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Chapter 8


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  • 1. Chapter 8: The Canadian Identity
  • 2. The Roots of Quebec Nationalism Maurice Duplessis 1936-1939 and 1944-1959 (Union Nationale) – Quebec is distinct society or “nation” – Padlock Law – Avoid English influence at all costs – Refused money from federal govt – “la grande noirceur” = the Great Darkness  Bad working conditions  Unions discouraged and strong armed tactics against them
  • 3.  Jean Lesage (Liberal) 1960-1966 – “Maitre chez nous” = masters of our own house – Not independence, but more control over decisions affecting its future – New and equal partnership with English-Canada Quiet Revolution (la revolution tranquille) – Rapid reform and modernization – Secularization, invest in public education, strengthen the welfare state, unionize civil service, control of economy, nationalization of hydroelectricity – Lesage wanted “special status” for Quebec to protect French language and culture – Federal govt allows Quebec to run its own pension plan and medical insurance – French-Canadians become “Quebecois”
  • 4.  Expo 67 – Montreal – French president Charles DeGaulle – “Vive le Quebec Libre” – Encourages French nationalism – Enrages English-Canadians Daniel Johnson (Union Nationale) 1966 – Quebec must get absolute equality with rest of Canada – If not separatists will win (Levesque and Parti Quebecois)
  • 5.  Rene Levesque, Liberal cabinet minister in Quebec leaves party to form Parti Quebecois (PQ) in 1967 Front de Liberation du Quebec – Terrorist organization – Marxist objectives and separatists – Members trained by revolutionaries who were supporters of the Cuban revolutionary – Also receive guerrilla training in selective assassination from Palestinian commandos in Jordan – 1963-1970 over 200 political actions ie. bombings of mail boxes, public monuments, English owned businesses, banks, McGill University and homes of prominent English-Canadians
  • 6.  1964 new flag (Pearson Pennant) Quebec uses fleur-de-lis Ottawa appoints Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (Bi and Bi Commission) – Recommendations include making Canada bilingual Official Languages Act (1969) – Canadians have legal right and ability to deal with federal govt in either French or English – All products sold in Canada must be in both languages – French immersion programs across Canada
  • 7. October Crisis (1970) Trudeau PM in 1968 is a federalist and rejects special status for Quebec The October Crisis/FLQ Crisis (1970) – Oct 5  James Cross (British Trade Commissioner) kidnapped by Liberation cell  Want ransom of $500 000, transport to Cuba, want FLQ Manifesto read to public and release of FLQ “political prisoners”  Bourassa agrees to reading of Manifesto on radio and transport to Cuba only – Oct 10  Pierre Laporte (Quebec labour minister and depute premier) kidnapped by Chenier cell
  • 8. – Oct 16  Bourassa asks Trudeau for help (federal troops), additional search and arrest powers for police  Trudeau sees an “apprehended insurrection” ie. revolution  War Measures Act invoked– Oct 17  Laporte’s dead body found– By December discovered Cross still alive  Govt negotiated release in return for safe passage to Cuba– January  Kidnappers of Laporte found, tried, convicted, sentenced (light sentences of FLQ members)  Affects on Canada? Quebec?
  • 9.  War Measures Act – Gave govt power to take away certain civil rights – Thousands of searches and over 400 arrests – Membership is FLQ became criminal and political rallies banned – Govt can arrest, questions, detain suspects without charge for up to 90 days Trudeau – justified because widespread conspiracy to overthrow govt – Trudeau questioned by reporter how far he would go: “Just watch me” “There’s a lot of bleeding hearts around – go on and bleed.”
