for Life has an emotional im- • Conflicts between student and parents pact on you. The programme can in- fluence your personal development.” The classes are taught by teachers whoare interested in the subject. The teachers are “I see myself differently.”138
  • 123. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsThere is a dire need for long term, collaborative researchprogrammes of concerted action between universities,research institutions and the school system, becausealthough much is not yet known, it is clear that socialemotional or skills for life education has uniquecontributions to make to the development of childrenand youngsters and that schools can and have to play apivotal role “I have gained more confidence.” leave behind several puzzling questions. For one, how is it possible that while the greatEpilogue minds in the intellectual history of theThe science of social emotional and skills for Netherlands and many professionals withinlife education is still in its early stages in the the public educational system as well as out-Netherlands, as is also the case in other coun- side of it, have always been aware, if nottries around the globe. There is a dire need promotors, of the vital importance of socialfor long term, collaborative research pro- emotional or skills for life education, it still isgrammes of concerted action between uni- not part-and-parcel of the Dutch school cur-versities, research institutions and the school riculum and culture? And also, how is it pos-system, because although much is not yet sible that while research clearly suggests itsknown or ‘proven’, it is clear that social emo- feasibility, manageability and meaningfulnesstional or skills for life education has unique within the educational system, social emo-contributions to make to the development of tional education has still to be accepted as ‘se-children and youngsters and that schools can rious’ business, as a core task and mission ofand have to play a pivotal role. the system? The fact that for at least two programmes, Is it because of the fact that education isLife Skills and Skills for Life,47 recently mul- still approached, organized or governed fromtiple-year research grants have been given, or within an economic perspective? Or is itwith particular emphasis on improving the because of the fact that we still suffer fromquality of designs and behavioural outcomes, ‘compartmentalized’ thinking, as far as de-justifies the expectation that in the coming velopment is concerned? Is social and emo-years the relevance and meaningfulness of tional education seen as first and foremostsocial emotional or skills for life education the task of the family, of parents, while cog-will become an established scientific fact. nitive-scholastic or academic development is seen as the primary task of the school sys- The history, policies and practices regard- tem? Or is the explanation for the presenting social emotional or skills for life education state of affairs even more worrisome? Areas they have been discussed in this chapter, the ways in which we train teachers, in pri- 139
  • 124. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsThe integration of social and emotional or skills for lifeeducation in our school system demands a change ofculture, encompassing changes in attitudes, skills andtraining and implementation of scientifically substantiatedteaching methods and content, as well as publicinformation about the importance of skills for lifeeducation. The development of our children andyoungsters depends on such a changemary, secondary and higher education, such social emotional education have a primarythat they usually do not acquire the attitudes, role to play in healthy development. But upknowledge and skills necessary for (also) until today, they too often do not live up tofunctioning as ‘models and masters’ of social, that potential, to quote Sigmund Freud oneemotional and even moral skills. last time. Scholars like Erasmus, Spinoza and And this is a luxury we ourselves can noBertrand Russell took the stance that teach- longer afford, let alone our children.ing is the most important profession in soci-ety. But does the organisation and curriculumof our schools, the training and status of ourteachers and the cooperation between parentsand teachers reflect that great importance? Clearly, the integration of Social and Emo-tional or Skills for Life education in ourschool system demands a change of culture,encompassing changes in attitudes, skills andtraining and implementation of scientificallysubstantiated teaching methods and content,as well as public information about the im-portance of skills for life education. The de-velopment of our children and youngstersdepends on such a change. For healthy de-velopment, to take an analogy from theWHO’s definition of health, is not merely theabsence of disorder, dropping out of school oracademic failure but a complete state of phys-ical, mental and social development and well-being both in childhood and adolescence.Schools, by providing physical, mental and140
  • 125. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlands 26Notes David Bendit-Cohen 27 Diekstra, R.F.W. (Ed, 1989.). Preventive Interven-1 See www.sociaalemotioneel.nl tions in Adolescence. Special edition Crisis. Toronto:2 Van Overveld, C.W., Louwe, J.J (2005) Effecten van G ttingen/Hogrefe Huber Publishers (ISBN: 0- programma’s ter bevordering van sociale compe- 920887-68-6) 28 tentie in het Nederlandse primair onderwijs. Peda- Rutter, M., & Smith, D. (1995) (Eds.). Psychosocial gogische Studien, (82), 137-159. See also the site: Disorders in Young People. Chichester, John Wiley & www.socialecompetenties.nl Sons. 293 For both the Levensvaardigheden program and Diekstra, R.F.W. (1989b) Suicidal Behavior in ado- Leefstijl program completing a tailored teacher lescents and young adults, Crisis, 10, 1, 1989, 16- training is a formal requirement (see Gravesteijn & 34. 30 Diekstra, 2004). Diekstra, R.F.W. (ed.) (1992). Jeugd in Ontwikkel-4 Formerly the NIZW, presently the NJI, the Nether- ing. (Youth in Development) Report of the Scientific lands Youth Institute presents on its site a star clas- Advisory Council to the Cabinet. (Een studie van de sification of available Dutch programmes based on Wetenschappelijke Raad voor Regeringsbeleid). Den published effectiveness studies Haag : SDU. 315 See Woodward, W.H (1964), Desiderius Erasmus See in Diekstra, R.F.W. (ed., 1989). Preventive In- concerning the aim and method of education, with terventions in Adolescence. Special edition Crisis. a foreword by Thompson. C.R. New York: 72-77: Toronto: G ttingen/Hogrefe Huber Publishers6 See also the quote from Aristotle’s Politika on p. 17 (ISBN: 0-920887-68-6) 327 Erasmus, D. (1530) De civilitate morum puerilium Knaus, W.J. (1974). Rational-emotive education: A (On the education of habits of youth). manual for primary school teachers. New York: In-8 Erasmus, D. (1529) De pueris statim ac liberaliter stitute for Rational-Emotive Therapy. 33 instituendis, (On the immediate and liberal educa- Corsini, R. J.J. (1995/2007) Current Psychother- tion of youth) apies. Wadsworth Publishers 349 Ibid. Diekstra, R.F.W., Knaus, W., Ruys, A. (1982) Ra-10 Rabenort, W.L. (1911) Spinoza as educator. Co- tioneel-emotieve educatie: een trainingsprogramma lumbia University Contributions to Education. New voor kinderen en volwassenen. Lisse : Swets & York:Columbia University. Zeitlinger, 1982. - 147 p. 35 Puolimatka, T (2001) Spinoza’s Theory of Teach- Maslow, A. (1954, 1970) Motivation and Person- ing and Indoctrination. Educational Philosophy and ality. New York: Harper 36 Teaching, 33, 3&4, 397-410 Leigh, A.K. & Putnam, R.D. (2002). Reviving com-11 B. De Spinoza. Ethica de more geometrico (Ethics) munity: What policy-makers can do to build social cap-12 See Spinoza, Ethics, book 4, proposition 56 ital in Britain and America, Renewal, 10(2), 15-20. 3713 See Spinoza, Ethics, Book4, preface See van Beek, K., Zonderop, Y. (eds, 2006). 3014 Stichting Leerplan Ontwikkeling (2006) Herziene plannen voor een beter Nederland. De sociale kerndoelen primair onderwijs. SLO, p. 13 (transla- agenda (30 proposals for a better Netherlands. The tion by author) social agenda). Amsterdam: Meulenhoff 3815 Stichting Leerplan Ontwikkeling (2007) Concre- See among others Council of Europe Publications: tisering van de kerndoelen Mens en Maatschappij. Audigier, F. (1998) Teaching about society, passing Kernoelen voor de onderbouw VO. Enschede: SLO on values. Strassbourg: Council of Europe Publica- (see nr. 36 and 43) tions. 978-92-871-2300-8 3916 ibid Such as De Raad for Maatschappelijke Ontwikkel-17 Russell, B. (1932). Education and Discipline. ing (The Council for Social Development) 4018 Russell, B. (1926) On Education Veugelers, W. (2003) Waarden en normen in het19 Adler, A. (1929) Individual Psychology in the onderwijs. Utrecht: Universiteit voor Humanistiek 41 Schools See Diekstra, R.F.W. (2006). Verbinding maken,20 Ber den Selbstmord. Insbesondere selbstmord betrokken raken, vertrouwen bouwen. Het kapitale unter Schülern. belang van de goede burger. (Connect with others,21 Friedman, P. (1967) Discussions of the Vienna get involved, build trust: the capital importance of Psychoanalytic Society. On suicide. With particular the good citizen) In: van Beek, K., Zonderop, Y. (eds, reference to suicide among young students. New 2006). 30 plannen voor een beter Nederland. De York: International Universities Press. p.25-26 sociale agenda (30 proposals for a better Nether-22 Korzybski, A.H.S. (1921) The manhood of hu- lands. The social agenda). Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, manity. p.164-200 4223 Adler, A. (1929) Individual Psychology in the See Diekstra, R.F.W. (ed., 1989). Preventive Inter- Schools ventions in Adolescence. Special edition Crisis.24 Müller, A (2003, English translation) You shall be Toronto: G ttingen/Hogrefe Huber Publishers a blessing. Main traits of a religious Humanism. (ISBN: 0-920887-68-6) 43 Stein Publishers Diekstra, R.F.W. (ed., 1992) Jeugd in ontwikkeling25 From a translation of a lecture on Individual Psy- (Youth in Development): wetenschappelijke chology by Dr. Müller in Rotterdam. January 10th, inzichten en overheidsbeleid . Den Haag: SDU and 1934, in the AAINW/ATP Archives. Scientific Advisory Council to the Cabinet142
  • 126. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlands44 Diekstra, R.F.W., Spierings, G.A.P., Vlaanderen, A. (1995) Keerpunten. Naar een geestelijk gezond jeugdbeleid. (Turning Points. Towards a psycho- logically healthy youth policy). Rotterdam: Munici- pal Health Department Publication. The title ‘Turn- ing Points’ was inspired by the Youth Policy Document of the Carnegie Corporation of New York entitled Turning Points (1991)45 See Barrish, H.H., Saunders, M., Wolf, M.M. (1969) Good Behaviour Game: effects of individual contin- gencies for group consequences on disruptive be- havior in a classroom. Journ. of Applied Beh. Analy- sis, 2, 119-124 Lier, P.A.C., van (2002) Preventing disruptive be- haviour in early elementary school children: impact of an universal classroom-based preventive inter- vention, Dissertation. Rotterdam. Erasmus Medical Centre46 See Gravesteijn, J. C., Diekstra R. F. W., De Wilde, E. J., & Koren, E. (2004). Effecten van Lev- ensvaardigheden. Een vaardigheidsprogramma voor adolescenten [Effects of the Skills For Life pro- gramme for Adolescents; SFL-A]. Kind en Adoles- cent, 25, 277-291.47 Research grant from ZonMw, for project number: 50-50110-98-384, i.e. the project Evaluation of the Life Skills Curriculum Intended for Dutch Sec- ondary School Students. This grant has been ob- tained by Prof. Diekstra in cooperation with TNO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuur- wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Kwaliteit van Leven. Preventie en Zorg; Jeugd, Preventie en Bewegen) and NIGZ (Nationaal Instituut voor Gezondheids- bevordering en Ziektepreventie Cluster Jeugd). The grant has been given for further research into the Life Skills curriculum for secondary school stu- dents, that was developed by Prof. Diekstra and J.C. Gravesteijn, M.Sc. The ZonMw research grant proj- ect commenced on 1st January 2007, and will be continued for 4 years. It will encompass 33 exper- imental schools and 33 control schools throughout the Netherlands.48 The references that are directly used in the text are given in footnotes with the exception of the studies used in table 2) 143
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  • 129. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsGravesteijn, J. C., Diekstra, R. F. W., & De Abuse and Mental Health services Ad- Wilde, E.J. (1998). Levensvaardigheden; ministration een sociaal-emotioneel vaardigheidspro- gramma voor adolescenten [Skills For Haynes, N. M, Ben-Avie, M., & Ensign, J. Life program for Adolescents; SFL-A]. (Eds.). (2003). How social and emotional Rotterdam: GGD Rotterdam e.o. development add up: Getting results in math and science education. New York:Gravesteijn, J. C., Diekstra, R. F. W., & De Teachers College Press Wilde, E.J. (2001). Levensvaardigheden; een rapport over de tweede pilot studie Hermans, J., Ory, F., & Schrijvers, G. (2005). [Skills For Life programme for Adoles- Helpen bij opgroeien en opvoeden: cents; a report of the second pilot study]. eerder, s neller en beter. Een advies over Rotterdam: GGD Rotterdam e.o. vroegtijdige signalering en interventies bij opveod- en opgroeiproblemen. Invent-Gravesteijn, J. C., & Diekstra, R. F. W. groep; Utrecht (2004a). Waardig en vaardig in het leven [Worthy and skilful in life]. Lisse: Har- Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self- court Book Publishers B.V. efficacy as a resource factor in stress ap- praisal processes. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.),Gravesteijn, J. C., Diekstra R. F. W., De Wilde, Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. E. J., & Koren, E. (2004b). Effecten van 195-213). Washington, DC: Hemisphere Levensvaardigheden. Een vaardigheid- sprogramma voor adolescenten [Effects Jessor, R., Donovan J.E. Costa, F.M. (1991). of the Skills For Life programme for Ado- Beyond Adolescence: problem behaviuor lescents; SFL-A]. Kind en Adolescent, p. and young adult development. Cam- 25, 277-291 bridge: University PressGreenberg, M. T. (2004). Current and future Klaassen, C. & Leeferink, H. (1998). Partners challenges in school-based prevention:The in opvoeding in het basisonderwijs. Oud- researcher perspective. Prevention Science, ers en Docenten over de Pedagogische p. 5, 5-13 Opdracht en de Afstemming tussen Gezin en School. Assen. Van GorcumGreenberg, M.T., Domitrovich, C. & Bum- barger, B. (2001). The prevention of Klingman A, & Hochdorf, Z. (1993). Coping mental disorders in school-aged children: with distress and self harm: The impact Current state of the field. Prevention of a primary prevention program among andTreatment, 4, 1-62. Retrieved July 14, adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, p. 2001 from the World WideWeb: 16, 121-140 http://journals.apa.org/prevention/vol- ume4/pre0040001a.html Knaus, W.J. (1974). Rational-emotive edu- cation: A manual for primary schoolGreenberg, M.T., Domitrovich, C.E., Graczyk, teachers. New York: Institute for Ra- P.A. & Zins, J.E. (2005). The study of Im- tional-Emotive Therapy plementation in School-Based preventive Interventions: Theory, Research and Prac- Leeferink, H. (1999). Samen werken aan tice (Vol 3). DHHS Rockville, MD: Center opvoeding. De wereld van het jonge kind, for Mental Health Services, substance p. 26, 5, 138-141146
  • 130. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsLopes, P.N., Salovey, P. and Straus, R. (2003). childhood disruptive behavior on tobacco Emotional intelligence, personality, and and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 the perceived quality of social relation- years. Submitted for publication ships. Personality and Individual Differ- ences p. 35, 641–658 Nucci, L. (1997). Moral Development and Character Formation. In: Walberg, H.J.Mann, M. (2003). Searching for the Key to en Haertel, G.D. (eds.). Psychology and the Self. Evaluation of the ‘I Am The Key’ Educational Practice. Berkeley: Mac- programme for Mental Health Promotion. Catchan, p. 127-153 (Proefschrift – rene - is this a typescript or manuscript?). Maastricht: Universiteit Nederlands Jeugd Instituut (NJI; 2006). Maastricht [Dutch Institute of Youth]Masten, A. S., & Powell, J. L. (2003). A re- Onderwijsraad (Dutch Council for Societal silience framework for research, policy, Development) (2003a). Tel uit je zorgen! and practice. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Re- silience and Vulnerability: Adaptation in Onderwijsraad (2003b). Leren in een ken- the context of childhood adversities (pp. nissamenleving. Den Haag 1-25). Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press Oser, F.K. (2003). On becoming Moral: How Negative Experience can InspireMeijden, M. van der & Hoefnagels (1993). theMoral Person. In: Veugelers, W & Voor straf een zoen? : evaluatie van een- Oser, F.K.(eds.) (2003) Teaching in programma ter preventie van seksueel moral and democratic education. misbruik. Nederlands Centrum Geestelijke Ben/NY: Peter Lang volksgezondheid (NcGv): Utrecht Oser, F.K., (1994). Moral perspectives onMeijer, S.A. , Smit, F. , Schoemaker C.G., & teaching. In: Review of research in Edu- Cuijpers, P. ((2006).Gezond ver- cation, p. 20, 57-129 stand2006, Bilthoven Evidence-based preventie van psychische stoornissen. Overveld, C.W., & Louwe, J.J. (2005). Ef- Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Mi- fecten van programma’s ter bevordering lieu, Bilthoven vande sociale competentie in het Neder- landse primair onderwijs. PedagogischeLandelijke Steunfunctie Preventie GGZ en Studiën, 82, p. 137-159 verslavingszorg (2005). ‘Overzicht van interventies van ggz- en verslavingspre- Pasi, R. J. (2001). Higher expectations: Pro- ventie voor kinderen, jongeren en hun moting social emotional learning and ac- omgeving’ Trimbos-instituut; Utrecht ademic achievement in your school. New York: Teachers College PressLier, P.A.C. van (2002).Preventing Disruptive Behaviour in Early Primary School chil- Prins, P. (1995). Sociale vaardigheidstraining dren. (Proefschrift). Rotterdam: Erasmus bij kinderen in de basisschoolleeftijd:pro- Universiteit Rotterdam gramma’s, effectiviteit en indicatiestelling. In A. Collot d’Escury-Koenings, T.Engelen-Lier, P.A.C. van & Huizink, A. (2007). Impact Snaterse, E. MackaayCramer (Eds.). So- of a preventive intervention targeting cialevaardigheidstrainingen voor kinderen 147
  • 131. Country Chapter #3 | Netherlands Indicaties, effecten, knelpunten (65-82). Teeuw, B., Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger B.V. (1994). Dutch Adaption of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. UnpublishedResCon research & consultancy (1999). De Gezonde school en genotmiddelen 1995- Tobler, N. (1992) Drug prevention pro- 1998 eindevaluatie. Haarlem: ResCon re- grammes can work: Research findings. search & consultancy Journal of Addictive Diseases. 11(3)Roemer, J.W.M. (2001). Evenwichtig alcohol- Tobler, N.S., Roona, M.R., Ochshorn, P., Mar- gebruik. Een theoretische en empirischeex- shall, D.G., Streke, A.V. & Stackpole, K.M. ploratie van alcoholeducatie in een ethisch (2000). School-based adolescent drug en religieus kader (proefschrift). Nijmegen: prevention programs: 1998 Meta-analy- Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen sis. Journal of Elementary Prevention, p. 20, 275-336Roemer, J.W.M., Schippers, G.M. & Ven, J.A. van der (1994). Kun jeevenwichtigheid leren? Van der Linden, F. J. V. D., Dijkman, T., & In Schippers, G.M. & Ven, J.A. van der Roeders, P. J. B. (1983). Metingen van (red.). Niet bij gebruik alleen. Voorlichting kenmerken van het persoonssysteem en over alcohol en drugs in het perspectief van sociale systeem [Measurements of char- zingeving. Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok acteristics of personal and social sys- tems]. Nijmegen: Hoogveld InstituutRosenberg, M. D. (1965). Society and the adolescent’s self-image. Princeton, NJ: Vegt, A.L. van der, Diepeveen, M., Klerks, M., Princeton University Press Voorpostel, M. & Weerd, M. de.(2001). Je verweren kun je leren. Evaluatie van deRosenberg, M. D. (1986). Self-concept from Marietje Kesselsprojecten. Amsterdam: middle childhood through adolescence. Regioplan Onderwijs en Arbeidsmarkt In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (pp. 107-136). Hillsdale, NJ: Verdurmen, J., Oort van M., Meeuwissen, J., Erlbaum Ketelaars, T., Graaf de I., Cuijpers, P.,Ruiter de C., & Vollebergh, W (2003).Rutter, M., & Smith, D. (1995) (Eds.). Psy- Effectiviteit van preventieve interventies chosocial Disorders in Young People.Chich- gericht op jeugdigen: de stand van zaken. ester, John Wiley & Sons Een onderzoek naar de effectiviteit in Nederland uitgevoerd)e preventieve pro-Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services gramma’s gericht op kinderen en jeugdi- Administration (SAMHSA, 2006) gen. Trimbos Instituut, UtrechtSchwarzer, R. (1993). Measurement of per- Veugelers, W. & Kat, de E. (1998). Opvoeden ceived self-efficacy: psychometric scales in het voorgezet onderwijs. VanGorcum: for cross-cultural research. Berlin, Ger- Assen many: Freie Universität Berlin Weissberg, R.P., Durlak, J.A., Taylor, R.D.,Taal, M.& Edelaar, M. (1997). Positive and Dymnicki, A.B., O’Brien, M.U. (2007) Pro- negative effects of a child sexual moting Social and Emotional Learning En- abuseprevention program. Child Abuse hances School Success: Implications of a & Neglect, 21, p.399-410 Meta-analysis. Draft paper, May 28th, p.42148
