Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval (Part I)
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Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval (Part I)

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Part 1 of the Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval Tutorial. Abstract: Social Tags are free text labels that are applied to items such as artists, playlists and songs. These tags have the ...

Part 1 of the Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval Tutorial. Abstract: Social Tags are free text labels that are applied to items such as artists, playlists and songs. These tags have the potential to have a positive impact on music information retrieval research. In this tutorial we describe the state of the art in commercial and research social tagging systems for music. We explore some of the motivations for tagging. We describe the factors that affect the quantity and quality of collected tags. We present a toolkit that MIR researchers can use to harvest and process tags. We look at how tags are collected and used in current commercial and research systems. We explore some of the issues and problems that are encountered when using tags. We present current MIR-related research centered on social tags and suggest possible areas of exploration for future resear

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Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval (Part I) Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval (Part I) Presentation Transcript

  • Social Tags and Music Information Retrieval Part I
    • ISMIR 2008
      • Paul Lamere – Sun Microsystems Inc.
        • Elias Pampalk – Last.fm
  • Speaker – Paul Lamere
  • Speaker – Elias Pampalk
  • Audience Poll
    • Have you ever tagged something?
    • Have you ever tagged music?
    • Have you ever heard of Last.fm?
    • Have you ever used tags to help find something?
    • Do you think social tags are just a web 2.0 fad?
    • Are you using social tags in your research?
    • Are you a tag skeptic?
  • What are social tags? Word Clouds created with Wordle.net
  • Social Tags - Delicious.com
  • Social Tags - Flickr.com
  • Social Tags - LibraryThing
  • What is Deerhoof? Flickr photo by graciepoo
  • What is Deerhoof?
  • The Fear – It's just Graffiti
    • Folksonomies are notoriously imprecise, full of tags that are "often ambiguous , overly personalized and inexact " resulting in an " uncontrolled and chaotic set of tagging terms that do not support searching as effectively as more controlled vocabularies do"
    • Guy & Tonkin, 2006
    • ... if users can continuously add tags to items, at some point it is likely that the whole system will become unusable . A folksonomic system threatens to undermine its own usefulness.
    • Elaine Peterson, 2006
    Flickr Photo by funkandjazz Abbey E.Thompson. Playing Tag: An Analysis of Vocabulary Patterns and Relationships Within a Popular Music Folksonomy
  • Outline
    • What are social tags?
    • Why do people tag?
    • Issues with social tags
    • Other sources of tags
    • Search, Discovery & Recommendation
    • Data & Tools
    • Future Research
    • Conclusion
    • Discussion
  • Outline
    • What are social tags?
    • Why do people tag?
    • Issues with social tags
    • Other sources of tags
    • Search, Discovery & Recommendation
    • Data & Tools
    • Future Research
    • Conclusion
    • Discussion
  • What are social tags?
    • Tags
      • Short, free text labels applied to content
      • No structure, no vocabulary limits
      • Typically applied by the generator or the consumer of the item being tagged
    • Social Tags
      • The aggregation of individual sets of tags
      • Sometimes called a Folksonomy - A user-created bottom-up categorical structure development with an emergent thesaurus
  • What are social tags? Taxonomy vs. Folksonomy
    • Taxonomy
      • Strong labeling
      • Structured vocabulary
      • Fixed vocabulary
    • Folksonomy
      • Weak labeling
      • Unstructured vocabulary
      • Free-for-all vocabulary
    D. Turnbull, L. Barrington, G. Lanckriet. Five Approaches to Collecting Tags for Music. ISMIR 2008.
  • What are social tags? Some characteristics of social tags J. Furner, M. Smith, and M. Winget. Collaborative indexing of cultural resources: Some outstanding issues.
  • What are social tags? Social Tagging System Attributes
    • Tagging Rights
      • owner, group, anyone
    • Tagging Support
      • blind tagging, suggestive tagging
    • Aggregation
      • bag model, set model
    • Type of object being tagged
      • artists, tracks, albums, labels, playlists, clips
  • What are social tags? What can we learn from social tags?
    • Insights to user behavior and language usage
      • how different is rap from hip-hop ?
