Baseline Study on the Current PGRFA in Egypt
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Baseline Study on the Current PGRFA in Egypt

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Dr. Sami Reda Saber Sabry, Project National Consultant ...

Dr. Sami Reda Saber Sabry, Project National Consultant

First National Meeting to Enhance Ownership of National Strategy for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2 April 2014 -Cairo, Egypt

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Baseline Study on the Current PGRFA in Egypt Baseline Study on the Current PGRFA in Egypt Presentation Transcript

  • Optimizing the Use of Plant Genetic resources for Food and Agriculture for Adaptation to Climate Change TCP/SNO/3401 Baseline Study on the Current PGRFA in Egypt Dr. Sami Reda Saber Sabry Project National Consultant First National Meeting to Enhance Ownership of National Strategy for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 2 April 2014 -Cairo, Egypt
  • Introduction and Historical Background  Location of Egypt Latitude 22 to 32 North of Equator Longitude 24 to 37 East of Greenwich Total area 1,002,000 sq. Km The country is rich of landraces and wild relatives which survived for hundreds of years. Landraces and wild relatives are widely adapted to biotic and abiotic stresses.
  • Cont. The Egyptian agriculture is facing main challenges like limited cultivated area and water supply. Prevailing pressures including desertification, erosion, climate changes and overuse of pesticides and other agrochemicals caused disappearance of genetic resources at unprecedented rate. In the past 50 years new uniform crop varieties replaced many local varieties and landraces. View slide
  • Cont.  The National Gene Bank (NGB) was estabished in 2003 and opened in 2004 to be responsible for the conservation and maintenance of plant, animal and microorganisms genetic resources in Egypt agricultural sector.  The NBG was assigned to coordinate between activities of National Genetic Resources Programs in ARC, Universities, Private sector companies and Seed Supply System entities. View slide
  • The State of Diversity Utilization of biological diversity remains the best way to secure future food needs and to drive the economic and social development of the world. The history of plant domestication is the humanity’s best defense against poverty, food insecurity and threats to natural resources.
  • Cont. Egyptian agriculture is a very intensive system. It consumes 450 thousand ton of seed from different field crops and more than 5000 ton of vegetable seed excluding seed of vetetatively propagated crops. Egyptian farmers still use old local varieties seed in some places which are considered a very rich biodiversity resource.
  • Cont. Egypt signed the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on June 1992 and ratified it on June 1994. It also signed the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for food and Agriculture on August 2002 and ratified it on 2004. The treaty sets the guidelines for collection, identification, evaluation, maintenance and documentation of plant genetic resources. It also defines national obligations for the sustainable use of those resources by each contracting party.
  • The State o In Situ Management Three workshops were held and organized by NBG and stakeholders seed supply companies, farmers and plant genetic programs. Under the law No. 102, 1983 for protected areas, twenty seven protectorates were identified till 2010 representing about 10% of the total area of Egypt.
  • The number of plant species and the nature of the protected areas of Egypt Recent Assessment of Plant Biodiversity of the Protected Areas of Egypt No. of plant species Type of protected area Name of protected area No. 25Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Abu Glum1 53Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Ras Mohammed2 87Desert (Highlands, Valleys & Plains)Taba3 40Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Nabq4 98Desert (Highlands, Valleys & Plains)Wadi Allaqi5 52Desert (Highlands, Valleys & Plains)Siwa6 381Desert (Highlands, Valleys & Plains)Elba7 12Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Ahrash8 6Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Ashtoum El-Gamil9 192Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Burullus10 152Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Zaraneek11 150Desert (Highlands, Valleys & Plains)Omayed12 38Waterland (Marine, Lakes & Riverine)Wadi El-Rayan13 92Desert (Highlands, Valleys & Plains)Wadi El-Gimal14 1378Total