  • 132. Country Chapter #3 | NetherlandsWinter, de M. (2005). Opvoeding, onderwijs en jeugdbeleid in het algemeen belang.De noodzaak van een democratisch-peda- gogisch offensief: Den Haag: WRRWorld Health Organization (1993). Life skills education in schools. Division of mental health. Geneva: World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization (2004). For which strategies of suicide prevention is there evidence of effectiveness? WHO Regional Office for Europe’s Health Network (HEN). Geneva: World Health OrganizationZins, J.E., Bloodworth, M.R., Weissberg, R. P. and Walberg, H J. (2004), The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learn- ing in School Success. In: Zins, J.E., Weiss- berg, R. P., Wang, M.C. and Walberg, H J. (Eds.) Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning. New York: Teach- ers College Press, p. 3-22 149
  • 133. Spain
  • 134. Social and Emotional Education in SpainPablo Fernández BerrocalAbstractOver the last 50 years Spanish society has seen a spectacular economical and social growththat has radically affected every single aspect of the daily lives of its citizens in both positiveand negative ways. The complexity of present day Spanish society has also made an impacton schools, whose traditional methods that centre upon intellectual issues and fail to face thenew challenges of the 21st century have been questioned. In this respect, Spanish educators,like their American and European counterparts, are concerned about the need to changeschools in order to respond to pupils’ increased requirements and needs, as well as in orderto include social and emotional aspects in the school curriculum.By way of explaining the current state of the Social and Emotional Education (SEE) movementin Spain, this report analyses its origins in Spain in the 80’s and onwards up to the newestdevelopments related to Emotional Intelligence and Positive Psychology.The report that follows describes school management’s educational commitment towards pro-viding the training requirements for teachers in the field of Social and Emotional Education.In addition to this, it introduces the various variants of SEE that presently coexist in Spain andtheir repercussion in the school environment.Subsequently, four examples of various Social and Emotional Education projects being car-ried out in Spain have been selected for closer examination. These initiatives employ seri-ous rigorous approaches to prove the efficiency of emotional education. The initiatives de-scribed herein are specifically: in Cantabria: Fundación Marcelino Botín; in Guipúzcoa: AProgramme Emotional and Social Learning; in Cataluña: the GROP movement and in Andalucía:the INTEMO Project.Lastly, this report concludes by looking at some of the implications of Social and Emotional Ed-ucation and by making some recommendations about its present and future in the Spanish ed-ucation system.Dr. Pablo Fernández-Berrocal is Associate Professor of Psychology in the University ofMálaga since 1987. He is the Director of the Emotion and Cognition Laboratory in Málaga.His professional activities are centered around emotion and cognition. He is the author of nu-merous books and articles on Emotional Intelligence. 153
  • 135. Country Chapter #4 | Spain “It was the best of times, it was the In the space of 100 years, life-expectancy worst of times, it was the age of wis- in Spain has increased by fifty years, and is now dom, it was the age of foolishness, it put at almost 80 years. In 1870, life-expectancy was the epoch of belief, it was the was barely 30 years, 10 less than in most oth- epoch of incredulity, it was the season er countries in Europe. Currently, life-ex- of Light, it was the season of Darkness, pectancy is put at 79.7 years, above the Euro- it was the spring of hope, it was the pean average (83 for women and 76 for men). winter of despair, we had everything In 1875, overall average height was 162.6 cm. before us, we had nothing before us, This has now increased by over 12 centime- we were all going direct to heaven, we tres, and in 2007 overall average height in were all going direct the other way”. Spain was over 175 cm. (Nicolau, 2005). Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities. In respect of intelligence, we are looking at a phenomenon similar to that described in1 | Introduction scientific journals as the “Flynn Effect”. TheOur society is now at its best of times. This is Flynn Effect is the continuous increase inthe “age of intelligence”; Homo Sapiens has people’s Intelligence Quotient (IQ) through-turned into a digital and global being, and we out the 20th century. The same effect hashave achieved most of our economic and been identified in several countries through-technological dreams. All-knowing as the out the world, although the figures vary fromgods, we appear to have reached, to para- country to country. The Flynn Effect is namedphrase the words of Dickens, the age of Light after the New Zealand researcher, James R.and Knowledge. Flynn, who was the principal investigator of this phenomenon in the 1980s and provided1.1 | It was the best of times supporting evidence in many differing cul-Spain has developed spectacularly in terms tures (Flynn, 1987). Average IQ in the de-of economic growth since the mid 1950s. veloped countries increases by approximatelyThe macroeconomic figures show that the 3 points every 10 years. That is to say, an in-Spanish economy has seen substantial crease of almost 25 points over the last 90growth in real gross domestic product years (see Figure 1). This phenomenon can(GDP), which increased by a multiple of six be explained, first and foremost, by betterbetween 1955 and 2000. From 2002, the nutrition during the first year of life andincrease in GDP has accelerated by almost babyhood; a tendency in parents to have4% in Spain, 1.2% more than the average in- fewer children; improvements in the educa-crease in the European Union (EU). In tion system and early schooling; and a more2007, GDP per capita in Spain was over 5 complex environment in addition to morepoints higher that the average in the EU, vigorous and hybrid genes (Flynn, 2007).ahead of Italy. This supports forecasts thatplace Spain ahead of France and Germany Professor Roberto Colom and his team, atby 2010 (source: Eurostat, 2007). the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, have documented the repercussions of the Flynn Spain’s wildly rapid macroeconomic Effect in Spain (Colom, Lluis-Fontb and An-growth is reflected in its socio-demographic drés-Pueyo, 2005). Specifically, they havetrends. Spaniards in the 21st century live made a comparative study of the IQs of Span-longer, and are taller and more intelligent ish children today with those of Spanish chil-than their grandparents. dren in 1970. The results demonstrate that the average IQ of Spanish children has in-154
  • 136. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Flynn Effect 3-points IQ Average gain every 10 years 130 120 110 100 IQ score 90 80 70 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Years (decades)Figure 1creased by 10 points, which confirms the and it is estimated that depression will be thepredictions of the Flynn Effect. principal cause of illness in Europe by 2020. Currently, there are 58,000 suicides per an- But is this really the best of times? num in the EU as a whole. This figure is higher than the official figures registered for1.2 | It was the worst of times road accidents, AIDS and murders in the EUIn the EU, 27.4% of people between 18 and per annum. The effects and social repercus-65 years old have been affected by some sions of psychological problems are manykind of psychological disorder in the last 12 and varied, starting with an inferior quality ofmonths (Wittchen and Jacobi, 2005). Psy- life, and including social ostracism, and otherchological problems, in general, are the most negative social repercussions, such as fallingfrequent cause of illness, coming above heart standard of living, and other social and edu-problems and cancer. Analysts calculate that cational disadvantages. Psychological disor-one in four families have at least one person ders even have serious consequences for thewith psychological disorders. Psychological legal and penal system (Green Paper on Men-problems affect quality of life to a greater ex- tal Health, October 2005; Appendix 2).tent than chronic illnesses such as arthritis,diabetes or heart and lung problems. De- These figures have forced the EU to con-pression is third on the list of principal causes sider it a matter of urgency to investigateof illness, after cardiac ischaemia and strokes, both how to approach mental illness and how 155
  • 137. Country Chapter #4 | SpainIt is estimated that depression will be the principal causeof illness in Europe by 2020. Currently, there are 58,000suicides per annum in the EU as a whole. This figure ishigher than the official figures registered for roadaccidents, AIDS and murders in the EU per annum. Theeffects and social repercussions of psychological problemsinclude an inferior quality of life or even social ostracismto promote the psychological well-being of 2 | And what about childrenthe population (Green Paper on Mental and teenagers?Health, October 2005). With this aim in Without wanting to cause alarm, it is howev-mind, the Directorate-General of Health and er clear that the picture we are getting of adultConsumer Protection carried out a survey well-being, both physical and mental, inon mental health in the EU (Special Euro- Spain, doesn’t give grounds for complacency.barometer nº 248. Mental Well-being, Is the situation similar, in the case of children2006). The results demonstrate that during and teenagers? An interesting comparativethe four weeks before their interviews the study is made in the Innocenti Report “Per-majority of the people included in the EU spectives on Infantile Poverty: the panoramasurvey had felt more positive than negative of well-being in the rich countries of theemotions (e.g. feelings of depression). Specif- world”, which was prepared by the United Na-ically, most Europeans felt happy (65%), full tions Fund for Children (Unicef), in a study ofof life (64%) and full of energy (55%). 21 industrialized countries. Of the 21 coun- tries selected, Holland holds first position on In Spain, perceived levels of mental well- the list for the well-being of its minors, fol-being are comparable to the average levels lowed by Sweden, Denmark and Finland.registered for the rest of the EU. The figures However, both the United Kingdom and theare in fact even more positive, for us in Spain, United States of America are at the bottom ofin that we have one of the lowest suicide Unicef’s classification, below poorer countriesrates in the EU. However, the picture is dif- like Poland and the Czech Republic. These sta-ferent for Spain when we look at the popu- tistics demonstrate that there is not a direct re-lation not included in the 65% of people who lationship between children’s well-being in anyoften have positive emotions. It has been cal- given country and that country’s GDP.culated that, excluding disorders caused bydrug abuse, 9% of the Spanish population is Spain is well-placed in the Unicef classifi-currently suffering from some kind of psy- cation. Specifically, Spanish children andchological disorder and that slightly over 15% teenagers rate their well-being very highly, inof the population will suffer from some kind terms of their own perception of their healthof psychological disorder during the course of and their degree of satisfaction with theirtheir lives. These figures are likely to in- lives. These variables, taken together withcrease in the future. Psychological disorders others that have also been analysed, putaffect more women than men, and increase Spain in fifth place in the general classifica-with age (Ministry of Health, 2007a). tion of children’s well-being.156
  • 138. Country Chapter #4 | Spain In respect of education, by which we un- that they have driven a vehicle (car, motor-derstand level of academic success and the bike) at some point during the last 12 monthsextent to which children remain in the edu- under the effects of alcohol. This figure risescation system, Greece, Italy, Spain and Por- to 14.9% in students of 18 years old. As fortugal occupy the last four positions in the taking illegal drugs, 20.1% of teenagers haveUnicef classification. The position of Spain smoked cannabis and 2.3% have consumedhere is due to the low level of academic cocaine in the last 30 days (Ministry ofachievement in this country, also reflected in Health, 2007b).the last PISA Report (2006). 3 | What should we do? We could thus be tempted to conclude that Spanish society in the 21st century is sub-Spain is a country where children and young merged in a complexity that has been trans-people are happy, but not stimulated or mo- mitted automatically to the school environ-tivated by academic studies. ment. This has shown everyone with a share of responsibility in the field of education This positive picture, at least in respect of (parents, teachers, politicians/administra-well-being in Spain, should, however, be seen tors) that to provide education in our “knowl-in contrast with other recent statistics which edge society” is an impossible mission if otherdemonstrate that very negative realities, de- factors apparently “less intellectual” and aca-In respect of education, by which we understand level ofacademic success and the extent to which children remainin the education system, Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugaloccupy the last four positions in the Unicef classification.We could thus be tempted to conclude that Spain is acountry where children and young people are happy, butnot stimulated or motivated by academic studiesstructive for young people, also exist simul- demic (and that, in principle, seem to betaneously in our country. Two everyday ex- rather distant from the main objectives of aamples show this. The first example is the school education) are not also taken into ac-number of adolescent girls in Spain between count. On one hand, parents want to protect15 and 19 years of age who had undesired their children from the kinds of problem thatpregnancies during 2005: the total figure have been described earlier: drugs, violencerecorded is 25,965 (INE, 2007), of whom and depression. On the other hand, teachersapproximately 49.6% decided to have abor- want their schools to be orderly places, withtions. The second example is the worrying a sense of civic responsibility and a minimumpanorama of drug abuse by adolescents in of respect, which helps to make it easier forSpain. For example, 58% of teenagers con- them to give their classes. And then our so-sumed alcohol last month and 44.1% got ciety itself in general aspires towards ourdrunk at least once in the same period. 9.8% young people being moral, upright citizens,of students aged between 14 and 18 declare respectful and responsible in addition to pro- 157
  • 139. Country Chapter #4 | Spainductive. All the hopes and aims of our soci- • Enjoyment of their childhoodety require that our schools provide a “holis-tic education” for each individual, beyond • The possibility to contribute posi-what schools traditionally expect to provide, tively to the future of society, andnamely: knowledge and academic skills (Fer-nández-Berrocal y Ramos, 2002; 2004). • A life full of opportunities andThese are not new aspirations, because their free of the ill-effects of poverty andsources can be traced back to Socrates, Plato marginalizationand Aristotle. What is new, though, is thatcontemporary society does not perceive the One of the strategies of this new Depart-holistic education of the individual as a lux- ment of State has been described as being theury or a goal to be achieved. Instead, it is seen active support of a nation-wide movementas an urgent necessity, to solve the serious called “Social and Emotional Aspects ofproblems that the educational system is now Learning” (SEAL: Social and Emotional As-having to confront. pects of Learning – see http://www.ban- dapilot.org.uk/) for primary and secondary In Great Britain the appalling results of the levels of education. The SEAL movement isUnicef report on the well-being of its young directly inspired by the integrating policiespeople have generated a wide debate on the that were originally described as “Social andIn Spain too there exists an educational movement thatis conscious of the limitations of the current educationalsystem, and that is asking urgent questions about “whatto do”. This movement is also trying to look at the “how”;that is, investigating procedures and resources that willinclude social and emotional development in the schoolcurriculumshortcomings of the educational system and Emotional Learning” (SEL: Social and Emo-the possible ways to solve them. One of the tional Learning; for further information seefirst reactions was the creation of a Secretary www.CASEL.org and chapter 1 of this book,of State for “Children, Schools and Families” in addition to the chapter by Lantieri).in June 2007 (http://www.dfes.gov.uk/), andproposals to guarantee children and young In Spain, too, there exists an educationalpeople are assured: movement that is conscious of the limita- tions of the current educational system, and • Health and safety that is asking urgent questions about “what to do”. This movement is also trying to look at • An excellent education, and the best the “how”; that is, investigating procedures possible chance of academic success and resources that will include social and emotional development in the school cur-158
  • 140. Country Chapter #4 | Spainriculum. Although it has been in this current tion and modification, in the teaching of so-decade that interest in social and emotional cial skills in schools (Caballo, 1987; Monjas,education has grown exponentially in Span- 1999; Pelechano, 1984, 1996).ish schools, examples of interesting experi-ments could already be found in the mid However, among the closest precursors of1980s. In the following sections of this report the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) wewe will describe succinctly the origins of SEE have Howard Gardner’s book, in which, inin Spain. We will also describe the response 1983, he developed his theory of Multiple In-provided by the authorities in respect of the telligences. He was one of the earliest writersadditional training requirements for the to propose a multi-factor concept of intelli-teachers in this area of development. gence, in which people’s intelligence would not be reduced exclusively to linguistic and4 | The origins of SEE in Spain logical-mathematical aspects. Initially,Interest in Spain in the social and emotional Howard Gardner proposed seven types of in-aspects of education started early, in the mid telligence: verbal, logical-mathematical, spa-1980s, encouraged by the influence of vari- tial, kinetic-aesthetic, musical, and, lastly, in-ous different educational writers who took a terpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.more global view of the individual. This view Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligenceincluded areas that went beyond the purely are one of his most original contributions,intellectual and cognitive, such as the emo- and were controversial ideas at the time hetional and social dimensions of an individual. published them because of the resistance ofThe work of John Bowlby on affection some to entertain the idea that these skills(Bowlby, 1976a, 1976b, 1986) and the re- could be considered as aspects of intelligence.search carried out by Abraham Maslow and Intrapersonal intelligence was, in Gardner’sCarl Rogers, among others, on humanist psy- view (1993), “the knowledge of the internalchology, inspired more global educational ex- aspects of a person: access to one’s own emo-periences (e.g. Maslow, 1968, 1973; Rogers, tional life, to one’s own range of feelings, a1961, 1966, 1972). capacity to discriminate between different emotions and finally to name them and have We should draw particular attention to the recourse to them, as a way to interpret andinnovative programmes for interaction be- orientate one’s own behaviour”. And inter-tween equals and the influence that they had personal intelligence was, in his view “an in-on helping children to adapt to school; and ternal capacity for feeling differences be-also the programmes designed to develop so- tween others: in particular, contrasts betweencial skills initiated by María José Díaz-Aguado their different states of mind, temperaments,in the 1980s, which are currently being ap- motivations and intentions”. Gardner’s theoryplied successfully to inter-cultural questions, of Multiple Intelligences has had considerableviolence in schools and gender violence influence in the educational field in our coun-(Díaz-Aguado, 1986, 2006). We should also try. Gardner’s first book, “Mind structures.mention the programmes designed to de- The theory of multiple intelligences” was pub-velop empathy and socially beneficial conduct lished in Spanish in 1987, and from then onin the classroom, coordinated by Félix López his books have been translated assiduously(López, Etxebarría, Fuentes, and Ortiz, 1999; into Spanish, and are bestsellers amongsee also Trianes and Muñoz, 1994). members of the teaching profession. These movements coexisted with pro- Something similar occurred with the pub-grammes to encourage behaviour orienta- lication of Robert J. Sternberg’s book “Beyond 159
