The Alps are an important chain of mountains located in central Europe. Its peak elevation is Mont Blanc, 4,810 meters above sea level. Around the Alps, favored by major rivers flow uniform and rich farmland, settled many peoples, among which may be appointed to Celtic, Swiss, sudalemanes, Austrians, Slovenians, Lombards, Burgundians, Loren ancient Italic peoples.
There are many mountains over four thousand feet. Geological and geographical criteria can be divided into threedistinct areas: Western Alps, ranging from the first elevations near theMediterranean Sea to the Valais. Maritime Alps and the MontBlanc massif are the most important blocks. The Central Alps, from the Valais to the Grisons. All the Valaiswith the most important massif of the Alps, Monte Rosa andelOberland. The Eastern Alps, covering the rest of the range to the east and south. Tyrol, the Julian Alps and the Dolomites are the mostimportant formations. Recent rises in this direction come until the first of another great massif: the Carpathians. See also the Italian Alps.
The formation of this ridge is complex, the product of a series of tectonic movements produced the Mesozoic (secondary era, from 245 to 65 million years ago) and Cenozoic (in its first part, theTertiary), which ranged from the Maghreb to the Urals. The existence of large marine trenches in these regions and theirsubsequent closure due to the convergence of African andEuropean continental plates caused enormous folds, from northand west first, then southbound and este.Estos folds were thecause of sedimentary surface plates were displaced in the same directions as the folds. Still, after the time compressionmovements, there were movements of extension, flexion of theraised areas, which resulted in the current difficult terrain of the Alps
In the Alps, the habitats are determined by altitude, so, to 600 or 800 meters, where it has been possible, the land has beendevoted to crops: alfalfa, millet, wheat, grapes, potatoes and fruit trees are the most common crops. Then forested areas: beech, oak and conifers of many species, ofwhich there are some deciduous-reaching in the right places, up to two thousand meters. In general, however, above 1,500 meters,where there has been a sufficient ground for support, dominate the grassy meadows and pastures. Pine certainly predominates in the forest and mountains. There areseveral species of these: Aleppo pine, common Pino, Pine, etc.