    • Grouping of items based on tags or taggers
      • cheese on toast, hooves and paws
    • Finding social groups with shared interests
      • people that tag the same items or use the same tags
    • Generating user profiles from tagging behavior
      • tag clouds based on tags applied by the user
      • Representation of taste and/or expertise
    • Information on how items change over time
      • track changes to item tags over time
    K. Weller. Folksonomies and Ontologies. Two New Players in Indexing and Knowledge Representation.
  • What are social tags? Example: MusicBrainz
    • Some MusicBrainz Tag Stats
      • Artist tags: 37,875
      • Album tags: 21,423
      • Track tags: 10,818
      • Label tags: 1,250
  • What are social tags? Example: Amazon
  • What are social tags? Example: MyStrands
  • What are social tags? Example: imeem
  • What are social tags? Example: Freesound
  • What are social tags? Last.fm – Case Study
    • History
    • Tagging stats
    • Integration
    • Tags and their popularity
    • More stats
    • July 2005: Felix Miller (CEO) on internal wiki:
      • Why use tags:
        • To build playlists by tagging tracks
        • Categorise your profile and the global music catalogue
        • Get recommendations based on tags
        • Summarize your profile
    • August 2005: launched
      • Inspired by delicious and flickr
      • At the same time audioscrobbler merged with Last.fm
    What are social tags? History of tagging at Last.fm
    • Tags: > 50M
        • Tracks > 50%
        • Artists > 40%
        • Albums < 5%
        • Labels < 1%
    • Unique tags: > 1.2M
    • Unique tags applied to more than 10 items: > 130k
    • Items tagged: > 3.8M
    • Tags per month: > 2.5M
    • Taggers per month: > 300k
    What are social tags? Last.fm tagging stats
  • What are social tags? Integration into Last.fm experience
    • Where are tags visible?
      • Music landing page
      • Tag pages
      • Tag radio
      • Artist, album, track, label summaries
      • Tag clouds
      • User library, ...
  •  
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    • How can users tag something?
      • Desktop software (Last.fm Player & Scrobbler)
      • Web site
        • Add to library dialog
        • Add tag button on item pages (artist, album, track)
        • Every listed item (charts etc) has multi-function button
        • Flash player
    What are social tags? Integration into Last.fm experience
  •  
  •  
  •  
    • Tags are visible almost everywhere
    • It is very easy to tag something
    What are social tags? Integration into Last.fm experience
  • What are social tags? Tag Popularity: Examples
    • rock >190k >2M
    • seen live >75k >1M
    • female vocalists >60k > 500k
    • chillout >40k > 250k
    • guitar >20k >90k
    • happy >9k >40k
    • icelandic >8k >20k
    • brazil >4k >15k
    • inspirational 1.2k >5k
    • hammond organ >200 >700
    • berimbau <50 < 90
    people # times applied
  • What are social tags? Tag Popularity: More Examples
    • Favorites > 18k > 200k
    • officially sh*t > 2k > 12k
    • i am a party girl here is my soundtrack > 350 > 5.9k
    • tv themes > 250 > 680
    • songs that i sing along to but i always forget the words so i say duh duh while trying to sound like i do know the words and no one is falling for it but they keep quiet because they are embarrassed for me > 60 > 300
    • gtasa tracks < 30 > 700
    • artists with disco in their name 2 49
    • wherein i compile a comprehensive list of songs about zombies 7 36
    people # times applied
  • What are social tags? Tag Categories beyond Genre by Babs_05 (Last.fm user)
    • personal meaning
    • playlists with unusual names
    • regional
    • decade
    • group-specific
    • descriptive
      • http://www.last.fm/group/Track-Tag+Bitches/forum/24779/_/319957/1#f4621887
      • tempo
      • mood
      • instruments
      • films
      • music to...
      • album labels
      • based on radio shows or nightclubs
  • [Paul Lamere, JNMR 2008] What are social tags? Tagging Frequencies by Category
  • [Paul Lamere, JNMR 2008] [Klaas Bosteels et al., ISMIR 2008] Multi-tag search queries 51% 7% 4% 2% 5% 26% Time 3% Other 2% What are social tags? Tagging vs. Search Frequencies
  • What are social tags? Obscure Tags
    • if you fall in love with me you should know these songs by heart
    • sure go ahead and depress the hell outta me what do I care
    • that one song
    • and finally laughing like a maniac saying I am the ruler of this stupid little world called me
    • I woke up this morning and the sun was gone
    • I used to suck blood with gothic dogs but now I wear bermuda shorts and [...]