  • 141. Country Chapter #4 | Spainthe IQ: a Triarchic Theory of Human Intelli- of teachers in the social/emotional field hasgence” (Sternberg, 1985), which was trans- been channelled principally through two in-lated into Spanish in 1990. This writer stitutions: the Institutes of Education Sciencesfiercely criticizes the classical concept of psy- (Instituto de Ciencias de la Educación – ICE)chometric intelligence and proposes three and the Teacher Centres.types of intelligence: analytical, creative andpractical. A balance in these three areas of The Institutes of Education Sciences cameintelligence ensures a successful intelligence, into existence as a result of the General Ed-that is to say: a capacity to achieve the most ucation Law published in 1970, which stated:relevant objectives for our lives (Sternberg, “The Institutes of Education Sciences will be1997). The numerous books published by integrated directly into every University, andSternberg have also had a considerable in- will be responsible for training the universityfluence on how educators in Spain conceive professors as and when they take up theof intelligence, what they feel about its po- teaching profession, at every level, and fortential and how to educate it. Practical intel- further training of teachers who are alreadyligence would appear to be the area of intel- working, and of teachers who have manage-ligence most closely related to Emotional ment responsibilities and carry out and en-Intelligence, because it involves making an courage educational research or lend theiranalysis of the emotions and social relation- services and technical know-how to the Uni-ships in everyday life, and how to control versities they belong to and to other centresthese in real life situations. in the educational system.” In practice, the various different Institutes of Education Sci- The concept of Emotional Intelligence was ences have contributed since their creation tofirst developed by Professors Peter Salovey the improvement of the quality of educationand John Mayer, in a scientific article in 1990 throughout the teaching profession within(Salovey and Mayer, 1990), but its publica- the Spanish education system, including sec-tion passed unnoticed by educators, at least in ondary education and also including educa-Spain, and it was only in 1996 when Daniel tional management bodies.Goleman’s bestseller, “Emotional Intelligence”was published in Spanish (the original had The Teacher Centres operate under thebeen published in 1995) that educators and authority of the various different autonomousteachers began to put words and arguments communities, which are legally the competentto their feelings about the need for change. authorities in respect of education. The dif- ferent administrative centres in Spain have The latest influence for change came from created Teacher Centres which operate asPositive Psychology, in the work of Martin stable bases for all training, innovation andSeligman (2002), and the professors of the exchange of teaching information, and forUniversidad Complutense de Madrid, María providing training for study and workingDolores Avia and Carmelo Vázquez (Avia and teams. The Teacher Centres are officially andVázquez, 1998), who attempted to develop legally authorised to operate as centres forand put greater emphasis on positive emo- meetings and debate, which has made it pos-tions, personal strengths and happiness, in sible to arrange for appropriate training to bethe school environment and in everyday life. given to meet the requirements of the new ed- ucation system and to develop different types5 | Involvement of the educational authorities of training, generated by the different teach-The involvement and response of the educa- ing institutes for use in their own centres.tional authorities to the training requirements160
  • 142. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Both the Institutes for Education Sciences in mind that attendance tends to be scarce atand the Teacher Centres have gradually this type of event.been including in their training pro-grammes, particularly in the last decade, so- Prizes for “coexistence”, awarded annu-cial/emotional aspects of education, and ally by the Ministry of Education and Sciencecurrently almost every educational centre to educational experiments that are beingincludes specific courses that address Emo- carried out in specific educational centres,tional Education in general and also, in par- demonstrate that the theoretical frameworkticular, Emotional Intelligence. within which the teachers operate, when they want to introduce new ideas and take In addition, Central Government, or to be part in social and emotional areas of educa-exact the Ministry of Education and Science, tion, is fairly open, and very similar to thehas taken certain initiatives such as to create, SEL movement in the United States, or toin March 2007, the State Observatory of Liv- SEAL in England.ing and Working Together in Schools (“Ob-servatorio Estatal de la Convivencia Escolar”, We would like to draw the reader’s atten-in Spanish), which contributes its efforts to tion to the fact that the components of SEEthe work already being done at a local and are being put forward as an integratingregional level in this area (for more infor- framework, to coordinate all the specific ed-mation, see www.convivencia.mec.es/). The ucational programmes that are being put intoState Observatory for Living and Working effect in schools with the same basic prem-Together in Schools aims to encourage cer- ise in mind, namely that the problems that af-tain basic principles in schools so as to ensure fect children and young people are caused by“well-ordered living and working together, the same risk factors, at a social and emo-learning to live with others, respect for oth- tional level (for further information see theers and acceptance that people are equal, chapter by Lantieri). The best way to preventwhatever their race or their ideology, their these specific problems appears to be to de-sex or their religion.” The Ministry of Educa- velop children’s “resilience” by educating, intion and Science also has an ambitious State a practical manner, the emotional and socialPlan to improve living and working together skills of children in a positive and stimulatingin schools which has been put into action by atmosphere (Fernández-Berrocal and Ex-organizing training courses for teacher train- tremera, 2005; Greenberg et al, 2003;ers in areas relating to living and working to- Weissberg and O’Brien, 2004). The SEE pro-gether, and is expected to provide training for grammes are inspired by, framed by and15,000 teachers during 2008. based on the concept of Emotional Intelli- gence (EI) developed by Peter Salovey and6 | Perspectives on SEE in Spain John Mayer in 1990 (Salovey and Mayer,In March 2007, the Ministry of Education 1990) and popularized by Daniel Golemanand Science organized the Third State Con- (Goleman, 1995). However, under the labelgress for living and working together under “SEL programmes” there are many very dif-the title “From social and emotional education ferent programmes: programmes to train ba-to education in moral values”. The Ministry sic abilities related directly to EI, such asadvertised 400 openings for the Congress emotional perception, emotional compre-and received 3,800 applications. This figure hension, and emotional adjustment; and alsogives an idea of the enormous interest that wider programmes related to personality, ad-exists, in the area of Education as a whole in dressing self-respect, self-assertion and op-Spain, in social and emotional skills, bearing timism; and also programmes on moral val- 161
  • 143. Country Chapter #4 | Spainues (see for an overview Zins, Weissberg, the model that has been used most exten-Wang and Walberg, 2004). sively, as a result of the publishing success that Goleman’s bestseller has proven to be, In scientific publications we find that a and also because the work of Salovey andsimilar distinction is made in respect of Emo- Mayer has not been widely published. Intional Intelligence. On one hand, there are the Spain, the term most frequently employed isEI models that focus on mental abilities that “emotional education” or “social and emo-make it possible to use the information that tional education” and in some cases this is re-our emotions communicate to us so as to im- lated, in a very broad sense, to education forprove the cognitive process (these are called health, life skills, education in moral values,“ability models”); and on the other hand, the or education for coexistence and peace.models that combine or mix mental abilitieswith different traits of personality, such as Fortunately, the situation has become morepersistence, enthusiasm, optimism, etc. balanced in the last 5 years or so, and the(called “mixed models”; see Mayer, Salovey skills model is becoming increasingly well-and Caruso, 2000). known in the Spanish educational field. This has been achieved partly by the publication of Taking the theoretical model of Salovey Spanish translations of the most importantand Mayer, Emotional Intelligence is con- work of Salovey and Mayer, and the spread-ceived of as “genuine intelligence”; intelli- ing of their ideas in important national fo-gence based on the use of the emotions for rums (Caruso and Salovey, 2005; Fernández-the purpose of adjustment, to enable the in- Berrocal and Extremera, 2006; Mestre anddividual to solve problems and adapt effi- Fernández-Berrocal, 2007).ciently to his/her surroundings. The abilitymodel of Mayer and Salovey argues that EI What is happening in Spain is similar tocan be conceptualized through the following what is happening in other countries, andfour basic abilities: Spanish educators, like their American and European colleagues, are anxious to change “Emotional Intelligence involves the schools to include emotional and social aspects ability to perceive accurately, ap- of education in the school curriculum. One praise, and express emotion; the abil- extra problem is that they don’t know how to ity to access and/or generate feelings go about doing it. In this admirable desire for when they facilitate thought; the abil- change, teachers have approached the prob- ity to understand emotion and emo- lem from the point of view of Goleman’s pop- tional knowledge; and the ability to ularizing books, and, hoping above all for ac- regulate emotions to promote emo- tion, they have avoided attending boring tional and intellectual growth.” discussions and academic debates about the real effects of the programmes for emotional (Mayer and Salovey, 1997, p. 10). education and their proven efficacy. However, the view of mixed models is In other words, teachers simply assumemore general and rather less defined, as its that it is necessary to intervene in social andmodels are based on stable characteristics of emotional matters and that the activities andbehaviour, and on variables of personality programmes included in popularizing booksand emotional adjustment (empathy, self-as- are adequate and effective. Accordingly, forsertion, impulsiveness, etc.). In Spain, in the the majority of emotional education trialseducational field, the mixed model has been that have been held in Spain there is no162
  • 144. Country Chapter #4 | SpainWhat is happening in Spain is similar to what is happeningin other countries, and Spanish educators, like theirAmerican and European colleagues, are anxious to changeschools to include emotional and social aspects ofeducation in the school curriculum. One extra problem isthat they don’t know how to go about doing itproof as to whether they have been effective international spheres, with a view to encour-or not. Mainly because they have never been aging a fairer, freer, more efficient, and moreproperly evaluated. The majority of these responsible society, in Spain and worldwide.programmes are lacking in scientific stan-dards and a methodology that includes a pre- From the beginning, the Foundation’s prin-test and post-test evaluation system together cipal interest was training, as a priority strat-with a control group that would allow their egy in all of the areas in which it was work-results to be compared with that of other ing: art, music, science, national heritagesimilar initiatives. projects…. It was in 2004, however, that the Foundation began to work specifically in the The following section aims to show four educational field. There can be no doubt thatspecific examples of SEE initiatives being car- the best way to contribute to well-being, de-ried out in Spain that employ a systematic ap- velopment and progress in our society is toproach and attempt to reliably prove the ef- support and promote a well-rounded educa-fectiveness of emotional education and EI; tion and healthy growth, from infancy up-not only as local education trials, but with the wards, in what is our most valuable asset, hu-medium and long-term objective of attempt- man capital - and throughout the entireing to change some schools, and even society lifespan of an individual.as a whole. These initiatives are: The Foundation is an educational agent • Cantabria: Fundación Marcelino Botín that is rooted in the community. It is con- • Guipúzcoa: A program for Emo- scious of the need to act in conjunction with tional and Social Learning others, and in a coordinated manner, to deal • Cataluña: the GROP movement with the educational challenge that we are • Andalucia: the INTEMO Project faced with. From the outset, we have worked closely with the Educational Council of the1 | Cantabria: Fundación Marcelino Botín Regional Government of Cantabria, and with other official bodies with experience in thisResponsible Education: context, and we have made proposals thatAn applied teaching experience answer to the expectations and educationalin Cantabria needs of young children, within the frame-The Fundación Marcelino Botín was created work of school, family and society in the 21stin 1964, with the objective of providing so- century, where rapid and constant change iscial assistance, and educational, cultural and the order of the day, and so many open con-scientific funding. The intention was to de- tradictions are apparent.velop and lead initiatives in the national and164
  • 145. Country Chapter #4 | SpainAccordingly, for the majority of emotional education trialsthat have been held in Spain there is no proof as towhether they have been effective or not, mainly becausethey have never been properly evaluated Our objective in education is to research, value, because the particular characteristics ofcreate, implement support and evaluate the the province of Cantabria – in terms of itsresources and teaching techniques that could territory, its population, and its administrativehelp children and young people nowadays to and educational set-up – make it an idealbecome self-motivating, responsible, mutu- centre for an experiment in which the aim isally supportive and competent (both aca- to develop the type of model that can bedemically, emotionally and socially) – and properly evaluated, and that can also bealso to involve, in this Project, the adults who transferred to other places.are their frame of reference. To date, 80 schools are involved in our In order to get a proper focus on this ob- Project (37% of the total number of infantjective we prepared, initially, a real situation and primary education centres). These in-in which to obtain practical experience in clude 853 teachers and 16,552 pupils andCantabria – where the central offices of the their families. We currently work with chil-Foundation are located. Our intention was to dren from 3 to 12 years old – and in the nextcontribute new proposals and initiatives to few years we will gradually incorporate sec-the educational system with a view to facili- ondary schools (12-18 years).tating and promoting emotional-affective,cognitive and social development in people It is our declared objective – following onfrom early childhood onwards, using a model from the educational experience describedof procedure in which family, school, and above, in which we have achieved the activecommunity, would all be involved. involvement of teachers, families, pupils and a considerable number of professional ex- It is the objective of Responsible Education, perts, in a coordinated manner - to initiate aas we have called this Applied Educational process of social and educational changeProject, to promote in children and young peo- which, by ensuring a Social and Emotionalple a well-rounded and healthy growth, by tak- Education to children and young people, willing into account the physical, psychological and promote their well-being and balance. It issocial aspects of each individual, in order to the intention of the Foundation to support thisensure balance and well-being, positive aca- Project over the long-term, study the resultsdemic achievement – and, in addition, to de- obtained, and promote the Project in all ed-velop protective elements that will serve as a ucational centres in Cantabria, and possiblypreventive strategy against the type of risks also in other places.that are likely to present themselves nowadaysat an increasingly early stage in life (risks such What follows is an explanation of exactlyas: violence, intolerance, failure, drugs, etc.) what Responsible Education consists of – its particular characteristics, and how it can be The geographical location of this initial implemented. The model of procedure is alsoProject gives it a considerable and unique described, as well as the different lines of ap- 165
  • 146. Country Chapter #4 | SpainIt is the objective of Responsible Education, as we havecalled this Applied Educational Project, to promote inchildren and young people a well-rounded and healthygrowth, by taking into account the physical, psychologicaland social aspects of each individual, in order to ensurebalance and well-being, positive academic achievement –and, in addition, to develop protective elements that willserve as a preventive strategy against the type of risks thatare likely to present themselves nowadays at anincreasingly early stage in life (risks such as: violence,intolerance, failure, drugs, etc.)proach that we are developing in these 80 and make them less vulnerable to variousschools in Cantabria. possible areas of risk. Taking this model as our base, we employed and created other re-1 | What is the work of Responsible Edu- sources and educational aids to foster thecation? The content of the Project. well-rounded development of children, notIn 2004, we initiated our Project by working only with the aim of foreseeing and prevent-together with the FAD (“Fundación de Ayuda ing risks, but also with particular emphasis oncontra la Drogadicción” - Help Against Drug children’s positive growth and their socialAddiction Foundation), using its programme and personal well-being.“Prevent to live” in 41 schools in Cantabria.This programme, which is based on a bioso- You will see on Figure 2 the various com-cial, psychological, ecological and competency ponents that we work on through differentmodel, activates in children from 3 to 12 activities, games and concepts. It is of fun-years old a series of protective mechanisms damental importance that we clarify herewhich reinforce their positive development, that the different variables are listed sepa- Well-rounded Development Emotional-Affective Cognitive Development Social Development Development • Self-esteem • Self-control • Initial interaction • Empathy • Pro-social values • Self-affirmation • Emotional expressivity • Decision-making • Assertive opposition • Positive attitudes towards health Greater well-being | More Protective mechanisms | Greater academic achievementFigure 2166
