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Lect 4

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  • Hazards: (earthquake faults, fire hazard areas, flood zones, shoreline exposure, etc.) Other Map Data: (streets, pipelines, buildings, residential areas, powerlines, storage facilities, etc.)Lives, property, and environmental values at high risk from potential emergency or disaster become apparent.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Date: 14th November, 2009
      Application of GIS/ RS in Disaster/ Hazards Management2. Sources of Spatial Data
      Facilitated By:
      Muhammad Qadeer
    • 2. Geographic Information System…
      It is simply geography + Information 
      It tells you what is where and helps you for better and informed decisions
      +
      =
    • 3. Why Use GIS for Disaster Management
      Most of the data requirements of disaster management are of spatial nature
      All phases of disaster or emergency management require variety of data sets from variety of sources
      At planning stages, we need to know what is lying where, in what condition and what are their associated vulnerabilities
      For planning, we need to quantify what is the level of risk of various hazards and what are the elements at risk in any particular area i.e. a district
      During emergency, its critical to have right data at right time
    • 4. GIS in Emergency Management Phases
      Emergency management programs begin with locating and identifying potential emergency problems. Using a GIS, officials can pinpoint hazards and begin to evaluate the consequences of potential emergencies or disasters.
      When hazards are viewed with other map data, emergency management officials can begin to formulate mitigation, preparedness, response, and possible recovery needs.
      GIS can highlight the elements at risk very easily and effectively. Public safety personnel can focus on where mitigation efforts will be necessary, where preparedness efforts must be focused, where response efforts must be strengthened, and the type of recovery efforts that may be necessary. Before an effective emergency management program can be implemented, thorough analysis and planning must be done. GIS facilitates this process by allowing planners to view the appropriate combinations of spatial data through computer-generated maps.
    • 5. Applications of GIS in Disaster Management
      Preparation and validation of baseline data of geographical locations of project area and settlements
      Preparation of Hazard Maps
      Vulnerability assessment
      Risk Prediction and Estimation of Loss
      Overall Working Area
      Location of Human Settlements in Dist. Rajanpur
    • 6. Applications of GIS in Disaster Management
      Vulnerability assessment Maps
      Risk Prediction and Estimation of Loss
      Information Dissemination
    • 7. Some Advanced Application may include:
      Simulations and Modeling
      Logistics Management
      Shortest and optimum routing
    • 8. Common Datasets Required
      Administrative boundaries; provinces, districts and tehsils (union councils if needed), vector data
      Human and Situation Data, location of settlements, hazardous locations, potential of risk and elements at risk including fields, crops, social infrastructure and buildings i.e. roads and schools
      Satellite images, satellite and aerial photographs showing active river basins and other land-use features on earth
      Pragmatic/Thematic Data, location of hazard by category and their severity
    • 9. Costs Involved
      GIS development always involves huge costs; it need costly software and sophisticated machines…
      The above statement is nothing more than a myth
      Concept of open source GIS for DM is rapidly emerging now a days and most of the raster and GIS datasets are available free of cost.
      The need is to learn and explore where we can get right data at right cost and how sensibly that RAW data can be used for creating valued product after processing
      Some of the required vector and raster data sets can be collected freely just through a fast internet connection while other might cost 10-25$ per sq.km
    • 10. Costs Involved
      There are various free software packages of GIS available which can meet our needs well, but more professional range from US$ 3800 for ArcView to US$16000 for ArcInfo.
    • 11. Facilitated By:
      Muhammad Qadeer
      Sources of Spatial Data
      Date: 14th November, 2009
      Courtesy:
      Dr. Norman Kerle (ITC)
    • 12. Contents
    • 13. How do I go about getting data??
    • 14. Is it that easy???
    • 15. Identify data type needed (depends on questionsasked; e.g. images, maps, GIS, etc.)
      Identification of suitable data is, of course, reliant on your understanding of both the problem at hand, as well as geo information science
      You have to understand fully what information you require to answer given questions, what data source can provide it, and how you can extract it from raw data, and also how to combine that information with other data sources
      Realise that vast amounts of data exist in archives and are captured by different sensors every day; at the same time we have to deal with an increasing number of data (and sensor) types
      Your understanding of the scientific and technical issues also allows you to decide the (I) date of acquisition and (II) number of datasets in question
    • 16. Identify possible cost
      Some spatial data can be obtained for free, others are very expensive
      The overall cost depends on several aspects:
      Data type and extent of study area
      Number of datasets (e.g. need for repeat datasets)
      Need for raw or processed (value-added) data
      Availability of reference data (e.g. existing GIS databases)
      Need for use of commercial image data (Landsat, Ikonos, Quickbird, etc.)
      Need for rapid custom image acquisition
      Need for ground crews for collection of additional information
      Need for outside special resources (experts, databases, etc.)
