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  • 4. The information in this Dorling KindersleyTravel Guide is checked regularly.Every effort has been made to ensure that this book is as up-to-date aspossible at the time of going to press. Some details, however, such astelephone numbers, opening hours, prices, gallery hangingarrangements and travel information are liable to change. Thepublishers cannot accept responsibility for any consequences arisingfrom the use of this book, nor for any material on third party websites,and cannot guarantee that any website address in this book will be asuitable source of travel information.We value the views and suggestions of our readers very highly.Please write to: Publisher, DK Eyewitness Travel Guides, DorlingKindersley, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, Great Britain.DISCOVERING POLAND8PUTTING POLANDON THE MAP 10A PORTRAIT OFPOLAND 12POLAND THROUGHTHE YEAR 32THE HISTORY OFPOLAND 36WARSAWAREA BY AREAWARSAW ATA GLANCE 58Neo-Classical rotonda in theSaxon Gardens, WarsawCONTENTSINTRODUCINGPOLANDProduced by Wydawnictwo Wiedza i Życie, WarsawCONTRIBUTORS Małgorzata Omilanowska, Jerzy S. MajewskiILLUSTRATORS Andrzej Wielgosz, Bohdan Wróblewski,Piotr Zubrzycki, Paweł MistewiczPHOTOGRAPHERS Krzysztof Chojnacki; Wojciech Czerniewicz, StanisławaJabłońska, Piotr Jamski, Euzebiusz NiemiecCARTOGRAPHERS Ewa i Jan Pachniewiczowie,Maria Wojciechowska, Dariusz Osuch (D. Osuch i spółka)EDITOR Teresa Czerniewicz-UmerRDTP DESIGNERS Paweł Kamiński, Paweł PasternakPROOFREADER Bożena LeszkowiczTECHNICAL EDITOR Anna Kożurno-KrólikowskaDESIGNER Ewa Roguska i zespółRCOVER DESIGN Paweł KamińskiTRANSLATORS Mark Cole, Marian Dragon,Teresa Levitt, Joanna Pillans, Vera RichEdited and typeset by Book Creation Services Ltd, LondonPrinted and bound by South China Printing Co. Ltd., (China)First American Edition, 200110 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Published in the United States byDK Publishing, 375 Hudson Street,New York, New York 10014Reprinted with revisions 2004, 2007, 2010Copyright © 2001, 2010 Dorling Kindersley Limited, LondonALL RIGHTS RESERVED. WITHOUT LIMITING THE RIGHTS UNDER COPYRIGHTRESERVED ABOVE, NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED, STORED INOR INTRODUCED INTO A RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, OR TRANSMITTED, IN ANY FORM, OR BYANY MEANS (ELECTRONIC, MECHANICAL, PHOTOCOPYING, RECORDING, OROTHERWISE), WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN PERMISSION OF BOTH THE COPYRIGHTOWNER AND THE ABOVE PUBLISHER OF THIS BOOK.Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited, London.A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.ISSN 1542-1554ISBN 978-0-75666-130-4FLOORS ARE REFERRED TO THROUGHOUT IN ACCORDANCE WITHEUROPEAN USAGE; IE THE “FIRST FLOOR” IS THE FLOOR ABOVEGROUND LEVEL.The eagle, emblem of Poland, inthe Zygmunt Chapel, Cracow
  • 7. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D8Perched between East andWest, Poland has had avaried history which hasshaped it into the beguiling,delightful and refreshinglydifferent mix of old and newthat we see today. Thechapters of this book havebeen divided into ninecolour-coded regions to reflectthe diversity of Poland. Eachregion has its own specialflavour: its own architecture,cuisine, customs and sights.The following pages aim togive a taste of these regionsand show you what there isto see and do.p130), which features manyfine examples of Gothic andRenaissance architecture. TheOld Town is overlooked bythe glorious buildings onWawel Hill (see pp138–43), asymbol of national strengthand patriotism. At the annualFestival of Jewish Culture(see p33), you can enjoymusic, art, theatre perform-ances and much more.CRACOW• Wonderful Old Town• Historic Wawel Hill• Cracow Jewish FestivalCracow’s Old Town centresaround the beautiful 13th-century market square (seeMAŁOPOLSKA• Poland’s painful past• Wieliczka’s salt mine• Winter sports at ZakopaneThe tragedy of the PolishJews can be witnessed atOświęcim (Auschwitz) (seep160) where an estimated1.1 million people died atthe hands of the Nazis.This is now a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site. Theold underground salt mineat Wieliczka (see p162)features a chapel, museumand a restaurant. A favouriteretreat for many artists andintellectuals at the turn ofthe 20th century, Poland’swinter capital Zakopane (seep164) attracts thousands ofskiers every winter.MAZOVIA AND THELUBLIN REGION• Renaissance Zamość• Chopin and Żelazowa Wola• Picturesque Vistula ValleyThe finely preserved townof Zamość (see pp124–5)was built in the 16th centuryaccording to the Renaissanceconcept of the ideal city.WARSAW• Postcard-pretty Old Town• A Socialist Realist city• Exciting nightlifeRebuilt to its original 13th-century design after beingdestroyed in World War II,Warsaw’s Old Town (seepp62–7) is truly delightful.The city’s controversial post-war Socialist Realist architec-ture, embodied by the Palaceof Culture and Science (seep89), reflects the capital’smore recent history. Be sureto visit a few of the city’svibrant bars and clubs fora taste of Warsaw’s nightlife.The picturesque square at the heart of Warsaw’s Old TownThe ski resort at Zakopane, upgraded for the 2006 OlympicsDISCOVERING POLANDCopernicus statuein WarsawThe birthplace of Chopin,Żelazowa Wola (see p114)houses a fascinating museumdedicated to the great Polishcomposer. In the idyllicVistula Valley, affluentKazimierz Dolny (seepp118–19) is the unofficialcapital of the area popularwith Poland’s New Rich.Beskid Żywiecki Mountains
  • 8. D I S C O V E R I N G P O L A N D 9WIELKOPOLSKA• Industrial Łódź• Poznań’s beautiful churches• Kórnik’s castle islandBuilt in the 1800s by a trioof mill owners, the industrialcity of Łódź (see pp228–9)has many fascinatingmuseums and a welcomingatmosphere, yet it remainsalmost untouched bytourism. The churches inPoznań (see pp214–19) areamong the most delightful inPoland. The Gothic cathedralis the country’s oldest, andthe place where, allegedly,Poland’s first king was chris-tened. A visit to the islandcastle at Kórnik (see p211),inspired by Neo-GothicEnglish architecture and theOrient, is a splendid day out.GDAŃSK• The cradle of Solidarity• Westerplatte’s WWII legacyIn 1980 unemployed workerLech Wałęsa climbed overa fence at a shipyard inGdańsk (see pp232–49)and gave a speech thatarguably led to the end ofCommunism. The story ofWałęsa and the Solidaritymovement can be seen inGdańsk’s “Roads toFreedom” exhibition. On 1September 1939, the openingshots of World War II werefired on the tiny Westerplattepeninsula (see p249), whichis now a pilgrimage sitewith burned-out bunkers, amemorial and a museum.POMERANIA• Gothic Toruń• Summer fun in Sopot• Ethnic enclave in KashubiaFounded by the TeutonicKnights, Toruń (see pp270–73) features the second-largest ensemble of Gothicarchitecture in Poland. Thebirthplace of Nicolaus Coper-nicus, Toruń is also knownas the traditional home ofgingerbread. The seasidetown of Sopot (see p263)is the country’s unofficialsummer capital and a non-stop party venue for the threehottest months of the year.Kashubia (see p262), knownas the Polish Switzerland, isa gloriously peaceful area oflakes and rolling hills. TheKashubians are a distinctiveethnic group with their ownlanguage and culture.WARMIS, MAZURIA ANDTHE BIAŁYSTOK REGION• Fun on the Mazurian Lakes• Copernicus’s Frombork• The bison of BiałowieżaSail or canoe on LakeŚniardwy (see pp284–5) andexplore the beautiful sceneryof eastern Poland, full ofpeaceful harbours and tinyvillages. On the Baltic coastis sleepy Frombork (seep278), where the astronomerNicolaus Copernicus spentmost of his life in the town’sbeautifully preserved 14th-century Gothic cathedral.For a spectacular natureholiday, head to BiałowieżaNational Park (see p291).A landscape of rivers andcanals, where the last bisonin Europe live, it is also abird-watching paradise.The tranquil landscape of Pomerania’s Kashubia regionThe exceptionally well-preservedGothic cathedral at FromborkSILESIA• Historic Wrocław• Gold-digging in Złotoryja• Getting away from it all inthe Kłodzko ValleyAs well as a bustling OldTown, Wrocław (see pp188–97) is home to many of thecountry’s more eclecticcontemporary artists. Złotoryja(see p180) sits on the banksof the gold-rich KaczawaRiver. Try your luck, thenvisit the Gold Museum orwatch the experts at theInternational Gold PanningChampionships. The majesticKłodzko Valley (see pp200–1)is criss-crossed with hikingtrails full of ancient churchesand castles, and is famed forits mineral springs.The Kłodzko Valley, a naturalparadise for hikers
  • 9. Poland covers an area of 312,685 sq km (120,696sq miles) and is located in the centre of Europe. Itborders Lithuania, Belarus and the Ukraine to the east,Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, andGermany to the west. In the north, Poland’s coastlinestretches for 528 km (330 miles) on the Baltic Sea andborders Kaliningrad, an enclave of Russia. Poland hasa population of 38.6 million, making it the eighthmost highly populated country in Europe. Thecapital, Warsaw, has over 1.6 million inhabitants.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D1 0Putting Poland on the MapPoland in EuropePoland is traversed by road and railroutes linking Western and EasternEurope. The country’s largest inter-national airport is in Warsaw; othercities also have direct air links toEuropean cities. There are ferry linksto Gdynia, Gdańsk and Świnoujście.EUROPE
  • 10. P U T T I N G P O L A N D O N T H E M A P 1 1KEYAirportPortMotorwayMajor roadRailwayNational border0 km0 miles100100
  • 11. Although it is situated in theplains of central Europe,Poland has a varied land-scape. Alpine scenery pre-dominates in the TatraMountains along the coun-try’s southern border, whilethe north is dominated bylakelands, which contrastwith the landscape of theBaltic coast. For those who likeunspoiled natural scenery, there areareas of primeval forests in Białowieżaand extensive marshlands along thebanks of the River Biebrza which area haven for many rare bird and plantspecies. About 30 per cent of the areaof Poland is woodland, including anumber of vast forests covering morethan 1,000 sq km (390 sq miles). Mostof these consist of coniferous treesand mixed woodland, but there arealso many forests of deciduous trees,mainly oak and hornbeam, or beech.Many areas of great naturalbeauty are protected asnational parks or reserves.Mountain lovers canmake use of the well-developed infrastructure ofhostels and other shelters,such as those found in theBeskid Sądecki or the TatraMountains; the more adven-turous can explore the unfrequentedand almost inaccessible Beskid Niskior Bieszczady. All areas have clearlymarked hiking trails and well-equipped shelters (schroniska). Thecountless lakes of Warmia andMazuria, areas known as the Land ofa Thousand Lakes (Kraina TysiącaJezior) are a haven for watersportsenthusiasts, as are the waters ofPomerania and Wielkopolska. Thelakes are popular with canoeists andin summer are dotted with rowingand sailing boats.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D 1 3A rural chapel in winterA PORTRAIT OF POLANDThe Bzura, one of Poland’s many unspoiled riversGrowing numbers of tourists visit Poland every year. Even so,it is still a relatively unknown country. To travellers crossingthe lowlands from Eastern to Western Europe, there may notappear to be the diversity in landscape and buildings seen in otherEuropean countries. The pages that follow show the visitor the varietythat Poland has to offer, in terms of its culture, history and landscape.The Polish eagle
  • 12. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D1 4POPULATION AND RELIGIONPoland’s inhabitants, who numberalmost 39 million, all but constitute asingle ethnic group, with minoritiesaccounting for less than 4 per cent ofthe population. The largest minoritiesare Belarussians andUkrainians, who inhabit theeast of the country, andGermans, who are concen-trated mainly around thecity of Opole in Silesia.The vast majority of Polesare Catholic, but largeregions of the country,such as Cieszyn Silesia, havea substantial Protestant population,and followers of other denominationsare also widely dispersed.In the east of the country there aremany Orthodox Christians; here,religious denomination does notnecessarily coincide with ethnic iden-tity, although Belarussians tend tobe Orthodox while Ukrainians belongto the Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church.In the Białystok region there arevillages where Catholics,Orthodox Christians andMuslims – the descendantsof Tartar settlers – live sideby side. As in Spain andIreland, the fact that themajority of the populationis Catholic continues toexert a major influence onthe moral values of thecountry, as well as on its politicallife. An example of this is the manydebates in the Sejm (the lower houseof the Polish parliament) that havealternately limited and liberalized theright to abortion. Religion,however, is not a major fac-tor in the way that Polesvote, as election resultsshow. The political sceneis divided between thesupporters of the right andthe post-communist left.Over the last ten years thePolish electorate has shownitself to be quite unstable,with each elected govern-ment standing in oppositionto the previous one.Pump room at the spa of Polanica-ZdrójA summer’s day on a sandy Baltic beachLacemaker fromKoniakowo
  • 13. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 1 5Religious belief is outwardly expressedby a deep reverence for religious sym-bols and rituals. Wayside crosses andshrines to the saints or the Virgin Maryadd charm to the Polish countryside.The main religious festivals –Christmas, Easter, Corpus Christi andAssumption, as well as All Saints’ Day,when almost everyone in Poland,regardless of their religious denomi-nation, visits the graves of relatives –are solemnly observed. An unusualcult surrounds the Virgin. For cen-turies, believers from all over Polandand further afield have made the pil-grimage to the image of the BlackMadonna in Częstochowa (seepp156–7). Indeed, throughout Polandthere are shrines to the Virgin, towhom miraculous powers have beenascribed. Another famous pilgrimageis made by Orthodox Christians to theholy mountain of Grabarka (see p291).Poland is also visited by Jews from allover the world who come in remem-brance of the millions who died thereduring the Holocaust under Germanoccupation of the country duringWorld War II.CULTURAL VARIETY AND SHIFTINGBORDERSMagnificent buildings bearing witnessto past splendours can be seen atalmost every step. Most of thesemonuments are in Małopolska,Lubelszczyzna, Wielkopolska andLower Silesia. Not all of them, how-ever, belong to Polish culture, sincethe country’s frontiers have changedmany times over the centuries. A par-ticularly important change came at theend of World War II, when the Alliesapproved a westward shift of Poland’sborders. As a result, the inhabitants ofthe eastern areas, lost to Poland afterthe war, were resettled, and manywere sent to the western regions,inhabited by Germans – who were inturn displaced.Corpus Christi processionRestored market square of the Old Town, Wrocław
