Gregg Thompson
Urban Conservation Specialist
gregg@metroswcd.org

Oversight and guidance:

Association of Metropolitan
Soi...
Gregg Thompson
Urban Conservation Specialist
Association of Metropolitan
Soil and Water Conservation Districts
Anoka – Car...
F. J. Marschner
The Original Vegetation of Minnesota info
    from Public Land Survey: 1847-1907
Oak Barrens & Openings
Roots of Native Prairie Plants
compared to Kentucky Bluegrass (with 2-3” root depth
                                with  ...
In Graded Landscapes…




                        - Topsoil Stripped
                        - Compacted Sub-Soil
SOIL GETS COMPACTED and will not absorb water.
             13
             in/hr
                             9.8        ...
Testing for Soil Compaction:




SOIL COMPACTION METER
Manufacturer: Dickey-John
              Dickey-
Cost: $200 (approxi...
Source:

                                              www.dickey-john.com




Testing for Soil Compaction:
- Use a Soil P...
How to Make Compacted Soils in 30 minutes or less:
1. Drive on it with a heavy, wheeled loader.
2. Increase effectiveness ...
By Laying Sod onto Rock-Hard Soils….
…. We Put Turf Grass on “Life Support”
           to Keep It Alive
Where Does Our Water Come From?
         (in Bloomington)




 376’
 376’




 963’
 963’


                           Sou...
2006
                             Record Usage



                                   Summer Usage
MILLIONS OF GALLONS




...
Altered Watershed Effects
Southtown Runoff Potential in a 1” Rain
      Rooftops:     2,591,690 gallons
      Parking Lots: 5,455,595 gallons



   ...
the cruel irony.
                            Oh, Parking Lot Engineer,
                          Why have you forsaken me?...
Runoff Flows Past
Dysfunctional Landscape




  Stormdrains

Issues:
-Volume of Stormwater Runoff
-Quality of Stormwater R...
What Goes
  In Here….
                                         Gunk*




* Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic ma...
Franklin Pond




        … Gets Dumped in Here



 * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy meta...
Franklin Pond




   More Volume Gets Dumped Quickly

  Creates Stream “Flash” & Lake “Bounce”

                - Accelera...
“Head-Cut”
     Head-Cut”




Stream-Channel Deepening
 to Accommodate Volume
Stream-Channel Widening
                    (following deepening)
          to Accommodate Volume




Stream was 6’wide x ...
Channel Widening
to Accommodate Volume
pre-
pre -1984
map data    Source:
             U of M
Every home has a big impact on stormwater runoff

¼ Acre                         Lawn

Residential
Property
Example
      ...
+ “Green Concrete” Compacted Lawn
                 8,390 s.f. “impervious” x 1” rain              In a 1” rainfall
       ...
Cumulative Effect:




                             (27) ¼-acre Lots

                           = 146,394 gallons
       ...
Stormwater Runoff In Our Neighborhoods:
Pollutants / Sediments Accumulate
                               between Rains / Melts




Map of neighborhood
storm-
stor...
What Goes
  In Here….
                                         Gunk*




* Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic ma...
Franklin Pond




        … Gets Dumped in Here



 * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy meta...
Causing This…..



                                                                      Como Lake



* Gunk= sediment, nu...
One pound of phosphorus
 = 500 pounds of algae
                   MnDNR
Why does a few clippings in the curb matter?




   Grass Clippings & Fertilizers can contain
          high levels of Pho...
One pound of phosphorus
 = 500 pounds of algae
                   MnDNR
Low-Impact Development
         - Decreasing Amount of Runoff (Volume)
         - Treating Runoff at the Source (Quality)
...
Runoff Flows Past
Dysfunctional Landscape


                                What is my function?



  Stormdrains

Issues:...
Stormwater Runoff Garden
“Bioretention”




                            Parking Lot
                           Rain Garden...
Raingardens
(Reduce Runoff through Stormwater Infiltration)
   -   Shallow (4” to 12”max. deep) Depressions
   -   Surface...
Raingardens
(Capturing Rainwater / Stormwater )




Just like a regular landscape planting, but able to absorb rainwater

...
What is my function?
Parking Lot Runoff Islands
                                 (After Spring Mowing)




                                    ...
Parking Lot Runoff Rain Garden
Absorbtion / Infiltration / Evapo-transpiration
                            Evapo-




    ...
Microsoft Office
(Formerly Great Plains Software)
                  Fargo, ND
Infiltration Basins across Site
                 Commercial Development Requirement
Super Target                 Rice Cree...
Super Target
      Kohls




                     Bioretention Cells     Vegetated Filter Swales




Runoff Reduction Prac...
Super Target
Lino Lakes, MN
Minnetonka City Hall Raingardens
                                   Designed by: Barr Engineering
Absorbs Parking Lot Runo...
Minnetonka City Hall Raingardens   Designed by: Barr Engineering
                                       (Luethold , PE / R...
Minnetonka City Hall Raingardens
                                   Designed by: Barr Engineering
Absorbs Parking Lot Runo...
Strategically-placed
Raingardens
Type: Street-Side




                         Burnsville Raingardens
                   ...
Raingardens for Neighborhood Runoff:




    Rushmore Drive Runoff Reduction Retrofit Project
                            ...
- 5.3 acres
- 25 homes
                   Burnsville Raingardens
- 17 raingardens   Designed by: Barr Engineering
BEFORE

