Jordan Country Report
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Jordan Country Report



Jordan Country Report By Dr. Sobhia Saifan, Second Regular Meeting of the Coordinating Board (CB) of NEAR EAST and North Africa Plant Genetic Resources (NENAPGRN)

Jordan Country Report By Dr. Sobhia Saifan, Second Regular Meeting of the Coordinating Board (CB) of NEAR EAST and North Africa Plant Genetic Resources (NENAPGRN)



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Jordan Country Report Jordan Country Report Presentation Transcript

  • Current Status of Plant Genetic Resources in Jordan S. Saifan*S. Saifan Information paper submitted to the second meeting of the CB of the NENA-PGRN 18-20 Sep 2012 Cairo EgyptNENA-PGRN, 18-20 Sep. 2012, Cairo, Egypt * National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE), Jordan. Head, Plant genetic resources unit, NENA‐PGRN national focal point.  P.O.Box 639‐Baqa'19381 Jordan, Tel: 00962 6 4725071. Fax: 00962 6 4726099. E‐mail:,
  • Inside Biogeography and biodiversity of Jordan Inside… (Value of Jordanian plant biodiversity, Threats of plant diversity and PGR in Jordan) International treaties and national respond Institutes interested in PGR in Jordan Management of PGR in Jordan Gaps and needsGaps and needs
  • Biogeography and biodiversity of Jordan Altitude (-400 m to1750 masl). Rinfall (50- 600 mm) Eco-geographical Zones: The highland mountains region; the eastern desert; the Jordan valley; and the Aqaba gulf Vegetation types (13): Pine forest, evergreen oak forest, Deciduous oak forest, Juniper forest, Mediterranean non-forest region, steppe vegetation, Halophytic, Sandy dunes, d l d kHammada, Tropical, Acacia and rocky vegetation, Hydrophytic, and Mud flats Species richness: 9.1 species/100 km² ( i 2001)(Danin, 2001). Diversity: 2500 species (1% of the total world fl ) Vegetation map illustrates natural vegetation of Jordan flora) 152 families 700 genera (Jordan country study, 1998).
  • Value of Jordanian plant biodiversity - Direct utilization: edible for human, grazing for animals, parent of cultivated species, - Jordan flora figure out important landraces and wild relatives of globally important crops (wheat barley oat lentil vetch cowpea peasglobally important crops (wheat, barley, oat, lentil, vetch, cowpea, peas, etc.). - Include valuable genetic resources for crop improvements (drought and saline resistant plants medicinal soil fixing nitrogen fixing andand saline resistant plants, medicinal, soil fixing, nitrogen fixing, and disease resistance). - Contain species adapted to the Jordan environment and are integral to th t i bilit f d ti t d h th id d kthe sustainability of production systems and hence they considered key for comprehensive national development.
  • Threats of plant diversity and PGR in Jordan Climate change Over-grazing Deforestation Habitat degradation and fragmentation cause loss of geneticHabitat degradation and fragmentation cause loss of genetic diversity and lead to genetic vulnerability and erosion Over collectionAgricultural UrbanizationAgricultural development Urbanization
  • Jordan and the international treaties International treaties relevant to PGR and ratified by JordanInternational treaties relevant to PGR and ratified by Jordan Treaty Year Goals International convention for the protection of new varieties (UPOV) 1991 protect intellectual property rights (IPR) for new varietiesof new varieties (UPOV) new varieties Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 Conservation BD, Sustainable utilization, Benefets sharing UN framework convention on climate Develop national frameworks to faceUN a ewo co ve t o o c ate change 1994 eve op at o a a ewo s to ace climate change impact The Cartagana protocol for biosafety 2000 Adopt protocols and regulations for safe movement and use of GMO. International Treaty on plant genetic resources for food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) 2001 Maintain PGRFA, Sustainable utilization of PGRFA, Equitable and benefit sharing The Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Conservation and sustainable use of BD toThe Nagoya – Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress. 2010 Conservation and sustainable use of BD to protect from damage resulting from living modified organisms (LMOs) The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic sharing the benefits arising from the Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the CBD 2010 sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way
  • Policy Issued by Year Policies and strategies relevant to PGR in Jordan National Environmental Strategy (NES) Ministry of Municipal, Rural affairs and environment 1991 National Environmental Action Plan Ministry of Planning 1995 (NEAP) Water Strategy and Policies Ministry of Water 1998 National Agenda 21 General Corporation for 2001 Environmental Protection Poverty Reduction Strategy Ministry of Social Development 2001 National strategy for agricultural Higher Socio-economic Council 2002 development (2000-2010) Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Ministry of Environment 2002 National Strategy for Tourism Ministry of Tourism 2004 National Energy Strategy Ministry of Energy 2005 National Strategy and Action Plan to Combat Desertification Ministry of Environment 2005 The National Agenda Royal National Agenda Committee 2006 National strategy for plant conservation (WS &CWR) Under discussion
  • National institutes interested in Plant genetic i J dresources in Jordan  National Centre for Agriculture and Extension (NCARE)  Ministry of Agriculture (MOA).  Mi i t f E i t (MOE) Ministry of Environment (MOE).  The Royal Society for Conservation Nature (RSCN).  Jordan Universities.  The Royal Botanic Garden The Royal Botanic Garden.  The Higher Council for Science and Technology (HCST).