  • 14. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D1 6The legacy of more than 100 years ofpartition rule is still visible in Poland’scultural landscape today. Russian,Prussian and Austrian administrationleft their mark not only on rural andurban architecture but also onthe customs and mentality ofthe Polish people.DEMOCRATIC CHANGEAND ECONOMICDEVELOPMENTThe fall of communism inPoland came about largelythanks to the efforts of thetrade union Solidarity (Solidarność),which was founded in 1980 but forcedto go underground after the imposi-tion of martial law. When the democraticopposition won the elections to theSejm and the Senate in 1989, Polandagain became a country with a parlia-mentary democracy anda market economy. Thiswas important enough initself, but it had widerimplications too: bytackling its inefficient,crisis-ridden socialisteconomy, Poland had setthe standard for eco-nomic reform in Centraland Eastern Europe asa whole. Many Polishindustries were priva-tized, and the drasticreforms that were car-ried through over anumber of years accel-erated Poland’s GDPto make it the fastest-growing in Europe. Bythe end of the 1990s,the Polish economyhad become largelyresistant to crisis.The country has asubstantial foreigntrade deficit, but this isbalanced by the surplus produced byan unofficial cross-border trade. Thereare, however, negative aspects of thereforms – among them the budgetdeficit and unemployment. The lattercontinues to be high. The problemof unemployment is somewhatmitigated by the illegalemployment of workers,although this is usuallyconfined to small firms.There is an ambitious pro-gramme of privatization, butit has not yet been fullycompleted, and someenterprises are still state-owned.Heavy industry tends to be outdated,unprofitable and economically ineffi-cient. There is an ongoing systematicprogramme of coal-mine closure,and former mineworkers have beenforced to look for work elsewhere.A poster by Maria Pałasińska dedicated to SolidarityLogo of the Polishstock exchangeSession of the Sejm, the lower house of the Polish parliament
  • 15. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 1 7Not surprisingly, this has broughtconsiderable social and economicproblems in its wake.The archaic farming system isanother candidate for restructuring.Polish farming is still based on tradi-tional family smallholdings consistingof no more than a few acres of land.It is seriously under-mechanized andrequires a disproportionate amountof manpower.A fundamental part ofthe reform process wasPoland’s drive to joinWestern military andeconomic structures. In1999, Poland became amember of NATO, andthen in 2004, it joined theEuropean Union. Thisrequired harmonizationof the Polish legal andeconomic systems withthose of the EU countries,providing a further pow-erful incentive to change.Political and economic changes havehad their impact on Poland’s townsand cities. Old buildings are beingrenovated, attention is being paid tothe environment, new shops haveappeared, and large out-of-townsupermarkets and modern petrol(gas) stations have sprung up. Newbuildings – though not always archi-tecturally distinctive – are going upeverywhere. Market squares and mainstreets in many Polish towns havebeen pedestrianized. In many of theold towns that suffered damage dur-ing World War II – including Szczecin,Kołobrzeg, Głogów and Elbląg – build-ings are now being reconstructed.Smaller towns, too – swelled bysprawling apartment housing after thewar – are now acquiring more tradi-tional buildings. Nonetheless, the vastconcrete housing developments typi-cal of the communist era still dominatemany Polish townscapes.Many new public buildings – mainlyoffice blocks – are springing up, too.Much of the new development is cen-tred on the capital, Warsaw, althoughcommercial investment is now slowlybeginning to filter through to othercities, among them Cracow, Katowice,the Baltic conurbation of Gdańsk,Sopot and Gdynia, and Wrocław,Poznań and Łódź as well.The Pazim, the tallest building in SzczecinThe privatized Zakłady Metali Lekkich Kęty SA metalworks
  • 16. The Landscape of PolandPoland’s landscape is very varied. The south ofthe country is bounded by mountainranges which, the further north youtravel, gradually turn into areaspunctuated by hills and low-lyingancient forests. Northern Poland, anarea of great natural beauty, has beenshaped by a succession of glaciers thatmoved southwards from Scandinavia.National parks and reserves have beenestablished in many areas. The central regions ofthe country, consisting of lowlands, merge intopicturesque lakelands and coastal plains.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D1 8MOUNTAINSThe most typicalPolish wildlife –including wildboar, deer andhare – is to befound in mixedand deciduousforests. Somespecies, such asbison and capercaillie, arefound almost nowhere else inEurope. In the Carpathian andSudety mountains, bears andlynxes may be seen.The crocus(Crocus satinus)blooms in early springin mountain valleysand alpine meadows,mainly in the Tatrasand Babia Góra ranges.The great sundew(Drosera anglica), aninsect-eating plant foundin peat bogs, is a pro-tected species in Poland.The silver thistle(Carlina acaulis)is a protected plant. Itsleaves form a rosettecontaining a basket-likeflower with a covering ofdry, silvery leaves.Bog arum (Calla palustra)is a poisonous perennialplant with a characteristicwhite leaf below a globularflower. It growsin peat bogs.The Tatra Mountains (seepp164–5) are the highest inCentral Europe. Though covering asmall area, they provide breathtakingalpine scenery. The High Tatras (TatryWysokie) are mainly granite, withjagged, rocky peaks. At 2,499m (8,200 ft) above sea level,Rysy is the highest peak inPoland. The Western Tatras (Tatry Zachodnie),consisting of sedimentary rock and crystallineshale, are inhabited by such rare animals asbrown bears, marmots and chamois.The lakelands that covermuch of northern Polandconsist of picturesque morainewoodland and thousands oflakes. Largest and most scenic arethe Great Mazurian Lakes, in adistrict known as the Land of aThousand Lakes (Kraina TysiącaJezior). Abounding in forests, marshesand peat bogs, they are a havenfor many bird species: the largestconcentrationof storks inEurope, swans, grebes,cranes and cormorants.NutcrackerLAKELAND SCENERYRomansnailA cabbagewhite on ameadowflowerFAUNA OF POLANDCrane
  • 17. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 1 9THE LOWLANDSWild boar,widespread inPoland, arethe ancestorsof the domestic pig.Deciduous and mixedforests are theirprincipal habitat.Toadflax(Linaria vulgaris)has narrow leavesand yellow-orangeflowers with acharacteristic spur.It grows in ditchesand on wasteland.The corn poppy(Papaver rhoeas)is becomingincreasingly rareas it is weeded outfrom cereal crops.Marram grass(Ammophila arenarea)has narrow grey-greenleaves, and flowersbetween June andAugust. Like lyme grass,it helps to bind the sanddunes where it grows.Deer, which live inherds, are a relativelycommon sight in Poland’sdeciduous and mixedforests. They are huntedas game animals.Marmots, rodents of thebeaver family, live inthe Tatra Mountains.They ‘whistle’ whendisturbed.Moose live in largeforests, marshes andpeat bogs, even nearlarge cities. Largepopulations of themcan be seen inKampinoski NationalPark and in theBiałystok region.The apparent monotony ofthe lowlands is broken byelevations, meandering rivers,marshes and peat bogs. Most ofthe land is under cultivation, butthere are also extensive forests.Białowieża Forest (see p291)shelters bison. Moose can beseen in the marshes andstorks in the lakes.The sandy beaches of Poland’s Balticcoast are among the finest inEurope. They are situated bysand dunes or cliffs, andwere it not for riverestuaries, it would bepossible to walk along themfor the entire length of thecoast. Narrow sandy spits formed by thecoastal currents and known as mierzejeare a characteristic feature of the shoreline.Lyme grass(Elymus arenarius)grows on thesand dunes.It has pointedleaves and itsroots bind thesandy subsoil.THE COASTHoopoeSeagull
  • 18. GOTHIC ARCHITECTUREGothic elements began to appear in late Romanesquearchitecture in the early 13th century; this transitional style canbe seen in the abbeys at Wąchock, Sulejów and Koprzywnica.By the end of the century, the Gothic style was prevalentthroughout Polish architecture. Many fortified castles werebuilt at this time, more than 80 being founded by Kazimierzthe Great. Notableexamples are those atBędzin, Ogrodzieniec andBobolice (see pp158–9).Gothic churches andmonasteries were also builtthroughout the country,fine examples surviving inCracow and Wrocław. Theoldest surviving woodenchurches, such as that atDębno, date from the sameperiod. In Polish provincialarchitecture, the Gothicstyle persisted until theearly 17th century.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D2 0Renaissance courtyard atWawel Royal CastleOver the centuries, and particularly duringWorld War II, Poland lost a great deal of itsarchitectural heritage. However, majorefforts on the part of both privateindividuals and the government have meantthat many important buildings have beenrestored, and in some cases completelyrebuilt. Royal and aristocratic palaces,churches, castles and entire streets of old towns can thusbe admired today. Traditional wooden buildings areanother interesting feature of Polish architecture.Early Polish ArchitectureThe doorway of the early15th-century Church of StCatherine in Cracow has anornamental stepped frame.The collegiate church at Tum nearŁęczyca, dating from the mid-12thcentury, is Poland’s largest survivingRomanesque religious building.Triforium with decorativecolumnsSemicircularpresbyteryNarrow windows that alsoserved defensive purposesROMANESQUEARCHITECTUREThe Romanesque styleof architecture seen inPolish cathedrals, palacechapels and monasteriesflourished largely as aresult of the country’sconversion to Christianityin the 10th century.Unfortunately, fewRomanesque buildingshave survived intact.Among those that haveare the collegiate churchat Tum near Łęczyca(see p229) and themonastery at Czerwińsk(see p114), both of whichare decorated with stonecarvings. The Roman-esque style reachedits apogee during the12th century.This 12th-centuryRomanesque doorway isfrom the Cathedral of StMary Magdalene (see p190).The 15th-century church atDębno (see p165) is one of theoldest surviving wooden churchesin Poland.A Romanesquecapital
  • 19. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 2 1The Florian Gate in Cracow(see p134), a surviving city watchtower withGothic fortifications, dates from the 13thto 15th centuries.Decorative ceilings such as those in the churches ofLubelszczyzna and Kalisz illustrate provincialinterpretations of Renaissance and Mannerist forms.The Zygmunt Chapel (see p143) is one ofthe finest examples of Renaissancearchitecture in Poland.Leszczyński Castle in Baranów Sandomierski(see p153) is one of the few surviving lateRenaissance buildings in Poland.THE RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISMRenaissance architecture was introduced to Polandin the early 16th century by the Italian architectBartolomeo Berrecci, who designed Wawel RoyalCastle and the Zygmunt Chapel in Cracow. Many ofthe churches in Mazovia (as at Pułtusk and Płock)were influenced by the Italian Renaissance, as werethe town halls in Poznań and Sandomierz. From themid-16th century onwards, buildings in Pomeraniawere designed in the northern Mannerist style.Upper lookoutgalleryMachicolationBas-relief depictingSt FlorianGateWoodendefencegalleriesreconstructedafter WorldWar IIThe imposing bulk of the Upper Castle, part ofthe Malbork Castle complexCentral gateways leading toa courtyard surroundedby cloistersCornerlookoutturretRichly ornamented atticconcealing sunken roofsARCHITECTURE OF THE AGE OFTHE TEUTONIC KNIGHTSThe Teutonic Knights, who ruled EasternPomerania and Prussia in the 13th and 14thcenturies, left impressive brick-built Gothicbuildings. The knights built defensive castles(such as those at Malbork, Gniew andBytów) and city walls (as at Chełmno andToruń), and founded numerous churches.
  • 20. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D2 2Baroque cartouche withthe emblem of PolandBuildings dating from the Baroque era are quite acommon sight in Polish towns and cities. Manydistinctive 19th-century residences and architecturalensembles are also noteworthy, as in Łódź;. Around1900, at a period coinciding with that of Art Nouveau,attempts to build in a Polish national style producedparticularly felicitous results. Folk architecture isanother area of great interest. The best way toexplore it is to visit the skansens (open-air museums)which exist in each region of the country.Later Polish ArchitectureThis country house in Koszuty (see p211) is atypical example of an aristocrat’s country seatin the Baroque style.Kodeń Church, with its brokenfaçade, is typical of the lateBaroque period.Edena House in Gdańskis a fine example of theMannerist style.High gable framedby volutesPediment decorated withcoat of armsBay window with adecorative gableSteep brokenroofBAROQUE ARCHITECTUREIn the first half of the 17thcentury, architects of Italiandescent started to introduce theearly Baroque style to Poland.Nobles built imposing residences,chief among them KrzyżtopórCastle in Ujazd (see pp44–5 andp152), in the Mannerist style,and the fortified early Baroquepalace in Łańcut (see pp172–3).Italian architects were alsocommissioned to design theRoyal Palace in Warsaw, thecountry’s new capital. Thedestruction wrought during thePolish-Swedish war was followedby a period of building in thelate Baroque style. In Warsaw,the renowned Dutch architectTylman van Gameren designeda large number of buildings,alongside Italian architects.During the rule of the Saxonkings in Poland, architects fromDresden designed many newbuildings in Warsaw, as wellas palaces like the one atBiałystok (see p290).CornerturretsPorch in front ofmain entrance
  • 21. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 2 3Neo-ClassicalporticoLubostroń Palace (see p221) is a fine exampleof Palladianism, a refined Neo-Classical styleimitating the work of the Italian Renaissancearchitect Andrea Palladio – in this case, hisVilla Rotonda at Vicenza.The town hall in Łowicz is an example of small-town public buildings in the Neo-Classical styleof the early 19th century.The wooden chapel atJaszczurówka is an exampleof a building in the Polishnational style.The Warsaw School ofEconomics combinesmodern features andtraditional elements.NEO-CLASSICISMNeo-Classicism appeared in Poland after therule of Stanisław August Poniatowski, thecountry’s last king. The Royal Palace andŁazienki Palace in Warsaw were built in theNeo-Classical style, as were many othersincluding those at Lubostroń and Śmiełów.Features included landscaped gardens inthe English manner.Dome seton a tambourin the exactcentre ofthe buildingPainted interior of a peasant dwellingin ZalipieWindmill at the skansen (open-airmuseum) in Wdzydze KiszewskieHISTORICISM ANDMODERNISMThe second half of the 19thcentury saw a proliferation ofNeo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissanceand Neo-Baroque buildings.In the 1880s there was amovement towards creatingan architecture in the Polishnational style, which gaverise to some very picturesquestructures. Art Nouveau wasshort-lived in Poland,although it did leave anumber of attractivebuildings, primarily in Łódź.Beehive inhuman formTRADITIONAL ARCHITECTUREFine examples of wooden architecture canbe found today at most skansens. Log cabins,often with thatched roofs, can still be seenin many villages in Poland.