           Burnsville Raingardens
         Designed by: Barr Engineering
Burnsville Raingardens
Designed by: Barr Engineering
Burnsville Raingardens
Designed by: Barr Engineering
EXCAVATING,
SOIL PREP &
  GRADING

                Burnsville Raingardens
              Designed by: Barr Engineering
PLANTING
(By Homeowners)




                    Burnsville Raingardens
                  Designed by: Barr Engineering
Curb Cuts
(for Inlet/Outlet)
BEFORE

           Burnsville Raingardens
         Designed by: Barr Engineering
2 Years Later

Burnsville Raingardens
Designed by: Barr Engineering
Photo by Mike Isensee , Dakota SWCD
City of Burnsville Raingardens (1 of 17)
                             Rushmore Drive
                 Designed by: Barr En...
5.3 acres – 25 homes – 17 raingardens




      Rushmore Drive Runoff Reduction Retrofit Project
                         ...
Source: City of Burnsville/Barr Engineering
Post-Construction Runoff
                        1.44 inches in 9June 8, 2004
                                            ...
Before and
   After




  Burnsville Raingardens
Designed by: Barr Engineering
Before and
   After




  Burnsville Raingardens
Designed by: Barr Engineering
Burnsville Raingardens
   by Barr Engineering
  (Fred Rozumalkski, RLA)
        Rozumalkski,




  Winter Infiltration of
...
Raingarden
                w/ Native Sunny Perennials




            City of Maplewood
Public Works – Street Reconstructi...
Raingarden
           w/ Shade Garden Perennials




            City of Maplewood
Public Works – Street Reconstruction Pr...
City of Maplewood
Public Works – Street Reconstruction Project
Prior Lake Raingardens
Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
5239 Brooks Circle SE
5293 Brooks Circle SE
5379 Brooks Circle SE
5405 Brooks Circle SE
5495 Brooks Circle SE
16425 Itasca...
Prior Lake Raingardens
City of Prior Lake
                     Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
Prior Lake Raingardens
AMSWCD
         Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
Prior Lake Raingardens
AMSWCD
         Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
Prior Lake Raingardens
Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
Green Street Project Raingardens
                   Portland, Oregon
Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
Green Street Project Raingardens
                   Portland, Oregon
Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
Green Street Project Raingardens
                   Portland, Oregon
Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
Green Street Project Raingardens
                   Portland, Oregon
Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
City of Seattle
Public Works – Street Reconstruction Project
Seattle
University of Minnesota
St. Paul Campus – Watershed District Project
  Designed by: Barr Engineering / Fred Rozumalski
Black
Ornamental
               Chokeberry
  Grass                                  Gro-
                                 ...
Soil Replacement
       Area

                                    9371
                   Ditch Retrofit Project
         ...
Over-Excavation
     Area

                                   9371
                  Ditch Retrofit Project
              ...
Check Dam




Soil Replacement
(Sand & Compost Mix)




                                        9371
                     ...
Shredded Wood
                         Mulch




To be planted in Spring 2008,                         9371
by residents  ...
9371
                                          Ditch Retrofit Project
                                                  Ch...
9371
                               Ditch Retrofit Project
                                       Chanhassen, MN




Three...
Utility Locates
U More Park
       2008




     Dakota SWCD
Ag Hall

Large Parking Lot
                                    Depression / Mowed Lawn
               Inlet (Concrete Swal...
Inlet (Concrete Swale)



         Ag Hall
                Bioretention Basin
Large Parking Lot

                         ...
300 gallons in
  1” rainfall
Flows across lawn to    Plymouth
 street’s storm-drain
Inlet
                  Overflow          (swale)
                  (across lawn)




                    raingarden
     ...
Sources:
-Recycling Centers
-Garden Centers / Landscape Contractors

                            Add
                     ...
Berm    (w/ erosion-
Depression                         control blanket)
(w/ compost)



Hold the Berm in Place           ...
Plant
                                             Considerations:

                                             -Soils
  ...
Materials :

-0.5 cy Compost
-0.5 cy Mulch
-18 Blue Flag Iris (3” pots)
                   (3”

-48 Pussytoes (Plugs)

   ...
www.BlueThumb.org
The Blue Thumb
Guide to Raingardens
is available at...

Amazon.com (online)
Bachman’
Bachman’s (in store)
Landscape Altern...
Wisconsin DNR & UWEX
- Raingarden ‘How-To’ Manual
Wisconsin DNR & UWEX
- Raingarden ‘How-To’ Manual
Plant Supplier / Consultant:
Natural Shore Technologies
POTENTIAL                               Measure
                                                     Drainage Areas
      ...
Water-Smart Landscaping
•   Reduce Soil Compaction (aerate / add organic matter / mulching)
•   3” Mow Height (promotes de...
Low-Impact Development
         - Decreasing Amount of Runoff (Volume)
         - Treating Runoff at the Source (Quality)
...
Testing for Soil Compaction:
- Low-Tech: Use a wire-flag
- How deep can you push it into the ground?
- Is it hard, rocky, ...
Sources:
-Recycling Centers
-Garden Centers / Landscape Contractors

                            Add
                     ...
Add Organic Matter to Soils (Blower Service)




                           Twin Cities Specialty Companies:
             ...
Reduce Soil Compaction for Healthier Lawns

    Core-Plug
   Lawn Aerator
   Available through:
   - Lawn Service
   - Equ...
Core-Plug
Lawn Aerator
Reduce Soil Compaction for Healthier Lawns




           Sub-Soil Ripper
              on “open sites”




