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Wild crop relatives in Egyptian flora and its future prospectives
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Wild crop relatives in Egyptian flora and its future prospectives

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Dr. Wafaa Amer, Professor of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science , Cairo University - IUCN (WCR -MEMBER) - Ex: Director of Nature Conservation Sector …

Dr. Wafaa Amer, Professor of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science , Cairo University - IUCN (WCR -MEMBER) - Ex: Director of Nature Conservation Sector

First National Meeting to Enhance Ownership of National Strategy for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2 April 2014 -Cairo, Egypt

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  • 1. Wild crop relatives in Egyptian flora and its future prospectives Dr. Wafaa Amer, •Professor of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science , Cairo University IUCN (WCR -MEMBER) •Ex: Director of Nature Conservation Sector Wafaa_amer@hotmail.com Wafaa_amer@hotmail.com
  • 2. Food Crisis & the Need of Concreted Efforts • The shortage in food supply in several countries (especially Africa), threaten economic growth, peace and security. • The rising of global food prices/ shortage in food supply/ water shortage/ climatic change and over population :highlights the need for more concreted efforts to develop new crops environmentally adapted with the harsh environment .
  • 3. Fresh Water in Arab Region wafaa_amer@hotmail.com
  • 4.
  • 5. World grain production
  • 6. World Food-productivity by 2050
  • 7. Production of Biofuel • One of these “green” fuels is biofuel which is made from crops such as maize, sugarcane and wheat • More than 20 countries plan to increase their production of bio- fuels over the next decade • Last year a ¼ of the US maize crops was turned into ethanol to fuel
  • 8. • The world contain 2-5 million plant species. • Three crops (wheat, rice and maize) supply the world with 85% of its starch. • West Africa: This region shares by over 50,000 known plant species, 1000 mammal species and over 1500 bird species. • North Africa: About 16000 wild plant species , where 35% of which are under-utilized Biodiversity and food
  • 9. Wild crop relatives in Egyptian flora
  • 10. Uses of the wild plants genetic resources in Egypt (Amer 2002) 1- Species with edible parts 2- Fodder species 3- Species used for sand dune fixation 4- Species can be used for fiber production 5- Species can be used paper production 6- Species with medicinal values 7- Plants can be used for oil production 8- Plants can be used for shad and wind breaks 9- Plants can be used for bio-remediation
  • 11. The Egyptian Wild Gene Pool. • 1- Species with edible parts: Erodium glaucophyllum - Cyperus esculentus ,Hyphaene thebaica - Malva parviflora , Portulaca oleracea - Phoenix dactylifera , Sisymbrium irio , Solanum nigrum, Capparis decidua Sonchus oleraceus • 2-Fodder species: Acacia raddiana - Kochia indica Acacia saligna , Alhagi graecorum Cynodon dactylon Echiochilon fruticosum , Leptadenia pyrotechnica - Lolium perenne , Medicago sativa – Atriplex halimus Calligonum comosum
  • 12. 3- Species used for sand dune fixation: Acacia saligna - Panicum turgidum - Stipagrostis scoparia - Typha elephantina Nitraria retusa. - 4 - Species can be used for fiber production: Medemia argun - Juncus rigidus Thymelea hirsuta - Calotropis procers 5 - Species can be used paper production: Cyperus papyrus - Imperata cylindrica Juncus rigidus - Phoenix dactylifera Phragmites australis Typha elephantina
  • 13. Wafaa Amer-Yaman Sept. 6 - Some species with medicinal values: Acacia raddiana - Artemisia herba-alba Alhagi graecorum - Ammi majus Belepharis edulis - Brassica nigra Deverra tortuosa - Ephedra alata 7- Plants can be used for oil production Brassica nigra - Ricinus communis Carthamus tinctorius - Citrullus colocynthis Lepidium sativum - Moringa peregrina 8 – Plants can be used for shad and wind breaks Acacia farnisiana - Acacia nilotica Acacia saligna - Acacia raddiana Balanites aegyptiaca - Cassia senna Moringa peregrina - Retama raetam Salvadora persica - Tamarix nilotica 9 – Plants can be used for bio-remediation Eichhornia crassipes - Phragmites australis Ceratophyllum demersum – Juncus arabicus