  • 147. Country Chapter #4 | Spainrately and in three different columns to Project. This ensures the Project’smake the table easier to understand – but stability, and is also clear proof ofthat each of these variables is an insepara- the interest aroused by the Project.ble part of the individual, and so they are allworked on simultaneously. C | Global and joint initiative involv- ing schools, families and the com- The aim of the programme is to help chil- munity. The Foundation is consid-dren, step by step, to know themselves, ac- ered to belong to the community, andquire self-esteem, and trust themselves; un- to all the people to whom the Pro-derstand others, and respect them, by ject’s educational programmes areimagining themselves in their place; identify being directed.and express their emotions; develop self-control; take decisions in a responsible man- D | Support and close supervision.ner; value and protect their own health; re- We offer constant support, and it islate sufficiently well to other people and our concern to take responsibilitydefend their own ideas, avoid creating situa- for meeting the needs that arise intions of conflict and being capable of resolv- the educational community. A cli-ing the difficulties they meet. mate of trust has therefore been created, which has enabled all those2 | How do we work in Responsible Educa- involved in the project to progress,tion? Project Characteristics. in a united fashion, towards meet-In order to develop a solid model of proce- ing the declared objectives of thedure that can be integrated into education Foundation, and overcome any dif-centres, families and the community, it is ficulties encountered.necessary to reflect clearly, from the veryoutset and then at regular intervals, about the E | We have an excellent relationshipneeds that should be met and the basic ele- with the University of Cantabria, andments that must be in place to ensure that the various different working teams fromProject has stability, and is fully integrated the University are directly involved ininto the context in which it is to operate - and our Project – both in terms of devel-that it can evolve and adapt if necessary in opment and evaluation.order to achieve the defined objectives. F | All our initiatives are analysed in Some of the specific characteristics – or in- terms of their viability and theirgredients for success – of the Project of the transferability, are implemented in aMarcelino Botín Foundation are as follows: very clear and organized manner, and are evaluated. A | We have enjoyed an excellent and close relationship with the Council for G | The independence of the Foun- Education of the Regional Government dation and the fact that it is self- of Cantabria – which has included both funding mean that the Project can be the active encouragement, and the di- planned for the long term. rect participation of the Council at every stage of the Project. 3 | What strategies do we use in Responsi- ble Education? B | Voluntary participation and com- A | We use educational resources, mitment of all those involved in the materials and programmes that al- 167
  • 148. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Extended Initiatives: Intensive Initiatives: 80 centres 3 centres 853 teachers 68 teachers 16.552 pupils and their families 952 pupils and their families Responsible Education Audiovisual media: Research and Study: Research/Creation Social and Emotional Education Training/Diffusion International analysisFigure 3 ready exist, readapting them to the re- measure the results obtained: an in- quirements of the different groups of ternal evaluation is carried out – both people concerned, and to the specif- within the Foundation, and within the ic objectives being met. If necessary, Council for Education; and an exter- however, we adapt materials, or cre- nal evaluation is also made, by the ate new ones, in order to meet any University of Cantabria. Both quanti- special requirements that may arise. tative and qualitative measurements are taken into account – in respect of B | Training of adults - and of future the process itself, and also in respect trainers. In this way we can ensure of the psychological impact observed that the activities and initiatives with in the children concerned. children that we have begun to in- troduce, will be properly developed in 4 | What is the work of Responsible Educa- the future, and that progress will tion? Lines of approach. continue and have a lasting effect. Since our Educational Project was launched, in We offer training at different levels 2004, the number of participants has grown, and in different formats to university and the various different initiatives within the graduates, teachers, families and Project have also developed and expanded. other professionals. The 4 lines of approach described (Figure C | Planning. The Standard Rules and 3) are related, and pursue the same educa- Regulations for procedure and fol- tional objective. Different resources, pro- low-up of the Project are planned in grammes and levels of intensity have been advance in order to make it simpler employed in developing them, however. for us to make our contribution, and thus interfere as little as possible in 4.1 | Extended Initiatives, involving a very the daily educational tasks of adults considerable number of participants, but car- and children. ried out with less intensity. (see Figure 4) D | Evaluation. We develop the 4.1.1 | Pupils: means and processes necessary to • From 3-12 years (80 centres/853168
  • 149. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Extended Initiatives dition, other agents working within the Centres Teachers Pupils local communities are being invited to 3-12 years 80 853 16.552 participate in the Project. 12-16 years* 5 10 150*Data collected only for the second year of “obligatory 4.1.2 | Teachers:secondary education” (children of 14 years of age) We believe in continuous training pro-Figure 4 grammes that ensure the quality of the teach- ers involved in the Project. We offer teachers’ teachers/16.552 pupils): from 2004 training seminars that are properly tailored to to date, we have used the programme their needs, and which take place in the Prevent to Live, created by the FAD schools they teach in. The training pro- Foundation. With this programme we grammes are run by experts - and supported, work to develop the emotional, cog- as well as participated in, and accredited by, nitive and social capacities of chil- the CIEFP (“Centros de Innovación Educativa dren, using up to 7 different activi- y Formación del Profesorado” – Centres for ties, each requiring 1 or 2 sessions. Educational Innovation and Training), which As from the beginning of the school is attached to the Council for Education of the year 2008/2009, we intend to use a Regional Government of Cantabria. new audiovisual resource entitled “Audiovisual Toolkit for use in en- • The practical training programme couraging personal and social skills” helps teachers to understand and or- (“Banco de Herramientas audiovi- ganize their particular contributions suales para la promoción de compe- to the Project, and also helps them to tencias personales y sociales”, cre- apply and develop the specific educa- ated specially for this Project as a tional resources and programmes (in result of the suggestions made by sessions of between 1 and 2 hours). teachers, carefully adapted to the ways in which children develop. This • Teachers can also participate in Toolkit will soon come to include ac- training seminars at three different tivities intended for children who levels, providing 10 hours of tuition have reached the stage of secondary at each level. These seminars are in- school (up to 16 years old). tended for teachers who are cur- rently working in schools – and also • From 12-16 years (5 Secondary for future teachers who are still Schools). We will use the United Na- studying at University. The content of tions’ Model as a means to offer the seminars is both theoretical and pupils the chance to open themselves practical, and is designed to encour- up to a wider world, encouraging them age emotional-affective, cognitive to get involved and to form their own and social development in two direc- criteria in questions of international tions: both professional and personal. significance, while developing their To date, 545 teachers have received personal and social skills and im- this training. proving their English language skills too. So as to implement this pro- 4.1.3 | Families: gramme, the Foundation is recruiting We have prepared an uncomplicated Home and training Fulbright scholars to User’s Guide (“Guía de andar por casa”) on work as teachers in the schools. In ad- Responsible Education, in which some basic 169
  • 150. Country Chapter #4 | Spainconcepts and ideas that are particularly rel- 4.1.4 | Courses within theevant to family life are explored: the im- local community:portance of rules, of affective relationships, Open courses are offered within the localof communication, of pleasure time and of community, targeted at different types of pro-free time. The aim of the guide is to inform, fessionals (psychologists, pedagogical experts,educate and support families, and to com- educational psychologists, social workers,plement and reinforce all the work carried etc.). Various different techniques and edu-out in schools. It is hoped that in this way, cational strategies are explored in thesethe teaching in schools can be transferred to courses (social and emotional development,the pupils’ families, and beyond the fron- audiovisual literacy, cooperative learning),tiers of school life. The guide is discussed which are run in association with the Sum-and distributed to the families of all the mer Courses of the University of Cantabria.children involved in the Project (15,000copies have been distributed to date). In 4.1.5 | Evaluation:addition, families are offered the chance to To date, for the purposes of evaluation, we haveparticipate in the Project from home, to been using a questionnaire prepared specifi-provide continuity to some of the activities cally with a view to evaluating the activities em-initiated in the classroom. ployed by the teachers and the coordinator of the programme in each teaching centre. Evaluation 2007 Some statistics Level of satisfaction of the teachers 91.8% of teachers were satisfied or very satisfied participating in the programme Interest shown by pupils 93.5% of teachers believe that their pupils showed considerable interest or great interest Perception of the degree of difficulty 89.3% of teachers consider it to be involved in applying the programme simple or very simple to apply Integration of the programme into 79.3% integrated the activities into the timetable the general class timetable Perception by the teaching centres of 78.4% of teaching centres noted slight behavioural changes in pupils changes and 18.3% considerable changes Perception by the evaluation centres 92.1% of the evaluation centres perceive of the extent to which families value the programme families to value the programme highly or very highlyFigure 5 % Perception by teachers of the impact of the activities of the Project on pupils (2007). Year 04/05 Year 05/06 Year 06/07 541 teachers 539 teachers 590 teachers N SL C VC N SL C VC N SL C VC Pupil more sure 1,3 43 50 5,8 2,1 34,5 58,7 4,7 0,2 32,3 61,7 5,7 of him/herself Expression of 24 60,4 15,6 0,9 21,2 62,7 15,2 0,8 18 67,8 13,4 opinions & feelings Decision-making 3,6 51,8 40,1 4,6 1,6 48,7 42,8 6,8 2,8 44,6 48,8 3,8 Positive attitudes 1,8 23,4 59,4 15,4 1,2 25,1 58,9 14,6 3 20,3 62,8 13,9 towards health Pupil relates 0,3 28,6 58,5 12,7 0,9 24,9 59,9 14,7 0,8 24,2 59,9 15,1 more & betterIndicators: None, Slight, Considerable, Very considerableFigure 6170
  • 151. Country Chapter #4 | Spain The evaluation process carried out in results obtained prove to be positive, we will2007 included the participation of 73 teach- consider transferring our Project to the edu-ing centres, 590 teachers and 12,128 pupils. cational centres in Cantabria which are al-Some of the most interesting statistics are ready participating in the extended initiativeshown in Figure 5 and Figure 6. (80 schools). Experimental Project - 20084.2 | Intensive initiatives, held in few cen- Centres Teachers Pupilstres, and applied intensively. Taking the pre- 3 68 952vious initiative as a starting-point, our inten- Figure 7tion was to reinforce, improve and completeit. In 2006, we initiated a Pilot Project in ed- 4.2.1 | Objectives:ucational innovation to promote, in an inten- • To encourage the well-rounded andsive manner and by developing personal and maturing development of childrensocial skills, in children from 3 to 18 years in and young people through the differ-three educational centres in Cantabria: the ent areas of their personalitiesColegio Sagrados Corazones in Sierrapando-Torrelavega, (a school with a religious foun- • To increase educational quality, bydation but operating within the State educa- ensuring that our Project has ation system), with a semi-urban and urban favourable effect on the climate ofmix, including children and young people at each educational centreall levels of education; the Colegio MarcialSolana in La Concha de Villaescusa, a rural • To promote positive communica-State school, offering education at infant and tion between educators, pupils andprimary levels; and the Instituto de Educación familiesSecundaria Nuestra Señora de los Remediosin Guarnizo, where we continue to offer sup- 4.2.2 | Our contribution to schools:port and close supervision to State schoolpupils who attend this secondary school. Teacher training:These educational centres are part of two From the outset, teacher training has been(Santander and Torrelavega), of the total of of key importance for setting up all our ini-three, Centres of Educational Innovation and tiatives in each of the education centres.Training of Teachers, of the Council for Ed- This training is carried out at three differ-ucation of the Regional Government of ent levels:Cantabria. Our work in all matters related toquestions of teacher training is carried out in A| Training for the Project. Bothtandem with the Council for Education. the managerial team in the education centre and the entire teaching staff at In this experimental Project, which we the school have received training inhave named “VyVE” (Vida y Valores en la Ed- the general concepts and philosophyucación – “LiVE”, Life and Values in Educa- of the Project. It is of fundamentaltion), specific activities and programmes are importance that all the professionalsdesigned and put to use in order to work on working at the Education Centre arethe well-rounded development of pupils from aware of the Project and fully un-three years old and upwards. This work is derstand it: its different elements,carried out in an ordered and coordinated why it is being implemented at theway, making use of different areas of ex- school, with what objectives, how itpertise and diverses education agents. If the is being developed and who is devel- 171
  • 152. Country Chapter #4 | Spain oping it. It is necessary that everyone C | In-depth training. This is carried knows and understands the Project, out in seminars which occupy a total so that they can identify with it per- of 10 or 20 hours, and examine tech- sonally and involve themselves in its niques and new educational strategies development. that could help in developing the Project and thus achieve its declared B | Training for each of the pro- objectives: cooperative learning, social grammes and teaching aids. “Ex- and emotional development, resolv- haustive presentation sessions” is the ing of situations of conflict, commu- name we have given to the seminars nication skills, techniques to modify of 1 or 2 hours’ duration (which en- pupils’ conduct, etc.). able teachers to familiarize them- selves with a programme, resource Pupil training: or activity). These sessions help Figure 8 shows the initiatives that are being teachers to think about how to set up carried out in schools – in an integrated and the programmes and use the teaching tailor-made fashion - in the different subject aids in their own classrooms. areas. In some areas we have benefitted from Pupil training Subject areas of work Infant School Primary School Secondary School 3-5 Years 6-12 Years 13-16 Years Environmental Awareness • Positive attitudes to health Universidad de Cantabria • Self-esteem • Emotional expressivity What has been learnt at the pri- Physical Education • Empathy mary school stage is furthered • Relaxation Universidad de Cantabria • Self-control and adapted to suit the way in • Healthy attitudes • Self -esteem which pupils are developing School Tutorials • Social interaction FAD • Empathy • Self-control • Social interaction Language Fundación Germán Sánchez The Book Wizard: stories Ruipérez about seeing, feeling, touch- The value of a story (1 book per year) FAD ing, listening, singing… • Social, emotional and intellectual development • Lively encouragement to • Values that support and contribute to society read • Reading ability • Emotional expressivity • Healthy values & attitudes Film Film & education in values (1 film per year) FAD • Values that support and contribute to society • Positive attitudes to health. Art Reflect on yourself (1 exhibition per year) Fundación Marcelino Botín It is our intention to extend • Self-esteem the programmes and initia- • Emotional identification and expression. Creativity. tives in these areas to chil- Music dren of this age Music, Values, TIC and Portfolio (1 concert per year) Fundación Marcelino Botín • Responsibility • Generosity Universidad de Cantabria • Honesty and righteousness • Respect and tolerance • Equality • Liberty • Solidarity • LoyaltyFigure 8172
  • 153. Country Chapter #4 | Spainthe advice and collaboration of official bodies Primary school education, from 6 to 12such as the Fundación FAD, and the Fun- years:dación Germán Sánchez Ruipérez, whichhave both allowed us to adapt their educa- A | School tutorials.- Specific activ-tional programmes to our requirements. In ities are used to develop self-esteem,other subject areas, such as Art, for example, empathy, self-control and socialwe have adapted the programmes of our own skills. There are 4 activities, eachFundación Marcelino Botín, and developed lasting over 2 sessions, at each edu-programmes specifically designed for schools. cational level. Two of these activitiesFinally, in subject areas such as Music, we are continued at home.have created a specific programme forschools, working in conjunction with the Uni- B| Awareness of the environmentversidad de Cantabria. Each of these areas of and physical education.- Positive at-activity has its particular methodology, and titudes to health and relaxation arerequires a specific training course for teach- worked on. There are 2 activities perers in addition to requiring planning in order educational level, each lasting over 2to involve families actively and to work ef- sessions. These activities are thenfectively within the community. Each area of added to during the school year.activity also has to be timetabled, and teach-ing materials organized. C | Language.- One book from the FAD’s programme – The Value of a Infant school education, from 3 to 5 Story – is read at each educational lev-years old: el both by each child individually and also together in class. Specific ac- A | Different activities and games tivities are developed before, during are used to work directly on self-es- and after the reading, to work on so- teem, emotional expressivity, em- cial, emotional and intellectual devel- pathy, self-control, healthy attitudes opment, and also to encourage values and social skills. (5 activities, each such as respect and tolerance, friend- spread over 2 sessions, at each ship, cooperation and mutual support. level. Two of the activities are con- tinued at home). D | Film.- Integrated with school tutorials or in the history class. A B | A lively programme to encour- film chosen from the FAD film sea- age reading, set up in conjunction son is viewed at each level spread with the Fundación Germán Sánchez over two sessions, one prior to Ruipérez . It includes stories about watching the film and another af- seeing, feeling, touching, listening, terwards, exploring more deeply the singing… Healthy values and attitudes values and positive attitudes con- are encouraged, and children are vis- veyed by the film’s characters. ited by a magician in three different sessions, which serve to stage the de- E | Art.- The Reflejarte Programme, velopment of the programme. The specifically designed for this Project, stories are lent out to the children to employs art in order to foster the de- take home with them. velopment of pupils’ self-esteem, self-awareness and emotional ex- pressivity, and creativity. The pro-174