 Boxer Aero-va...
www.Bobcat.com
www.attachmentsintl.com




              Bucket Ripper

                                          Bucket Ripper
         ...
www.leadingedgeattachments.com




“ FROST RIPPERS”
        RIPPERS”
Leading Edge Attachments
When Conveying Runoff:




                         Drawing: Doug Adamson
                          RDG Planning & Design
...
Short-
                                           Short-mown
                                           Lawn-
            ...
-Short-mown Lawn Grass will not substantially slow sediment-laden stormwater runoff.
 Short-                              ...
Bio-Swale
for stormwater conveyance
       with infiltration




             USACE Chicago District
Bio-Swale
for stormwater conveyance
       with infiltration




                            USACE Chicago District
Prairie
                        Plugging                         Prairie
                                          No-
   ...
Centex Homes Development
Vegetated Bio-Swale Facility   Dakota SWCD
Burnsville, MN                    Jay Riggs
Centex Homes Development
Vegetated Bio-Swale Facility   Dakota SWCD
Burnsville, MN                    Jay Riggs
Pearlmont Heights Development
   Vegetated Bio-Swale Facility
                   Eagan, MN
Have a wet area often too soggy to mow?

             PLANT IT
Pick the ‘Right Plants for the Right Place’
               ...
Good Location for Multi-Function Landscaping
Where Can You Intercept
    & Utilize Rain?
“If you never walk on it….
       then why are you mowing it?”
                   Grandpa Thompson
No Mow Lawn Mix (blend of fine fescues)




Great for Sand or Clay               Prairie Nursery
                         ...
No Mow Lawn Mix (blend of fine fescues)
Consider Native Grasses for the Lawn


                  Native Turfgrass Demonstration
                     McCrory Garde...
Consider Native Grasses for the Lawn




                             Drought -Tolerant Lawn
                             ...
Tall-
                                      Tall-grass Prairie




                                     Short-
           ...
Chanhassen Residence
By: Prairie Restorations




                       Multi-Function Landscapes
                       ...
Chanhassen Residence
By: Prairie Restorations




                      Multi-Function Landscapes
                        ...
Low Water-Use Landscapes
                                Water Conservation, Runoff Reduction, Habitat Value

Designed and...
Mosquito – Proof Inlets




 55 gallons each




Harvest Rainwater with Rainbarrels
                                      ...
Inlet (Atrium Grate)
                                  Outlet




       Inlet Filter




                       Overflow
...
Harvest Rainwater with Rainbarrels
Where to Put a Rainbarrel?
  Your Smallest Area of Roof
                                                                  ...
Capture Rainwater with

      Cisterns
Capture Rainwater with

                                                     Cisterns




                                ...
Wal-Mart




           Chipotle
Water Harvesting with

          Cisterns
             Cistern
            30,000 gallon
               storage




Source...
Drawing: Doug Adamson
 RDG Planning & Design
    Source: NRCS-Iowa
Permeable Pavers
                           ‘Turf Block’
                                 Block’




Detroit Lakes, MN



...
Permeable Pavers
                           ‘Turf Block’
                                 Block’




Detroit Lakes, MN



...
Permeable-
         Permeable -joint Pavers
           ‘Eco-Stone’ (Borgert)
            Eco-Stone’ Borgert)




AMSWCD
Permeable-
Permeable -joint Pavers
  ‘Eco-Stone’ (Borgert)
   Eco-Stone’ Borgert)




                          Dakota Cou...
Permeable-
                      Permeable -joint Pavers
                                 ‘Eco-Stone’
                    ...
Permeable Asphalt




    Ramsey-Wash. Metro W.D.
           Little Canada, Mn
Green Roof




             Permeable Asphalt
              Ramsey-Wash. Metro W.D.
                     Little Canada, Mn
Permeable Concrete
    Powers Lake Park (2005)
            Woodbury, Mn
Permeable Concrete
    Powers Lake Park (2005)
            Woodbury, Mn
RESOURCES
http://www.pca.state.mn.us/water/stormwater/stormwater-manual.html
http://efotg.nrcs.usda.gov/treemenuFS.aspx
www.ndwrcdp.org/publications/
www.ndwrcdp.org/publications/
Lessons Learned:
-Cell Sizing (depth, watershed ratio)
-Off-Line Design (preferable to on-line)
 Off-                     ...
Download at: http://dnr.wi.gov/runoff/stormwater/technote.htm
http://www.pca.state.mn.us/publications/
                                           http://www.greatrivergreening.org/
man...
Subscribe at: http://www.stormh2o.com/   Subscribe at: http://www.erosioncontrol.com
                                     ...
http://www.cwp.org/
What if ?
Gregg Thompson
Urban Conservation Specialist
gregg@metroswcd.org

Oversight and guidance:

Association of Metropolitan
Soi...
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09
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Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09

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Gregg Thompson at Plain Green Conference 2009 on Designing Urban Landscapes for Storm Water.

Plain Green Conference and Marketplace is advancing sustainability in the northern plains. Learn more at http://plaingreen.org.