  • Management of plant genetic resources in Jordan C ll ti During 1952 and 1977 old cultivars of durum wheat have been collected Collection During 1952 and 1977 old cultivars of durum wheat have been collected and deposited at USDA and in BARI gene banks.  Collection in cooperation with ICARDA (1981-2012), more than 1300 accessions of cereals and legumes were collected.  Collection in cooperation with BI (1995, 2012) for cereals and vegetable landraceslandraces.  Collection in cooperation with Kew garden/UK (2001-2009) for wild species .  Collection in cooperation with IPK genebank (2012) for wild barley.  Collection of various plant species conducted by NCARE (1996-2012)  Frequent collection in cooperation with Jordanian research institutes.
  • Conservation (Ex situ) of PGR in Jordan  National seed bank at NCARE  Field Banks: 3 fields (NCARE) maintained old cultivars and stocks of olive, almond, pistachio,cultivars and stocks of olive, almond, pistachio, pomegranate, fig and medicinal..  Botanic gardens: RBG, UOJ (research d h b i )and herbaria)  In vitro: under research In vitro: under research
  • Conservation (Ex situ) of PGR in Jordan National gene Bank at NCARE (1996)  Capability - Laboratory and seed drying facilityLaboratory and seed drying facility - Cold stores (0 - 4c) and (-10 to -20c)
  • - Herbarium unit with 4000 specimens collected since 1886.
  • Conservation (In situ) of PGR in Jordan  Agrobidiversity project: on-farm conservation (6)  Medicinal plant project: 12 sites designated for12 sites designated for In situ conservation  RSCN: 13 protected areas (natural reserves)( )  MoA: 15 natural reserves
  • IdentificationCollection Collecting system Gundelia turnifortii
  • Wild Barley, 2012
  • Hordeum vulgare subsp. Spontaneum 72 acc from 30 site, May 2012
  • Genebank databaseGenebank database - Data management facilities capable to connect with GIS. Common data
  • NCARE genebank progress 1996-2012 Families 87 Diversity 4500 Families 87 Genera 435 Species 656 3000 3500 4000 Species 656 Subspecies 65 2000 2500 3000 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2012
  • Crop type percentage conserved at NCARE genebank (2012)genebank (2012) % 15% Cereals Forage Legumes 48% 5% 8% 15% Forage Legumes Food Legumes Medicinal Plants 9% 8% Oil seeds Others Range Shrubs 3% 0% 3% Trees Vegetables Wild Plants 1%
  • Activities and utilization of PGR in Jordan (Utili ti f l t ti i J d i categori ed Activity Percentage (%) (Utilization of plant genetic resources in Jordan is categorized by research type) Activity Percentage (%) Collection 23.95 Conservation 23.95 Multiplication 2.99 Plant protection 0.60 R h bilit ti 4 79Rehabilitation 4.79 Water research 1.20 Strategy and plans 3.59Strategy and plans 3.59 Evaluation 25.75 Direct Utilization 1.20 Climate change 2.40 Biotechnology and tissue culture 9.58