  • 22. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D2 4POLISH CINEMAThe first Polish feature film was made as early as 1902, butit was not until after World War II that Polish film-makersachieved international renown. The best-known Polish filmdirectors include Andrzej Wajda, whose Man of Iron wonthe Palme d’Or at the 1981 Cannes Film Festival, KrzysztofZanussi, Krzysztof Kieślowski (Decalogue, Three Colours– Blue/White/Red)and Roman Polański(Chinatown), whohas spent many yearsmaking films in theUSA and France.THE MIDDLE AGESPolish writing originates inthe 11th century. The earliestworks were in Latin, oftenwritten by people fromother regions who copiedhagiographies and holychronicles. The oldest Polishchronicle, by the Benedictinemonk Gall Anonim, datesfrom the beginning of the12th century. Native Polishwriters soon appeared, andPolish literature expanded intoall the literary forms known inEurope at the time. The firstwork in the Polish languagewas written in the secondhalf of the 13th century.The earliest religious songin Polish, The Mother of God(Bogurodzica), was probablywritten at the end of the13th century, although it isnot found in manuscriptuntil the 15th century. ThePolish Holy Cross Sermons(Kazania świętokrzyskie)date from around 1450.RENAISSANCE ANDBAROQUEThe Renaissance is regardedas the Golden Age of Polishliterature, when both proseand poetry flourished.Mikołaj Rej (1505–69), thefirst significant writer in thePolish language, is generallyregarded as the father ofPolish literature. The mostprominent poet of the timewas Jan Kochanowski(1530–84), who wrote thefirst Polish tragedy, entitledThe Dismissal of the GreekEnvoys (Odprawa posłówgreckich). He was also theauthor of the humorousTrifles (Fraszki) and thesorrowful Laments (Treny),a lament in the form of acycle of 19 poems. Othernotable figures amongPoland’s early poets areMikołaj Sęp Szarzyński(1550–81) and SzymonSzymonowic (1558–1629).The ancient Sarmatianculture had a great influenceon Polish Baroque literature.The greatest works of theperiod are by JanChryzostom Pasek(1636–1701), who wrotehighly colourful accountsboth of great historicalevents and of the everydaylife of the Polish nobility inthe reign of Jan III Sobieski.THE ENLIGHTENMENTAND THE 19TH CENTURYThe Enlightenment, andparticularly the reignof the last king of Poland,Stanisław August Poniatowski,was an important period inthe development of Polishliterature. The first Polishnovel, The Adventures ofMikołaj Doświadczyński(Mikołaja Doświadczyńskiegoprzypadki), was written byBishop Ignacy Krasicki(1735–1801), a moralistand satirical poet.Polish literature has always been inextricablylinked to the historical development ofthe country, as the political situation,particularly over the last two centuries, hasnot always favoured freedom of speech.Many writers were forced to emigrate,while those who remained were oftenobliged to publish their works in othercountries. Poland boasts four winners of the NobelPrize for Literature: Henryk Sienkiewicz, WładysławS. Reymont, Czesław Miłosz and Wisława Szymborska.The Literature of PolandStanisławWyspiańskiRomantic poet Adam Mickiewiczby Walenty WańkowiczJan Kochanowski writing Treny, alament for his daughter’s deathScene from J. Hoffman’sfilm Colonel Michael
  • 23. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 2 520TH-CENTURYLITERATUREFrom 1900 onwards YoungPoland (Młoda Polska), amodern trend in Polishliterature particularlyPolish Romantic poetryplayed an important role inkeeping nationalist sentimentalive. The outstanding writersof that time, AdamMickiewicz, Juliusz Słowackiand Zygmunt Krasiński,wrote outside Poland. To thisday, their work forms thecanon of patriotic literature,whose jewel in the crown isMickiewicz’s Pan Tadeusz,which is both a nostalgicevocation of the vanishingtraditions of the nobility anda vision of the emergence ofmore modern social attitudes.Also notable at this time wasthe comedy writerAleksander Fredro, whoseworks include Revenge(Zemsta) and Husbandand Wife (Mąż i Żona).Another writer who holdsa prominent place inthe history of PolishRomantic literatureis Cyprian KamilNorwid, regardedas the precursor ofmodernism. ElizaOrzeszkowa(1840–1910) andBolesław Prus(1847–1912) arethe principalfigures in thenext phase of thedevelopment ofthe Polish novel.Another majorwriter of this time wasHenryk Sienkiewicz(1846–1916), best knownin Poland for his trilogy ofhistorical novels describingevents in 17th-century Polandand The Teutonic Knights(Krzyżacy), which is devotedto the late 14th and early 15thcenturies. Outside Poland,Sienkiewicz is better knownfor Quo Vadis?, which dealswith the beginnings ofChristianity and for whichhe was awarded the NobelPrize for Literature in 1905.associated with theartistic communityof Cracow, beganto emerge. A keyrole in this wasplayed by StanisławWyspiański(1869–1907), authorof the Symbolistplay The Wedding(Wesele), which wasmade into a filmby Andrzej Wajda70 years later.Also influentialin Young Polandwas a Bohemiangroup surroundingStanisławPrzybyszewski, afriend of HenrikIbsen and EdvardMunch.Another Nobel laureatewas Władysław Reymont(1865–1925), who wrotesociety novels. Hewas awarded theNobel Prize in 1924for The Peasants(Chłopi), whichdescribes the livesof the inhabitantsof a village nearŁowicz. Betweenthe wars, avant-garde writerssuch asStanisław IgnacyWitkiewicz(called Witkacy,1885–1939), Bruno Schulz(1893–1942) and WitoldGombrowicz (1904–69)came to prominence.Polish literature after WorldWar II spawned many famouswriters, several of whomwrote from abroad for politi-cal reasons. Stanisław Lem(1921–2006) wrote philoso-phical science fiction, whichhas been translated into manylanguages. His Solaris wasmade into a film twice – in1972 by Andrei Tarkovskyand in 2002 by Steven Soder-bergh. Tadeusz Różewicz, alsowell known as a poet, andSławomir Mrożek are promi-nent playwrights. HannaKrall and Ryszard Kapuściński(1932–2007) are known fortheir documentary-writing.Andrzej Szczypiorski, whowrote A Mass for Arras (Mszaza miasto Arras) and TheBeginning (Początek),has also achieved inter-national recognition.Contemporary poetryhas a special placein Polish literature.Apart from TadeuszRóżewicz, its mainexponents are Zbig-niew Herbert, RyszardKrynicki and StanisławBarańczak. The bestillustration of theachievements of con-temporary Polish writ-ers is the award oftwo Nobel Prizes: in1980 to CzesławMiłosz and in 1996 tothe Cracow poetessWisława Szymborska.Wisława Szymborska receiving the NobelPrize for LiteratureNobel Prize winner Czesław MiłoszMonument to AleksanderFredro in Wrocław
  • 24. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D2 6Poland has made a major contribution to theinternational music scene, as much through the worksof great composers as through its renowned jazzmusicians and colourful folk music. Polish classicalcomposers such as Fryderyk Chopin (1810–49),Stanisław Moniuszko (1819–72), Karol Szymanowski(1882–1937) and Wojciech Kilar (born 1932) haveoften been inspired by folk music, as have modernjazz and rock musicians. Poland has also given theworld such outstanding musical performers as thetenor Jan Kiepura and the pianists Artur Rubinsteinand Witold Małcużyński.regarded as the father of thePolish national opera. Hismost famous operas areHalka, inspired by highlandfolklore, and The HauntedHouse (Straszny dwór),which evokes the traditionsof the Polish nobility.In the second half of the19th century, the violinistHenryk Wieniawski and thepianist Ignacy Paderewskiachieved world renown. Thelatter was also prominent inpolitics, serving for a time asPrime Minister of Poland.Before World War I, thetown of Zakopane was amajor centre of Polishculture. It drew not onlyartists but also composerswho sought inspiration fromthe landscape of the TatraMountains and the colourfulfolklore of the highlanddwellers. Amongcomposers associatedwith Zakopane isMieczysławKarłowicz(1876–1909), notedespecially for hissymphonies.Karłowicz perishedtragically in anavalanche in theTatras at theyoung age of33. Anotherfrequent visitorto Zakopanewas KarolSzymanowski,whose fascinationwith the folk musicof the regioninspired him toThe Music of PolandJAN KIEPURA(1902–1966)Jan Kiepura achievedinternational renownas an opera singer.He performed on theworld’s greatest stages,and from 1938 waswith the MetropolitanOpera of New York.He gained popularitythrough his appearancesin operettas andmusicals, where heperformed together withhis wife, Marta Eggerth.THE 19TH AND 20THCENTURIESThe most prominent Polishcomposer of the Romantic erawas undoubtedly FryderykChopin (1810–49), whocomposed almost exclusivelyfor the piano. Chopincontributed to theestablishment of a Polishnational style in music, andexerted a great influenceon the development ofEuropean piano music.During his short lifehe composed a largenumber of preludes,mazurkas,polonaises, waltzes,études and otherpieces. Many ofChopin’s workscontain elementsof folk music. TheChopin PianoCompetition, held inWarsaw, has been aregular event since1927, and award-winners have goneon to become world-famous pianists.StanisławMoniuszko isFryderyk Chopin in a portrait byEugène DelacroixEARLY MUSICAlthough they are notwidely known, there ismuch of interest in the worksof early Polish composers.Mikołaj z Radomia, a com-poser of the first half of the15th century, produced bothreligious and secular works.In the Renaissance,composers such as Wacławof Szamotuły and MikołajGomółka brought Polishmusic into the Europeanmainstream. The first Polishopera stage was set up in the17th century at the court ofWładysław IV. Court andreligious music flourished atthat time, and the works ofsuch composers as AdamJarzębski, Stanisław S.Szarzyński and MarcinMielczewski are still widelyperformed by Polishmusicians today.Stanisław Moniuszko
  • 25. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 2 7compose a number of works,including the ballet Harnasie.One of the best-knownmodern composers isKrzysztof Penderecki(b. 1933), whose oeuvreincludes epic symphonies,oratorios and operas. Hisopera The Devils of Loudun(Diabły z Loudun) has beenperformed all over the world.Other prominent composersof international standing areAndrzej Panufnik (1914–91),Witold Lutosławski (1913–94)and Henryk Górecki(b. 1933), whose worksinclude the outstandingSymphony No. 3, which hastopped the classical musiccharts for years. Other majorcomposers of symphonicmusic are Wojciech Kilar (b.1932) and Zbigniew Preisner(b. 1955), most widelyknown for their film music.prominence, including AdamMakowicz, Tomasz Stańkoand Michał Urbaniak. Jazzclubs opened throughout thecountry, and the WarsawJazz Jamboree, first held in1958, became the world’sbiggest jazz festival. Anotherrenowned festival is Jazz onthe Oder, held in Wrocław.Many jazz musicians cameto public recognition in the1970s and 1980s, amongthem the pianist andsaxophonist WłodzimierzNahorny, the saxophonistsZbigniew Namysłowski andJanusz Muniak, and thepianist Sławomir Kulpowicz.instruments, the mainone being the fiddle,and sometimes bagpipesor drums and basses.Depending on the regionthese instruments aresupplemented by clarinets,horns, accordions andoccasionally dulcimers.The best way of getting toknow and enjoy Polish folkmusic is to attend some ofthe concerts traditionally heldduring the summer months,such as the Kazimierz orZakopane festivals. Herethere is a chance to listen tolive music being played andto watch the dance groupsthat perform in colourfulfolk costumes.Polish vocal and dancegroups have broughtworldwide popularity toPolish folk music. TheMazowsze group, forexample, gives stageperformances that areinspired by the folktraditions of various regions.The Warsaw Jazz JamboreeThe composer and conductorKrzysztof PendereckiFolk band outside the Cloth Hall (Sukiennica) in CracowJAZZJazz traditions in Poland goback to the time of theSecond Republic. After WorldWar II, jazz was deemed bythe authorities to be “alien tothe working class”, and itwas not until 1956 that jazzcould be performed inpublic. An important jazzmusician of that time was thepianist and composerKrzysztof Komeda (1931–69),who wrote the popularlullaby for Roman Polański’sfilm, Rosemary’s Baby.During the 1960s, otherjazz musicians came toFOLK MUSICPolish folk music isunusually colourful. Everyregion has its own specifictradition, and the music ofthe Tatra Mountains isunique. Folk bands playquite a basic range of
  • 26. The Traditional NobilityThe tradition of the Polish nobility was dominatedby the idea of Sarmatism, which was based on themyth that the Polish aristocracy were descendedfrom a warrior people called the Sarmatians.Sarmatism was influential in shaping the ideologyof the ruling class, as well as its customs andlifestyle. A Sarmatian embraced the old order,was patriotic and Catholic, and at the sametime valued freedom and privilege, lived lifeas a landowner and upheld family traditions.Sarmatism played an important part in artand literature, particularly memoirs.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D2 8A TRADITIONAL BEVERAGEMead was a favourite drink of thePolish aristocracy. It ismade by fermentingwort, a solution ofhoney and water thathas been flavouredwith herbs. The mostpopular type of meadis trójniak, in whichhoney makes upone-third of thetotal wort. Therarest is póltorak,with two partshoney and one partwater. Althoughmead is no longerwidely drunk, it isstill produced today.Headpiecewith heronfeathersKontuszin the stylewornby ladiesWyloty – slitsleeves rolledback and overthe shoulderTurbanA kulawka was aspecial toasting gobletfor drinking “bottomsup”, as it could only beset down on its rim.StolnikmeadNoblemen’s houses were typically single-storey buildings fronted byan imposing colonnade. Rooms flanked the central entrance hall.Aristocraticfigurine inporcelain
  • 27. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 2 9COATS OF ARMSThe coats of arms of aristocraticfamilies in Poland number nomore than about 200. They wereheld in common by membersof clans with different names.Aristocratic titles were not usedat the time of the Republic (withthe exception of the titles ofLithuanian princes), whilemagnate families looked toforeign rulers for titles. Polishheraldic symbols usually had theirorigins in individual symbols;they were therefore relativelysimple and differed from thoseof Western Europe.POLISHNATIONAL DRESSRequired attire of thenobility in the Baroque era,its main elements were theżupan (a kind of shirt) andthe kontusz (an outergarment tied with a waist-band). Headgear took theform of either a kołpak(fur hat) or a square-bottomed rogatywka.Men wore their hairshort and sported amoustache, andsometimes a beard.Silk sashes known as kontusze werean indispensable part of a nobleman’sattire. Several yards in length, they wereworn wrapped around the waist andtied in a decorative knot, allowing thetassels to hang downwards.The kontusz wasan outer garmentwith cutout sleeves,which were thrownover the shoulders.CielątkowaŁodzia SzreniawaCoffin portraits of thedeceased werepainted in oils onmetal plates cut tothe shape of thecross-section of acoffin, to which theywere attachedduring funerals.The karabela was atraditional sword thathad a single-sided bladeand a highly ornamentedhandle, often with inlaidprecious stones.KołpakŻupanWylotyKontusz sashAn election gathering, at which the nobility elected theking, is portrayed here. This was one of the greatestprivileges exercised by the gentry.