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Gregg Thompson talk at Plain Green 09

  1. 1. Gregg Thompson Urban Conservation Specialist gregg@metroswcd.org Oversight and guidance: Association of Metropolitan Soil and Water Conservation Districts Anoka – Carver – Dakota – Hennepin Ramsey – Scott – Washington Additional program funding (through Contribution Agreement): U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service
  2. 2. Gregg Thompson Urban Conservation Specialist Association of Metropolitan Soil and Water Conservation Districts Anoka – Carver – Dakota – Hennepin - Ramsey – Scott – Washington Provide education and technical assistance to 7-county metro area government units and residents in: - erosion-control & water-quality buffers - urban runoff reduction - backyard conservation - invasive species control - wildlife habitat development
  3. 3. F. J. Marschner The Original Vegetation of Minnesota info from Public Land Survey: 1847-1907
  4. 4. Oak Barrens & Openings
  5. 5. Roots of Native Prairie Plants compared to Kentucky Bluegrass (with 2-3” root depth with depth) 6-foot Depth Conservation Research Institute
  6. 6. In Graded Landscapes… - Topsoil Stripped - Compacted Sub-Soil
  7. 7. SOIL GETS COMPACTED and will not absorb water. 13 in/hr 9.8 Compacted in/hr Non-compacted 14 12 10 4” 4” 8 6 4 Non-compacted 2 Compacted 0 Sand Clay 17” 17” 17” 17” 1.4 0.2 Pitt, et al in/hr in/hr Barten, Jahnke, 2002 - Topsoil Stripped - Compacted Sub-Soil
  8. 8. Testing for Soil Compaction: SOIL COMPACTION METER Manufacturer: Dickey-John Dickey- Cost: $200 (approximate) AMSWCD
  9. 9. Source: www.dickey-john.com Testing for Soil Compaction: - Use a Soil Probe - Low-Tech: Use a wire-flag - How deep can you push it into the ground? - How much resistance? - Is the soil hard, rocky, soft, grainy?
  10. 10. How to Make Compacted Soils in 30 minutes or less: 1. Drive on it with a heavy, wheeled loader. 2. Increase effectiveness by doing this when its wet Rock-Hard “Topsoil” Layer on Sandy Subsoils
  11. 11. By Laying Sod onto Rock-Hard Soils….
  12. 12. …. We Put Turf Grass on “Life Support” to Keep It Alive
  13. 13. Where Does Our Water Come From? (in Bloomington) 376’ 376’ 963’ 963’ Source: City of Bloomington
  14. 14. 2006 Record Usage Summer Usage MILLIONS OF GALLONS (lawn- (lawn-irrigation season) Average Usage (non- (non-growing season) Source: City of Bloomington
  15. 15. Altered Watershed Effects
  16. 16. Southtown Runoff Potential in a 1” Rain Rooftops: 2,591,690 gallons Parking Lots: 5,455,595 gallons Total: 8,047,285 gallons
  17. 17. the cruel irony. Oh, Parking Lot Engineer, Why have you forsaken me?” –Fraxinus pennsylvanica Re-thinking How We Deal with Rainwater & Use Plants
  18. 18. Runoff Flows Past Dysfunctional Landscape Stormdrains Issues: -Volume of Stormwater Runoff -Quality of Stormwater Runoff (nutrients, pollutants, hot water – thermal loading) -Groundwater Usage for Irrigation on compacted soils
  19. 19. What Goes In Here…. Gunk* * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy metals, etc.
  20. 20. Franklin Pond … Gets Dumped in Here * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy metals, etc.
  21. 21. Franklin Pond More Volume Gets Dumped Quickly Creates Stream “Flash” & Lake “Bounce” - Accelerating Soil Erosion - (Sedimentation) Piped directly to Wetland, Lake or Stream
  22. 22. “Head-Cut” Head-Cut” Stream-Channel Deepening to Accommodate Volume
  23. 23. Stream-Channel Widening (following deepening) to Accommodate Volume Stream was 6’wide x 2’ deep – Now is 30’ wide x 15’ deep
  24. 24. Channel Widening to Accommodate Volume
  25. 25. pre- pre -1984 map data Source: U of M
  26. 26. Every home has a big impact on stormwater runoff ¼ Acre Lawn Residential Property Example House Lawn Driveway Stormdrain Street
  27. 27. + “Green Concrete” Compacted Lawn 8,390 s.f. “impervious” x 1” rain In a 1” rainfall (if infiltrates first ¼” of rain) ¼ Acre Potential Runoff: Residential = 3,880 gallons of runoff Property 5,422 gallons Example with 30” yearly 1,500 s.f. house (& patio) x 1” rain = 925 gallons of runoff precipitation Potential Runoff: 162,660 gallons/yr 1,000 s.f. driveway x 1” rain = 617 gallons of runoff Stormdrain Street
  28. 28. Cumulative Effect: (27) ¼-acre Lots = 146,394 gallons (1” (1” rain) Where can the rain soak in?
  29. 29. Stormwater Runoff In Our Neighborhoods:
  30. 30. Pollutants / Sediments Accumulate between Rains / Melts Map of neighborhood storm- storm -sewer system that dumps into creek. Pollutants / Sediments Accumulate between Rains / Melts
  31. 31. What Goes In Here…. Gunk* * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy metals, etc.
  32. 32. Franklin Pond … Gets Dumped in Here * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy metals, etc.
  33. 33. Causing This….. Como Lake * Gunk= sediment, nutrients, bacteria, organic matter, oil, heavy metals, etc.