  • 154. Country Chapter #4 | Spain gramme is held over three sessions 4.2.3 | Family involvement: for each level, two of them in art It is essential that families participate and class before and after the session at commit to the development of the Project. A the Foundation’s exhibition venue. variety of initiatives are implemented to fa- The resulting creative works pro- cilitate the information, participation and de- duced by pupils are exhibited to the velopment of the proposed activities, to sup- public in one of the Foundation’s ex- port the educative role of the family and to hibition venues. foster the positive growth of children and young people: F | Music.- A programme that links musical content learned in the class- A | Initial Training. Families are room with the development of uni- presented and informed about the versal values, has been devised in Project at the beginning of each collaboration with the Universidad school year, and its objectives, de Cantabria. The programme em- progress, timetable, and the activities ploys TIC and portfolio as innovative in which families may take part, are tools to produce excellent results: the fully explained to them. Families’ methodology of the work involves support and backing of work under- cooperative learning. It consists of 8 taken in the education centre means sessions for each level: 3 music ses- that school learning filters through sions, two of which are continued into all areas of the lives of children with the family, 1 web quest session and young people. and 1 portfolio one. The Foundation complements this work with three B | Family Space. This is a place at additional sessions which revolve schools specifically set aside for fam- around an educative concert, one of ily use where they can share their these is set aside for rehearsing at educational experiences and learn school, another is held at the Foun- together about children and young dation’s concert hall with the per- people’s physical, psychological- formers and conducted by an expert, emotional and social development. focussing on working with emotional The aim here is to work with fami- expression through music, and a last lies on what the pupils are learning session back in the classroom again, in the classroom. The family space is which serves to assess and personal- used for 5 two-hour long sessions, ize the work of the previous sessions. each of which is supervised by a The values worked on here progres- trained monitor. In the school year sively by 6 to 12 year-olds are: re- of 2007/2008 some 77 families sponsibility, generosity, honesty and took part. righteousness, respect and tolerance, equality and liberty. C | Active Participation. Some ac- tivities carried out in the classroom inSecondary Education, 13 to 16 year olds: a number of subjects may be contin- ued with the family: All the work carried out in Primary Education is continued progressively • 3-5 year-olds: several carefully at this level, adapted to student de- chosen stories catering to this age velopment. group in particular are lent out to be 175
  • 155. Country Chapter #4 | Spain read with the family. Two activities at tions and thoughts after participating each level, which foster emotional in artistic activities. development and positive attitudes towards health, are carried out. C | Literary Encounters. These en- counters are held at the La Concha de • 6-14 year-olds: two annual activities Villaescusa cultural centre, which is at each level dealing with emotional located in the same neighbourhood development and positive attitudes to- as one of the schools. Pupils, teachers wards health and social relationships. and the authors of the books read in Two annual activities involving music class attend the encounters. The and linked to the various values ex- books are chosen for the positive val- plored by the programme. ues and attitudes they convey. D | Active Communication. Com- D | Book loans, emotion guaran- munication between families, pupils teed. The stories that are used at the and teaching staff is encouraged. To schools during the school year are achieve this several different edu- made available by loan from the cational, artistic and cultural activi- Foundation’s library to the general ties are held in the school-commu- public. These include stories about nity environment. seeing, touching, singing, feeling, lis- tening, playing… for up to 5 year-olds.4.2.4 | Reaching out to the Community:Another of the objectives of this Project is to 4.2.5 | Monitoring and evaluation:involve the community and increase its The Fundación Marcelino Botín, togetherawareness of the development of Responsible with the Educational Council of the RegionalEducation. To this end, a number of the ac- Government, carries out ongoing monitoringtivities at these centres reach out to the com- and evaluation of all these activities, pro-munity with the aim of helping to promote grammes and initiatives, with regular mon-the aims of the Project: itoring and assessment meetings to evaluate and coordinate the use of teaching equip- A | Sundays at the cinema and fam- ment, guidelines and Project coordinators ily games. On Sunday evenings a film at the centres. is screened in sessions open to the general public. These sessions end in Furthermore, we have a close working re- a game, played by both adults and lationship with the Universidad de Cantabria, children, that explores the positive which is the institution responsible for per- aspects and attitudes to be found in forming an external evaluation of this expe- the projected film. rience. Two teams of experts at the Univer- sity’s Education Department evaluate the B | We are creative. An initiative experience in two ways: that came out of the art and music programmes carried out at these A | Evaluation of the psychological centres. The Foundation exhibits effects: A pre-test has been carried graphic works created by these 6 to out on 8 to 10 year-old pupils, on the 13 year-old artists at one of its ven- teachers and families in the two trial ues open to the public. In this man- schools, and a control is performed at ner, the children express their emo- all four centres in order to compare176
  • 156. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Experimental Innovative Education Project Literature School Film Music Art P.E. External Evaluation Enviromental A. (Universidad de Cantabria) School Tutorials Psychological Impact (667 pupils from 8 to 10 years-old) 3 centres Participation: 68 teachers • 90% Families 952 pupils • 81% Teachers • 85 % pupils Educational Evaluation (teachers) Monitoring: Council of Education of the Regional Government of Cantabria and the Fundación Marcelino Botín Family Community Initial training Sundays at the cinema and family games Family Spaces We are creative Active communication Literary Encounters and participation Book loans, emotion guaranteedFigure 9 and contrast pupils’ progress. When and yet, we are still a long way from being the Project has been in operation for truly literate in audiovisual language. We need three years, in May 2009, a post- to learn, both adults and children, to refine test will be carried out on the same our ability to decode and understand the pupils to see whether significant messages that reach us via our screens in or- changes are observable. der to be able to subsequently take a clear, personal stance with regard to them. If we B | Evaluation of the process and neglect working with children to improve teaching: A team of 4 professional ex- their audiovisual literacy from a young age, perts periodically interview the teach- we will be leaving them alone and defenceless ing staff involved in the programme, at- against the enormous amounts of not always tend a variety of the activities, training positive information they receive continually sessions, etc, in order to study and as- through their screens. certain whether the process is going according to plan, to highlight its Our goal in this line of work is to research, strengths and weaknesses and to devise, create and disseminate enjoyable, fun make any necessary modifications. to use, audiovisual tools for children and young people that are, at the same time, in-4.3 | Audiovisual media, a social fact that we telligent, beneficial and educativecannot neglect is that we spend more andmore of our time in front of screens (televi- 4.4 | Research and study, the need to continuesion, internet, video games, cell phones, etc.) growing, innovating and advancing meant 177
  • 157. Country Chapter #4 | Spainthat in 2007 the Fundación Marcelino Botín di- What have we achieved so far? A workingrected its sights on the situation in both Spain model and a series of activities, explainedand the rest of the world, seeking to find oth- above, which are particularly worthwhile be-er real projects and trials, similar or not to cause of their open and all-encompassingCantabria’s one, examine how they were car- nature. Activities that have reached schoolsried out and learn from their experience. and the community and have been supported and well-received by them, since they treat We set up an international work group, Emotional Education as a fundamental andconsisting of experts from a variety of Euro- inseparable part of children and young peo-pean countries (Germany, Spain, Holland, ple’s educational process and well-being.United Kingdom, Sweden) and the UnitedStates, which met together periodically at There is, furthermore, something else we re-the Head Office of the Foundation to work gard as truly important: the trust, partnership,jointly together researching, reviewing and and work we have been able to achieve joint-collecting a variety of international educa- ly with the management, teaching staff, fami-tional trials related to the needs and all- lies and the numerous professional experts fromround development of children and young around the world involved in this innovative ex-people. The result of this work is the report perience; and to whom we are sincerely grate-you have in your hands. ful for their efforts and their contributions. The Foundation is ready to carry out the In May 2009 we will have the first resultsundertaking of collecting and publicizing the of the evaluation carried out amongst theknowledge gathered, of improving our own pupils in three experimental centres inexperience, and with the objective over the Cantabria. They will help us to review and re-next few years of encouraging a Joint Inter- adapt our programmes and processes in or-national Platform accessible on the website der to continue with the educative task ahead.http://educacion.fundacionmbotin.org in aneffort to pool our knowledge about Emotional For the next few years we will work stead-and Social Education and the progress being fastly on some particularly relevant aspects ofmade in this field. New experiences and proj- Responsible Education:ects will be added to the website as they oc-cur, and information is already available • Trained Personnel.- Foster andabout already existing ones in other parts of provide training for teaching staff, atthe world. educational centres, and for future teachers, at university, providing the5 | Conclusions: necessary theoretical and practicalAfter nearly 5 years spent on the develop- skills, at a personal and a profes-ment of this educational experience, we sional level, to facilitate the develop-have to admit that our work is just begin- ment of this type of initiative and alsoning. Education is a slow, daily job, with providing training in the use of edu-long-term goals. For this reason we wish to cational resources and techniquesprogress step by step, adding our grain of that promote pupils’ emotional, cog-sand, little by little, and setting down solid nitive and social growth.foundations to facilitate the growth, consol-idation and extension of this experience • Families.- Offer guidelines, advice andover the years to come. information to families that find it use- ful for understanding and helping178
  • 158. Country Chapter #4 | Spain their children to grow up as responsi- cial and Emotional Education. We ble and competent individuals both in need to evaluate our experience in an their lessons, on a personal level and ongoing and exhaustive fashion –de- in their relationships with others. It is spite the difficulties and the fact that vital to engage families in school life, at present, the concepts we are talk- encourage school-family communica- ing about are still subjective– so that tion and vice versa so as to present little by little we can obtain objective children and young people with a co- results showing the impact of the ac- herent model. We will continue to de- tivities being implemented. In addi- velop the Family Spaces inside schools tion, we will devise evaluation mech- and the community, where adults can anisms adapted to each community to begin their own personal adaptation reliably measure the various vari- and learning to help them know how ables at work. to work with the children. • Exchange of experiences.- Another • Programmes and resources.- We of the fundamental tasks facing us is would like to offer our experience, to continue the work begun by this re- support, guidance for the develop- port. As we regard it as most neces- ment of educational, worthwhile and sary, we will support the pooling of useful programmes and resources knowledge, contacts, reviews and ex- that can and are adapted and inte- change of ideas and significant edu- grated, taking into account the dis- cational experiences developed in tinguishing features of the different the field of Social and Emotional Ed- social, cultural and scholastic con- ucation by means of an interactive on- texts, and that serve to set in motion line Joint International Platform, ac-The Fundación Marcelino Botín wishes to support, developand stimulate educational experiences that encourage insociety as a whole the social and emotional development ofchildren and young people, helping them to beindependent, skilled and committed, improving theiracademic performance and attaining higher levels of well-being, balance and happiness. In short, we wish tocontribute to the progress of society processes of educational transforma- cessible on the website educacion.fun- tion both at school, in the family and dacionmbotin.org, where one may in the community. contribute and consult similar expe- riences in this field, thus helping to • Evaluation.- This is one of the publicize and share them. greatest challenges in the field of So- 179
  • 159. Country Chapter #4 | Spain The Fundación Marcelino Botín wishes to the total of non-university education centressupport, develop and stimulate educational in Guipúzcoa. In respect of the total numberexperiences that encourage in society as a of educators who took part in the pro-whole the social and emotional development gramme, the available data indicates thatof children and young people, helping them to some 1,173 people were involved: 1,111be independent, skilled and committed, im- teachers (in other words, 12.19% of the to-proving their academic performance and at- tal teaching staff of Guipúzcoa) and 62 prin-taining higher levels of well-being, balance cipals of Education Centres.and happiness. In short, we wish to con-tribute to the progress of society. Programme description: The programme that is the subject of this evaluation was2 | Guipúzcoa: A programme for mainly aimed at teaching staff that cater to aEmotional and Social Learning variety of different age groups and the man-In 2004, the Diputación Foral de Guipúzcoa agement teams of Education Centres. It began(Regional Government) launched a pro- to be implemented in January 2005 and isgramme for Emotional and Social Learning in structured in 6 training courses consisting ofan endeavour to build a society based on 4 levels each. A) The first level takes it forknowledge, innovation and people as part of granted that this is the teacher’s first experi-its “Innovative Guipúzcoa” Plan. This Plan is ence in the subject. It provides basic trainingbeing implemented in several contexts (edu- in 20 hours. B) The second level involvescational centres, families, community groups pro-active and operative training in the de-and organizations) with the ultimate aim of velopment of personal and professional emo-building an “emotionally intelligent society” tional skills. It lasts 30 hours. C) The third(Guridi and Amondarain, 2007). The pro- level is aimed at learning the methodology ofgramme covers two distinct areas: the Programme and the available resources that can help pupils to develop their EI. For • EI awareness and training scheme school management teams this level focuses and mostly on improving emotional leadership • The evaluation of EI educational re- skills; whereas for teaching staff this level fo- quirements cuses more on tutorials. It lasts 15 hours. D) The Expert Level in Emotional Education aimsThe Guipúzcoa Project is a very ambicious undertakingwhich aims at transforming not only schools, but thesurrounding community, through the improvement ofpeople´s emotional intelligence and building of social abilities2.1 | EI awareness and training scheme. at training those people in the teaching staff who want to focus chiefly on Emotional Ed-2.1.1 | In Education: Schools. ucation. It lasts 50 hours.From January 2005 to April 2007, 106 ed-ucation centres located in 39 towns took part The effect of the training in schools onin the Programme. In other words, 26.43% of teachers and their pupils has been assessed180
  • 160. Country Chapter #4 | Spainby devising a pre-test and post-test ques- • Social Services monitors and com-tionnaire the results of which will be pub- munity education officerslished later this year, in 2008. • Social workers • Work Advice and Mediation officers2.1.2 | In Education: Families. • Teaching staff at work trainingFrom January 2005 to April 2007, 8 Centres centresand 477 people, of which 392 (82.2%) were • Teaching staff for occupationalmothers and 85 (17.8%) were fathers, took training at private centrespart in the Programme. B | Social-community groups whose Programme description: The Programme work is related to caring for youngfor families is 18 hours long, arranged into 6 girls or boys and children in general:sessions lasting 3 hours each. The first ses-sion provides a general introduction and • Monitors for nursery schools andaims at helping families understand the young pupilsmeaning and importance of emotions in life. • Sports trainers and playtime monitorsEach one of the remaining sessions is direct- • Teaching staff, 0 to 3 yearsed at practicing one of the following skills: • Related Mothers and FathersEmotional Awareness, Emotional Management,Emotional Independence, Social/Emotional C | Professional and non-profession-Skills, Life Skills and Well-being. al social-community groups whose work is related to caring for depend-2.2 | Evaluation of the need for EI training. ent elderly or sick people:2.2.1 | In Organizations. • Professional carers from DomesticIn 2007, a thorough analysis was made of the Care Services and Day Care Centresneed for training social/emotional skills at 5 • Non-professional careerscompanies in Guipúzcoa. A total of 5 man-agers and 91 staff participated in a pro- 2.3 | Conclusiongramme combining qualitative methodology The Guipúzcoa Project is a very ambicious(e.g., focus group, interviews) and quantita- undertaking which aims at transforming nottive (filling out questionnaires). The results only schools, but the surrounding community,will be published in 2008. through the improvement of people´s emo- tional intelligence and social abilities. How-2.2.2 | In Social-Communities. ever, up to now, it has been mainly applied toIn 2007, 12 groups (136 people consisting the educative realm. This year, the evaluationof 92 women, 67.7%, and 44 men, 32,3%) of Emotional Intelligence teacher and stu-took part in the evaluation of social/emo- dent training, will be published and this willtional needs associated with their professions. afford very interesting indications as to theThese groups, in turn, were organized into 3 true impact and limitations of this sort of ed-subgroups according to the nature of their ucational experiences, and will help improvework or occupation, and to the type of peo- or design future SEL projects in the light ofple they cater for: this experience. A | Social-community groups whose 3 | Cataluña: psycho-pedagogic work is related to caring for people at orientation research group (GROP). risk or suffering from social ostracism: Since 1997, GROP (Grup de Recerca en Ori- 181