  • 28. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D3 0Although the majority of the Polishpopulation today is Roman Catholic, in thecourse of the country’s history its inhabitantshave adhered to a variety of faiths. BesidesRoman Catholics, there have been OrthodoxChristians, Uniates and Jews (most of whomlost their lives in World War II), and, sincethe 16th century, Lutheran and CalvinistProtestants. When the Polish borders wereredrawn after World War II, a large sectionof the Eastern Orthodox population founditself in Belarus or the Ukraine. At the sametime, the western border moved further westwards,incorporating many German Protestant churches. Thewide variety of Poland’s ecclesiastical architecturebears witness to the many cultures and religionsthat have existed there.The Convent of the OldBelievers at Wojnowo is oneof the few places where this reli-gious group can still be found.The Different Religionsof PolandThe Evangelical ReformChurch in Warsaw wasbuilt after the Reformationand used by the smallgroup of Calvinistbelievers in Poland.Orthodox Christians today are found mainly in theeastern parts of the country, where many of their historicchurches still stand.The Basilica of the HolyCross and the Birth ofthe Holy Mother(Bazylika Krzyża Świętegoi Narodzenia Matki Boskiej)has the tallest churchtower in Poland.The cemetery atKruszyniany, one of thefew Muslim burial groundsin Poland, is used bypeople of Tartar descent.Roadsideshrine
  • 29. A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 3 1The picturesque wooden churches of theUkrainian Uniates, or Greek Catholics, builtfor the Lemk and the Boyk minorities,survive in the Carpathian Mountains. Theircongregations were resettled in other areasduring Operation Vistula after World War II.CZĘSTOCHOWA PILGRIMAGEThe Monastery of Jasna Góra in Częstochowa isthe most important Catholic shrine in Poland –and one of the greatest in the Christian world.The image of Our Lady of Częstochowa, alsoknown as the Black Madonna, draws pilgrims allyear round. The main pilgrimage, which attractshundreds of thousands of believers from Polandand beyond, is held in the meadows at the footof the monastery on 15 August each year.The ‘Church ofPeace’ (KościółPokoju) atŚwidnica wasone of threechurches to bebuilt specificallyfor SilesianProtestants afterthe Thirty Years’War, whichended in 1648.Judaicartifacts inmuseumsare poignant vestigesof the synagogues thatwere once sonumerous in Poland.As a result of theHolocaust and theensuing communistera, there are fewJews in Poland today.PaulinemonasteryOpen-airaltarOTHERDENOMINATIONSSome of Poland’s historic churcheshave changed denomination overthe years – for instance, whenPolish Catholics took over disusedProtestant churches. Although theoriginal interiors have generallynot survived, the exteriors haveoften been carefully conserved.Some religious denominationsno longer have followers inPoland, although their places ofworship remain. An example isthe Mennonite chapel in Gdańsk.Old Mennonite chapel in Gdańsk
  • 30. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D3 2Tourists tend to visitPoland in the summer,between June and Sep-tember. During that period, themost popular tourist spots arecrowded, and a variety of open-airevents, from street theatre festi-vals to re-enactments of medievaltournaments, take place through-out the country. The main music anddrama festivals are held in spring andautumn. The best way ofspending winter in Poland isskiing in the mountains. Asthe majority of Poles areCatholics, traditional Catholicfeast days are the most importantholidays. The celebrations thattake place at Christmas, Easter,and Corpus Christi as well asother local church festivals areinteresting spectacles for tourists.POLAND THROUGH THE YEARSPRINGThe official beginning ofspring, 21 March, is anunofficial day of truancyamong young people inPoland. The tourist seasonbegins with the first warmdays of spring.MARCHTopienie Marzanny(23 Mar) is the day when, inmany areas, children throwsmall dolls – symbolizingwinter – into rivers.The International PosterBiennial (even-numberedyears), Warsaw.Festival of Stage Songs,Wrocław. Polish and inter-national performers take part.International Dance GroupPresentation, Kalisz.International Festivalof Alternative Theatre,Cracow.APRILPalm Sunday (the Sundaybefore Easter) is the day when“palms” are blessed in thechurches. The most colourfulcelebrations take place invillages in Kurpie andMałopolska – in particularRabka, Lipnica Murowana andTokarnia. During Holy Week(the week leading up toEaster), mystery plays areperformed in churches aroundthe country. The oldest andbest-known spectacle isChwalebne Misterium Pańskie,a passion play which hasbeen performed in KalwariaZebrzydowska (see p161)since the 17th century. OnHoly Saturday, Easter food istaken to church in basketsand blessed. Visits are alsomade to symbolic sepulchresin churches.Easter Sunday is themost important Catholicholiday, when the grandestmass is held tomark theResurrection.Easter Monday(Śmigus-dyngus) ismarked by thecustom of peoplethrowing water overone another.GdańskInternationalGuitar Festival(every other year),Gdańsk.InternationalFestival of Filmsfor Childrenand Youth,Poznań.Paka CabaretReview, Cracow.Festival ofTheatre Schools, ŁódźMAYInternational Labour Day(1 May).3 May The most importantpublic holiday, marking theadoption of the first Polishconstitution of 1791.Festival of Student Song,Cracow. Performances by thebest student vocalists andaccompanists.Chamber Music Days(first 2 weeks in May),Łańcut. This is aninternational event.International Book Fair(last 2 weeks in May),Warsaw. One of the largestevents of its kind in Europe.Kontakt Theatre Festival(last 2 weeks in May),Toruń.Jazz on the Oder, Wrocław.Renowned jazz festival.Poznań Jazz Fair, Poznań.Short Film Festival,Cracow. The oldest filmfestival in the country.Ginger-bread heartPassion play in Kalwaria ZebrzydowskaPerformance at the CracowFestival of Student Song
  • 31. 129630P O L A N D T H R O U G H T H E Y E A R 3 3SUMMERFrom the end of June to thebeginning of September,open-air events are held allover the country. Theatricallife in the towns and cities,by contrast, tends to slowdown. Most open-air eventsare held in tourist areas.Summer Film Festival(late Jun), Łagów.Festival of Folk Bands andSingers (late Jun),Kazimierz Dolny.Jewish Culture Festival(Jun/Jul), Cracow.JULYFestival of Film Stars,Międzyzdroje.Viking Festival, Wolin.Viking battles. Most of theboats arrive from Scandinavia.International StreetTheatre Festival (mid-Jul),Jelenia Góra. There is alsostreet theatre in JedlniaZdrój, Szczawno Zdrój andWałbrzych in Lower Silesia,and in the cities of Gdańsk,Toruń, Cracow and Warsaw.International OrganFestival (mid-Jul), KamieńPomorski.Singing Poetry Festival(mid-Jul), Olsztyn Castle.Summer Jazz Days, Gdynia.FAMA (mid-Jul), Świnoujście.Student arts festival.Piknik Country (end of Jul),Mrągowo. Internationalcountry music festival.AUGUSTBeskid Culture Week(early Aug), Beskid region.Dominican Fair (first2 weeks in Aug), Gdańsk.Chopin Festival(second week in Aug),Duszniki Zdrój.Złota Tarka TraditionalJazz Festival (mid-Aug),Iława.Feast of the Assumption(15 Aug). This is a religiousholiday, but it is also the dayon which Poles com-memorate their victory overthe Bolsheviks in 1920.International SongFestival (late Aug), Sopot.Sunny daysThe period from Mayto September has thegreatest number ofdays of sunshine.April and Septemberare often also sunny,while December hasthe least sunshine.AVERAGE HOURS OF SUNSHINE PER DAYStreet performers at theDominican Fair in GdańskHoursFebJan Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecJUNECorpus Christi (variable).Solemn processions are heldthroughout the country.Midsummer’s Night(23 Jun).Fishermen’s Sea Pilgrim-age (29 Jun). Decoratedfishing boats sail into theport of Puck across the bay.Festival of Polish Song(late Jun), Opole.Mozart Festival (lateJun–early Jul), Warsaw.Malta – InternationalTheatre Festival(late Jun), Poznań.Corpus Christi processionin SpicimierzFishermen’s sea pilgrimage in the bay of Puck
  • 32. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D3 4AUTUMNFine weather continues inPoland to the end ofOctober. Autumn comessoonest in Pomerania,Warmia and Mazuria, as wellas Suwalszczyna. Thetransition from September toOctober – when fallen leavescreate a riot of colour – isknown as the “golden Polishautumn”. It is also a timewhen major cultural eventstake place, as well as thebeginning of the newacademic year.SEPTEMBERFestival of Polish PianoMusic (early Sep), Słupsk.Warsaw Autumn (mid-Sep),Warsaw. Contemporary music.Wratislavia Cantans(early Sep), Wrocław.Oratorio and cantata festival.Laser and fireworkdisplays(around 10 Sep), Olsztynnear Częstochowa.Festival of Science(last 2 weeks in Sep),Warsaw.Days of Julian Tuwim,Łódź. Various events,including poetry readings.Archaeology gala,Biskupin.OCTOBERBorderlands TheatreFestival (first weekin Oct), Cieszyn.Konfrontacje TheatreFestival, Lublin.Lemk CulturalFestival, GorzówWielkopolski.Warsaw FilmFestival, Warsaw.Jazz Jamboree (thirdweek in Oct), Warsaw.The Jazz Jamboree isone of Europe’s majorjazz festivals.Festival of EarlyMusic (late Oct). Aninternational festivalwith venues inWarsaw, Cracow and othercities.Polish Feature FilmFestival (end Oct). Gdynia.Lithuanian All Saints’ Day,Puńsk. Poetry and music inmemory of the dead.NOVEMBERAll Saints’ Day (1 Nov).People visit the gravesof their relatives andlight candles there.All Saints’ Day JazzFestival, Cracow. Thefirst jazz festival in post-communist Europe.“Etiuda” InternationalFilm Festival (early Nov),Cracow.Independence Day(11 Nov). The biggestceremonies in honour ofPolish independence in1918 take place in Warsaw.St Martin’s Day(11 Nov). In Wielkopolskaand Eastern Pomeraniapeople traditionally cooka goose and bake pretzelsand croissants on St Martin’sDay. The holiday is markedby major ceremonies inPoznań, where St Martinis the patron saint.Głogów Jazz Meeting,Głogów.Rainfall and snowAlthough autumnshowers are the mostunpleasant, theheaviest rainfalloccurs in summer.Heavy snow is usualin winter.Candles lit at a cemetery onAll Saints’ DayAVERAGE PRECIPITATIONMM806040200FebJan Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec32½1½¾0InchesProgramme for the PolishFeature Film FestivalInauguration of the academic year
  • 33. P O L A N D T H R O U G H T H E Y E A R 3 5WINTERThe first snow can fall inNovember, althoughsnowless winters are becom-ing increasingly common.Subzero temperatures andhard frosts are not unusual.The coldest part of thecountry is Suwalszczyna, inthe northeast corner.DECEMBERChristmas CribCompetitions (first weekin Dec), held in Cracowmarket square.Christmas Eve (24 Dec).The beginning of Christmasis marked with a celebratorymeat-free dinner andmidnight mass.Christmas (25 and 26 Dec).Public holidays, with massesheld in all churches.New Year’s Eve (31 Dec).Throughout Poland, peoplesee in the New Year at ballsand parties, and atcelebrations in the mainsquares of most towns.JANUARYNew Year (1 Jan). Publicholiday. A carnival beginsand the season of ballsopens.Orthodox Church MusicFestival (mid-Jan), Cracow.FEBRUARYFeast of St MaryGromniczna (2 Feb). Waxcandles known as gromniceare lit in churches.End of Carnival The lastThursday before Lent ismarked by eating doughnutsor other fried delicaciesknown as faworki. Splendidballs, concerts and shows areput on throughout thecountry to mark the lastSaturday of the carnival.International Festival ofSea Shanties, Cracow.TemperaturesTemperatures arehighest in thesummer, when theycan exceed 30° C(86° F). In winter,temperatures can fallbelow zero (32° F),although this isusually short-lived.Cribs being brought to Cracow’s Christmas Crib Competitions866850322414AVERAGE TEMPERATURESFebJan Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec°C3020100-10-20°FPUBLIC HOLIDAYSNew Year’s Day(1 January)Easter Monday(variable)May Day(1 May)Constitution Day(3 May)Corpus Christi(variable)Feast of theAssumption (15 August)All Saints’ Day(1 November)Independence Day(11 November)Christmas (25 and26 December)Winter cityscape, Gdańsk
  • 34. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D 3 7Mieszko I, the first historicprince of this line, convertedto Christianity in 966, bringinghis kingdom into ChristianEurope. The Piast dynasty ruledPoland with variable fortune andembroiled the nation in domes-tic quarrels for 150 years. Afterthis dynasty died out, the greatLithuanian prince Jagiełło tookthe Polish throne and founded a newdynasty. The treaty with Lithuaniasigned at Krewo in 1385 initiatedthe long process of consolidationbetween these nations, culminatingin 1569 with the signing of the Unionof Lublin. In the 15th century theJagiellonians achieved many militarysuccesses, forming the powerfulRepublic of Two Nations (Rzeczpos-polita Obojga Narodów). After theJagiellonian dynasty died out in 1572,the authorities introduced electivekings, with the nobility having theright to vote. Poland’s political andmilitary weakness led to itspartitioning by Russia, Prussiaand Austria. In 1795 Polandwas wiped off the map ofEurope for more than 100years. Attempts to wrest inde-pendence by insurrection wereunsuccessful, and Poland didnot regain its sovereignty until1918. The arduous process ofrebuilding and uniting the nation wasstill incomplete when, at the outbreakof World War II, a six-year period ofGerman and Soviet occupation began.The price that Poland paid was veryhigh: millions were murdered, includ-ing virtually its entire Jewish popula-tion. The country suffered devastationand there were huge territorial losses,which were only partly compensatedby the Allies’ decision to move theborder westwards. After the war,Poland was subjugated by the SovietUnion and did not become a fullydemocratic nation until 1989.THE HISTORY OF POLANDMap of the Republic of Two Nations (Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów) in the 17th centuryPoland’s borders have changed almost continuously with thecourse of history. The origins of the Polish nation go back tothe 10th century, when Slav tribes living in the area ofGniezno united together under the Piast dynasty, which then ruledPoland until 1370.The PolisheagleStanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland
  • 35. During the 6th century AD, Slavtribes began migrating from the eastto what is today Polish territory. TheVistulanians (Wiślanie) settled aroundCracow, and the Poles (Polanie) aroundGniezno. The Polanie united under therule of the Piast dynasty in the 10thcentury, and the conversion of Mieszko I(c. 960–92) to Christianity in 966 led tothe formation of the Polish state. AfterMieszko, Bolesław the Brave (992–1025) acquiredsignificant new territories. Later Piast rulers reignedwith variable fortune. On the death of Bolesław theWry-Mouthed (1107–38), the nation was divided into dis-tricts, not to be reunified until the reign of Władysławthe Elbow-High (1306–33). The country flourished underthe rule of his son, Kazimierz the Great (1333–70).I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D3 8TIMELINE997 Martyrdom ofBishop Wojciechwhile on amission to Prussia966 Adoptionof ChristianityCoin minted in the reignof Bolesław the Brave1079 Martyrdomof BishopStanisław ofSzczepanów1124–1128 Bolesław theWry-Mouthed initiates theconversion of WesternPomerania to Christianity1025 Coronation ofBolesław the Brave,first king of Poland1000 Congress at Gniezno; convocationof the Polish church metropolisCrown ofKazimierzthe GreatPrayer at the graveof St WojciechThe Czech bishopWojciech, whowas martyredwhile on a missionto Prussia in997, was the firstPolish saint.Tomb of Henry IVThe Silesian princeHenry IV, the Good(Henryk IV Probus,1288–90) tried tounite Poland butdied, probably bypoisoning. Histomb is a fineexample of early14th-centuryGothic sculpture.MARTYRDOM OFST STANISŁAWAn embroidery of 1504 fromthe chasuble in Kmita depictsthe murder of Bishop Stani-sław of Szczepanów in 1079.Bishop Stanisław ofSzczepanów1138 Beginningof the divisionof PolandPOLAND IN THE YEARS1090–1127Polish territory1150110010501000950Poland under the Piast Dynasty