  34. 34. One pound of phosphorus = 500 pounds of algae MnDNR
  35. 35. Why does a few clippings in the curb matter? Grass Clippings & Fertilizers can contain high levels of Phosphorus
  36. 36. One pound of phosphorus = 500 pounds of algae MnDNR
  37. 37. Low-Impact Development - Decreasing Amount of Runoff (Volume) - Treating Runoff at the Source (Quality) Decreasing Runoff Volume – Small-Scale Controls Small- • Bioretention / Rain Gardens • Alternative Surfaces • Strategic Grading • Reduce Impervious Surface • Site Finger Printing • Surface Roughness Technology • Conservation • Rain Barrels / Cisterns / Water Use • Flatter Wider Swales • Catch Basins / Seepage Pits • Amended Soils • Sidewalk Storage • Long Flow Paths • Vegetative Swales, Buffers & Strips • Tree / Shrub Depression • Infiltration Swales & Trenches • Turf Depression • Eliminate Curb and Gutter • Landscape Island Storage • Shoulder Vegetation • Rooftop Detention /Retention • Maximize Sheet flow • Disconnection* • Maintain Drainage Patterns • Parking Lot / Street Storage • Reforestation • Smaller Culverts, Pipes & Inlets • Pollution Prevention
  38. 38. Runoff Flows Past Dysfunctional Landscape What is my function? Stormdrains Issues: -Volume of Stormwater Runoff -Quality of Stormwater Runoff (nutrients, pollutants, hot water – thermal loading) -Groundwater Usage for Irrigation on compacted soils
  39. 39. Stormwater Runoff Garden “Bioretention” Parking Lot Rain Garden Maryland
  40. 40. Raingardens (Reduce Runoff through Stormwater Infiltration) - Shallow (4” to 12”max. deep) Depressions - Surface should be dry in 48 hours (or less) - Soil amendments sometimes needed (compost and/or sand) - Planted with deep-rooting Plants (natives work well) - Design as a Landscape Feature (“natural”, formal, or in-between) - Design to Integrate into Landscaping - Select plants to attract Wildlife (for multiple benefits)
  41. 41. Raingardens (Capturing Rainwater / Stormwater ) Just like a regular landscape planting, but able to absorb rainwater Concept - Gregg Thompson, Illustration - Taina Litwak, Animation - Ron Struss
  42. 42. What is my function?
  43. 43. Parking Lot Runoff Islands (After Spring Mowing) Microsoft Office on ‘Red River Clay’ soils Clay’ (Formerly Great Plains Software) Fargo, ND
  44. 44. Parking Lot Runoff Rain Garden Absorbtion / Infiltration / Evapo-transpiration Evapo- Microsoft Office (Formerly Great Plains Software) Fargo, ND
  45. 45. Microsoft Office (Formerly Great Plains Software) Fargo, ND
  46. 46. Infiltration Basins across Site Commercial Development Requirement Super Target Rice Creek Watershed District Lino Lakes, MN
  47. 47. Super Target Kohls Bioretention Cells Vegetated Filter Swales Runoff Reduction Practices Commercial Development Requirements Rice Creek Watershed District Super Target I-35W Lino Lakes, MN
  48. 48. Super Target Lino Lakes, MN
  49. 49. Minnetonka City Hall Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering Absorbs Parking Lot Runoff (Luethold , PE / Rozumalski, RLA) Luethold, Rozumalski,
  50. 50. Minnetonka City Hall Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering (Luethold , PE / Rozumalski, RLA) Luethold, Rozumalski, Absorbs Parking Lot Runoff
  51. 51. Minnetonka City Hall Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering Absorbs Parking Lot Runoff (Luethold , PE / Rozumalski, RLA) Luethold, Rozumalski,
  52. 52. Strategically-placed Raingardens Type: Street-Side Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering Photo by Mike Isensee , Dakota SWCD
  53. 53. Raingardens for Neighborhood Runoff: Rushmore Drive Runoff Reduction Retrofit Project City of Burnsville Planning / Design by: Barr Engineering
  54. 54. - 5.3 acres - 25 homes Burnsville Raingardens - 17 raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  55. 55. BEFORE Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  56. 56. Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  57. 57. Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  58. 58. EXCAVATING, SOIL PREP & GRADING Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  59. 59. PLANTING (By Homeowners) Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  60. 60. Curb Cuts (for Inlet/Outlet)
  61. 61. BEFORE Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  62. 62. 2 Years Later Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering Photo by Mike Isensee , Dakota SWCD
  63. 63. City of Burnsville Raingardens (1 of 17) Rushmore Drive Designed by: Barr Engineering
  64. 64. 5.3 acres – 25 homes – 17 raingardens Rushmore Drive Runoff Reduction Retrofit Project City of Burnsville Planning / Design by: Barr Engineering
  65. 65. Source: City of Burnsville/Barr Engineering