  • New Jordan plant checklist (2521 species), IUCN & RBG No Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 1Plantae Angiospermae Oppositifoliae (Dicotyledoneae) Scrophulariales Acanthaceae Acanthus syriacus 2Plantae Angiospermae Oppositifoliae (Dicotyledoneae) Scrophulariales Acanthaceae Blepharis attenuata2Plantae (Dicotyledoneae) Scrophulariales Acanthaceae Blepharis attenuata 3Plantae Pterophyta Pteridopsida Polypodiales Adiantaceae Adiantum capillus- veneris 4Plantae Angiospermae Oppositifoliae (Dicotyledoneae) Caryophyllales Aizoaceae Aizoon canariense 5Plantae Angiospermae Oppositifoliae (Dicotyledoneae) Caryophyllales Aizoaceae Aizoon hispanicum 6Plantae Angiospermae Oppositifoliae (Dicotyledoneae) Caryophyllales Aizoaceae Mesembryanthem um nodiflorum Angiospermae Oppositifoliae 7Plantae Angiospermae Oppositifoliae (Dicotyledoneae) Caryophyllales Aizoaceae Opophytum forsskalii Jordan plant Red list, IUCN & RBG
  • Utilization of PGR in Jordan Utilization of plant genetic resources in Jordan categorized by crop type. Crop Percentage (%) Wheat 15.70 B l 15 70Barley 15.70 Chickpea 1.65 Lentils 4 13Lentils 4.13 Bean 2.48 forage legumes 4.96 Trees 20.66 Vegetables 8.26 Medicinal and aromatic 9.92 Others 16.53
  • Exchanging PGR at NCARE genebank (1996-2012). Loan seeds Year No. of accessions Crop type 1996 01996 0 1997 27 1998 10 1999 13 FL VEG Wheat Barley1999 13 FL, VEG, Wheat, Barley 2000 29 Wheat,VEG 2001 85 Wheat,VEG, Tree (Pyrus sp), FL 2002 96 VEG WS2002 96 VEG, WS 2003 16 WS 2004 26 Tree (Pistacia), VEG, MP 2005 77 MP, VEG, FL2005 77 MP, VEG, FL 2006 19 Wheat, Tree (Moringa), MP (Thymus sp., Mellissa sp) 2007 85 MP, VEG, Sh, Barley 2008 24 FL, VEG, MP, Tree, Barley, , , , y 2009 74 MP, VEG, Wheat (wild), 2010 16 Oil seed (Sesamum), Ornamental (Orchis sp.) 2011 50 VEG, MP 2012 200 Barley, WS, VEG, MP, Tree Total 847 FL: Forage legumes, MP: Medicinal plant, Sh: Shrub, VEG: Vegetables, WLP: Wild species.
  • Gaps and needs legal constraints like: • Lack of a specified PGR legislative for regulating access to genetic resourcesp g g g g and benefits sharing. • Lack of systematic integration of the conservation, sustainable use and benefits sharing concepts in the national policy formulation processand benefits sharing concepts in the national policy formulation process. • Lack of economic incentives and valuation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. • Weak linkages between research and policy making. • Weak enforcement of laws and legislations• Weak enforcement of laws and legislations.
  • Need to improve the coverage of diversity in ex situ collections including- Need to improve the coverage of diversity in ex situ collections, including CWR and farmer varieties, coupled with better documentation, characterization, and evaluation of collections. - Need for awareness about PGRFA including MLS and ABS. - Need attention toward conservation and use of PGRFA of neglected andg underutilized crops and non food crops. - Capacity building in management for PGR (seed technology, taxonomy, cyto-genetics, breeding, ex situ, in situ and on-farm PGR management). - Institutional collaboration is important for sustainable utilization of PGR, i J d th i till l k f l t di ti h iin Jordan there is still lack of a long-term coordination mechanism between institutions working in PGR in general and PGRFA in particular. In addition there is a lack of local community and farmer institutions that enable the sustainable use of PGRFAenable the sustainable use of PGRFA.
  • End of presentation Thanks you