  • The Egyptian Flora Species, 2000 No. of endangered species* No. of endemic species No. of species Taxa --44Viruses --238Bacteria --1260Fungi --1148Algae --337Non-flowering vascular plants 4612094flowering plants
  • The State of Ex Situ Management (1)National Gene Bank Organization - There are four major departments related to the NGB activities, they are:  Field Crops.  Horticultural Crops.  Animal Genetic Resources.  Agriculture-related micro-organisms.
  • The National Gene Bank Organization also comprises the following sections, labs, and facilities: 1- The Genetic resources conservation section 2- Seed Viability Testing and Regeneration Section. 3- Genetic Resources Evaluation Section. 4- Documentation and Information Section. 5- Taxonomy Section. 6- Chemical Analysis Lab. 7- Molecular Genetics Lab. 8- Tissue Culture Lab. 9- Cytogenetics Lab. 10- NGB Farm. 11- Green houses. 12- NGB Herbarium 13- Small Botanical Garden
  • Number of Genera and Species in the NGB SpeciesGenraCrop 11558Field Crops 7651Vegetable Crops 2520Fruits 252183Medicinal and Aromatic plants 6345Trees & Shrubs 232165Wild Plants 763522Total
  • The Planned Cold Storage Capacity Tissue CultureTrue seeds accessionsStorage Type 122578710Short Period Storage 3-5 Years 2450127450Medium Period Storage 5-7 Years 2450169680Long Period Storage 7-10 Years
  • List of Botanical Gardens in Egypt No. of Species No. of G. No. of F. Date of Estab. Present Area (Feddan) * Name of Botanical Garden No. 120075011419533Ain Shams Univ., Fac. of Sci.1 50019422Alex. Univ. Fac. of Sci.2 806431194715Cairo Univ., Fac. of Agr.3 60052090187328Orman B.G., Giza4 4421435718688Zohryia, Gezera, Giza5 551721960124Quba Palace, Cairo6 34220868189080Zoo Garden, Giza7 23915061Manial Balace, Giza8 9473321937 Agriculture Museum, Dokky, Giza 9 8008341186710Azbakyia Garden10 62186045Antoniadis Garden, Alex.11 300 BC.Al-Nozha Garden, Alex.12 19285Rose Garden, Alex.13 3719759192817Aswan Garden14
  •  Several herbaria of dried native plants (specimen) can be found in Egypt. The Department of Botany of the Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Ain Shams University. In the Agriculture Museum, MALR is maintaining a very big collection among other herbaria in Egypt. The herbarium serves as a reference for the identification of the several groups of native germplasm.
  • Other Organizations Participating in the Information Sharing Mechanism A. Central Administration for Seed Testing and Certification (CASC) B. Central Administration for Seed Production (CASP). C. Seed Companies D. Breeding Programs
  • A. (CASC) - It is the agency responsible for seed quality control, seed legislation and state policy enforcement. It is the designated seed certification authority which performs seed lab and field testing for certified seed and lab testing for the uncertified seed.
  • - CASC includes directorates and offices for the following activities: Seed and Seedling Field Inspection – Control Plot Testing – Seed Viability Testing – Seed Health Testing – Checking and Rechecking – Arbitration – Seed and Seedling Certification – Seed Import and Export Control – Market Control and Seed Legislation Enforcement – Extension and Training – Licensing – Variety and Breeder’s Rights – Variety Testing.
  • Numbers of Registered Varieties (Field Crops) 1988-2010 Total201088/2003 Crop Tot. Priv. Gov. Tot. Priv. Gov. Tot. Priv. Gov. 615615Alfalfa1 707707Barley - 6 Rows2 2022022 Rows 707707Barley Total 909909Berseem3 202202Chickpea4 1501515015Cotton5 1701717017Broad bean6 404404Flax( lineseed)7 404404Lentil8 1301313013Maize- White Lines9 90913013Yellow lines 651912440271512Single W. Hyb. 221578801477Single Y. Hyb. 642642Double W. Hyb 330330Double Y. Hyb 211011220198113 Way. W. Hyb 114711473 Way. Y. Hyb 10641651064165Maize Total 202202Millet10 188561321614217242130Total
  • Total201088/2003 Crop Tot. Priv . Gov . Tot. Priv . Gov . Tot. Priv . Gov . 188561321614217242130Previous 1301310112012Rice11 15871101477Sorghum12 835835 Sorghum X Sudangrass13 101101Sudangrass14 606606Soybean15 990110880Sunflower16 3003020228028Wheat - Bread17 606101505Durum 3603630333033Wheat Total 808808Sugar Cane18 91444769442522022Sugar beet19 101101Teosinte20 606606Sesame21 413110303Peanut22 404404Onion23 101101F. cowpea24 101101Gouar25 101101Bonavist,lablab26 101101Munge bean27 102202Canola28 2084714376472913218114 39612127592613130460244Total Cont.
  • Numbers of Registered Varieties (Vegetables) 1988-2010 Total201088/2002 Crop Tot.Priv.Gov.Tot.Priv .Gov.Tot.Priv.Gov. 2117411020164Bean1 8476899075678Cucumber2 101101Garlic3 101101 Karcade (Rama)4 404404 Sweet Potato5 11210842424088844Tomato6 2119265115141Squash7 862862Peas8 606101505Cowpea9 2722585319172Watermelon10 3028211029272Melon11 1717017170Cantaloupe12 303303Radish13 101101Spinach14 2419542220173Eggplant15 616101414047470Pepper16