  • 161. Country Chapter #4 | Spainentació Psicopedagògica), a multidisciplinary 3.1 | Emotional educationresearch group based in Cataluña coordinat- teacher-training schemeed by professor Rafael Bisquerra, has been re-searching psycho-pedagogic orientation. At the 3.1.1 | Project descriptionpresent time, GROP’s activities are focussed on The general objective of the Project was toboth research and training in Emotional Ed- strengthen the personal and professional de-ucation. There are numerous publications velopment of the teaching staff as individualsabout Emotional Education intervention pro- undergoing a process of growth and as edu-grammes and some of which have been im- cators of the emotions of their pupils.plemented outside Cataluña (Bisquerra, 2000;Muñoz and Bisquerra, 2006; Soldevila, 2007; This emotional education teaching trainingSoldevila, Filella and Agulló, 2007). Project was accompanied by an advisory pro- cedure led by a team of psychologists and To observe the activities of GROP we will psycho-pedagogues. A collaborative consulta-describe the teacher-training scheme car- tion model was elected from among all theried out in Emotional Education in the possible evaluation methods. The hallmark ofprovince of Lleida by the teachers Anna Sol- this model is that it considers it indispensabledevila, Gemma Filella, María Jesús Agulló and to establish a working collaboration betweenRamona Ribes (see Soldevila, Filella and Ag- the teaching staff and the advisory team, andulló, 2007). thus the emotional education programme to be implemented is designed jointly. Advisory stages Tasks 1 Initial contact or entry stage Commitment to joint work Lay the foundations to develop a trusting relationship with the working group 2 Identifying and expressing Initial evaluation the problem Planning content Setting objectives Application and monitoring of emotional education activities of the centre’s pupils by each teacher-tutor 3 Posing solutions and work plan Theoretical and practical training in each section of (counsellor –teachers) the emotional education programme and its evaluation Work in small groups (teachers) with different ages (from infants to primary school) to plan the introduction of the programme 4 Implementation of the work plan It is developed in three phases: A | Theory and practical training sessions with advisors B |Application of the Emotional Education Programme in the group class during the weekly hour session set aside for group tutorials. C |Group work sessions for teachers, according to pupils’ age groups or levels, to prepare the methodological approach necessary for the application of the programme. 5 Design of the advisory Three devices (custom designed): process evaluation A | Pre-test and post-test questionnaires about emotional education content. B | Observation record during sessions C | Questionnaire about the expectations of advisory processFigure 10182
  • 162. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Contents Duration 1. Emotion and education: concept of emotion, 5 hours concept of emotional education, types of emotions, individual well-being, health, motivation 2. Emotional education: antecedents, theories, 5 hours objectives and implementation plans. 3. Emotional education contents: emotional consciousness, 10 hours emotional management, self-esteem, social skills and life skills. 4. Emotional education in primary education. 30 hours 5. The advisory process in emotional education 10 hoursFigure 11 The following stages were implemented in In addition, the teachers were assessedorder to fulfil the objectives of the Project (see with two devices:Figure 10): A | An observation record of each of The advisory process has been carried out the counselling sessions to monitora total of 18 times, over eight years, at a va- the group atmosphere and the gen-riety of different centres: infant schools and eral evaluation during the process.primary schools, Rural Area Schools, Sec- The indicators chosen were: atten-ondary Schools and Institutes, Priority Action dance, level of participation (numberCentres and Centres of Occupational Train- of doubts and contributions) and ful-ing Centres. The number of teachers who filment of the task imposed.took part in the final sample of the Projectwas 469. B | An anonymous questionnaire about whether the advisory process The contents developed during the advi- met with expectations and aboutsory process are shown in Figure 11. where there is room for improve- ment. The questionnaire was given3.1.2 | Results obtained after half of the counselling sessionsIn order to analyse the effects of teachers’ had been held.Emotional Education training they were givena questionnaire about their knowledge in the The results of these tests are not yet available.field of Emotional Education as a pre-testand post-test appraisal. The questionnaire Ítems Improvementconsisted of 9 questions that were basic in- percentiledicators of Emotional Education training: Concept of emotional perception 15,80%concept of emotion, emotional education, Emotional management 18,30% Emotional management strategies 18,57%emotional consciousness, emotional man- Appropriate self-control strategies 17,86%agement, social skills and life skills. Assertive response before a 18,95% given situation Figure 12 shows the percentiles of im- Figure 12provement in the previous knowledge ofteachers concerning emotional education.The results show that teachers improve their 3.1.3 | Conclusionunderstanding of emotional education in all From the perspective of this Project, the ad-realms between 16 and 19%. visory process is considered complete when the approved work plan has been carried 183
  • 163. Country Chapter #4 | Spain Emotional Emotional Facilitation Knowledge Emotional Intelligence Perception, appraisal Reflective and expression Regulation of Emotions of emotionFigure 13out. On the one hand, the teaching staff have emotional abilities and to analyze their influ-trained in emotional education in order to ap- ence on the initiation and progressive con-ply a practical programme and, on the other, sumption of addictive substances, as well asthe counsellor benefits from the results ob- on psychosocial factors such as self-esteem,tained based on daily school work and gath- personal adaptation, school adaptation orering teachers impressions about ways to emotional maladjustment. According to Sa-improve the practical Emotional Education lovey and Mayer’s theoretical model, EI isprogramme initially proposed. In this sense, viewed as the part of intelligence focussed onthe advisory process is deemed complete the adequate use of emotions to help the in-thanks to good collaboration: linking the dividual solve problems and adapt effectivelyprocess of educational research and innova- to his or her surroundings. The ability modeltion with the end result of the professional proposed by Mayer and Salovey considersdevelopment of the entire group involved. In that EI is conceptualized by means of four ba-other words, work is executed according to sic abilities (Mayer and Salovey, 1997) (Seean action-research methodology, whereby Figure 13).teaching staff participates in the innovation,and the research comes into contact with the These emotional abilities are, moreover, in-practical realities of education. terrelated and allow the individual to compre- hensively process emotional information. Most4 | Intemo Project importantly, these abilities may be developedThe “Intemo Programme” is based on Mayer thanks to training and experience, and they mayand Salovey’s Emotional Intelligence model be taught (Maurer and Brackett, 2004). The(Mayer and Salovey, 1997). EI involves a set teaching of these abilities depends primarily onof abilities that can be learnt and improved by training, practice and improvement.means of education. The “Intemo Pro-gramme”, an emotional education scheme The “Intemo Programme” has been effec-funded by the Government Office for the Na- tuated in 10 hour-long weekly sessions,tional Drugs Plan (Plan Nacional sobre Dro- aimed at outside workers (psychologists), atgas), is aimed at 12 to 18 year olds who at- a variety of different secondary schools in thetend a variety of secondary schools in the province of Malaga over a period of threeprovince of Málaga, Spain. The main objective years. Nearly 2,000 pupils took part in itof this intervention is to provide pupils with (Ruiz-Aranda, Cabello, Fernández-Berrocal,184
  • 164. Country Chapter #4 | SpainSalguero and Extremera, 2007). We will to the ways that emotions act on our thoughtspresent some of the programme’s activities fol- and our way of processing information.lowing the layout previously used in Figure 13. We may set pupils the following exerciseEmotional Perception to practice this ability. At first, to gauge eachThe first step to develop EI abilities is to broad- individual pupil’s emotional state, the classen our awareness of our own feelings. This en- will place themselves on an “emotional ther-tails learning to understand our emotions. To mometer” according to the level of theirrecognize our emotional states is the first step emotions at that time. Afterwards they willin predicting our acts and thoughts. One of the carry out a creative task. Subsequently, weways of practicing this ability in the classroom will try to make the pupils, by sharing theiris to keep an emotional diary. To achieve this, experiences with the rest of their classmates,pupils in each class should work in pairs. Each think about the daily influence their emo-couple should observe each other mutually tions have on their thoughts. It is importantthroughout a whole week in a variety of places to understand that different emotional states(playtime, in class, leaving school...). Each pupil will favour carrying out different tasks. Inhas a sheet to record his or her observations. this activity it is important to point out toThey must make a note of how their com- pupils how, for instance, a joyful mood willpanions, and they themselves, feel each day help us to execute tasks that require creativ-and why. Another task is to show pupils pho- ity, innovative solutions and a more flexibletographs of people interacting. Pupils must approach to thinking. Whereas fear or anx-guess the emotion being felt by each of the iety are going to focus our field of attention,characters in the photograph. Real life situa- for example, on the stimulus or the persontions may also be used, as may scenes from threatening us.films (see Figure 14). Understanding emotions This skill refers to the ability to understand emotions and use emotional knowledge. We may employ “emotional dominos” to practice this skill. Two names of different emotional states appear on each piece of domino. Each player must gather together all the pieces that refer to the same emotion. In this fashion, pupils will learn new emotional What are they feeling? terms as well as seeing the relationship be- Character A Character B tween different emotions (see Figure 15). If our aim is to understand the feelings of Photograph 1 others, then we need to begin by under- standing ourselves. We need to know our needs and desires, the people or situationsFigure 14. A still from a film showing emotions. that provoke certain feelings in us, the thoughts that generate those emotions, howUse of emotions they affect us and the reactions they arouse.This ability refers to emotional events that en- By means of role-playing in the classroom wecourage intellectual processes, in other words, can act out different everyday situations (e.g. 185
  • 165. Country Chapter #4 | Spain emotions of his or her companions and to bear in mind the effect those different emo- tions will have upon them while undertaking Downhearted Terrified the task in question. 4.1.1 | The effects of EI on drug abuse The first results of this study have shown that teenagers with more EI consume fewer legal or illegal drugs. To be more specific, 13 to 16 year old students with more EI con- Sad Happy sumed considerably less tobacco, alcohol, painkillers and cannabis. Results regarding the medium and long-Figure 15. Emotional dominos. term effects of the INTEMO programme will be available at the end of 2008.conflicts within the family or in a group offriends). After acting out these situations we 5 | Conclusionbegin a discussion by posing questions like, 21st century society has discovered the im-how do you think the people being depicted portance and relevance of emotions in allfeel? How do you know? What are they do- spheres of daily life, individual and collective,ing? Why do you think they feel that way? personal and professional. Spain has tapped into this global concern and has successfullyManaging emotions turned its attention towards the education ofThis last part of the model refers to a more emotions in the classroom.complex emotional process. It involves theability to handle our own emotional reac- The majority of educators consider emo-tions to extreme situations, of a positive or a tional education an indispensable part of thenegative kind, and to use the information growth and social development of their chil-supplied to us by emotions according to their dren and pupils. Just as we would not expectusefulness without repressing or exaggerat- our children to speak Chinese, unless theying the information conveyed. learn it, neither can we expect them, for ex- ample, to know how to manage their behav- In the classroom, many situations arise in iour unless they are taught. There are, how-which we can practice our ability to manage ever, many ways of achieving this and, in ouror regulate emotions (e.g., nerves before an opinion, it is very important to educate chil-exam, or fear of speaking in public). Ac- dren and teenagers with explicit Emotionalcordingly, we may set the following activity. Education programmes that have a provenIn the classroom, we divide the pupils into track record in a variety of educational situ-various work groups. We will set them a task, ations, and essential for researchers, familiesfor example, writing a poem, on which they and teachers to work together.will all have to work. In each group there willbe a person who will have to generate par- Another important point is that emotionalticular emotions in his or her group while education cannot be just theoretical, which isworking on the task. In this manner, this a constant temptation of our school system.pupil will need to put all of his or her emo- Learning to be an individual with EI directlytional abilities to work in order to manage the depends on training, practicing and improv-186
  • 166. Country Chapter #4 | SpainLearning to be an individual with emotional intelligencedirectly depends on training and practicing emotional andsocial skills in a variety of daily situations. A rigorous andsustained effort is needed from both public and privateorganizations to fully implement this, as is the case inother countriesing emotional and social skills in a variety of to recognize them and educate our hearts in-daily situations. telligently is a challenge for us all, a test that will mark the difference as to whether we live In Spain, there is increasing interest in in the best or the worst of times.the education of emotions and a notable levelof social awareness about the subject. Never- The author wishes to thank the Fundacióntheless, a rigorous and sustained effort is Marcelino Botín for supporting this work andneeded from both public and private organ- the following persons for their commentsizations to fully implement it, as is the case in and contributions to the first draft of this re-other countries, and to ensure that it does not port: Rosario Cabello, Raquel Palomera, Elsabecome a short-lived and passing fashion. Punset, Desireé Ruiz and Fátima Sánchez: as well as the important information provided To achieve this, the emotional education concerning the various programmes descri-programmes put into practice at schools must bed in this report by Aitor Aritzeta, Gemmahave a scientific framework that allows edu- Fililla and Anna Soldevilla.cators to respond to such elementary ques-tions as: What skills am I educating and why? The text of Cantabria Project has beenHow can I tell that my students are improv- written by the Fundación Marcelino Botín.ing and how far can they go? For further information, please contact Fá- tima Sánchez Santiago, the Educational Divi- In this sense, the educational experiences sion Director of the Fundación Marcelino Bo-brought about in Spain that have been de- tín (fsanchez@fundacionmbotin.org).scribed in this chapter are primarily cen-tered on teachers, and on the direct and in- Any comments on the above should bedirect impact of their training on their directed to Dr. Pablo Fernández Berrocal,students. A detailed analysis of these projects Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Psicología,could help us better understand if this ap- Campus de Teatinos S/N (29071). Málaga.proach is enough by itself to cause substan- Telf. 952-131086. Fax: 952-132631. Email:tial changes in the students and in the school, berrocal@uma.esor whether we will need instead a more ho-listic approach that also takes into account theparents and the community as a whole. An awareness and concern for emotions is,thankfully, part of the spirit of our age. To learn 187
  • 167. United Statesof America
  • 168. Social and Emotional Learning as a Basis of a New Vision ofEducation in the United StatesLinda LantieriAbstractThis report outlines the journey taking place in the United States over the past few decades toimplement high-quality social and emotional learning (SEL) programming as a regular part ofkindergarten to grade 12 education. It will describe the challenges and barriers to learning forchildren growing up in the US today compared to the past and why social and emotional learn-ing is taking hold, and will look at which trends in American education have shaped policy overthe past decades and laid the groundwork for the social and emotional learning movement andthe founding of the Collaborative for Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning (CASEL). Finally,it will consider what it looks like to further the vision of SEL when an entire state, school dis-trict and individual school commit to moving this agenda forward.In addition, it will examine closely three areas: the state of Illinois, which was the first state toadopt a policy for incorporating social and emotional learning into its educational program; theAnchorage School District in Alaska which has been actualizing a vision of SEL as a basic partof their district’s mission for close to two decades; and Public School 24 in New York City- oneof many schools in the US that have incorporated SEL into every aspect of their school’s cur-riculum and culture.The report will conclude with some thoughts about steps we still need to take in the UnitedStates to make SEL a household term and the accepted way we educate American children.Linda Lantieri, M.A. is a Fulbright Scholar, keynote speaker, author and internationally knownexpert in social and emotional learning. She is a former classroom teacher, middle school ad-ministrator and cofounder of Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP), which has beenimplemented at 400 schools in 15 school districts in the United States, with pilot sites in Braziland Puerto Rico. Linda is also one of the founding board members of the Collaborative for Ac-ademic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). CASEL’s mission is to establish social and emo-tional learning as an essential part of education from preschool through high school worldwide. 191
  • 169. Country Chapter #5 | USA People know all too well what smarts Michigan. And increasingly, the global mar- (intelligence) without social skills ket requires an ability to navigate differ- looks like in kids. It can look like in- ences, work effectively in teams, and get dividuals who are obsessed with along with others across language and cul- their own success and status, but are tural barriers. As our planet shrinks, the indifferent to the plight of others. It problems of the environment, health, eco- can look like youth who are unable nomic disparity, nuclear weapons, war, and to sustain employment because they terrorism have further reaching and inter- cannot get along with their cowork- connected efforts. Essentially, children ers. It can look like the many young growing up in the US will not only inherit people who resort to an array of the world’s problems; they are now touched self-destructive behaviors because by them as they unfold. they are unable to communicate their pain and grief and confusion to It is against this backdrop that the field of anyone else. education in the US and elsewhere has still continued to deem academic competence, Education Commission of the States particularly in reading and math as measured Issue Paper by prescribed standards and test scores, as being of utmost importance. At exactly theI. Introduction point in human history when our young peo-Children and young people throughout the ple need to acquire a broader set of skills andworld are being educated in an extraordi- competencies in order to cope effectively withnary time in human history. Society and life their daily lives and lead us into a complexexperiences of children have dramatically and uncertain future, a narrow, inadequatechanged during the last century. Today, vision of education is still being offered to sonews from around the globe is available in many of the world’s children. Fortunately,an instant. Through various media and tech- there is evidence that a sea of change is uponnology, the average student in the United us - a new way of thinking about what itChildren and young people throughout the world are beingeducated in an extraordinary time in human history.Society and life experiences of children have dramaticallychanged during the last century. And increasingly, theglobal market requires an ability to navigate differences,work effectively in teams, and get along with others acrosslanguage and cultural barriersStates has immediate access to ideas and means to be an educated person. This new vi-people from all over the world. The US sion of education recognizes that it is essen-economy is as dependent on what happens tial that we nurture young people’s heartsin China as on what happens in the state of and spirits along with their minds.192