  • 10.  Bill 22 (1974) – Under Liberals R. Bourassa – Fr is official language of Quebec – Children had to pass English proficiency test to be allowed to register at English schools – Fear that French language will disappear with declining birthrate and increasing immigration
  • 11.  Levesque, PQ elected in 1976 Bill 101 (1977) replaced Bill 22 – Charter of French Language bill – Fr is language used by govt, courts and business in Quebec – Commercial signs are to be displayed in Fr only – Restricted access to English schools – at least one parent had to have attended an English school in Quebec – English businesses left Quebec
  • 12.  1980 Referendum on sovereignty- association – 90% voter turn out – 60% NO Constitution Act 1982 – November 4, 1981 Kitchen Compromise  9 provinces reached an agreement, Quebec (Levesque) felt betrayed and did not sign constitution – New amending formula and Charter of Rights and Freedoms
  • 13. Meech Lake, 1987 PM Mulroney met with all 10 premiers (Bourassa is premier of QC) to change constitution to include Quebec Reached tentative agreement, but need unanimous consent from Ottawa and the provinces – Quebec is “distinct society” – 3 of 9 Supreme Court were to come from QC – Amendments to new constitution would require agreement from all provinces – Provinces could choose to opt out of federal funding – QC able to control its own immigration
  • 14.  Concerns over Quebec referred to as “distinct society” Aboriginal peoples felt Quebec should not have special consideration because no consideration for them or for women Enfold, NB, MB didn’t ratify 1990 Lucien Bouchard resigned in protest from Mulroney’s Cabinet and formed Bloc Quebecois
  • 15. Charlottetown Accord, 1992 Made provisions for Aboriginal self-govt, Senate reform, universal health care, workers’ rights, and environmental protection – Negotiations were called the Canada Round Canada Clause – “distinct society” for QC, outlined values and characteristics that define all Cdns, including a commitment to equality of men and women Goes to referendum, only 4 of 10 provinces approved – Provisions too large and daunting – Aboriginal peoples and women opposed the accord as well as the Reform party
  • 16.  1993 Bloc Quebecois become official opposition led by Lucien Bouchard 1995 Referendum – Rejection of Charlottetown left Fr-Cdns feeling like Canada was indifferent to QC – 1995 premier Jacque Parizeau (PQ) held another referendum – 50.6% NO – PQ Parizeau resigns…Bouchard switches to provincial politics and wants to call another sovereignty referendum but “under winning conditions”
  • 17.  Calgary Declaration, 1997 – Gesture of goodwill = Cdns govt declared QC to be a “unique society” – BQ leader Bouchard did not attend Supreme Court decision, 1998 – Ruled QC did not have right to separate unilaterally from Canada – To achieve independence QC has to negotiate with federal govt and other provinces, the Aboriginal nations living in QC and other minorities living there – Negotiations could begin after a referendum where a “clear majority” voted “yes” to a “clear question”
  • 18.  Clarity Act, 1999 – States that in any future referenda, QC must ask a clear questions, win a clear majority – Makes it next to impossible for QC to gain independence from Canada through a referendum
  • 19. Potential impact of separation for Quebec Forced to negotiate international trade deals such as NAFTA QC no longer receive federal grants or assistance Anglophone population and big business may move to other provinces Foreign and domestic investment might drop Economic or social problems such as unemployment or poverty might worsen QC may be asked to repay its portion of Canada’s national debt QC may lost land to Aboriginal groups QC would be forced to re-negotiate its status in North American Trade Agreement QC may not receive ownership of federal property owned by Ottawa
  • 20. Potential impact of separation for Canada Canada would lose 15.5% of its land area Canada would lose up to 25% of its population Canada may lose up to 23% of its GNP Canada would lose 15% of its fresh water and 14% of its mineral production capability Atlantic Canada would be physically severed and isolated from the rest of Canada Canadian defence would become more difficult QC’s separation may cause other provinces to consider separating from Confederation Francophones in other provinces would be left without one of their most powerful allies
  • 21. Aboriginal peoples in Canada Status Indian: have legal rights under Indian Act, have rights under treaties or where no treaties have been signed, rights as Registered Indians Non-status Indian: have given up their legal status as Indians while still keeping their cultural identity First Nation: used in 1990s in place of “Indian band” or “Indian nation”
  • 22.  Royal Proclamation, 1763 – Prevented further settlement across North America until treaties had been negotiated – Recognized that Aboriginal peoples lived as nations on their own lands Between 1864 and 1867 – Assimilation of Aboriginal nations into Canadian mainstream