  • Cont. Total201088/2002 Crop Tot.Priv.Gov.Tot.Priv.Gov.Tot.Priv.Gov. 11211202020092920Potato17 202202Artichocke18 202202Asparagus19 660660Strawberry20 101101Okra21 880880Lettuce22 321110211Cabbage23 101101Cauliflower24 10100110990Carrot25 101101Turnip26 202202Table beat27 624624Faba bean(Veg.)28 101101Thyme29 101101Camomile30 101101Dill31 101101Yams32 101101Taro33 Broccoli34 580513679083749043060Total
  • (B) CASP CASP administers and advises ARC on requirements for foundation class seeds, plans, supervises and contracts with seed growers to multiply targeted other certified seed classes, CASP also coordinates seed conditioning among seed conditioning facilities to minimize mechanical contamination of seeds and to avoid the excessive seed transportation costs. CASP is head quartered in Giza, with offices in the governorates.
  • Accepted Seed Production Areas 2007-2011 (in Feddan – 4200m2) Coverage W/ Certified Seed % 2010/ 2011 2009/ 2010 2008/ 2009 2007/ 2008 Crop a. Winter Crops 3039737251495425849945Wheat 13132698822942633Faba bean 108005921009851Barley b. Summer Crops 100731485068258559133171Cotton 5011594162142584422778Rice 5320859190071401711279Corn (Maize) 10281406660501Sorghum
  • (C) Seed Companies Seed production companies are specializing mainly in seed of hybrid maize, sorghum, sorghum x sudan grass forages, sunflower, some kinds of vegetable seeds, and seeds of berseem clover and alfalfa. Seed producing firms include special units have been established within the ARC to deal with the breeder and foundation seed classes in self – pollinated crop varieties and hybrids. Seed companies also include seed import, export, and trade.
  • (D) Breeding Programs (1) The Agricultural Research Center (ARC): - ARC is supervising and leading 5 field crops and one horticultural crops Breeding Programmes on the national level, namely: 1 – National Programme for Cereal Crops 2 – National Programme for Fibre Crops 3 – National Programme for Oil and Onion Crops 4 – National Programme for Legume and Fodder Crops 5 – National Programme for Sugar Crops 6 – National Programme for Horticultural Crops (2) There are some very limited plant breeding activities in the National Research Center (NRC), agricultural colleges and on a larger scale in seed companies specially for hybrids since 1988,
  • Legislative Farm work - The NBG is conducting its mandate within the following legislative framework: 1- Laws #’s 53/1966, 102/1983 and 82/2002 2- Prime minister degree # 1366/2003Ministrial decrees #’s 1920/2003, 67/2005, 335/2005, 862/2005 and 1196/2005.
  • Cont. - MALR has appointed NGB as national focal point to represent MALR in the international organizations concerning PGR and to represent the ministry in implementing the treaty of PGRFA and to coordinate the activities of PG, breeding programs and seed supply system in Egypt. - The NBG has prepared a protocol fr genetic resources exchange to conserve GR from research, breeding organizations and individuals.
  • Regional and International Collaboration - Egypt has signed the CBD in 1992 and ratified it in 1994. - Also, Egypt signed the International treaty of PGRFA in 2002 and ratified it in 2004. - Egypt is implementing the PGRFA which applies to 35 crops and 29 forages and assures the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their use.
  •  Egypt recognizes "the sovereign rights of the State over its own plant genetic resources for food and agriculture".  Egypt respects the Farmers' Rights in obtaining and using seeds from their own farms for cultivation for self pollinated crops.  The NGB retained the genetic resources from Egyptian origin from the foreign gene banks to be added to the Egyptian collection in the NGB. Egypt.
  •  The President of the NGB Represents the Near East Region in the Government Body for the implementation of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, PGRFA Treaty.  MALR has appointed the President of the NGB as the Focal Point and Coordinator of the genetic resources, breeding, and seed supply systems in Egypt.
  • Conclusion The role of biodiversity and the importance of its preservation is an outstanding issue for long - term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development for present and future generations. In this regard genetic resources will be explored preserved, evaluated and made available for plant breeding and scientific purposes. The biological diversity as stated in the Convention on Biological Diversity – CBD encompasses all genes, species and ecosystems.