  • 170. Country Chapter #5 | USAAt exactly the point in human history when our youngpeople need to acquire a broader set of skills andcompetencies in order to cope effectively with their dailylives and lead us into a complex and uncertain future, anarrow, inadequate vision of education is still beingoffered to so many of the world’s children A strong public demand is arising in the • The school staff pays more atten-US for schools to implement effective edu- tion to equipping students with thecational approaches that promote not only skills they need to approach the “testsacademic success but also enhance health, of life” rather than having their stu-and prevent problem behaviors. A US poll of dents’ school experience be com-registered voters released by the Partnership posed of “a life of tests”.for 21st Century Skills in 2007 reportedthan 66% felt that students needed a broader • The school leader shifts from a cen-range of skills than just the basics of read- tralized concept of power to ap-ing, writing and math. 80% said that the proaches that help individuals andskills that students need today to be pre- groups in the school to self-organizepared for the jobs of the 21st century are and cooperatively problem solve.very different from what was needed 20years ago.1 • School spirit comes as much from collaboration, connection and engag- Today there are more and more examples ing classroom practices as it doesin the US of schools that are paying attention from winning a football game.to children’s social and emotional learning(SEL) as a basic part of their school’s culture, • A coordinated, well-planned andstructure, pedagogy and curriculum frame- evidence-based social and emotionalworks. Imagine a school where: learning program is seen as not an ei- ther/or choice in terms of a student’s • The uniqueness, diversity and in- potential for academic success but herent value of every individual is rather as one enhancing the other. honored, and education of the whole child is a basis for a lifelong process. The dream school described above is not out of our reach. This kind of school is be- • Students recognize and manage coming more and more of the norm, not the their emotions, solve their own con- exception, in American education. Thou- flicts on the playground and feel safe sands of schools in the US- according to the enough to discuss concerns with their latest data, 59% of schools in the US have teachers and classmates by taking an some form of social and emotional learning active role in school improvement curricula at various stages of implementa- and governance. tion-2 are adopting researched based social and emotional learning programs in the con- 193
  • 171. Country Chapter #5 | USAtext of safe and supportive school, family, C | Public School 24 in New Yorkand community learning environments in City- one of many schools in the USwhich children feel valued, respected, con- that have incorporated SEL into everynected and engaged in their learning. Why aspect of their school’s curriculumare more and more US school systems em- and culture.bracing this expanded vision of education?What are the challenges we face and what do The report will conclude with somewe need to do to move this vision of educa- thoughts about steps we still need to take intion forward? the US to make SEL a household term and the accepted way we educate American children. This report outlines the journey takingplace in the US over the past few decades to II. An Overview of Trends in American Ed-implement high-quality social and emotional ucation and Why SEL is Cruciallearning (SEL) programming as a regularpart of kindergarten to grade 12 education. It A | Description of the Educational Systemwill describe the following: in the United States The US system of education is complex, • The challenges and barriers to multi-dimensional and one of the largest sys- learning for children growing up in tems of education in the world. Since the the US today compared to the past population of the US is increasing, so is en- and why social and emotional learn- rollment at all levels of education both pub- ing is taking hold. lic and private. The country is divided into over 15,000 independently operated school • The trends in American education districts headed by superintendents and more that have shaped policy over the past than 80,000 individual schools headed up decades and laid the groundwork for by principals.3 the social and emotional learning movement and the founding of the The governing structure of the US educa- Collaborative for Social, Emotional, tional system consists of each school district and Academic Learning (CASEL). having a local school board. Each of the 50 states has a chief state school officer, a gov- • What it looks like to further the vi- ernor, and a state legislature. There are six sion of SEL when an entire state, regional accrediting agencies and one US school district and individual school Department of Education, which is in charge commit to moving this agenda for- of national initiatives that include funding ward. We will take a closer look at: and other compliance issues.4 There are vast differences in race/ethnicity, wealth, reli- A | The state of Illinois, which was gion, age, and density between the various the first state to adopt a policy for in- states. Although the National government corporating social and emotional contributes only 10% of each state’s total ed- learning into its educational program. ucation funding, they issue about 90% of the commands.5 B | The Anchorage School District in Alaska which has been actualizing a vi- Children are expected to attend free sion of SEL as a basic part of their dis- compulsory education from first grade trict’s mission for close to two decades. (about six years old) to 12th grade (about 17- 18 years old).6 There are 54,000 elemen-194
  • 172. Country Chapter #5 | USAtary schools, which usually cover grades pre- In 1900 in the US, only about 7% ofkindergarten – grade 5 and 18,000 sec- Americans had a high school diploma andondary schools, which are sometimes com- about 75% lived on farms. Today, it’s 3% liv-posed of middle schools (grades 6-8) and ing on farms and about 75% with high schoolhigh schools (grades 9-12). There are dif- diplomas.10 The average public school inferent variations in the way the 12 years of 1900 enrolled 40 students, and the size ofschooling are divided up depending on the the average school district was 120 students.amount of children in any given neighbor- Today, an average elementary school enrollshood. Pre-kindergarten and kindergarten are more than 400 pupils, and a typical highnot universal yet. school enrolls more than 2,000 pupils. In 1900, schools were more economically, There are about 49 million students at- racially, and ethnically homogeneous.11tending public schools and another 6.1 mil-lion who are in private/independent schools Today’s schools face unprecedented chal-where families need to pay tuition fees. Cur- lenges to educate an increasingly multicul-rently there are about 1 million children be- tural and multilingual student body and to ad-ing home-schooled.7 The number of chil- dress the widening social and economicToday’s schools face unprecedented challenges to educatean increasingly multicultural and multilingual studentbody and to address the widening social and economic dis-parities in US society. Kindergarten teachers say thatabout 20% of children entering kindergarten do not yethave the necessary social and emotional skills to be“ready” for kindergartendren ages 5-17 who spoke a language other disparities in US society. Of the 301,139,947than English in the home more than doubled people living in the US,12 there are over 40between 1979 and 2005 with 1 out of 5 million Americans who move each year withschool age children speaking a language about 7 million school age children. However,other than English in the home today.8 we have no tracking system yet that followsThirty-eight percent of public school stu- a student who moves from state-to-state.13dents are minority or children of color. How-ever there are only 10% secondary school Kindergarten teachers say that about 20%teachers, 14% elementary teachers, 16% of children entering kindergarten do not yetprincipals and 4% superintendents who are have the necessary social and emotional skillsof a minority background. The pedagogical to be “ready” for kindergarten. Of very lowstaff is composed of 2.8 million public school income children, as many as 30% may notteachers and about 70,000 principals who have the necessary skills.14 About a third ofare the heads of the schools.9 today’s students do not graduate from high school after four years. In 2003, 88% of 195
  • 173. Country Chapter #5 | USAThere are a host of unprecedented challenges to safe andhealthy development faced by children growing up inAmerica today. National statistics hint at the scope of thesechallenges: 15% to 22% of the nation’s youth experiencesocial, emotional, and mental health problems requiringtreatment; 25% to 30% of American children experienceschool adjustment problems; and 14% of students 12-18years of age report having been bullied at school in thepast 6 monthsAsians ,85% of whites, 80% of blacks, and bach, from the University of Vermont, con-57% of Hispanics had a high school diploma. firmed my observations. His groundbreakingThe US now ranks 10th in percentage of study of thousands of American children,youth who graduate from high school. We first in the mid-1970s and then again in thewere first about 30 years ago.15 late 1980s, proved this to be true. America’s children - from the poorest to the most af- After high school there is the option of fluent - displayed a decline across the boardwork or postsecondary education if one has a in their scores on over forty measures de-high school diploma. Some students may en- signed to reflect a variety of emotional andter a technical or vocational institution. There social capacities.17is the community college option, which is usu-ally for two years or a four-year college or There are a host of unprecedented chal-university option. The average four-year col- lenges to safe and healthy development facedlege-student – whether they go to a public or by children growing up in America today.private college - will graduate with a minimum National statistics hint at the scope of thesedebt of 11,860.58 EUR ($18,000 USD).16 challenges: 15% to 22% of the nation’s youth experience social, emotional, and mentalB | Challenges American Young People health problems requiring treatment; 25% toFace. SEL as a Solution 30% of American children experience schoolOur experience as children was vastly differ- adjustment problems; and 14% of studentsent from the world our children face. Today’s 12-18 years of age report having been bul-world includes all kinds of stressors that did- lied at school in the past 6 months.18n’t even exist when we were growing up. Asan elementary teacher during the 1970s and The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveylater as an administrator in New York City (YRBS), the most current year available, re-schools, I started to notice that young people’s vealed a large percentage of American highsocial and emotional development seemed to school students are involved with substancebe on a serious decline. I was seeing children abuse, risky sexual behavior, violence, andcoming to school more aggressive, more dis- mental health difficulties. For example, 16.9%obedient, more impulsive, more sad, more of high school students seriously consideredlonely. In fact, psychologist Thomas Achen- attempting suicide; over 40% used alcohol;196
  • 174. Country Chapter #5 | USAclose to 30% had ridden in a car with some- In the past, the dominant paradigm in re-one who had been drinking within 30 days of sponse to this decline in American children’sthe survey; and almost 20% carried a weapon social and emotional capacities focused onsome time during the past month.19 trying to identify the risk factors that caused this antisocial behavior. There were almost Threats to learning can be found on the two decades of school-based “preventionhome front as well. Young people today have wars,” like the “war on drugs”. In the last twovirtually uncensored media access through decades we have witnessed a healthy para-the Internet, cable television, and music out- digm shift. Researchers and practitioners arelets; they are bombarded as never before by studying the concept of resilience - the innatecommercial messages that tout unceasing ability we all have to self-correct and thriveconsumption and glamour as the route to in the face of life’s challenges. Bonniehappiness. Young people today are far less Bernard, a pioneer in the field of strength-Top-quality research studies have shown that students inschools that use an evidence-based SEL curriculumsignificantly improve in their attitudes toward school, theirbehaviors, and their academic performance. Almost 30studies have shown that SEL programs result in studentimprovements in achievement test scores—an average of14% over students who do not get SEL skills. Furthermore,the impact of SEL programs seem to be long-lastinglikely than previous generations to have based approaches, has helped us take a lookadults around them in their non-school at how young people’s strengths and capabil-hours, as mothers’ labor-force participation ities can be developed in order to protecthas grown from 10% in the 1950s to more them from the potential harm that these cir-than 78% in 1999.20 As of 2004, more than cumstances represent.23half of all children will grow up in a homewithout a biological father present.21 Despite, and perhaps because of, the chal- lenges young people face, growing evidence According to the 2006 Indicators of suggests that a key component in meeting ed-School Crime and Safety report from the Na- ucational goals for children, academic as welltional Center for Education Statistics, 27% of as social, is social and emotional learningschools report daily or weekly bullying inci- (Greenberg et al., 2003).24 Top-quality re-dents. In 2005, more than a quarter of stu- search studies have shown that students indents ages 12-18 reported being bullied schools that use an evidence-based SEL cur-within the past six months, with 58% of these riculum significantly improve in their atti-students bullied once or twice during that tudes toward school, their behaviors, andperiod, 25% bullied once or twice a month, their academic performance. Almost 30 stud-11% bullied once or twice a week, and 8% of ies have shown that SEL programs result instudents bullied almost every day.22 student improvements in achievement test 197
  • 175. Country Chapter #5 | USA If children learn to express emotions constructively andengage in caring and respectful relationships before andwhile they are in lower elementary grades, they are morelikely to avoid depression, violence, and other seriousmental health problems as they grow olderscores—an average of 14% over students who School systems throughout the Uniteddo not get SEL skills. Furthermore, the impact States are starting to realize that SEL moreof SEL programs seem to be long-lasting.25 than pays for itself in benefits to individual children and society. Providing children with One major multi-year study found that by comprehensive social and emotional learningthe time they were adults, students who re- programs characterized by safe, caring, andceived SEL in grades 1-6 (6 to 11 years of well-managed learning environments and in-age) had an 11% higher Grade Point Average, struction in social and emotional skills ad-significantly greater levels of school commit- dresses many of these learning barriers.ment and attachment to school at age 18, and School attachment (a sense of connected-greater school success. The retention (hold- ness and belonging) is enhanced, risky be-back) rate of students who received SEL was haviors reduced, and academic achievement14%, versus 23% of control students required is positively influenced.to repeat a grade; they showed a 30% lowerincidence of school behavior problems at age Many schools in the US have begun to see18, a 20% lower rate of violent delinquency the value in creating (1) school conditionsat age 18, and a 40% lower rate of heavy al- and (2) student capacities that supportcohol use at age 18.26 learning and interpersonal effectiveness that SEL provides. For many educators to-C | Why Social and Emotional Learning is day, it is about changing and managingEssential school environments or climates—in theA growing body of research suggests that classrooms, in the hallways, on the playinghelping children develop good social and fields, and in clubs. And it is about devel-emotional skills early in life makes a big dif- oping skills and knowledge in students thatference in their long-term health and well- maximize their potential for optimal per-being. Studies have shown that children’s so- formance, human connection, and relation-cial and emotional functioning and behavior ship effectiveness. These are skills like rec-begin to stabilize around the age of eight, ognizing and managing our emotions,and can predict the state of their behavior developing caring and concern for others,and mental health later in life.27 In other establishing positive relationships, makingwords, if children learn to express emotions responsible decisions, and handling chal-constructively and engage in caring and re- lenging situations constructively. Thesespectful relationships before and while they skills, for example, allow children to calmare in lower elementary grades, they are themselves when angry, make friends, re-more likely to avoid depression, violence, solve conflicts respectfully, and make ethi-and other serious mental health problems as cal and safe choices.they grow older.198
  • 176. Country Chapter #5 | USASkills like recognizing and managing our emotions,developing caring and concern for others, establishingpositive relationships, making responsible decisions, andhandling challenging situations constructively, allow childrento calm themselves when angry, make friends, resolveconflicts respectfully, and make ethical and safe choices Students who are given clear behavioral cent to the factors that determine lifestandards and social skills, allowing them to success, which leaves 80 percent tofeel safe, valued, confident and challenged, other forces.28will exhibit better school behavior and learnmore. This statement is of monumental im- Goleman’s work helped educators, includ-portance as we attempt to improve the out- ing myself, understand the importance ofcomes of public education in the US. In fact, emotional intelligence as a basic requirementSEL skills and the supportive environments in for the effective use of one’s IQ - that is,which they are taught seem to contribute to one’s cognitive skills and knowledge. Hethe resiliency of all children—those without made the connection between our feelingsidentified risks and those at-risk of or already and our thinking more explicit by pointingexhibiting emotional or behavioral problems out how the brain’s emotional and executiveand in need of additional supports. areas are interconnected physiologically, es- pecially as these areas relate to teaching and Daniel Goleman has contributed much to learning. The prefrontal lobes of the brain,our thinking about the need to nurture the which control emotional impulses, are alsosocial and emotional lives of children. In his where working memory resides and wheregroundbreaking book Emotional Intelligence all learning takes place.(published in 1995), Goleman summarizedthe research from the fields of neuroscience Educators and parents alike are nowand cognitive psychology that identified EQ - much more aware that when chronic anxi-emotional intelligence - as being as important ety, anger, or upset feelings intrude on chil-as IQ in terms of children’s healthy develop- dren’s thoughts, less capacity is available inment and future life success. He wrote: working memory to process what they are trying to learn. This implies that, at least in One of psychology’s open secrets is part, academic success depends on a stu- the relative inability of grades, IQ, or dent’s ability to maintain positive social in- SAT scores, despite their popular mys- teractions. Schools across the US today are tiques, to predict unerringly who will beginning to systematically help children succeed in life. . . There are wide- strengthen their EQs by equipping them with spread exceptions to the rule that IQ concrete skills for identifying and managing predicts success - many (or more) their emotions, communicating effectively, exceptions than cases that fit the rule. and resolving conflicts nonviolently. These At best, IQ contributes about 20 per- skills help children to make good decisions, 199