  66. 66. Post-Construction Runoff 1.44 inches in 9June 8, 2004 hours Post-Construction Runoff - Control - Volume (14371.5 cf) Study - Volume (1164.3 cf) Rainfall (1.44 in) Source: 0.75 City of Burnsville Barr Engineering 0.50 cfs 0.25 0.00 0.075 0.050 in 0.025 0.000 6PM 9PM 9 Wed 3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 8 TueJun 2004 6/8/2004 4:00:00 PM - 6/9/2004 12:00:00 PM
  67. 67. Before and After Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  68. 68. Before and After Burnsville Raingardens Designed by: Barr Engineering
  69. 69. Burnsville Raingardens by Barr Engineering (Fred Rozumalkski, RLA) Rozumalkski, Winter Infiltration of Burnsville Raingardens
  70. 70. Raingarden w/ Native Sunny Perennials City of Maplewood Public Works – Street Reconstruction Project Engineering: Bonestroo
  71. 71. Raingarden w/ Shade Garden Perennials City of Maplewood Public Works – Street Reconstruction Project Engineering: Bonestroo
  72. 72. City of Maplewood Public Works – Street Reconstruction Project
  73. 73. Prior Lake Raingardens Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
  74. 74. 5239 Brooks Circle SE 5293 Brooks Circle SE 5379 Brooks Circle SE 5405 Brooks Circle SE 5495 Brooks Circle SE 16425 Itasca Ave SE 16447 Itasca Ave SE 16448 Itasca Ave SE Prior Lake Raingardens Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
  75. 75. Prior Lake Raingardens City of Prior Lake Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
  76. 76. Prior Lake Raingardens AMSWCD Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
  77. 77. Prior Lake Raingardens AMSWCD Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
  78. 78. Prior Lake Raingardens Brooks Circle Street Reconstruction
  79. 79. Green Street Project Raingardens Portland, Oregon Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
  80. 80. Green Street Project Raingardens Portland, Oregon Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
  81. 81. Green Street Project Raingardens Portland, Oregon Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
  82. 82. Green Street Project Raingardens Portland, Oregon Design by: Kevin Robert Perry, ASLA
  83. 83. City of Seattle Public Works – Street Reconstruction Project
  84. 84. Seattle
  85. 85. University of Minnesota St. Paul Campus – Watershed District Project Designed by: Barr Engineering / Fred Rozumalski
  86. 86. Black Ornamental Chokeberry Grass Gro- Gro-Low Sumac University of Minnesota St. Paul Campus – Watershed District Project Designed by: Barr Engineering / Fred Rozumalski
  87. 87. Soil Replacement Area 9371 Ditch Retrofit Project Chanhassen, MN
  88. 88. Over-Excavation Area 9371 Ditch Retrofit Project Chanhassen, MN
  89. 89. Check Dam Soil Replacement (Sand & Compost Mix) 9371 Ditch Retrofit Project Chanhassen, MN
  90. 90. Shredded Wood Mulch To be planted in Spring 2008, 9371 by residents Ditch Retrofit Project Chanhassen, MN
  91. 91. 9371 Ditch Retrofit Project Chanhassen, MN Planting Day (with neighborhood residents): April 28, 2008
  92. 92. 9371 Ditch Retrofit Project Chanhassen, MN Three Months After Planting: July 2008
  93. 93. Utility Locates
  94. 94. U More Park 2008 Dakota SWCD
  95. 95. Ag Hall Large Parking Lot Depression / Mowed Lawn Inlet (Concrete Swale) (Purpose?) Stormdrain
  96. 96. Inlet (Concrete Swale) Ag Hall Bioretention Basin Large Parking Lot Riser on Stormdrain
  97. 97. 300 gallons in 1” rainfall Flows across lawn to Plymouth street’s storm-drain
  98. 98. Inlet Overflow (swale) (across lawn) raingarden berm Digging the Raingarden Over-Dig & Amend Soil (if needed) Plymouth
  99. 99. Sources: -Recycling Centers -Garden Centers / Landscape Contractors Add Organic Matter to Soils Leaf Compost (well-aged) LEAF COMPOST (Well-Aged) (Well- Reintroduces / Adds Organic Matter to Soil – Improves Soil Structure (Decreases Bulk Density, Increases Water Holding Capacity, Increases Infiltration) Increases AMSWCD
  100. 100. Berm (w/ erosion- Depression control blanket) (w/ compost) Hold the Berm in Place Plymouth Use Erosion-Control Blanket (if needed)
  101. 101. Plant Considerations: -Soils -Moisture -Sunlight Planting the Raingarden Plymouth Choose the Right Plant for the Right Place
  102. 102. Materials : -0.5 cy Compost -0.5 cy Mulch -18 Blue Flag Iris (3” pots) (3” -48 Pussytoes (Plugs) Blue Flag Iris Pussytoes Year 2 Plymouth
  103. 103. www.BlueThumb.org
  104. 104. The Blue Thumb Guide to Raingardens is available at... Amazon.com (online) Bachman’ Bachman’s (in store) Landscape Alternatives (in store) Minnesota State Horticultural Society (in store) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (in store) Mother Earth Garden’s (in store) Garden’ Prairie Restorations (in store) Terrace Horticultural Books (online and in store) Organizations interested in wholesale or large volume orders: Waterdrop Innovations LLC at raingardens@yahoo.com. raingardens@yahoo.com.
  105. 105. Wisconsin DNR & UWEX - Raingarden ‘How-To’ Manual
  106. 106. Wisconsin DNR & UWEX - Raingarden ‘How-To’ Manual
  107. 107. Plant Supplier / Consultant: Natural Shore Technologies