    • I was never a Swedish teenager with swedish teen angst so now I will attempt at having it
  • What are social tags? Number of words per tag [Levy & Sandler, JNMR 2008]
  • What are social tags? Popular tag radio stations
    • Pop, rock, jazz, chillout, 80s, indie, dance, hip-hop, alternative, house, pop rock, reggae, electronic , oldies, metal, blues, schlager, ambient, trance, classical
    Measured on a day in July 2008. Almost all of the most popular radio stations are genres! Surprise?
  • What are social tags? Most frequently applied tags
    • Rock, seen live , alternative, indie, electronic, pop, metal , female vocalists , alternative rock, classic, rock, punk, jazz, indie rock, electronic, singer-songwriter, folk, hip-hop, ambient, dance, experimental
    Metal fans are some of the best taggers ever.
  • [Paul Lamere, JNMR 2008] Artist rank (wrt number of tags applied, 1-1000) Number of tags applied What are social tags? Distribution of tags
  • What are social tags? Age vs. Tagging Behaviour
    • Under 19 Average age of users (years)
      • lame lame lame lame 18.2
      • tokio hotel 18.5
      • xd 18.7
      • <3 18.7
      • tr00 satanic black metal 18.8
    • Over 35 Average age of users (years)
      • zydeco 37.3
      • soukous 36.6
      • cajun 35.9
      • zimbabwe 35.3
      • jazz saxophone 35.1
    What are social tags? Age vs. Tagging Behaviour
  • What are social tags? Age vs. Tagging Behaviour Preliminary results! http://mir-research.blogspot.com/2008/06/lastfms-api-python-and-tagging_29.html
  • Outline
    • What are social tags?
    • Why do people tag?
    • Issues with social tags
    • Other sources of tags
    • Search, Discovery & Recommendation
    • Data & Tools
    • Future Research
    • Conclusion
    • Discussion
  • Why do people tag?
    • Pew Study:
      • 28% of Internet users have tagged or categorized online content
      • Everyday 7% of internet users tag or categorize online content
    • Why are people tagging?
      • Tagging is personal but benefits everyone
      • Tagging is easy
      • Tagging is fun
    D. Weinberger. How tagging changes peoples relationship to information and each other. Pew Internet & American Life Project . (2007)
  • Why do people tag? Traditional categorization is hard R. Sinha. Tagging – From Personal to Social http://rashmisinha.com/2006/03/12/my-slides-for-tagging-20-panel-at-sxsw/
  • Why do people tag? Tagging is simpler R. Sinha. Tagging – From Personal to Social http://rashmisinha.com/2006/03/12/my-slides-for-tagging-20-panel-at-sxsw/
  • Why do people tag? Memory and Context
  • Why do people tag? Task Organization
  • Why do people tag? Opinion Expression / Social Signaling
  • Why do people tag? Social Contribution
    • The defectivebydesign tag is used by anti-DRM advocates to mark items that use DRM
    • http://www.defectivebydesign.org/
  • Why do people tag? Play and Competition Squared Circle by shutterBRI by plamere
  • Last.fm: Why do people tag?
    • Tag radio
      • global: collaborative playlist
      • personal: playlist
    • Example taggers
    • Last.fm groups focusing on tags
    • Bookmarking, organizing, sharing knowledge, communicating, ...
  •  
    • drsaunde : male, 33, Canada
      • 12,599 unique tags, up to 1,540 times each
    Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
    • spacefish : female, 44, Denmark
      • 782 unique tags, up to 3,336 times each
    Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
    • fionapinkstars: female, 22, UK (staff)
      • 43 unique tags, up to 67 times
    Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
    • martind: UK (staff)
      • 41 unique tags, up to 23 times
    tags are a channel for narrative and social interaction personal tags allow you to draw a circle around stuff you care about Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
    • E1i45: male, 30, UK (staff)
      • 413 unique tags, up to 51 times
    Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
    • Average Tagger: male, 24, USA
      • applied around 50 tags
    Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
    • hm_hallo: female, 25, Germany
      • 156 unique tags, up to 357 times
    Why do people tag? Last.fm taggers
  •  
  • Why do people tag? Last.fm groups focusing on tags
    • Group: The Special Interest Tag Radio Collective >100 members
    • “ We have the radio you want! :-D If not, join and help us grow musically... YAY!”