  • 177. Country Chapter #5 | USAto be more empathetic, and to be optimistic risk behaviors such as: teens’ use of drugsin the face of setbacks. and alcohol, dropping out of school, un- wanted teen pregnancies, and other pitfalls The hopeful news is that schools and par- of adolescence. These effects are related toents, working together, can play pivotal roles children’s social and emotional developmentin supporting children’s healthy development by focusing on a single problem or issuein dealing with their emotions and their re- such as preventing substance abuse. How-lationships. In the US, this is referred to as ever, SEL provides educators with a com-social and emotional learning because these mon language and framework to organizeare skills that can be learned and mastered, their activities. SEL is an inclusive approachThe hopeful news is that schools and parents, workingtogether, can play pivotal roles in supporting children’shealthy development in dealing with their emotions andtheir relationships. In the US, this is referred to as socialand emotional learning because these are skills that can belearned and mastered, every bit as much as language ormathematics or reading can beevery bit as much as language or mathemat- that covers the entire spectrum of social andics or reading can be. Furthermore, teaching emotional competencies that help children toacademic skills and social and emotional be resilient and successful learners. In fact,skills is not an either/or proposition. In fact, when the W. T. Grant Foundation commis-there is a great deal of research evidence to sioned a study of all such programs to seeindicate that students perform better when what actually made some of them workacademics are combined with SEL.29 When (while others did not), the teaching of socialsocial and emotional skills are taught and and emotional skills emerged among themastered, they help children succeed not just crucial active ingredients.in school, but in all avenues of life. D | The Founding of the Collaborative for The SEL movement in the US is related to Academic, Social, and Emotional Learningother national youth development and pre- (CASEL)30vention initiatives, such as character educa- CASEL has been at the forefront of movingtion and school-based health promotion the social and emotional learning agenda inprograms. But it is significantly different be- education forward in the United States.cause it systematically addresses the nu- Therefore it will be described in some detailmerous social and emotional variables that here. Started in the US, CASEL has been pro-place youth at risk for school failure, such as viding national and international leadershipa lack of attachment to a significant adult or for educators, researchers, and policy mak-the inability to manage emotions. Many of ers to advance the science and practice of so-the early social and emotional learning ef- cial and emotional learning since 1994.forts in schools were developed to combat200
  • 178. Country Chapter #5 | USA Their organizational vision and mission dence-based SEL strategies and to translateguide all that they do: scientific knowledge into high-quality educa- tional approaches for all students. VISION: We envision a world where families, schools, and communities During its first decade, CASEL defined the work together to promote children’s field of SEL in the text, Social and Emotional success in school and life and to sup- Learning: Guidelines for Educators, published port the healthy development of all in 1996 by the Association for Supervision children. In this vision, children and and Curriculum Development (ASCD) and adults are engaged, life-long learners sent as a member benefit to over 100,000 who are self-aware, caring and con- educational leaders. CASEL established the nected to others, and responsible in research base for the field of SEL, publishing their decision-making. Children and the essential characteristics and documented adults achieve to their fullest poten- benefits of high-quality, evidence-based SEL tial and participate constructively in a programs for children. The US Department democratic society. of Education funded CASEL to review and create an objective guide to SEL programs. MISSION: To establish social and The resulting document, Safe and Sound emotional learning as an essential (2003), sold out 15,000 copies and has part of education. been downloaded from CASEL’s website over 150,000 times. CASEL investigates the best ways to advancechildren’s social and emotional learning and CASEL research syntheses established theprovides training to educational leaders and link between these programs and greater at-school staff in how to make SEL the founda- tachment to school, less risky behavior, andtion for academic success, disseminating re- more student assets, leading to better aca-search findings on the most effective practices demic performance and success in school andand programs to educators, researchers, and life. The CASEL text summarizing much ofpolicy makers. Working in collaboration with this work is Building Academic Success onother organizations, CASEL promotes the Social and Emotional Learning: What Does theprinciple that safe, supportive learning com- Research Say? published in 2004 by Teachersmunities are an essential component of ef- College Press. Most recently, in partnershipfective school reform. with urban, suburban, and rural schools in dif- ferent parts of the country, CASEL has devel- CASEL was inspired by the vision of its co- oped strategies for using SEL as an organizingfounders, educator-philanthropist Eileen framework for coordinating all of a school’sRockefeller Growald and former New York academic, prevention, health promotion, andTimes science writer Daniel Goleman, best youth development activities. Knowledge andknown for his numerous books on emotional products developed from this work are com-intelligence. In 1994, Growald, Goleman, and bined with applications of the latest researchcollaborators convened leading educators and in systems change, leadership development,researchers to discuss effective whole-school and program implementation in the 400-pagechange practices that incorporate rigorous CASEL document, Sustainable Schoolwide SEL:scientific research. Out of this meeting came Implementation Guide and Toolkit (2006),both the term “social and emotional learning” which sold out its first printing of 2,000 copiesand an organization – CASEL – to gather and and serves as the core element of CASEL’s na-disseminate reliable information about evi- tional training program.202
  • 179. Country Chapter #5 | USA CASEL also advises districts, states, and children it serves. In December 2004, thecountries, providing technical assistance and Illinois State Board of Education was thetraining on policy approaches to support SEL and first US state to publish Standards for Socialsystems for expanding practice on a broad scale. Emotional Learning. The ten standards, with benchmarks for different age levels, present In the past two years CASEL has con- Illinois educators with a challenge - and anducted 23 sell-out two-day school and district opportunity. Illinois’ SEL goals and stan-trainings with 300 school teams (represent- dards address content and outcomes essen-ing several hundred thousand students) from tial for the school and life success of allacross the US as well as Australia, Spain, students. The state of Illinois is now at theand Canada. In 2007, noting the research forefront of tackling some of the big ques-base for SEL and CASEL’s role in the field, tions in SEL implementation:UNICEF contracted with CASEL to lead anevaluation of their Child Friendly Schools • How do we implement the Illinoismodel, to assure better attention to student SEL standards in a high-quality way?social and emotional development. • How do we sustain the process? CASEL is having widespread influence onschool practices, policies, and professional • How do we know if we are beingdevelopment throughout the world. Their effective in reaching our goals forwebsite (www.casel.org), where papers and students?reports from CASEL’s and others’ projects areposted, attracts visitors from throughout the In asking these questions of themselvesworld. In addition, periodic reports are as a state and working to answer them, Illi-shared with the more than 10,000 sub- nois is becoming a model of what can hap-scribers to CASEL’s electronic newsletter, pen in other US states and other countriesCASEL Connections. CASEL is unique in edu- around the world.cation today. It is an organization devoted toimproving education by bridging theory, re- Their SEL journey began in 2003, whensearch, and practice—and to pursuing the the Illinois Children’s Mental Health Taskgoals of school improvement and student Force, comprising over 100 state agenciessuccess through continuing dialogue and col- and organizations, released a report docu-laboration with educators. menting that current mental health services for children fall far short of addressing theIII. Case Studies of Implementing SEL in a needs of Illinois children. The report statedState, a School District, and an Individual the following:34School • 70%-80% of children in need don’tA | The Implementation of SEL in the State receive appropriate mental healthof Illinois31 services.The state of Illinois in the US, with a popu-lation of 12,831,97032 is making history. It • 25%-30% of American children ex-has taken the lead in defining social and perience school adjustment problems.emotional learning, determining whatworks to support SEL in their 4,533 • 32% of children (including toddlers)schools,33 and setting standards for SEL for at 10 Chicago childcare centers arean entire state and the 2,097,503 school deemed to have behavioral problems. 203
  • 180. Country Chapter #5 | USA70%-80% of children in need don’t receive appropriatemental health services; 25%-30% of American childrenexperience school adjustment problems; 14% of students 12-18 years of age report having been bullied at school in the sixmonths prior to being interviewed; and at least 1 child in 10suffers from a mental illness that severely disrupts dailyfunctioning at home, in school, or in the community • 14% of students 12-18 years of and protocols for responding to chil- age report having been bullied at dren with social, emotional, or men- school in the six months prior to tal health problems, or a combination being interviewed. of such problems, that impact learn- ing ability. Each district must submit • At least 1 child in 10 suffers from this policy to the Illinois State Board of a mental illness that severely disrupts Education by August 31, 2004. daily functioning at home, in school, or in the community. Section 15 (b) of the Illinois Chil- dren’s Mental Health Act of 2003 The report further stated that services (PA 93-0495).were fragmented and the state lacked anyshort and long-term plans to address these The intent of Section 15(b) was to ensureissues. It called for reform to the existing that school districts and schools incorporatedmental health system to ensure that the full the social and emotional development of allrange of children’s social and emotional children as an integral component to the mis-needs are addressed across the continuum of sion of schools and view it as critical to theprevention/promotion, early identifica- development of the whole child, and neces-tion/intervention, and treatment (Illinois sary to academic readiness and school suc-Children’s Mental Health Task Force, 2003). cess. This would have to involve the develop-Following this report, the state of Illinois ment and strengthening of evidence-basedpassed the Illinois Children’s Mental Health prevention, early intervention, and treatmentAct to provide comprehensive, coordinated policies, programs, and services for all chil-mental health promotion and prevention, dren in regular and special education.early intervention, and treatment servicesfor children from birth through age 18. This To address mental health promotion and pre-act stated the following.35 vention, Section 15 of the Act required the Illi- nois State Board of Education (ISBE) to devel- Every Illinois school district shall de- op and implement a plan to incorporate social velop a policy for incorporating social and emotional development standards as part and emotional development into the of the Illinois Learning Standards (then con- district’s educational program. The sisting of English Language Arts, Mathematics, policy shall address teaching and as- Science, Social Science, Physical Development sessing social and emotional skills and Health, Fine Arts, and Foreign Languages).204
  • 181. Country Chapter #5 | USAThe purpose of the directive was described as C | Use communication and socialfor “enhancing and measuring children’s skills to interact effectively with othersschool readiness and ability to achieve academicsuccess.” Standards on student social and D | Demonstrate an ability to pre-emotional development were then developed vent, manage, and resolve interper-with the technical guidance of CASEL. A sonal conflicts in constructive waysbroadly representative group of educators andparents with expertise in instruction, curricu- Goal 3: Demonstrate decision-makinglum design, and child development and learn- skills and responsible behaviors in personal,ing contributed to these standards and they school, and community contextswere put into effect in December 2004. A | Consider ethical, safety, and so- The standards described the targeted com- cietal factors in making decisionspetencies for students in grades K-12 in thearea of social and emotional learning. They B | Apply decision-making skills towere based on the following SEL components deal responsibly with daily academicas outlined by CASEL: to recognize and man- and social situationsage emotions; care about others; develop pos-itive relationships and handle conflict; to C | Contribute to the well-being ofmake good decisions; and behave ethically one’s school and communityand responsibly. CASEL assisted school districts throughout The following is a summary of the Illinois the state of Illinois as they began to considerSEL Standards.36 how to implement the standards at their in- dividual schools. Since CASEL had already re- Goal 1: Develop self-awareness and self- viewed 80 SEL programs that met basic cri-management skills to achieve school and life teria and identified 22 that are especiallysuccess strong and effective, school districts already had a “consumer report” to use. They were A | Identify and manage one’s emo- able to use CASEL’s guide Safe and Sound to tions and behavior find descriptions and ratings of these pro- grams on the strength of the scientific evi- B | Recognize personal qualities and dence of their positive impact on student be- external supports havior, their instructional design, and other qualities that made SEL the foundation for ef- C | Demonstrate skills related to fective learning. achieving personal and academic goals Through the Illinois Governor’s office, Goal 2: Use social awareness and inter- CASEL was actually funded to support the im-personal skills to establish and maintain pos- plementation of SEL-based prevention pro-itive relationships grams in collaborating school sites across the state. Currently, CASEL provides SEL training A | Recognize the feelings and per- and technical assistance to the Illinois State spectives of others Board of Education and Regional Offices of Education and 86 state-funded schools in B | Recognize individual and group their efforts to implement SEL broadly in similarities and differences schools across the state. These 86 schools 205
  • 182. Country Chapter #5 | USArepresent the diversity of the state: inner-city Whatever program a school chooses, suc-schools with a high African American or cessful implementation of SEL requires cer-Latino population of students, suburban tain basic, cross-cutting factors that school dis-schools with varying degrees of racial and tricts in Illinois are becoming more andeconomic diversity, and some rural schools as more aware of. They are the following:well. They are all committed to developing astrong, evidence-based practice of school- • Strong Leadership: Active and pub-wide social and emotional learning and pre- lic support from the school principalvention and to serving as “model sites” of and other educational leaders has aSEL in the state. significant impact on the quality of program implementation. Schools collaborating with CASEL underthis initiative received direct consultation, • Integration of core SEL conceptsprofessional development, data collection and with all school activities: Bringing ananalysis support, so that they are able to SEL lens to all school-related activi-eventually develop their own effective prac- ties helps students to see the rele-tice of evidence-based, integrated program- vance of SEL lessons to many aspectsming for students’ social and emotional de- of their lives.velopment. This cooperative effort not onlyhas been benefiting current students at these • Professional development: To beschools but also has built a foundation for SEL truly effective, professional develop-practice throughout Illinois. Drawing upon ment needs to be ongoing, collabora-the Illinois experiences as a model, CASEL tive, reflective, and based on knowl-now collaborates and consults with other edge about adult learning.states and countries to implement evidence-based SEL programming on a wide scale. • Assessment and evaluation: Ongo- ing evaluation enables schools to im- The groundbreaking legislation that man- prove SEL instructional practices anddated SEL standards in Illinois went a long way determine if they are actually makingtowards making clear to schools and teachers a difference in children’s lives.what they should focus upon to promote chil-dren’s social and emotional development. • Infrastructure: High-quality SELAdoption of SEL goals and standards signaled programs are supported by ongoingthe commitment of the State of Illinois to high- social marketing of the effort tolight social and emotional learning as an es- stakeholders, a strong financial orsential part of preschool through high school resource base, and school-family-education in all schools, providing a solid foun- community connections.dation for children’s success in school and life.Full scale implementation of these standards Implementation of the Illinois SEL Stan-will call for bold leadership in their schools and dards will not happen overnight. It is a com-communities. With the help of CASEL, the state plex, iterative process, a journey where theis playing an active role in providing infor- path may look muddy even when the vision ofmation about the latest evidence-based SEL the end is clear. For most schools, it takespractice, effective guidance, and support to ad- three to five years to choose and implement aministrators, teachers, and student support program to build SEL skills, integrate SEL withpersonnel as they establish local programming academic programming, and forge supportiveto address the educational needs of all students. school-family community partnerships. Es-206
  • 183. Country Chapter #5 | USAtablishing social and emotional polices and Upon entering Russian Jack, I notice astandards makes Illinois a national leader in sign on the entrance doorway. Itproviding a foundation to guide and support reads, “Our mission at Russian Jack, aeducators as they enhance the social, emo- school of cultural diversity, is to en-For most schools, it takes three to five years to choose andimplement a program to build SEL skills, integrate SELwith academic programming, and forge supportive school-family community partnershipstional, and academic growth of students. The sure that each student is actively in-success of the policies and standards, however, volved in their learning, while devel