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    • 1. PATRICK KLASSEN - 04.12.2008 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE POTENTIAL OF MODERN STREETCARS IN HALIFAX Source: www.btwt.org Source: www.urbanrail.net Source: www.oldtrails.com
    • 2.
      • INTRODUCTION
        • background + context + rationale
      • goals + objectives
      • COMPARATOR REVIEW
        • comparator selection
        • research + analysis summary of findings
      • CASE INVESTIGATION
        • halifax profile inventory + analysis
        • route screening
      • ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS
      • CONCLUSIONS
      • RECOMMENDATIONS
      outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations OUTLINE + METHODOLOGY Source: www.urbanrail.net
    • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • 4. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND + CONTEXT outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
      • STAGES OF INTRAURBAN GROWTH
            • Electric Streetcar
            • Arterial Highways
            • Freeways
      2000 Traditional Urban Core CONTEXTUAL MAP
    • 5. outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Source: halifax.ca Source: swiftreality.ca INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND + CONTEXT
          • HALIFAX - past + present
      Source: halifax.ca Source: halifax.ca
    • 6.
      • Growing employment: 30,500 by 2026
      • Growth in key sectors - education, healthcare,
        • business
      • Growing population: 84,000 by 2026
      • 75% within urban areas
          • 25% within peninsula (21,000)
      outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Source: Clayton Research, 2006 Population Projection, HRM, 1996-2026 Source: Gardner Pinfold, 2004 Employment Projection, HRM, 1996-2026 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND + RATIONALE Employment
          • HALIFAX - future
    • 7. outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Source: www.nrcan.gc.ca INTRODUCTION
      • HALIFAX - Planning and Policy
      • “ Halifax cannot be complacent and expect growth to continue unless we
              • nurture the conditions for growth.”
              • - HRM Economic Development Strategy, 2004
        • “ ... direct change to areas that will benefit from growth”
      • “ ...integrate land use planning with transportation planning”
          • - (HRM by Design, 2008)
      • “ ...the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through transportation planing.”
        • - (HRM Regional Municipal Planning Strategy, 2006)
      BACKGROUND + RATIONALE
    • 8. Catalyze development and redevelopment potential around a transit investment Increase transit ridership by better connecting local urban neighborhoods with downtown Increase transit ridership by better connecting destinations within downtown Better redistribute regional commuters within downtown Reduce the environmental impacts of public transportation. Source: urbanrail.net Source: urbanrail.net Source: flickr.com outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations INTRODUCTION GOALS THE MODERN URBAN STREETCAR IN HALIFAX
    • 9.
      • Primary
      •  
        • Determine the potential for the introduction of a modern downtown streetcar in Halifax
      •  
      • Secondary
      •  
        • Examine the strengths and weaknesses (features) of streetcar systems in comparator cities that
        • might be valid options for application in Halifax.
      Source: urbanrail.net Source: urbanrail.net Source: flickr.com outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES
    • 10. outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Modern Streetcar Light Rail Transit Primary Application Track Alignment Vehicle Format Vehicle Details Turning Radius Station Spacing Commercial Speed Downtown circulator Mostly on-street Single vehicle - articulated 12-25m long, 2.4m wide 12-24m 150-500m 25 km/h or less Regional/urban commuter Segregated, some on-street running Single or multiple linkes 30m+ long, up to ~ 2.65m wide 15-30m 800-1500m 30 - 100 km/h CHARACTERISTICS INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS Source: urbanrail.net Source: urbanrail.net
    • 11. outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations INTRODUCTION CONTEXT 1,500,000 1,125,000 750,000 375,000 0 Average Population of North American Cities with LRT Systems Compared to Average Population of Initially Screened Cities with Streetcars Streetcar LRT Population
    • 12. COMPARATOR REVIEW
    • 13. outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations COMPARATOR REVIEW SELECTION CRITERIA
          • Karlsruhe, Germany
            • Population: 285,800
            • Area: 173 km
            • Density: 1,356/km
          • Saarbrucken, Germany
            • Population: 180,500
            • Area: 292 km
            • Density: 901/km
          • Orleans, France
            • Population: 263,200
            • Area: 292 km
            • Density: 901/km
          • Portland, USA
            • Population: 568,400
            • Area: 347 km
            • Density: 1,638/km
          • Tacoma, USA
            • Population: 202,700
            • Area: 162 km
            • Density: 1,538/km
          • Kenosha, USA
            • Population: 96,845
            • Area: 62 km
            • Density: 1,569/km
      2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
    • 14. COMPARATOR REVIEW RESEARCH + ANALYSIS outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 15.