    • Tag radio stations listed:
      • Cheese on Toast, The Ladies Room, Tambourine, Xylophone & Vibraphone, Forests and Woodland, Insects and Arachnids, They Said Shoes!, Under the Influence..., Awesome Guitar Jams, ...
    • Group: Subscribers and their tag radio stations
      • >100 members
    • This group is to bring together subscribers who have taken the time to tag and share the music they like. No specific genre or participation needed. This is just a way to find and listen to...
    Why do people tag? Last.fm groups focusing on tags
    • Group: Genre-free tags!
      • >100 members
    • &quot;That's right; there's more to tags than silly genres.&quot;
    • lesser known yet streamable artists
    • cover track
    • first album
    • i am a spy here is my soundtrack
    Why do people tag? Last.fm groups focusing on tags
    • Group: Thursday Night Party Hat Party
      • >70 members
    • “OK, I've started tagging weird country music, in anticipation of Frippgamesh's party on August 21. Right now, I'm the only one who's done any tagging, but I was able to tag 11 artists without working up a sweat, starting with the band Rebel Meets Rebel that I had afflicted aniaki with in a recent double-dare.”
    Why do people tag? Last.fm groups focusing on tags
    • Group: WoopWoop
      • >30 members
    • &quot;Listening to a track you're desperate to share with the world? Want to listen to music that others feel the same about?&quot;
    Why do people tag? Last.fm groups focusing on tags
    • More Groups:
      • Pure Track-Taggers
      • Track-Tag Bitches
      • Tag Top
      • Tags are a Joke
      • We use tags that have never been used before
      • ...
    Why do people tag? Last.fm groups focusing on tags
  • Why do people tag?
    • Motivations
      • Simplicity
      • Memory and context
      • Task organization
      • Opinion expression & social signaling
      • Social contribution
      • Play and competition
    • Last.fm specific
      • Collaborative/personal playlists (tag radio)
      • Tag groups
  • Outline
    • What are social tags?
    • Why do people tag?
    • Issues with social tags
    • Other sources of tags
    • Search, Discovery & Recommendation
    • Data & Tools
    • Future Research
    • Conclusion
    • Discussion
  • Issues with social tags Cold start and obscure content
    • Tagging something requires:
      • Knowing it exists (new releases, cold start)
      • Caring enough to bother (obscure content, long tail)
    • Problem scope
      • Many artists, albums, tracks affected
    • Solution: alternative sources of tags
        • Autotagging, tag games, ...
    • Radiohead
    Issues with social tags Cold start and obscure content Tagged by 24k listeners on Last.fm
    • Jersey Budd
    Issues with social tags Cold start and obscure content
    • Weak labeling
      • E.g. “male vocalist” is sometimes considered a default
      • Problem scope:
        • sparsely tagged items are affected most
    • Popularity & noise
      • The Beatles:
        • tagged emo 68 times on Last.fm
      • These Silhouettes:
        • tagged emo 11 times on Last.fm
      • Solution: normalization
    Issues with social tags Precision and Recall
    • Kids having fun
      • Barney, Paris Hilton, ...
      • Can be very offensive
    • Labels/artists trying to “help”
    • Problem scope:
      • Limited to very few artists
    Issues with social tags Abuse
  • Issues with social tags Abuse example: Paris Hilton
    • Do taggers like what they are tagging?
    • Correlations between taggers
    • Bot-like patterns
    • Tag Karma
      • How “useful” are contributions of a tagger?
        • E.g. if artist X is tagged metal, but everyone listening to metal radio skips that artist...