  • 36. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 3 91226 KonradMazowieckiinvites the TeutonicOrder to Masovia1350The initials of Kazimierzthe Great on the door ofWawel Cathedral1241 Defeat atthe Battle ofLegnica againstthe Mongols1320 Coronationof Władisławthe Elbow-Highand the unificationof the Polish state1340–1366Kazimierz theGreat conquerswestern Ruthenia(Ruś Halicko-Wołyńska)1370 Louis ofHungary (LudwikWęgierski)seizes the PolishcrownCoronation sword ofBolesław the BraveVESTIGES OF THEPIAST DYNASTYThe Piast dynasty witnessedthe development of Roman-esque and early Gothicarchitecture. Romanesquechurches have survived inTum (see p229), Czerwińsk(see p114) and Tyniec (seep145). The abbeys inSulejów, Wąchock (see p152)and Koprzywnica date fromthe 13th century. Some ofthe Gothic castles ofKazimierz the Great can beseen in the Jura region – forexample at Będzin, Olsztynand Bobolice (see pp158–9).The Crypt of St Leonard isa vestige of the Romanesquecathedral at Wawel RoyalCastle in Cracow (see pp138–9).Founding Documentof the Cracovian AcademyFounded in 1364, the CracovianAcademy was the seconduniversity (after Prague) to beestablished in Central Europe.Bolesławthe BoldVistulanianPlateThisRomanesquefloor laid withplaster c.1170,preserved inthe collegiatechurch inWiślica, depictsa scene ofadoration.The castle at Będzin is thebest-preserved of all the Gothiccastles built by Kazimierz theGreat (see p205).Kazimierz the GreatThis 14th-centurysculpture from thecollection in the CollegiumMaius in Cracow depictsKazimierz the Great,who “found Polandof wood, and left itin stone”.130012501200
  • 37. Poland under the JagielloniansThe treaty signed in Krewo in 1385uniting the Polish and the Lithuanian statesproved to be a decisive moment in thehistory of Central Europe. The Grand Dukeof Lithuania Władysław Jagiełło receivedthe hand of Jadwiga, the young and beau-tiful ruler of Poland, and was crownedking of Poland. Jadwiga died in 1399, butthe relationship between Poland and Lithuania establishedby the Union of Krewo was gradually strengthened.Jagiełło founded the Jagiellonian dynasty and, by thereign of Kazimierz the Jagiellonian in the mid-15thcentury, Poland and Lithuania had come to be thegreatest power in central Europe. The Jagielloniankings also ruled the Czech nations and Hungary.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D4 0QueenJadwiga’ssceptreTIMELINE1399 Death ofQueen Jadwiga1385 Union ofKrewo joins Polandand Lithuania1410 Battleof Grunwald1415 At the Council of Constanz,Paweł Włodkowic proclaims thetheory of the sovereignty of allChristian and non-Christian peoples1440 Formation of thePrussian Union, inopposition to theTeutonic Knights1413 Treaty of Horodło,strengthening the bondbetween Poland and Lithuania1385 1415 14301411 First Treatyof Toruń,establishing peacewith the TeutonicKnights1400Jagielloniancoat of armsSecond Treatyof ToruńSigned in 1466, thetreaty concluded theThirteen Years’ Warwith the TeutonicKnights, who lostnearly half theirterritory to Poland.Chapel at Lublin CastleRuthenian paintings inthe Catholic Chapel of theHoly Trinity founded byWładysław Jagiełło reflectthe multicultural nature ofthe Polish-Lithuanian state.Plate showingFilippo BuonaccorsiThis sculpture commemoratingthe Italian humanist andeducator of the young royals, whodied in 1496, is by the eminentlate Medieval sculptor Veit Stoss.Ulryk vonJungingen,Grand Master ofthe TeutonicOrderREPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONSIN THE YEARS 1386–1434Poland LithuaniaFeudal territories
  • 38. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 4 11444 Władysław of Varnadies at the Battle of Varna,fought against the Turks1445 1460 1475 14901466 SecondTreaty of Toruń1454 Act incorpor-ating Prussia into theCrown of Poland1473 Birth ofNicolausCopernicus1496 PiotrkowskiStatute restrictsthe rights ofcommoners toacquire land1492 Death of Kazimierzthe Jagiellonian. Firstgeneral Sejm (parliament)Figure of St John by Veit Stoss, from the altarin the Church of St Mary, CracowGOTHIC ARCHITECTUREMany late Gothic buildingshave survived in Poland.Among the most importantare the Collegium Maiusand the Barbican in Cracow(see p133). After theformation of Royal Prussia,many parish churcheswere built in the townslying within its territory,the largest being theChurch of St Mary inGdańsk (see pp238–9).The imposing twin-towerfaçade of the Church ofSt Mary reflects Cracow’sformer status (see p132).BATTLE OF GRUNWALDIn one of the greatest medieval battles, on15 July 1410, Poland and Lithuania, withtheir Ruthenian allies, routed the armies ofthe Teutonic Knights, who never regainedtheir former might. The scene is depictedin this painting by Jan Matejko of 1878.Witold, the GrandDuke of LithuaniaDeposition fromChomraniceThis Deposition ofChrist (c.1450) isheld to be the apogeeof Polish Gothic art.Gothic PaxThe skill of medievalgoldsmiths can beseen in this finelycrafted cross.Virgin from KrużlowaThis statue, of around1400, is a masterpiece oflate Gothic sculpture.
  • 39. Poland’s Golden AgeIn the 16th century the Republic ofTwo Nations (Rzeczpospolita) formedby Poland and Lithuania was one of thelargest European powers. In the westernterritories of the Polish Crown there waspeace, relative prosperity and – rareelsewhere – religious tolerance. Underthe Jagiellonians, and later under thefirst elective kings, art, education andthe economy flourished. In the political spherethere was a significant movement to improve theRepublic and institute reforms.The so-called real union between Poland andLithuania was concluded in Lublin in 1569. At thattime, in terms of language, nationality and religion,the Republic was the most diverse state in Europe.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D4 21518 Bona Sforzaarrives in Poland andmarries Zygmunt theOld (Zygmunt Stary)TIMELINE1500 1520 15401505 Adoptionof the constitut-ional law ofNihil Novi1520 Adoption ofthe Statute ofToruń,introducingserfdom1525 Secularization of the defeatedTeutonic Order. The elector AlbrechtHohenzollern, Duke of Prussia, makesan oath of fealty to the Polish king,Zygmunt the Old, in Cracow1543Copernicus’sfamous treatiseis published1521 The Polish army occupiesTeutonic Prussia in the final warwith the Teutonic KnightsRenaissance oven tileEmblematiccockerelREPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONS,EARLY 16TH CENTURYPoland LithuaniaFeudal territoriesNicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543)This Polish astronomer and humanist showedthat the Earth revolves around the Sun.Codex BehemThis illuminatedmanuscript of1505 byBaltazar Behem,a writer andnotary ofCracow, lists thecity’s privileges,statutes, and theguild laws.OPATÓW LAMENTThe Renaissance tomb of ChancellorKrzysztof Szydłowiecki in thecollegiate church at Opatów features abas-relief sculpture depicting themourning of the deceased, installedafter 1532 (see p152). Around thetable are friends of the Chancellor,humanists attached to the royalcourt and foreigners.Representativesof the peoples ofthe East and WestNobleman whobrought thenews ofthe Chancellor’sdeath
  • 40. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 4 31560 1580 16001557 Outbreakof the warwith Russiaover Livonia1563 Split of Polish Calvinists andisolation of the Polish Brethren, anextreme group of Reformationists1564 Jesuits arrivein Poland1587 Zygmunt IIIVasa iselected kingof Poland Grotesque maskfrom BaranówSandomierski1596 The capital ismoved from Cracowto Warsaw1579 The capture of Połockmarks the start of StefanBatory’s victory in the waragainst Russia1569 Union ofLublin1561Secularization ofthe LivonianBranch of theTeutonic Orderand incorpor-ation of LivoniaTomb ofStefan BatoryDespite his shortreign, Batory wasone of the mostillustrious of theelective monarchs.16TH-CENTURYARCHITECTUREThe first instance of theRenaissance style in Polanddates from 1502. Oftenimitated but never equalled,the most splendid earlyRenaissance building wasthe Zygmunt Chapel inWawel Cathedral (see p143),completed in 1533.This castle in Książ Wielki,built by Santi Gucci between1585 and 1589, is the mostsplendid example of ItalianMannerism in Poland.The collegiate church inPułtusk (see p113), built c.1560by the architect Gianbattista ofVenice, has barrel vaulting.Union of LublinThe federation of Poland andLithuania established underthe Union of Lublin in 1569provided for a joint Sejm(parliament), king and foreignpolicy. However, each countryhad its own government, army,treasury and judiciary.Zygmuntthe OldVice-chancellorPiotr TomickiDogs, symbolizingthe loyalty of thedead man’s friendsJan Tarnowski,the deceased’sson-in-lawTapestry with SatyrsThe collection of tapestries atWawel Royal Castle (see p140)comprises over 160 splendidpieces. They were brought tothe castle in the 16th century.
  • 41. The “Silver” 17th CenturyI N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D4 4TIMELINE1600 1620 1640REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONSIN THE YEARS 1582–1648Poland LithuaniaFeudal territoriesNobleman in a Dancewith DeathThe figure of a commonPolish yeoman intraditional dressdecorates theChapel of theOleśnicki familyin Tarłów.Siege of Jasna Góra, theLuminous MountainThe run of Swedish victoriesended in 1655 with the heroicPolish defence of the PaulineMonastery in Częstochowa.KRZYŻTOPOR CASTLEIn the first half of the 17th century,dazzling residences were built in theRepublic of Two Nations. The most splendid wasthe eccentric castle in Ujazd. Built at great expense, itstood for barely 11 years. It was demolished in 1655 bythe Swedes and remains in ruins to this day (see p152).A rebus on the main gatespells out “Krzyżtopór”with a cross (Krzyż) andan axe (Topór).The 17th century was dominated by the warsthat the Republic of Two Nations wagedagainst the Swedes, Russia and the OttomanEmpire. An uprising in the Ukraine in 1648marked the beginning of a series ofcatastrophes. In 1655 the Republic ofTwo Nations was invaded and largelyoccupied by the Swedes. Althoughit was short-lived, the Swedishoccupation – known as the Deluge(Potop) – wreaked havoc. The finaltriumph of the Republic of Two Nations was the victoryagainst the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, duringthe reign of Jan III Sobieski. The country eventuallyemerged from the warswithout major territoriallosses, but it was consider-ably weakened and itsdominance was over.Moat1601Outbreak ofNorthern Warwith Sweden1620 Battleagainst theTurks and Tatarsat Cecora1632 Death ofZygmunt IIIVasa1648 Death ofWładysław IV,start of theChmielnicki Uprisingin the Ukraine1606 ZebrzydowskiRebellion1604 FirstMoscowexpedition of thefalse Demetrius1634 WładysławIV’s victory overRussia, and peacein PolanówZygmunt III Vasa1629 Trucewith Swedenin Altmark1655Beginning ofthe SwedishDelugeStatue ofJan III Sobieski
  • 42. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 4 51660 1680 1700Baroque MonstranceThis monstrance, at PelplinCathedral in Pomerania,dates from 1646.Shrine ofSt StanisławRelics of the patronsaint of Polandare preserved ina shrine that wasinstalled inWawelCathedralbetween1626and1629.HusariaCharges by the famous Hussars,the best heavy cavalry in Europe,decided the outcome of many battles.Their greatest victory was against theTurks at the Battle of Vienna (1683).The cloister walls aroundthe courtyard are paintedwith real and legendaryancestors of theOssoliński family.The Royal Chapel (see p239) inGdańsk, commissioned by Jan IIISobieski, was built by Tylmanvan Gameren and AndreasSchlüter in the Baroque style.The Bishops’ Palace inKielce (see p150) is the best-preserved early Baroqueresidence.Bastions17TH-CENTURYARCHITECTUREMany magnificent buildingsin the late Mannerist and earlyBaroque styles were erectedin the first half of the 17thcentury, during the reign ofthe Vasa dynasty. After thedestruction wrought by theSwedish Deluge, there was nofurther artistic flowering untilthe reign of Jan III Sobieski.The early Baroque castles –for example, the Royal Palacein Warsaw (see pp64–5) – aswell as numerous churches, ofwhich the most impressive arethe Jesuit churches in Cracow,Warsaw and Poznań, are allsplendid examples of thearchitecture of this period.1658Polish Brethrenexiled fromPoland1683 Jan IIISobieski’s victoryover the Turks at theBattle of Vienna1668Abdicationof JanKazimierz1699 Peace ofKarłowicewith Turkey1686 Signing of thePerpetual Peacewith Russia1660 Peacetreaty signed inOliwa ends thePolish-SwedishWar1667 Turksinvade thesoutheasternborderlandsManneristwindow framePair ofcherubs
  • 43. Poland in the 18th CenturyIn the first half of the 18th century, Polandwas ruled by the Wettin dynasty ofSaxony. Polish interests were graduallysubordinated to those of neighbouringpowers, and the election of StanisławAugust Poniatowski as king, supported bythe Tsarina Catherine the Great, sealed thenation’s fate. Attempts to counteractRussian influence came to an end withthe First Partition of Poland in 1772. Theefforts of the patriotic faction and the achievements of theFour-Year Sejm changed little. The SecondPartition followed in 1793, and when theuprising led by Tadeusz Kościuszko –the final attempt to save the country –was quashed, Poland lost itsstatehood for over 100 years.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D4 61700 1720 17401700Outbreak ofNorthern War1709 August II,the Strongreturns to thethrone1733 StanisławLeszczyński isre-elected king1717 “Dumb Sejm”1721 End ofNorthern War1733 Electionof August III1740Opening ofCollegiumNobilium,Warsaw1697 Coronation ofAugust II, the Strong1704 Coronation of StanisławLeszczyński, supported bythe king of SwedenCasing of a grenadier’s capRococo SecretaireThis deskincorporates a clockcabinet and is decor-ated with paintedpanels depictingmythological scenes.Rococo Statuefrom LvovIn southeasternPoland, originalaltar statuesby sculptorsof the LvovSchool can stillbe admired.Portrait of Maria LeszczyńskaAfter the Polish king StanisławLeszczyński lost the throne, hisdaughter Maria settled in Nancyand married Louis XV of France.Stanisław AugustPoniatowskiTIMELINEOrder of MilitaryVirtue REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONSBEFORE THE PARTITIONSPoland Lithuania