  • 14. Large number of species are crop relative : Hordeum (3 species) ; Trifolium (18 spp.); Medicago (18 spp.) ; Vicia (15 spp.) ; Sorghum (4 spp.) ; Melilotus (7 spp.) ; Trigonella (11 spp.) ; Gossypium (1 spp.) ; Cucumis (4 spp.) ; Linum (3 spp.) and Solanum (10 spp.). •
  • 15. Wafaa Amer-Yaman Sept. Studied examples of the wild relatives in Egyptian flora.  Gossypium barbadense L. (1 sp.)  Hordeum vulgare L. (3 sp.)  Hyoscyamus muticus L. (6 spp.)  Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. (3 spp.)  Nicotiana tabacum L. (3 spp.)  Juncus rigidus Desf. (9 spp.)
  • 16. Studied criteria  Taxonomic relation (macro & micro-characters)  Lipid materials (Fatty acids and hydrocarbons)  DNA Fingerprint  Isozymes  Calculation of genetic distance
  • 17. Wafaa Amer-Yaman Sept. Fig. (1): Genomic DNA polymorphism of the studied Nicotiana species using ten primers (1= N. plumbaginifolia, 2= N. glauca, 3= N. rustica, 4= N. tabacum, M= Marker). M1234 OPC01 0.15 0.3 0.05 1 Kbp 1.2 1.6 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 M3 2 14 OPK10 Kbp M1234 OPB03 Kbp 1.353 0.310 0.603 0.872 0.072 0.118 0.194 1 0.15 0.3 0.05 M1234 OPC02 Kbp M1234 OPC03 Kbp 1 0.3 0.15 0.05 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.3 1.0 0.2 OPK02 M12344 3 2 1 OPK01 Kbp Kbp OPA02 M1234 1.353 0.603 0.310 0.872 0.194 0.072 0.118 1 0.75 0.15 0. 3 0.05 0.5 OPB02 M4321M Kbp 0.05 0.15 0.75 0.5 1 0.3 M1234 OPB04 Kbp
  • 18. Wafaa Amer-Yaman Sept. Gossypium P e rce n t d isa g re e m e n t L in ka g e D ista n ce su b u la tu s b u fo n iu s litto ra lis rig id u s a cu tu s 0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1 Juncus
  • 19. Eastern Desert N EGYPT SAUDI ARABIA SUDAN Western Desert Rafah Sallum Cairo Kharga Oasis Dakhla Oasis Farafra Oasis Siwa Oasis (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (b)
  • 20. Proso Millet Panicum miliaceum Cultivated for food production of floor and the grain cooked and stems for fodder (escape from cultivation in N. M) Little Millet milianePanicum Cultivated in India and Sudan for grain production for food. N, M, R, S. Now, introduced fodder grass ; C. native to Sinai Millet
  • 21. Pennisetum glaucum (Pearl millet, Bulrush millet)- N, O, De, GE Grown in Africa and the Indian since prehistoric times (Archaeological evidence 2500-200 BC). The center of diversity, and domestication, for the crop is in the Sahel zone of West Africa. Pennisetum americanum, mainly for fodder.Cattail Millet Cultivated in poor nutrient soi
  • 22. Sorghum bicolor N,O,M cultivated cereal Sorghum originated in northern Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Sorghum halepense N,O,M weed in Rice fields Native to the Mediterranean region, Now, growing throughout Europe and the Middle East. (Johnsongrass) (Archaeological evidence 7500 BC).
  • 23. Cyperus esculentus = shufa
  • 24. Grapes local variety, Assiut Grapes and wild fig From St. Catherine Collection of germplasm ,Siwa National Gene Bank
  • 25. Ziziphus spina-christi, Christ's Thorn Jujube • Tree native to N- to tropical Africa SW Asia. • With Jews, Christians & Muslims, traditions • Ancient Egyptian tree
  • 26. Moringa olifeira
  • 27. Capparis spinosa Salted fruits
  • 28. Prof. Wafaa Amer Capparis spinosa •Root and Bark: diuretic, astringent, tonic, laxative and expectorant. •Root bark: appetizer and astringent. •Plant infusion: anti- diarrheic & febrifuge. •Flower buds: renal disinfectant, tonic and diuretic.
  • 29. Prof. Wafaa Amer Lycium shawii Fruit: Source of vitamins A, C & E; essential fatty acids •Reducing the cancer incidence & •Reversing the cancers growth •Hypoglycaemic activity
  • 30. Recommendation • National effort should addressed to the wild crop relatives • Regulations should be developed to control and protect the country rights in its exported wild plants and their extracts. • Additional studies are needed to clear out and quantify the direct and indirect benefits • Uses of tissue culture techniques to propagate the threatened species. • Conservation of the economic species through in situ green house production. • Transfer the economic trait to a relative plant species possesses wide ecological range.
  • 31. Thank you