    Issues with social tags Abuse detection
    • Examples
      • that one song
      • lazy eye
    • Problem scope
      • Sparsely tagged items affected most
    Issues with social tags Noise
    • Examples
      • Polysemy: love
        • music I love
        • music about love
      • Synonym: female vocalists
    • Problem scope
      • Sparsely tagged items
    Issues with social tags Ambiguity and Synonyms
    • 89277 female vocalists
    • 15874 female
    • 7150 female vocalist
    • 2716 female vocals
    • 2180 female voices
    • 1424 female artists
    • 955 female vocal
    • 698 female singers
    http://blogs.sun.com/plamere/entry/determining_synonyms_from_tags Issues with social tags Synonyms Example
    • Last.fm community is not an unbiased sample of music listeners worldwide
      • On average a relatively young audience
      • Tech-savvy
      • Tastemakers
      • Eclectic tastes, interested in discovering new music
      • Non-mainstream
      • Some regions are underrepresented (e.g. Africa)
      • Some styles of music are represented stronger than others. E.g. classical music vs. indie/alternative
    Issues with social tags Tagger bias
    • Last.fm community is not an unbiased sample of music listeners worldwide
      • Electronic music
        • Nielsen: 3% of total album sales in US
        • Last.fm: 107k taggers
      • Country music
        • Nielsen: 11% of total album sales in US
        • Last.fm: 23k taggers
    Issues with social tags Tagger bias in numbers [Nielsen Report 2007]
  • Issues with Social Tags
    • Not enough tags
      • Cold start
      • Obscure content (long tail)
      • Weak labeling
      • Synonyms and ambiguous tags
      • Noise
    • Abuse
    • Tagger bias
      • Some styles of music are covered better than others
      • Not everyone is contributing equally
  • Outline
    • What are social tags?
    • Why do people tag?
    • Issues with social tags
    • Other sources of tags
    • Search, Discovery & Recommendation
    • Data & Tools
    • Future Research
    • Conclusion
    • Discussion
  • Other sources of tags Games (with a purpose)
    • Idea:
      • Humans are best at solving some types of problems
      • Humans like to play games
      • Build a game that is
        • fun to play
        • Solves a hard problem
    • ESP Game – Image Labeling Game
      • Users try to guess what labels partner will apply to an image
      • Collected 1.2 million image labels in 4 months
      • With 5K active gamers could label all 425 million in 1 month
    L. von Ahn and L. Dabbish. Labeling images with a computer game . SIGCHI 2004.
  • Other sources of tags Games – Tag a Tune http://www.gwap.com/gwap/gamesPreview/tagatune/
    • Statistics for 3 months of game play
      • Total tags: ~260,000
      • Total songs: ~20,000
      • High confidence tags: ~50,000
      • Games played: ~23,000
      • Unique players: ~6,900
      • Tags per player per minute: ~4
    Other sources of tags Games – Tag a Tune
  • Other sources of tags Games – Major Miner http://majorminer.com/
    • Unique asynchronous scoring
    • Statistics
      • 530 Users
      • 2,345 clips tagged
      • 73,000 user, clip, tag triples
      • 12,000 verified tags
      • 900 unique, verified tags
      • 12,000
      • 3-4 tags per minute per user
      • 5-10 minutes of playtime per user
    • Data used for the MIREX tagging task
    http://www.music-ir.org/mirex/2008/index.php/Audio_Tag_Classification Other sources of tags Games – Major Miner
  • http://majorminer.com/search/ Other sources of tags Games – Major Miner
  • Other sources of tags Games – The Listen Game http://www.listengame.org/
    • Statistics from 2 week pilot study
      • Listen250 dataset
        • 26,000 annotations
        • 1,558 High confidence positive associations
        • 1,630 High confidence negative associations
        • 250 songs
        • 120 words
        • 440 unique players
        • 775 new words suggested (via freestyle round)
        • ~ 5 Tags per user per minute
      • Dataset available upon request from Doug Turnbull
    Other sources of tags Games – The Listen Game
  • Other sources of tags Games – MoodSwings Y. E. Kim, E. Schmidt, and L. Emelle. MoodSwings: A collaborative game for music mood label collection. ISMIR 2008.