  • 44. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 4 71760 17801791 Adoption of theConstitution of 3 May1793 SecondPartition ofPoland1772 FirstPartition ofPoland1756 Outbreak ofthe Seven-Year War1788–1792Deliberations of theFour-Year Sejm1795ThirdPartitionof Poland1773 Convocationof National Educa-tion Commission1794 Insurrectionagainst the Russians1764 Coronationof StanisławAugustPoniatowski Coat of arms ofStanisław AugustPoniatowski18TH-CENTURYARCHITECTUREDuring the 18th century –the era of the late Baroqueand Rococo – artists andarchitects from Saxonyjoined those who hadalready come to Poland fromItaly. Many palaces, includ-ing Radziwiłł, were built inWarsaw and the provinces,such as Białystok (see p290).Thanks to the patronage ofStanisław August Poniatowski,many Neo-Classical buildingswere created, among themŁazienki in Warsaw.Prince JózefPoniatowskiTadeusz KościuszkoThis man fought in theAmerican War ofIndependence and ledthe insurrection againstthe Russians in 1794.August IIIThis Saxon kingof the Wettindynasty wasan ardent loverof porcelain.His likenesswas reproducedin Meissen.Hugo KołłątajA leading intellectual ofthe Polish Enlightenment,Kołłątaj collaborated onthe Constitution of 3 May.HugoKołłątajThe Palace on the Water (seepp94–5) in Warsaw was theroyal summer residence.StanisławMałachowski,Speaker ofthe SejmCONSTITUTION OF 3 MAYThe Constitution of 3 May 1791 was a radical experimentin democracy and reform – the first such in Europe. Itwas, however, soon annulled as a result of the Federationof Targowica and the Russo-Polish war. Jan Matejko’spainting shows members of the Sejm (parliament)marching on Warsaw Cathedral to swear allegiance.1800
  • 45. Poland under the PartitionsDeprived of its independence, Polandbecame a territory for exploitation asthough it were a colony. The hopes vestedin Napoleon proved illusory. The transitoryGrand Duchy of Warsaw lasted onlyeight years. The failure of the successiveNovember and January insurrections(1830 and 1863) led to further restrictionsby the tsarist rulers: landed property wasconfiscated and cultural and educational institutionsdissolved. Many Poles tried to help the country fromabroad. The collapse of the partitioning empires in WorldWar I enabled Poland to regain its independence in 1918.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D4 8EmperorFranz Josefenjoying theloyalty of hissubjects.Beggarwaiting for almsHenryk Sienkiewicz’s House in OblęgorekThe small palace was given to the Nobel laureateHenryk Sienkiewicz in 1900 to mark theoccasion of 25 years of his work as a writer.EclecticdetailPatrol of InsurgentsThis painting by Maksymilian Gierymski of around1873 shows a scene from the January Insurrection.Several insurgents are patrolling the land.1797 Formationof the PolishLegions in Italy1815 Dissolutionof Grand Duchyof Warsaw at theCongress ofVienna1848 Uprising inWielkopolska(Greater Poland)1807 GrandDuchy of Warsawestablished1830 Outbreak ofthe NovemberInsurrection1845–1848Construction offirst Warsaw-Vienna railway line1846Peasants’uprisingTIMELINE1795 1820 1845Post-uprising mourning jewelleryREPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONSUNDER THE PARTITIONSRussian partitionPrussian partitionAustrian partition
  • 46. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 4 9THE GREATEMIGRATIONIn the 30 years followingthe November Insurrection,nearly 20,000 Poles left thecountry, the majority going toFrance. An important groupof émigrés gathered aroundPrince Adam Czartoryski inParis. Famous Poles in exileincluded the composerFryderyk Chopin and poetsAdam Mickiewicz, ZygmuntKrasiński, Juliusz Słowackiand Cyprian Kamil Norwid.EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEFENTERS CRACOWJuliusz Kossak produced a series ofpaintings to commemorate the emperor’svisit to Cracow in 1880. The city’s inhabit-ants received him with great enthusiasm.Theinhabitantsof Cracowgreet theemperorStained-glass WindowThe stained-glass windowsdesigned by StanisławWyspiański for the FranciscanChurch in Cracow are amongthe most beautiful works ofSecessionist art in Poland.Prince Adam Czartoryski, anexile in Paris, was consideredthe uncrowned king of Poland.Prince JózefPoniatowskiBertel Thorvaldsendesigned thismonumentto Prince JózefPoniatowski, whodied in 1813.Poniatowski wasconsidered a Polishnationalhero.FryderykChopinThis genius ofa composerand pianistwas born inŻelazowaWola and leftPoland for-ever in 1830.1915 Russiantroops leaveWarsaw1864 Final abolitionof serfdom1863 Start of the JanuaryInsurrection1903 Marie Curie(Maria Skłodowska-Curie) receives theNobel Prize forPhysics1905 Henryk Sienkiewiczreceives the Nobel Prizefor Literature1873 Founding ofthe Academy ofSciences in Cracow1861 Foundingof the NationalSejm in GaliciaSecessionistwallpainting1870 1895
  • 47. Poland from 1918 to 1945Poland regained its independence in1918, but for several years afterwardsbattles raged over its borders. In 1920,independence was again threatened bythe Red Army. Despite domestic conflicts,Poland made considerable economicprogress. The territories of the threeareas previously held by Russia, Austriaand Prussia were consolidated. Thecountry’s brief period of independence ended in 1939with the German and Soviet invasions. Poland wasoccupied and its population persecuted, terrorized andpartially exterminated. About 6 million Poles were killed,including 3 million Polish Jews (see p160). Anunderground state operated, with the HomeArmy answering to the government in exile.Polish soldiers fought the Germans on all fronts.I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D5 01924 Złoty intro-duced to replaceGerman Mark1922 Murder ofthe president,GabrielNarutowicz1919 Start ofthe firstSilesian uprising1929 Start ofthe GreatDepression1920 Miracle on the Vistula.Second Silesian uprising1921 Germano-Polishplebiscite in Upper Silesia.Third Silesian uprising1918 Uprising againstthe Germans inGreater Poland.Warsaw is liberatedfrom Germanoccupation1925 Start of the German-Polish trade war1926 May CoupMagazine cover featuring the NationalUniversal Exhibition in Poznań1915 1920 1925 1930MIRACLE ON THE VISTULAThis was the name given to MarshalJózef Piłsudski’s victory at the Battle ofWarsaw on 13–16 August 1920, whichhalted the Soviet march westwards andshattered the Bolshevik hope of a pro-letarian revolution throughout Europe.Volunteers fightingalongside the soldiersGdyniaAlthough Poland gained access to the sea, ithad no port. Work on the construction of anew port at Gdynia began in 1922.Interior of theSilesian SejmThe industrializedregion of Silesiahad its ownparliament inthe interwaryears, a sign ofits importance.Eagle – emblem ofthe reborn PolandTIMELINEPOLAND IN 1938Polish territory
  • 48. WARSAW UPRISINGOn 1 August 1944 theunderground Home Army(Armia Krajowa) launched anuprising in Warsaw againstthe occupying Germans. Itsaim was to liberate thecapital before the arrival ofthe Red Army. The Russianswere waiting on the left bankof the river, allowing theGermans to suppress theoutburst. The uprising lastedover two months and led tothe complete destruction ofthe city as well as the lossof tens of thousands of lives.T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 5 11939 Outbreak of World War II.German troops enter Poland,followed by Soviet forces. ThePolish army is defeated and thecountry occupied1944 Polish soldiers take themonastery at Monte Cassino, Italy.Warsaw Uprising. Formation of apro-Soviet, Communist governmentin Lublin1940 The Russiansmurder Polish officerswho were taken prisonerin Katyń1942 Home Armyformed. Anders’ armyevacuated from USSR1943 GhettoUprising,Warsaw1935 Deathof MarshalPiłsudskiOccupyingforces demo-lish the stat-ue of AdamMickiewicz1935 1940 19451936 Start ofthe constructionof the CentralIndustrialRegion1938 Poland annexes territoryto the west of the River OlzaFather Ignacy Skorupkaleads soldiersinto attackBolshevik soldiers fleethe battlefieldHanka OrdonównaShe was one of the most popularactresses between the wars.Monument to Those Fallenand Murdered in the EastThis monument honoursall the Poles who werekilled or deported after theSoviet invasion in 1939.Józef PiłsudskiJózef Piłsudski led thelegions which wereset up in the Austriansector then dispersed.In 1918 he becamethe first leader of anindependent Poland.Plaque to theVictims ofExecutionOne of manyplaques in Warsawmarking places ofexecution duringWorld War II.In his film Kanał, the directorAndrzej Wajda showed theinsurgents struggling throughsewers beneath German-occupied districts of Warsaw.
  • 49. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D5 2Modern PolandIn 1945 the allies agreed that Poland shouldbe included in the Soviet zone of influence.The Big Three (Britain, the USA and the SovietUnion) also decided to alter Poland’s borders.After rigged elections in 1947, the Communiststook complete control. Despite successes inrebuilding the country, the socialist economyproved ineffective. The formation of Solidarity(Solidarność) in 1980 accelerated the pace ofchange, which was completed when Polandregained its freedom after the 1989 elections.1970 Bloody suppression of a strikeand workers’ demonstrations on thecoast. Edward Gierek becomes FirstSecretary of the Central Committeeof the Polish United Workers’ Party1946Riggedreferendumon abolishingthe Senate,introducingagriculturalreforms,nationalizingindustry andthe westernborder1957Premiereof Kanał,directedby AndrzejWajda, oneof the firstfilms ofthe PolishSchool1958First InternationalJazz Jamboreein Warsaw1953Height of thepersecution of theCatholic Church,trial of priests ofthe metropolitancuria of Cracow;Cardinal StefanWyszyński, Primateof Poland, is arrested1968Polish forces takepart in the armedintervention inCzechoslovakia1956In June, a workers’revolt in Poznań isbloodily suppressed.In October,after moredemonstrations bystudents andworkers, Sovietintervention isthreatened.Władysław Gomułkabecomes FirstSecretary of theCentral Committeeof the Polish UnitedWorkers’ Party1968 In March,conflicts occurbetween studentsand securityforces. Theauthoritiesprovoke incidentsof an anti-Semiticand anti-intellectual nature1966Celebrationsmarking themillennium ofChristianity inPoland,organizedseparately byChurch andState1945 After the terrible devastationof the war, the country is hauledout of the ruins by the effort ofthe whole nation1947Communists falsify theresults of elections to theSejm (parliament)195530,000 delegates from114 countries take partin the World Festivalof Youth in Warsaw.This is the first timethat the Iron Curtainhas been briefly lifted1945End ofWorldWar II1976Demonstrationsagainst price rises,by workers inRadom and Ursus,are quashed. Theopposition formsthe Workers’DefenceCommittee. At the21st Olympics inMontreal, IrenaKirszenstein-Szewińska winsgold for trackand field sportsfor the third time19451945195019501955195519601960196519651970197019751975
  • 50. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 5 32000Cracow isEuropeanCity ofCulture2004Polandjoinsthe EU2005 Death ofJohn Paul II, the“Polish Pope”1979 First visit of John Paul II, the“Polish Pope”, to his homeland.Both a religious and a politicalevent, it rekindles Polish hopesof regaining freedom1981 Under the leader-ship of GeneralWojciech Jaruzelski, theCommunist authoritiesintroduce martial law.Solidarity goesunderground1980 Agreements signed inGdańsk on 31 August end thestrikes and allow the formation ofthe first Independent AutonomousTrades Unions. Lech Wałęsabecomes their leader1997 On a visit to Warsaw, US presidentBill Clinton announces that Poland is tojoin NATO1984Assassinationof Father JerzyPopiełuszko,Solidarity’spastor1990 Lech Wałęsa elected president of Poland1990Official end of thePolish People’sRepublic, adoption ofLeszek Balcerowicz’sradical market reforms2002Poland formally invitedto join EU in 20041997The worst floodin a centurydevastates largeareas ofsouthern Poland2005 LechKaczyńskielectedpresidentof Poland1989 At round-tabletalks, the oppositionnegotiates with theauthorities aboutlegalizing Solidarityand calling an election,in which the “civicsociety” then wins alandslide victory1999PolandjoinsNATO19801980201520151985198519901990199519952000200020052005201020102007 Poland joinsthe Schengen Area2012 Poland andUkraine set to hostthe UEFA FootballChampionship –Euro 2012
  • 51. I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D5 4The Rulers of PolandAt the time of its formation in 966, the Polish nation wasruled by the Piast dynasty. Bolesław the Brave, son ofMieszko I, was the first king of Poland. During the Periodof Disunity from 1138, rulers bore only the title of prince.The first prince to be crowned king of Poland wasPrzemysław II. After the death of Kazimierz the Great,the Polish crown passed to Louis of Hungary of theAngevin dynasty. The marriage of his daughter Jadwigato the Lithuanian duke Jagiełło in 1384 established theJagiellonian dynasty. From 1572 the Republic of TwoNations was ruled by elective kings with no hereditaryrights. The last king was Stanisław August Poniatowski.1386–1434Władysław IIJagiełło1243–1279Bolesław V, theBashful1034–1058Kazimierzthe Restorer1210–1211 Mieszko the Stumbler1288–1290 Henry IV,the Good1290–1291Przemysław II1291–1305Wacław II of Boh-emia (from 1300)1305–1306Wacław IIIof Bohemia1333–1370Kazimierz III,the Great1306–1333WładysławI, theElbow-High1279–1288Leszek theBlack1025–1034 Mieszko II1058–1079 Bolesław II1146–1173Bolesław IV,the Curly1079–1102 Władysław Herman1173–1177 and1194–1202Mieszko III, the Elder1177–1194 KazimierzII, the Just1194–1210and 1211–1227Leszek the White1107–1138Bolesław III1102–1107ZbigniewandBolesław III1031 DukeBezprym1138–1146Władysław II,the Exile1232–1238 Henry the Bearded1238–1241 Henry the Piousc.960–992Mieszko I992–1025Bolesławthe Brave(BolesławChrobry),crowned10251370–1382Louis of Hungary1384–1399Jadwiga1434–1444 Władysław IIIof Varna1447–1492 Kazimierz IV,the Jagiellonian1492–1501 Jan I Olbracht1202 and 1228–1229Władysław III,Spindleshanks1229–1232 and 1241–1243Konrad I Mazowiecki900PIAST DYNASTY1000100011001100PERIOD OF DISUNITY120012001300130014001400JAGIELLONIAN900
  • 52. T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 5 51648–1668Jan IIKazimierzVasa1674–1696 JanIII Sobieski1704–1709 and1733–1736 StanisławLeszczyński1922–1926StanisławWojciechowski1947–1956Bolesław Bierut1989–1990WojciechJaruzelski9–16 December 1922Gabriel Narutowicz1697–1706and 1709–1733 AugustII, the Strong1576–1586 Stefan Batory1548–1572 Zygmunt II August1501–1506 Alexander the Jagiellonian1506–1548 Zygmunt I, the Elder1573–1575 Henry de Valois1587–1632Zygmunt IIIVasa1632–1648Władysław IVVasa1669–1673MichałKorybutWiśniowiecki1990–1995 Lech Wałęsa1764–1795 StanisławAugust Poniatowski1918–1922Józef Piłsudski,head of state2005–Lech Kaczyński1995–2005AleksanderKwaśniewski1926–1939Ignacy Mościcki1733–1763August IIIDYNASTY ELECTIVE KINGS PRESIDENTS150015001600160017001700180018001900190020002000INVASIONS
  • 54. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A5 8The Old Town Square, surrounded by townhouses rebuilt after wartime destruction, is one ofthe most beautiful features of Warsaw. It teemswith tourists and local people throughout the year.A statue of the Mermaid, symbol of Warsaw, is aprominent feature in the centre of the square.The Palace of Cultureis still the tallestbuilding in Warsaw,despite the ongoingconstruction ofskyscrapers in the city.The 30th floor has aviewing terrace aswell as a multimediatourist centre.The buildings on the north side of Theatre Squarenow house banks and luxury shops, as well as thelittle church of St Albert and St Andrzej, whichcontains important works of art.0 m0 yds500500Royal Castle Square with Zygmunt’s ColumnWarsaw at a GlanceMost places of interest are located in thecentre of Warsaw. This area not only formsthe geographical heart of the city, but is alsoWarsaw’s largest municipality. It is made up ofseven smaller districts, Śródmieście being thecentral one. In the pages that follow, however,Warsaw is divided into three parts: the Oldand New Towns, the Royal Route and the CityCentre. The most interesting historical featuresof Warsaw are located along the Royal Route(Trakt Królewski), a series of roads linking theOld Town (Stare Miasto) and the Royal Castle(Zamek Królewski) with the Water Palace(Łazienki) and Wilanów, the palace of Jan IIISobieski, which stands just outside the city.