  108. 108. POTENTIAL Measure Drainage Areas RAINGARDEN LOCATIONS Raingarden Size 325 s.f. 325 s.f. Needed = = 200 gal = 200 gal 8-15% Size of Drainage Area 455 s.f. = 282 gal 140 s.f. = 86 gal 220 s.f. Size ultimately = 136 gal dependent on 1,000 s.f. soil types & = 618 gal compaction present Stormdrain Street
  109. 109. Water-Smart Landscaping • Reduce Soil Compaction (aerate / add organic matter / mulching) • 3” Mow Height (promotes deeper root growth, reduces moisture loss) • Turf grass Selection (Drought-tolerant / deep-rooted selections) (Drought- deep- • Smarter-Watering – Utilize low-volume drip-irrigation / targeted / rain-sensors, etc. low- drip- rain- • Rainwater Harvesting – Rainbarrels / Cisterns & Pumps (to re-use rainwater) re- • Low Water-Use Landscapes – Utilize Deep-Rooted Plants Deep- – Selecting ‘Right Plant for the Right Place ’ Place’ • Rainwater-Absorbing Landscapes – Permeable Hardscapes (patios, driveways, etc.) – Strategically-placed tree, shrub and perennial planting areas Strategically- – Vegetated-Filter Swales (when moving water) Vegetated- – Raingardens (to really soak it in)
  110. 110. Low-Impact Development - Decreasing Amount of Runoff (Volume) - Treating Runoff at the Source (Quality) Decreasing Runoff Volume – Small-Scale Controls Small- • Bioretention / Rain Gardens • Alternative Surfaces • Strategic Grading • Reduce Impervious Surface • Site Finger Printing • Surface Roughness Technology • Conservation • Rain Barrels / Cisterns / Water Use • Flatter Wider Swales • Catch Basins / Seepage Pits • Amended Soils • Sidewalk Storage • Long Flow Paths • Vegetative Swales, Buffers & Strips • Tree / Shrub Depression • Infiltration Swales & Trenches • Turf Depression • Eliminate Curb and Gutter • Landscape Island Storage • Shoulder Vegetation • Rooftop Detention /Retention • Maximize Sheet flow • Disconnection* • Maintain Drainage Patterns • Parking Lot / Street Storage • Reforestation • Smaller Culverts, Pipes & Inlets • Pollution Prevention
  111. 111. Testing for Soil Compaction: - Low-Tech: Use a wire-flag - How deep can you push it into the ground? - Is it hard, rocky, soft, grainy? SOIL COMPACTION METER Manufacturer: Dickey-John Dickey- Cost: $200 (approximate) AMSWCD
  112. 112. Sources: -Recycling Centers -Garden Centers / Landscape Contractors Add Organic Matter to Soils Leaf Compost (well-aged) LEAF COMPOST (Well-Aged) (Well- Reintroduces / Adds Organic Matter to Soil – Improves Soil Structure (Decreases Bulk Density, Increases Water Holding Capacity, Increases Infiltration) Increases AMSWCD
  113. 113. Add Organic Matter to Soils (Blower Service) Twin Cities Specialty Companies: -Valley Creek Express Blower Service Johnsonville, Iowa -Windscapes Iowa NRCS (photo source)
  114. 114. Reduce Soil Compaction for Healthier Lawns Core-Plug Lawn Aerator Available through: - Lawn Service - Equipment Rental (DIY) Best Time to Aerate: 1) Sept 1 – 30 Important: Locate / 2) May 1 – June 15 Flag any shallow buried wires or Optional: “Topdress” with compost irrigation heads
  115. 115. Core-Plug Lawn Aerator
  116. 116. Reduce Soil Compaction for Healthier Lawns Sub-Soil Ripper on “open sites” Boxer Aero-vator First Products Aero-vator
  117. 117. www.Bobcat.com
  118. 118. www.attachmentsintl.com Bucket Ripper Bucket Ripper www.larsonripper.com Frost Ripper “ FROST RIPPERS” RIPPERS” www.leadingedgeattachments.com Leading Edge Attachments www.vailproducts.com
  119. 119. www.leadingedgeattachments.com “ FROST RIPPERS” RIPPERS” Leading Edge Attachments
  120. 120. When Conveying Runoff: Drawing: Doug Adamson RDG Planning & Design Source: NRCS-Iowa
  121. 121. Short- Short-mown Lawn- Lawn-Grass in Swale -Short-mown Lawn Grass will not substantially slow sediment-laden stormwater runoff. Short- sediment- -Friction is needed to slow water and drop-out sediments (and attached nutrients). drop- -Friction can be achieved with stiff-stemmed vegetation. stiff- USACE Chicago District
  122. 122. -Short-mown Lawn Grass will not substantially slow sediment-laden stormwater runoff. Short- sediment- -Friction is needed to slow water and drop-out sediments (and attached nutrients). drop- -Friction can be achieved with stiff-stemmed vegetation. stiff- -These plantings can also provide wildlife habitat. Vegetated Swale USACE Chicago District
  123. 123. Bio-Swale for stormwater conveyance with infiltration USACE Chicago District
  124. 124. Bio-Swale for stormwater conveyance with infiltration USACE Chicago District
  125. 125. Prairie Plugging Prairie No- No-Mow Native Lawn Mix Seeding Trees & Shrubs Swale of Sweet Grass (for stormwater conveyance) Summer 2006
  126. 126. Centex Homes Development Vegetated Bio-Swale Facility Dakota SWCD Burnsville, MN Jay Riggs
  127. 127. Centex Homes Development Vegetated Bio-Swale Facility Dakota SWCD Burnsville, MN Jay Riggs
  128. 128. Pearlmont Heights Development Vegetated Bio-Swale Facility Eagan, MN