    • Collects valence-arousal labels
    • 1 week pilot
      • 100 Users
      • 1K Songs
      • 50K labels
  • Other sources of tags Games – Herd It &quot;Herd It connects players in real-time and they listen to the same music clip.  While they listen, various fun minigames quiz the players on opinions and trivia about the music.  Players earn points based on the agreement of their answers with the group consensus.&quot; - Luke Barrington
  • Other sources of tags Games – Moose6 – A BBC Prototype
    • Pros:
      • Can tag at the phrase/clip level
      • Potentially can tag into the long tail
      • Potentially very high tagging rates
    • Issues:
      • Challenge to make addictive/fun game
      • Tags may be more superficial than social tags
        • Tags may be applied by non-fans
        • Lowest common denominator labels
      • Potential for 'gaming' the system
      • Don't collect many types of useful labels:
        • context ( jogging ), opinion ( favorite ), task organization ( check out ), social signaling ( seen live )
    Other sources of tags Games (with a purpose)
  • Other sources of tags Experts/Surveys
    • Hire experts to hand label content
    • Advantages
      • Consistent labels
      • Strong labeling
      • Fixed, structured vocabulary
    • Disadvantages
      • Small pre-determined vocabulary
      • Very difficult to construct taxonomy
      • Human-labor intensive (expensive)
      • Doesn't scale to the long tail
      • Limited access to data
  • Other sources of tags Experts/Surveys – All Music Guide
    • Pop Tracks: ~13 million
    • Pop Albums: ~1.4 million
    • Classical Compositions: ~300 thousand
    • Biographies: ~84 thousand
    • Styles: 917
    • Themes: 86
    • Moods: 184
    Other sources of tags Experts/Surveys – All Music Guide
  • Other sources of tags Experts/Surveys – All Music Guide
    • Music labeled by paid professional musicians
    • Fixed vocabulary: ~500 weighted attributes
    • Structured vocabulary
    Other sources of tags Experts/Surveys – Pandora
    • 66 undergrads – paid $10 per hour to label music
    • 1,700 annotations
    • 500 'western popular' songs
    • 135 musically-relevant concepts
    • Six semantic categories:
      • emotion – aggressive, weird, thrilling, mellow
      • genre - alternative, bebop, swing, rock, world
      • Instrument – guitar, organ, piano, harmonica
      • usage – at a party, at work, driving, exercising, sleeping
      • vocals – breathy, rapping, monotone, emotional
      • song – catchy, fast, danceable, texture acoustic
    http://cosmal.ucsd.edu/cal Other sources of tags Experts/Surveys – CAL-500
  • Other sources of tags Web mining
    • Internet: the largest digital archive of music
      • Music blogs, reviews, forum discussions, official artist pages, MySpace, ...
      • Examples: (Google estimated number of results)
        • Eminem 46M pages
        • “The Beatles” 29M pages
        • “Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart” 7M pages
      • Unstructured data
      • Text information retrieval
    • Whitman & Lawrence (ICMC 2002)
      • Google: “<artist name>” +music +review
      • Retrieve text of top ranked pages
      • Text information retrieval techniques
    • Issues
      • Artist names are not unique identifiers
        • “The War”, “The The”, “Chicago”, “Pink” (not “P!nk”)
        • Solution: add information to query (e.g. album names)
      • Cold-start (needs at least one web-page)
      • Quality of “tags”
        • Include other artist names, seemingly random noise
        • Solution: use dictionary
    Other sources of tags Web mining – Using Google et al.
    • ABBA
      • 100 pop
      • 56 song
      • 50 musical
      • 46 swedish
      • 43 uk
      • 41 group
      • 36 band
      • 35 dance
      • 31 world
      • 29 disco
    Pampalk et al. (ECDL 2005) http://www.ofai.at/~elias.pampalk/wa/ Other sources of tags Web mining – Examples
    • Britney Spears
      • 100 pop
      • 99 song
      • 52 girl
      • 36 concert
      • 33 dance
      • 24 uk
      • 20 sexy
      • 18 jive
      • 18 world
      • 15 cool
    Pampalk et al. (ECDL 2005) http://www.ofai.at/~elias.pampalk/wa/ Other sources of tags Web mining – Examples
    • Metallica
      • 100 metal
      • 43 band
      • 38 concert
      • 22 heavy metal
      • 20 world
      • 20 song
      • 18 dance
      • 15 hard
      • 11 black metal
      • 9 guitar
    Pampalk et al. (ECDL 2005) http://www.ofai.at/~elias.pampalk/wa/ Other sources of tags Web mining – Examples
    • Ludwig van Beethoven
      • 100 piano
      • 67 symphony
      • 53 classical
      • 22 orchestra
      • 20 movement
      • 18 trio
      • 18 solo
      • 15 variations
      • 15 musical
      • 12 violin
    Pampalk et al. (ECDL 2005) http://www.ofai.at/~elias.pampalk/wa/ Other sources of tags Web mining – Examples
      • [Knees et al., ACM MM 2006]
    Other sources of tags Using Web Mined Tags: nepTune
      • [Pampalk & Goto, ISMIR 2006]
    Other sources of tags Using Web Mined Tags: MusicRainbow
      • [Pampalk & Goto, ISMIR 2007]
    Other sources of tags Using Web Mined Tags: MusicSun