  • 55. W A R S A W A T A G L A N C E 5 9The University of Warsaw is the largestand most prestigious centre of highereducation in Poland. Its oldest buildingsare located on Krakowskie Przedmieście.The National Museum containslarge collections of Polish art. Amongits treasures is Strange Garden (DziwnyOgród) by Józef Mehoffer.LOCATOR MAPThe urn containing the heart ofFryderyk Chopin, the eminent Polishcomposer who died in France in 1849,is built into one of the Baroque pillarsof the Church of the Holy Cross.KEYPlace of interestChurchSynagogueParkingTourist informationMetroRailway stationOther buildingWARSAWSiedlceLublin
  • 56. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A 6 1The tower of the Church of St Martin overlooking the passage between Ulica Piwna and Ulica ŚwiętojańskaTHE OLD AND NEW TOWNSChurchesCathedral of St John p66 3Church of the Holy Spirit 8Church of the Visitation of theVirgin Mary tChurch of St Jacek qChurch of St Kazimierz rChurch of St Martin 5Jesuit Church 4Historic Streets and SquaresNew Town Square eOld Town Square 6Ulica Freta wHistoric Buildings andMonumentsThe Barbican and City Walls 7Monument to the 1944Warsaw Uprising 0Raczyński Palace 9Royal Castle pp64–5 2Zygmunt’s Column 1SIGHTS AT A GLANCEGETTING THEREBoth Old and New Towns arepedestrianized. The nearestbus stops to the Old Town areon Plac Zamkowy for buses100, 116, 175, 178, 180, 195,222 and 503, or at thebeginning of the W-Z Routetunnel for trams 13, 23, 26and 32 or bus 190. It is bestto walk from the Old to theNew Town. Alternatively,you can take buses 116, 175,180 and 195 and get offat Plac Krasińskiego orUlica Bonifraterska.The Old Town (Stare Miasto),partially surrounded bymedieval walls, is theoldest district in Warsaw. Itwas founded at the turn ofthe 13th and 14th centuries,growing up around the castleof the Mazovian princes. Itsmedieval urban layout sur-vives to this day. The pride ofthe Old Town is the market square withcolourful town houses. Also of majorinterest are the Cathedral of St John andthe Royal Castle, which was destroyedby German forces in 1944 and rebuiltbetween 1971 and 1984. Next to the OldTown is the more recent NewTown (Nowe Miasto), whichbecame a separate urban entityin 1408. The reconstruction ofthe Old Town and NewTown, almost completelydestroyed during the war,was an undertaking on ascale unprecedented in thewhole of Europe. Today, thesetwo districts are the most popular touristattractions in Warsaw. The Old Townpulsates with life until late evening.There are many interesting little streetsand an abundance of cafés, goodrestaurants and antique shops.0 m0 yds250250Traditionalhouse decorationKEYStreet-by-Street mappp62–3Street-by-Street mappp68–9Tourist information
  • 57. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A6 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17The Old TownThe Old Town Square (Rynek Starego Miasta) is surroundedon all sides by town houses, rebuilt after World War IIwith great devotion. Today it is one of the most attractiveplaces in Warsaw. From spring to autumn it is filled withcafé tables, and also becomes an open-air gallery ofcontemporary art. On the square and in neighbouringstreets, especially Piwna and Jezuicka, there are numerousrestaurants and bars that are reputed to be the best inWarsaw. The whole of the Old Town is not only a touristattraction but also a favourite place for local people, whogo to walk there, and for lovers to meet.. Cathedral of St JohnAfter suffering damageduring World War II, thecathedral was rebuilt inthe Gothic style 3Jesuit ChurchThe Baroque-Mannerist sanctuaryof Our Lady of Mercy,patron saint ofWarsaw, was rebuiltafter World War II 4. Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski)This former royal residence, rebuiltin the 1970s, is today the symbol ofPolish independence 2The Palace Under the Tin Roof was the firsthouse in the city of Warsaw to have a tin,rather than tiled, roof.Church of St MartinThis striking modern crucifixincorporates a fragment of afigure of Christ that wasburned during the1944 WarsawUprising 5PODWALEPI WNAPIEKARSKAZAPIECEKP L A CZ A M K O W YŚWI ĘTOJ AŃSKAZygmunt’s ColumnThis is the oldest secularmonument in Warsaw 1
  • 58. T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 6 3Zygmunt’sColumn 1Plac Zamkowy. Map 2 D3. @ 100,116, 175, 178, 180, 190, 195, 222,503. v 13, 23, 26, 32.Zygmunt’s Column, in thecentre of Plac Zamkowy, isthe oldest secular statue inWarsaw. It was erected in1644 by Zygmunt III’s sonWładysław IV. Themonument, which stands22 m (72 ft) high, consistsof a Corinthian granitecolumn supported on a tallplinth and topped with abronze statue of the ruler,who is depicted with a crossin his left hand and a swordin his right. The figure is thework of Clemente Molli, andthe whole monument wasdesigned by Augustyn Loccithe Elder and ConstantinoTencalla, two Italian architectsworking for the king. Thismonument, unusual inEuropean terms, glorifiesthe secular ruler in a mannerwhich had until then beenreserved for saints and otherreligious subjects. Despiterepeated damage and repairs,the statue retains its originalappearance. The columnon which it stands, however,has already been replacedtwice. An older, fracturedshaft can be seen on theterrace near the southfaçade of the Palace Underthe Tin Roof.The HistoricalMuseum of Warsawoccupies the north sideof the market square.Statue of Zygmunt III Vasa at thetop of Zygmunt’s ColumnLOCATOR MAPSee Street Finder, map 2OLD ANDNEW TOWNSCITY CENTRESZEROKI DUNAJWĄSKIDUNAJKKOłONOWOMI EJSKAR Y N E KS T A R E G OM I A S T AVistulaSTAR SIGHTS. Royal Castle. Cathedral of St John. Old Town SquareBarbican and City WallsThis brick building onceprotected the northernapproach to the city 7. Old Town SquareThe square pulsates with lifeuntil late in the evening 6Statue ofthe MermaidKEYSuggested route0 m0 yds100100KRZYWE
  • 59. Royal Castle 2The decision to build the RoyalCastle (Zamek Królewski) wasmade when Zygmunt III Vasamoved the capital from Cracowto Warsaw in 1596. It was builtin the early Baroque style bythe Italian architects GiovanniTrevano, Giacomo Rodondo andMatteo Castelli between 1598 and1619, incorporating the earlier castle of theMazovian princes. Successive rulers remodelledthe castle many times. The late Baroque façadeoverlooking the River Vistula dates fromthe time of August III, and the splendidinteriors from that of Stanisław August.Completely destroyed by theGermans during World War II,the castle was reconstructedfrom 1971 to 1988.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A6 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Senators’ RoomIn this room, theConstitution of 3 Maywas formally adoptedin 1791. The coats ofarms of all the admin-istrative regions andterritories of theRepublic are depictedon the walls. Areconstructed royalthrone is also on show.Zygmunt TowerThis tower, 60 m (197 ft)high, was built in 1619. Itis crowned by a cupolawith a spire. It is alsoknown as the Clock Tower(Zegarowa), since a clockwas installed in 1622.. BallroomDecorated with 17 pairs of goldencolumns, the ballroom is one of thecastle’s most elaborate interiors.MainentranceRoyal Princes’RoomsHistoricalpaintings by JanMatejko aredisplayed here.STAR FEATURES. Ballroom. Marble Room. Canaletto RoomTabletopfrom 1777
  • 60. T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 6 5. Canaletto RoomThe walls of this room are decoratedwith scenes of Warsaw by Canaletto,the famous Venetian painter who wasone of the most commerciallysuccessful artists of his day.Apartment of Prince StanisławPoniatowskiThe Rococo panelling, thought to beby the French cabinet-maker Juste-Aurèle Meissonier, was taken fromthe former Tarnowski Palace.. Marble RoomThe interior dates from the time ofWładysław IV. The magnificent portraits ofPolish rulers by Marcello Bacciarelli are theonly later additions.Knights’ HallThe finest piece in thisbeautiful interior is theNeo-Classical sculptureof Chronos by le Brunand Monaldi.The Lanckoroński Gallery on thesecond floor contains two paintingsby Rembrandt: Portrait of a YoungWoman and Scholar at his Desk.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTPlac Zamkowy 4. Map 2 D3.Tel 022 355 51 70.Reservations 9am–2pm Tue–Fri(institutions only). Fax 022 35551 27. @ 100, 116, 175, 178,180, 190, 195, 222, 503.v 13, 23, 26, 32. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sat, 11am–4pm Sun.Royal and Grand Apartments# 10am–6pm daily (from 11amMon & Sun). ¢ Oct–Apr: after4pm & Mon, 1 Jan, Easter Sat& Sun, 1 May, Corpus Christi,1 Nov, 24, 25, 31 Dec. & (freeon Sun except Royal andGrand Apartments).0 m 8 except Sun.6 no flash. = dwww.zamek-krolewski.com.pl
  • 61. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A6 6The Cathedral of St John started life as a parish churchat the beginning of the 15th century, only acquiringcathedral status in 1798. Over the years, successive rulersendowed it with new chapels and other elements.Important ceremonies have taken place here, includingthe coronation of Stanisław August Poniatowski in 1764and the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of 3 May in1791. Many famous Poles are buried in the cathedral,among them the Polish primate, Cardinal StefanWyszyński. Having been seriouslydamaged in World War II, thecathedral was rebuilt; its newfaçade was designed by JanZachwatowicz in the spirit ofMazovian Gothic architecture.Narutowicz CryptGabriel Narutowicz,first president of thePolish Republic, isinterred in thecathedral withother disting-uished Poles.Choir StallsThe choir stalls area copy of thosedonated as avotive offeringafter Poland’svictory in 1683at the Battleof Vienna.Baryczkowski CrucifixThis crucifix, famed for itsmiraculous powers, datesfrom the start of the 16thcentury and containsnatural human hair.MainentranceCathedral of St John 3MałachowskiFamily TombThis monument,carved in whitemarble, is basedon a design bythe DanishNeo-Classicalsculptor BertelThorvaldsen.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTul. Świętojańska 8. Map 2 D3.Tel 022 831 02 89. @ 116,175, 178, 180, 195, 222, 503.v 13, 23, 26, 32. # 10am–1pm, 3–5:30pm Mon–Fri, 10am–1pm Sat, 2–5:30pm Sun. Crypt# as above but 3–5:30pm Sun.& 6 www.katedra.mkw.pl
  • 62. T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 6 7For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Old Town Square, a favourite place both for local people and touristsJesuit Church 4ul. Świętojańska 10. Map 2 D3.Tel 022 831 16 75. @ v same asCathedral (p66).This Mannerist-Baroquechurch was built for theJesuit order between 1609 and1629, at the same time as themonastery. Although it had asomewhat chequered history,it survived without majorchanges until 1944, whenit was almost completelydestroyed. When it was rebuiltafter World War II, the church’ssomewhat unusual architecturewas restored on the basis ofthe original plans, which hadsurvived. Located in a narrowspace, it has a unique layout;especially original is the wayin which the chancel isflooded by light falling fromthe lantern in the ellipticaldome over the apse. Thecrypt, which contains a stone-cutter’s workshop, is in thespace once occupied by thebasements of the Gothic townhouses that stood on the site.Church ofSt Martin 5ul. Piwna 9/11. Map 2 D3. Tel 022 83102 21. @ v same as Cathedral (p66).The existing post-AugustanChurch is the result of twomajor reconstructions in theBaroque style, carried out in1631–6 and in the first halfof the 18th century. The latterphase of rebuilding tookplace under the direction ofarchitect KaÏrol Bay, whoOld TownSquare 6Map 2 D3. @ v same as Cathedral(p66). Historical Museum of WarsawTel 022 635 16 25. # 11am–6pmTue & Thu, 10am–3:30pm Wed & Fri,10:30am–4:30pm Sat & Sun. A 20-min English-language film aboutWarsaw is screened at noon daily.¢ Mon, pub hols & one weekenda month. & (free Sun). = www.mhw.pl Museum of Literature Tel022 831 40 61. # 10am–3pmMon–Wed & Fri, 11am–6pm Thu,11am–5pm Sun. ¢ Sat & pub hols.& www.muzeumliteratury.plUntil the end of the 18thcentury, this rectangular marketsquare was the most importantplace in Warsaw. The housesaround the square were builtby the most affluent membersof the community. Most ofthem date from the 1600s, andit is these that give the squareits period character. In thecentre there was once a townhall, a weigh house and stalls,all demolished in 1817. In theirplace now stands a statue ofthe Mermaid (Syrenka).Each row of houses bearsthe name of one of the peopleinvolved in the Four-YearSejm. On the north side isDekerta – named after JanDekert, mayor of Warsaw inThe Barbican andCity Walls 7ul. Nowomiejska. Map 2 D2.Warsaw is one of the fewEuropean capitals wherea large portion of the old citywall survives. Constructionof the wall began in the firsthalf of the 14th century andcontinued in phases up to themid-16th century. A doublecircumvallation, reinforcedwith fortresses and towers,encircled the town. Theearliest part of the fortificationsis the Barbican, erected around1548 by Gianbattista of Venice.It was built on the site of anearlier outer gate and wasintended to defend theNowomiejska Gate (BramaNowomiejska). The northernpart of this defensive building,in the form of a dungeonreinforced by four semicirculartowers, survived as theexternal wall of a town house.After World War II, parts ofthe wall were rebuilt and theBarbican, which had ceasedto exist for a longperiod, was restoredto its full scale.designed the undulatingfaçade. The late Baroquedecoration of the interiorwas destroyed in 1944. Onlya partially burned crucifixsurvived. After the war, theinterior was minutely restoredto a design by Sister AlmaSkrzydlewska and the crucifixincorporated into a moderndesign. In the 1980s, thechurch was a meeting placefor the political opposition tothe Communist government.the 18th century. All thehouses are interconnectedand now host the HistoricalMuseum of Warsaw, whichdisplays typical interiors oftownspeople’s homes andcraftsmen’s studios.The Barbican, standing on the siteof the former outer city gateJesuit church, dedicated to theMerciful Mother of God