    • 17. Identify relevant source and search for appropriate data
      The multitude of available catalogues makes this difficult
      Different data types tend to be distributed by different sources
      Some issues:
      Raw image data vs. thematic data (e.g. vegetation indices), catalogues for both (e.g thematic information based on geoinformatics [“disaster databases”]
      Global vs. regional vs. local data
      Sensor type: satellite vs. airborne vs. ground-based
      Raster data (images) vs. vector data
      Specific data types, such as laser scanning data or digital elevation data (DEM)
    • 18. Free Data
      There are many free datasets available
      Rule-of-thumb is that cost goes up with increasing spatial resolution of image data, and with detail of auxiliary datasets (maps, GIS layers)
      Government-owned sensors are more likely to provide free (or cheap) data
      Cost tends to go down with age of the data
      Also try governmental agencies or NGOs in your country for data
      Educational facilities sometimes get access to free data (e.g. ASTER) – scope for collaboration?
      Let’s look at some sources of free data (though keep in mind that the list is not complete)
    • 19.
    • 20.
    • 21.
    • 22.
    • 23. 30 m resolution for the whole world
      GASTER- DEM
    • 24.
    • 25. 4. ASTER - Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
      Flying on board of TERRA since 1999
      Excellent 15-channel data
      Free for educational use!
      Description at http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/
      Best place to get data is the Earth Observing System Data Gateway (you also get many other data types there)
      ASTER data can also be used to create digital elevation models (vertical accuracy of approximately 25 meters, under some circumstances 11 meters)
      On how to so that, see http://www.pcigeomatics.com/support_center/tech_papers/dem_aster.pdf
      Data access: http://edcimswww.cr.usgs.gov/pub/imswelcome/
    • 26.
    • 27.
    • 28.
    • 29. You can also check on GLOVIS: http://glovis.usgs.gov/
    • 30. Data Preview
    • 31. 5. MODIS - Moderate Resolution ImagingSpectroradiometer
      Flying on board of TERRA and AQUA
      36 channels, acquiring data in different spatial resolutions (250, 500 and 1000 m) – excellent for synoptic/regional studies (2330 km) (flooding, forest fires)
      Description at http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov
      Best place to get data is also the Earth Observing System Data Gateway, also for free!
      Produce a whole suite of standard products, though mostly for vegetation mapping (see http://modisland.gsfc.nasa.gov/products/products.asp?ProdFamID=6, http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/modis/dataproducts.asp)
    • 32. 6. Landsat MSS/TM data – 35 years of data
    • 33.
    • 34.
    • 35. Alternatively: USGS Earth Explorer
      http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov
    • 36. 7. SPOT Vegetation
      SPOT - Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre
      Launched in March 1998, altitude of 820 km
      Wide swath of 2200 km, and resolution of 1.165 km
      Observes the entire Earth every day
      Has an additional band to the standard MS sensor (0.43 to 0.47μm) http://www.spot-vegetation.com/
    • 37. SPOT - Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre
      Free SPOT Vegetation products can be obtained from http://free.vgt.vito.be/
      However, these are archived data that are at least 3 months old
      More recent data are available directly from SPOT
    • 38. Other Sources
    • 39. MODIS Images for whole Pakistan (250 m resolution)
      http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/subsets/
    • 40. GeoCover2000 Data for whole Pakistan https://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/mrsid.pl
    • 41. Vector datasets for world continents,
      • Regions,
      • 42. Countries,
      • 43. 2nd Level Administration Boundaries,
      • 44. Islands,
      • 45. Major Rivers & lakes,
      • 46. Time Zones,
      • 47. Lat/Long and UTM Zones http://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/maj_lakes.ziphttp://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/maj_rivers.ziphttp://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/latlong30.ziphttp://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/latlong2_5.ziphttp://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/countries.ziphttp://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/continents.ziphttp://www.cipotato.org/diva/data/misc/world_adm0.zip
    • World gazetteer of airports and its vector data of locations http://maptube.cas.sc.edu/zipped/geog/world/airports.zip
      Gazetteer of more than 188000 populated places around the globe with coordinates http://world-gazetteer.com/http://world-gazetteer.com/dataen.zip
    • 48. Vector datasets
      Thematic layers of :
      • Roads,
      • 49. Railways,
      • 50. Water bodies,
      • 51. Administration boundaries http://biogeo.berkeley.edu/bgm/gdata.php
    • Pakistan GIS
      http://pakgis.blogspot.com
      Various raster and vector datasets only for Pakistan
      You need to send them the justification for the utilization of data and they will provide you the required data free of cost
      PKMaps
      http://pkmaps.freeforums.org
      Free of cost street level maps of cities
      GPS routable maps
      Continuously additions are made
    • 52. In Summary
      There are many sources for geo-data
      Many datasets are free of charge, others are very expensive
      For many applications and research questions, different datasets can be used, and much money can be saved by choosing the cheapest option
      If your application does not require the most current data, check for cheaper archived data
      Check with other governmental agencies or organization you have contacts with for already available data
      Look into options to get discounts (e.g. for educational use, as PI for data validation, etc.)
      The overview presented here is not exhaustive, there are many more sources of geo-data