      • Urban Connectivity
      • Strong connection to urban cores - CBDs
      • Integration to key destinations key to success
      Population Density Average overall comparator density: 1,346/ km 2 Catchment (500m) densities considerably higher COMPARATOR REVIEW outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Total Population Streetcars do not require large total populations, due, in part, to their redistributive nature. Urban Populations Average Urban Density Transit Connectivity Centralization around major transit nodes Strong connection to regional transportation Integration, minimizing transfer time key to success Source: urbanrail.net
    • 16. COMPARATOR REVIEW outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
      • Economic Development
      • Streetcars have exhibited positive impacts on:
      • productivity - increased transit
          • property values
            • investment - targeted
      • business activity
      • Livability - Walkability - Accessibility
      • Traffic - long commute = quality of life reduction
      • Streetcar as a tool for creating more pleasant,
        • vibrant neighbourhoods - Portland Pearl District
      • Streetcars have directly reduced car ownership
      Topography Topographic restrictions exist, although have not prevented expansion - technical advances Portland
    • 17. COMPARATOR REVIEW outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Percent of CBD Development Based Upon Distance from Streetcar Post 1997 Pre 1997 1 Block 2 Blocks 3 Blocks 3+ Blocks 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Source: ED Hovee & Company, Portland Streetcar Development Impacts October 2005 Portland
    • 18. COMPARATOR REVIEW outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Percent FAR Realized Based Upon Distance from Streetcar Post 1997 Pre 1997 1 Block 2 Blocks 3 Blocks 3+ Blocks 80 60 40 20 0 Source: ED Hovee & Company, Portland Streetcar Development Impacts October 2005 Portland
    • 19. CASE INVESTIGATION - HALIFAX
    • 20. Source: Stats Canada CASE INVESTIGATION HALIFAX PROFILE ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Halifax CMA Halifax Core Halifax Peninsula
    • 21. HALIFAX CORE Urban Populations Average Urban Density Population: 202, 668 Density: 1903 /sq. km. Area: 106.5 sq. km. CASE INVESTIGATION HALIFAX PROFILE ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Source: Stats Canada
    • 22. ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations CASE INVESTIGATION INVENTORY + ANALYSIS
    • 23. ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations CASE INVESTIGATION INVENTORY + ANALYSIS
      • Strengths
      • Reasonable peninsula population - 62,000 (additional 26,000 students not counted in census)
      • Strong existing density on Peninsula - 3,220/km
      • Centralized employment - 100,000 + jobs (CBD employs 24,000 alone)
      • Downtown destinations - cultural, retail, entertainment, services, education
      • Key destination for visitors - 4 million/yr (WTC - 1.2 million, cruise ships 200,000+/yr)
      • Growing commuter transit - MetroLink, ferries, rural express bus
      • Weaknesses
      • Disparities in policy & practice Limited local bus connectivity
      • Limiting topography & street pattern Limited funding for transit
        • Abundant, under-priced parking
      2
    • 24. ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations CASE INVESTIGATION INVENTORY + ANALYSIS
      • Opportunities
      • Changing lifestyle - attraction with urban living
      • Growing population
      • Densifying Peninsula
          • Employment growth
          • Considerable development potential
          • Growing interest to target development
          • Growth in tourism
          • Rapidly pedestrianizing downtown
      • Constraints
      • Expensive infrastructure
      • Limited funding opportunities
      • Limited political & municipal support for rail based transit
    • 25. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 26. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 27. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 28. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 29. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 30. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 31. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 32. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 33. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations
    • 34. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 1.8km (4km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)........ 8,700 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 4,300 Existing Local Commuters........................... 2,280
    • 35. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 4.3km (9,2km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)...... 19,000 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 3,950 Existing Local Commuters........................... 4,725
    • 36. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 4.9km (10.3km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)...... 23,085 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 4,017 Existing Local Commuters........................... 6,075
    • 37. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 4.3km (9,2km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)...... 19,000 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 3,950 Existing Local Commuters........................... 4,725
    • 38. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 6.8km (12,8km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)...... 27,400 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 4,100 Existing Local Commuters........................... 9,440
    • 39. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 6.8km (12,8km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)...... 27,400 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 4,100 Existing Local Commuters........................... 9,440
    • 40. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Route Length.................................................. 6.8km (12,8km loop) 500m Catchment Population (500m)...... 27,400 500m Catchment Density (/sq. km)........... 4,100 Existing Local Commuters........................... 9,440
    • 41. CASE INVESTIGATION ROUTE SCREENING ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations An urban streetcar system 7.4 km long would have a catchment population of over 31,000 , with a catchment density of over 4,100 /km 2 , serving 10,750 existing local (on-route) commuters, providing access to all of the City’s identified key development areas.
    • 42. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS
    • 43. outline introduction co mparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS Rail Transit Bus Transit Local Bus Express Bus Bus Rapid Transit Streetcar Light Rail Heavy Rail
    • 44. outline introduction co mparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS BUS Greater route flexibility Greater operational flexibility Less limited by topography & street pattern Does not require special facilities Several routes can converge onto one busway, reducing the need for transfers Lower capital costs
    • 45. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS STREETCAR Source: urbanrail.net outline introduction co mparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Greater ridership demand and public preference. Greater potential capacity. Stronger positive neighbourhood/community impacts. Stronger positive land use impacts. Stronger potential for external funding Less air and noise pollution. Lower potential operating costs Longer vehicle life span
    • 46. CONCLUSIONS
    • 47. SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS Source:cooltownstudios.comt Source:imageshack.us Source:urbanrail.net ou tline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations Raising awareness & renewed interest with urban core Growing interest to foster downtown development Halifax exhibits characteristics supportive to streetcar Environment increasingly becoming streetcar friendly Streetcars better suited to achieved projects goals than busses The findings of this study indicate that, while existing conditions may currently not be optimal, there is a demonstrated potential for future application within the City’s urban core.
    • 48. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • 49. outline introduction comparator review case investigation alternatives analysis conclusions recommendations RECOMMENDATIONS Source: Google Earth
      • Complete a preliminary design, layout & ridership study
        • Investigate the costs associated with the implementation of streetcars in Halifax
        • Investigate technical constraints of alignment
        • Forecast ridership
        • Investigate potential external (Federal & Provincial) infrastructure funding
      • Research market demand for transit orientated development in Halifax
        • Commercial + residential
        • Particular focus on areas identified within this report
        • Investigate the potential for PPPs.
    • 50. THANK YOU questions + comments

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