  129. 129. Have a wet area often too soggy to mow? PLANT IT Pick the ‘Right Plants for the Right Place’ Place’
  130. 130. Good Location for Multi-Function Landscaping
  131. 131. Where Can You Intercept & Utilize Rain?
  132. 132. “If you never walk on it…. then why are you mowing it?” Grandpa Thompson
  133. 133. No Mow Lawn Mix (blend of fine fescues) Great for Sand or Clay Prairie Nursery www.prairienursery.com
  134. 134. No Mow Lawn Mix (blend of fine fescues)
  135. 135. Consider Native Grasses for the Lawn Native Turfgrass Demonstration McCrory Gardens – SDSU / Brookings AMSWCD
  136. 136. Consider Native Grasses for the Lawn Drought -Tolerant Lawn Blue Grama Prairie Restorations, Inc.
  137. 137. Tall- Tall-grass Prairie Short- Short-grass Prairie Chanhassen Residence By: Prairie Restorations Multi-Function Landscapes Screening, Habitat Value, Runoff Reduction, Water Conservation Planted 20 years ago on heavy clay soils (now has infiltration rates like sand) rates
  138. 138. Chanhassen Residence By: Prairie Restorations Multi-Function Landscapes AMSWCD Screening, Habitat Value, Runoff Reduction, Water Conservation
  139. 139. Chanhassen Residence By: Prairie Restorations Multi-Function Landscapes AMSWCD Screening, Habitat Value, Runoff Reduction, Water Conservation
  140. 140. Low Water-Use Landscapes Water Conservation, Runoff Reduction, Habitat Value Designed and Installed by: Energyscapes
  141. 141. Mosquito – Proof Inlets 55 gallons each Harvest Rainwater with Rainbarrels Anoka Conservation District
  142. 142. Inlet (Atrium Grate) Outlet Inlet Filter Overflow Build Your Own Rainbarrel AMSWCD
  143. 143. Harvest Rainwater with Rainbarrels
  144. 144. Where to Put a Rainbarrel? Your Smallest Area of Roof Rainbarrels typically only hold 50 gallons. They will quickly fill in 325 s.f. 325 s.f. a rainstorm. = 200 gallons = 200 gal - Is overflow sized large enough to pass 455 s.f. through this additional 140 s.f. 1” Rain water? = 282 gal = 86 gal Runoff Volumes 220 s.f. (by roof area) –When they fill up, = 136 gal where will they Note: 1 cubic foot = overflow to? 7.4 gallons Stormdrain Street
  145. 145. Capture Rainwater with Cisterns
  146. 146. Capture Rainwater with Cisterns Above-ground Buried 500 – 1,500 gallon Tanks w/ Filters & Pump 3P Technik Australia www. 3ptechnik.com.au Can Re- use as Lawn Irrigation Re-
  147. 147. Wal-Mart Chipotle
  148. 148. Water Harvesting with Cisterns Cistern 30,000 gallon storage Source: Target Corporation
  149. 149. Drawing: Doug Adamson RDG Planning & Design Source: NRCS-Iowa
  150. 150. Permeable Pavers ‘Turf Block’ Block’ Detroit Lakes, MN AMSWCD Permeable Surfaces
  151. 151. Permeable Pavers ‘Turf Block’ Block’ Detroit Lakes, MN AMSWCD Permeable Surfaces
  152. 152. Permeable- Permeable -joint Pavers ‘Eco-Stone’ (Borgert) Eco-Stone’ Borgert) AMSWCD
  153. 153. Permeable- Permeable -joint Pavers ‘Eco-Stone’ (Borgert) Eco-Stone’ Borgert) Dakota County
  154. 154. Permeable- Permeable -joint Pavers ‘Eco-Stone’ Eco-Stone ’ Schmeltz Volkswagen Hwy 36 & White Bear Ave Maplewood Ramsey-Washington Metro Watershed District Project
  155. 155. Permeable Asphalt Ramsey-Wash. Metro W.D. Little Canada, Mn
  156. 156. Green Roof Permeable Asphalt Ramsey-Wash. Metro W.D. Little Canada, Mn
  157. 157. Permeable Concrete Powers Lake Park (2005) Woodbury, Mn
  158. 158. Permeable Concrete Powers Lake Park (2005) Woodbury, Mn
  159. 159. RESOURCES
  160. 160. http://www.pca.state.mn.us/water/stormwater/stormwater-manual.html
  161. 161. http://efotg.nrcs.usda.gov/treemenuFS.aspx
  162. 162. www.ndwrcdp.org/publications/ www.ndwrcdp.org/publications/
  163. 163. Lessons Learned: -Cell Sizing (depth, watershed ratio) -Off-Line Design (preferable to on-line) Off- on- -Inlet Design (5’ wide, 12% backslope, turf filter) (5’ backslope, -Under-drain (with valve or removable cap) Under- -Soil Mixture (Sand & Compost – no topsoil) -Installation (avoiding compaction & sediment) -Vegetation Selection (deep-rooted plants) (deep- -Maintenance Issues (removing sediment & weeding) www.ndwrcdp.org/publications/ www.ndwrcdp.org/publications/
  164. 164. Download at: http://dnr.wi.gov/runoff/stormwater/technote.htm
  165. 165. http://www.pca.state.mn.us/publications/ http://www.greatrivergreening.org/ manuals/stormwaterplants.html
  166. 166. Subscribe at: http://www.stormh2o.com/ Subscribe at: http://www.erosioncontrol.com http://www.erosioncontrol.com
  167. 167. http://www.cwp.org/
  168. 168. What if ?
  169. 169. Gregg Thompson Urban Conservation Specialist gregg@metroswcd.org Oversight and guidance: Association of Metropolitan Soil and Water Conservation Districts Anoka – Carver – Dakota – Hennepin Ramsey – Scott – Washington Additional program funding (through Contribution Agreement): U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service
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