  • 23.  The Reserve System, 1830 – Aboriginal peoples were seen as blocking settlement of BNA – Pushed onto reservation managed by agents of govt – 0.4% of Cdn land is set-aside for Indian reserves – Limiting of Aboriginals from fully participating in economy and generating wealth ie. Leverage land for loans and wealth creation – Land is federal govt’s – Living conditions are lower than rest of Canada – Life expectancy is lower, suicide rates are over 8 times higher
  • 24. Indian Act, 1876 Encourage Aboriginal peoples to give up their own culture and traditions – assimilation into mainstream Benefits – Schools, medical care, hunting and fishing rights, annual treaty payments provided – Exempt from paying income and sales tax – “special status” to Aboriginals
  • 25.  Disadvantages – Colonial mind set – treats Aboriginals as children and wards of state – Denied right to take up land as others – Denied right to vote in provincial elections – Viewed as incompatible with being a Canadian citizen – If they want votemust give up “Indian status” – Lose status is move off reserves, join military, obtain higher education, or marry a non-Indian
  • 26.  Residential Schools – Federal govt assumed responsibility for education of Aboriginal children – Taken from their homes and forced to abandon their own language and culture – Administered by Protestant and Catholic missionaries  By 1930 only 3% of native students go beyond grade 6  By 1950 only 1/3 go beyond grade 3  Not until 1951 that Aboriginal children were allowed to attend public school system – 1990s United Church and Catholic orders accept responsibility for abuse and harmful practices – Some awarded compensation…lawsuits ongoing
  • 27.  1960: Aboriginal peoples given the right to vote in federal elections White Paper, 1969 – Proposed abolition of reserves and end to special status for treaty Indians – Equality was necessary for solution to the problems of Indians and special status has been the major cause of difficulties – Hostile response to White Paper
  • 28.  National Indian Brotherhood formed to represent Status Indians and Native Council of Canada created to represent non-Status Indians and Metis They presented “Red Paper” – Demand self-govt and control over their own affairs Trudeau’s govt withdrew White Paper in 1971
  • 29. Land Claims NIB renamed Assembly of First Nations to demand better conditions for Aboriginal peoples – Office of Native land Claims dealt with both specific land claims and comprehensive land claims Declaration of the First Nations – Adopted in 1975 which included the rights of nationhood and self-govt
  • 30.  Oka Standoff, 1990 – Want to extend golf course on land that Mohawks claimed that belonged to them – Mohawks set up blockades of major roads – Police stormed barricade and one officer was killed – Army was called intense standoff – Solution: federal govt bought the disputed land and negotiated its transfer to Kanesatake First Nation
  • 31.  Gustafsen Lake in BC – Aboriginal people re-occupied land they claimed was sacred ground Ipperwash in ON – Aboriginal people occupied land on former army base that was taken during WWII and never returned Meech Lake Accord – Did not recognize distinct status of Aboriginals
  • 32. Self-government Aboriginals believe they have inherent right to self-govt – Self-govt would recognize right to make decisions about matters internal to their communities, integral to their unique cultures, traditions and languages and connected with their relationship to land and resources Constitution of 1982 guaranteed existing rights would be recognized and affirmed – Self-govt would be similar to provincial govt – Responsible for own policing, health care, education and equal access to institutions and benefits provided by fed govt
  • 33.  Self-govt in MB – 1990s Aboriginal people took over responsibilities of the Dept of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in MB and assumed self-govt
  • 34.  Nisga’a Treaty – 1998 in BC signed treaty with both provincial and federal govt – Nisga’a given wide powers of self-govt pertaining to issues of culture, language and family life – Nisga’a given ownership of 1,922 square km of land, including all resources, fishing and hunting rights and $190 million – No non-Aboriginal settlers were forced from the territory that the Nisga’a control – Non-Aboriginal settlers do not have the right to vote for the councils that govern the region
  • 35.  Creation of Nunavut territory in 1999 – Aboriginal peoples were given the right to self-govt over natural resources, education and justice systems – No political parties – people run as individuals and elected members vote for the member who they want to lead the govt Statement of Reconciliation, 1998 – Cdn govt recognized that policies which sought to assimilate Aboriginals were not conducive to building a strong country
  • 36. Today--inequality 500 000 face worse living conditions than rest of Cdns Average income is half of national average 50% of reserve families live below poverty line 66% are either unemployed or on welfare Less than 55% Aboriginal houses are served with sewer and water connections (national rate in 90%) Suicide 6 times national rate – exceeds rates for all other racial and ethnic groups in the world