  • 63. New TownThe New Town took shape at the beginningof the 15th century along the route leadingfrom Old Warsaw to Zakroczym. Of interesthere are the Pauline, Franciscan, Dominicanand Redemptorist churches and the Churchof the Holy Sacrament, which were all rebuiltafter World War II, and the colourfulreconstructed town houses. Ulica Mostowa,the steepest street in Warsaw, leads up tothe fortress that defended one of the longestbridges in 16th-century Europe.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A6 8Church of the Holy SpiritEvery year, pilgrims gatherat this Baroque churchbefore setting off to JasnaGóra, in Częstochowa 8The Old Powder Magazinewas once the bridge gate.Ulica FretaThis is the main thoroughfare inNew Town. Freta means anuncultivated fieldor suburb w. Church of St JacekA feature of the unusuallyelongated interior is the17th-century mausoleumof the Kotowski family q. New Town SquareA town hall oncestood in the centreof this irregularlyshaped square e. Church ofSt KazimierzThis beautiful church isconnected to the Con-vent of the Order of theHoly Sacrament rF R E T AF R E T AFRANCISZKAŃSKAS TARAPODWALEMOSTOWAD Ł U G AŚWIĘTOJERSKA
  • 64. T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 6 9For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Church of theVisitation of theVirgin MaryThe oldest survivingchurch in NewTown, PrincessAnna of Mazoviafunded itsconstruction inthe early 15thcentury tLOCATOR MAPSee Street Finder, map 2STAR SIGHTS. Church of St Jacek. Church ofSt Kazimierz. New Town SquareChurch of the Holy Spirit, facingdown Ulica MostowaRaczyński Palace 9ul. Długa 7. Map 2 D2.Tel 022 635 45 32. @ 116, 175,178, 180, 195, 222.Raczynski Palace (PałacRaczyńskich), rebuilt in1786 to a design by the royalarchitect Jan ChrystianKamsetzer, houses the OldRecords Archive. The mostbeautiful feature of thisformer residence is the earlyNeo-Classical ballroom –damaged in the war butrestored afterwards – which isdecorated with stuccoworkand allegorical paintings onthe theme of Justice.The subject of the paintingswas manifestly at odds withthe sentiments of the resid-ence’s owner, KazimierzRaczyński, who held highoffice in the royal court andwas considered a traitor to hiscountry by his contempor-aries. In the 19th century,the palace was the seatof the Government JusticeCommission, and in theinterwar period, of theMinistry of Justice.Particularly tragic eventsoccurred here during WorldWar II. Bullet marks in thewall of the building are evi-dence of the street executionof 50 local inhabitants whowere arrested at random on24 January 1944. But theworst crimes were committedhere during the WarsawUprising. On 13 August 1944a tank-trap exploded, killingsome 80 insurgents, and on 2September the Nazi SS killedseveral hundred injuredpeople in the building, whichwas being used as a hospital.Church of theHoly Spirit 8ul. Nowomiejska 23. Map 2 D2. Tel022 831 45 75. @ 116, 175, 178,180, 195, 222. # 6–8am, 4–6pmMon–Sat, 6:30am–2pm, 4–7:30pmSun. At other times, on request.The little wooden Church ofthe Holy Spirit (Kościół św.Ducha) already existed in the14th century. Repeatedlyextended, it was burned downduring the Swedish invasionin 1655. As the townspeoplecould not afford to rebuild thechurch, King Jan Kazimierzdonated the site to the Paulinefathers from Częstochowa, whowere renowned for defendingtheir monastery at Jasna Góra(see pp156–7). In return, and attheir own expense, the monksbuilt a wall that enclosed thechurch and the monasterywithin Warsaw’s defences.The present church was builtin 1707–17, based on a designby the architect Józef Piola.The work was directed byJózef Szymon Bellotti andlater Karol Ceroni. The interiorwas completed in 1725.Rebuilt after war damage,the church is known today –as it has been since 1711 – asthe main starting point forpilgrimages to the shrine ofthe Virgin Mary at Jasna Góra.In Ulica Długa, a smallNeo-Classical house abuts thechurch. It was built at thebeginning of the 19th centuryon the smallest plot inWarsaw; it occupies only afew square metres and hasits own registry number.KEYSuggested routeFaçade of Raczyński Palace, whichtoday is the Old Records ArchiveZ A K R O C Z Y M S K APIESZAKOŚCIELNAOLD ANDNEW TOWNSCITY CENTRE0 m0 yds100100
  • 65. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A7 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Monument to the 1944 Warsaw UprisingMonument to the1944 WarsawUprising 0pl. Krasińskich. Map 1 C2.@ 116, 178, 180, 222, 503.This monument, unveiledin 1989, commemorates theheroes of the historic WarsawUprising. It consists of sculp-tures by Wincenty Kućmaplaced in an architecturalsetting by Jacek Budyń. Thesculptures represent soldiers –one group defending the bar-ricades, the other going downinto the sewers. (The insur-gents used the sewer system tomove around Warsaw duringthe uprising.) The entrance toone such sewer is still to befound near the monument.It was in front of thismonument, during thecelebrations marking the 50thanniversary of the uprising,that the President of theFederal Republic of Germany,Richard Herzog, apologizedto the Polish nation for theunleashing of World War IIby the Third Reich and thebloody suppression of theWarsaw Uprising.Church ofSt Jacek qul. Freta 8/10. Map 2 D2. Tel 022635 47 00. @ 116, 127, 178, 180,222, 503, 506.At the beginning of the 17thcentury, while the Jesuits werebuilding a Baroque church inOld Town, the Dominicansstarted work on a Gothicchancel for the Church ofSt Jacek (Kościół św Jacka).They returned to the GothicUlica Freta wMap 2 D2. @ 116, 127, 178, 180,222, 503, 506. Maria Skłodowska-Curie Museum Tel 022 831 80 92.# 8:30am–4pm Tue, 9:30am–4pmWed–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat, 10am–3pmSun. & 8The main road in the NewTown, Ulica Freta developedalong a section of the oldroute leading from OldWarsaw to Zakroczym. At theend of the 1300s, buildingsbegan to appear along it, andin the 15th century it camewithin the precincts of NewWarsaw (Nowa Warszawa).Several good antique shopsand cafés are on this street.The house at No. 15, whereMarie Curie was born, is nowa museum dedicated to her.Films about her life and thehistory of chemistry are pre-sented to groups on requestat an extra charge.was completed in 1639. Nextto it was erected the largestmonastery in Warsaw.Interesting features insidethe church, rebuilt after WorldWar II, include the beautifulvaulting above the aisles, theGothic chancel, decorated withstuccowork of the Lublin type,and the 17th-century tomb-stones shattered in 1944. TheBaroque tomb of Adam andMałgorzata Kotowski, by theDutch architect Tylman vanGameren, is also noteworthy.The domed chapel in whichit stands is decorated withportraits, painted on tin plate,of the donors, who becameprosperous and were ennobleddespite their humble origins.style partly because of theconservatism of Mazovianbuildings and partly in anattempt to endow the churchwith the appearance of age,so as to create an illusion ofthe age-old traditions of theorder – which had in factonly been set up in Warsawin 1603. When work wasinterrupted by a plague thatraged in Warsaw in 1625, thefew remaining monks listenedto confessions and gavecommunion through openingsdrilled in the doors. The workMARIA SKŁODOWSKA-CURIE(1867–1934)Maria Skłodowska (Marie Curie) was 24years old when she left Warsaw to studyin Paris. Within a decade she had becomefamous as the co-discoverer of radioactivity.Together with her husband, Pierre Curie,she discovered the elements radium andpolonium. She was awarded the NobelPrize twice: the first time in 1903,when she won the prize for physicsjointly with her husband – becomingthe first woman Nobel laureate – andthe second in 1911 for chemistry.Church of St Jacek fromUlica Freta
  • 66. T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 7 1Church of the Visitation of the Virgin MaryThe triangular-shaped New Town SquareNew TownSquare eMap 2 D2. @ 116, 127, 178, 180,222, 503, 506.The heart of the New Townis the market square (RynekNowego Miasta). Oncerectangular, it acquired itsodd triangular shape afterreconstruction. When thetown hall, which stood inthe centre of the square,was demolished in 1818, asplendid view of the Baroquedome which crowns theChurch of St Kazimierz wasopened up. Destroyed in1944, the church was rebuiltin a manner reminiscent ofthe 18th century, thoughnot exactly replicating theoriginal. The façades of manybuildings around the squareare covered with SocialistRealist murals. A charming19th-century well is to befound near Ulica Freta.Church ofSt Kazimierz rRynek Nowego Miasta 2. Map 2D2. Tel 022 635 71 13. @ 116, 127,178, 180, 222, 503, 506. Convent¢ Church open to visitors.The Church and Conventof the Order of the HolySacrament, designed byTylman van Gameren, wasbuilt in 1688–92 by King JanIII Sobieski and Queen MariaKazimiera. The remarkabledomed building is distin-guished by its clear Baroquearchitecture of classicproportions. The interior,which was damaged in hewar, has since beenrenovated. Previouslypolychrome, it is now white.The most beautifulreconstructed feature is thetomb of Maria Karolina,Princesse deBouillon, grand-daughter of Jan IIISobieski. It wasinstalled in 1746 byBishop AndrzejZałuski and PrinceMichał KazimierzRadziwiłł, a well-known reveller whoonce, unsuccess-fully, sought herhand in marriage.The tomb featuresa fractured shieldand a crown fallinginto an abyss – ref-erences to theSobieski coat ofarms and the death of the lastmember of the royal line. Atthe rear of the convent agarden, unchanged since the17th century, descends in tiersto the River Vistula below.Church of theVisitation of theVirgin Mary tul. Przyrynek 2. Map 2 D1. Tel 022831 24 73. @ 116, 127, 178, 180,222, 503, 506.The brick tower of theChurch of the Visitation ofthe Virgin Mary (KościółNawiedzenia NMP) rises overthe roofs of the houses onthe bank of the River Vistula.This church is the oldest inthe New Town. It was builtat the beginning of the 15thcentury by the Mazovianprincess, Anna, wife of JanuszI, the Elder, and is reputed tostand on the site of a pagansacred spot.Restoration carried out inthe 19th century changed thebuilding’s appearanceseveral times.Damaged duringWorld War II, it wassubsequently rebuiltin the 15th-centuryGothic style. Thevaulting above thechancel wascompleted bymedieval methods:that is, it was filledby hand, withoutthe use of pre-fabricated moulds.In the cemeterynext to the churchthere stands amodern statueof WalerianŁukasiński (1786–1868),founder of the NationalPatriotic Society.From the terrace next to thechurch, there is a magnificentview of the Vistula valley.Tomb of MariaKarolina, Princessede Bouillon
  • 67. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A 7 3Mermaid (Syrena), a statue by Ludwik Nitsche, on the Kościuszko EmbankmentThe Royal Route (TraktKrólewski) is so namedbecause of the former royalresidences that line it. It stretchesfrom Belvedere Palace (Belweder),up to the Old Town, along AlejeUjazdowskie, through NowyŚwiat and on to KrakowskiePrzedmieście. This part ofWarsaw has been largelyrebuilt after destructionsuffered in World War II. OnAleje Ujazdowskie there are beautifulparks and little palaces surrounded bygardens, most of which now houseembassies. The Neo-Classical NowyŚwiat, its wide pavements decoratedin summer with baskets of flowers, islined with cafés and elegant shops.The most impressive buildings areon Krakowskie Przedmieście. Thissplendid location on the edge ofthe escarpment inspired power-ful citizens to build large houseswith gardens. Many churchesand monasteries were alsolocated here, as well as the pres-ident’s residence and universitybuildings. In the street itself, there arestatues of distinguished Poles. Insummer, fêtes and bazaars are oftenorganized along the Royal Route.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEChurchesCarmelite Church 3Church of the Holy Cross 7Church of St Anne 1Church of the Visitation 5Historic Buildingsand MonumentsGniński-Ostrogski Palace 9Namiestnikowski Palace 4Parliament tStaszic Palace 8Statue of Adam Mickiewicz 2University of Warsaw 6Streets and SquaresNowy Świat 0Plac Trzech Krzyży eAleje Ujazdowskie rMuseumsNational Museum pp80–81 qPolish Military Museum wGETTING THEREYou can get to theRoyal Route by busesE-2, 100, 102, 111, 116,118, 160, 174, 175, 178,180, 195, 503, and ontrams travelling alongAleje Jerozolimskieand the W-Z route.THE ROYAL ROUTECardinalStefan WyszyńskiKEYStreet-by-Street mappp74–5Railway station0 m0 yds500500
  • 68. Krakowskie PrzedmieścieKrakowskie Przedmieście is undoubtedlyone of the most beautiful streets in Warsaw.Rebuilt after the war, the magnificentpalaces that lie along it now generallyhouse government departments. Thereare also pleasant restaurants, bars andcafés. The street is lined with trees, greensquares and little palaces with courtyards.On weekdays, Krakowskie Przedmieścieis one of the liveliest streets in Warsaw,as two great institutions of higher educationare situated here: the University of Warsawand the Academy of Fine Arts.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A7 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17K R A K O WS K I EBEDNARSKAKAROWATREMBACKAOSSOLIŃSKICHTOKARZEWSKIEGOMIODOWAK O Z I AStatue of Adam MickiewiczThe unveiling of the statuein 1898 was a great mani-festation of patriotism 2Carmelite ChurchThe Church of Our Ladyof the Assumption andSt Joseph the Bridegroomhas a splendid earlyNeo-Classical façadecrowned witha green globerepresentingthe earth 3Namiestnikowski PalaceThis former palace, rebuilt in theNeo-Classical style for the tsar’sgovernor in the Kingdom ofPoland, is now the president’sresidence 4. Church of St AnneThe Neo-Classical façadeof the church is reminis-cent of the style of the 16th-century Italian architectAndrea Palladio 1Church of theVisitationAlso known as theChurch of St Joseph,this is one of the fewchurches in Warsawthat was notdestroyed duringWorld War II. Itsinterior featuresare intact 5The Hotel Bristol, which overlooks theNamiestnikowski Palace, is the mostluxurious, as well as the mostexpensive, hotel in Warsaw.
  • 69. T H E R O Y A L R O U T E 7 5CITY CENTREROYALROUTEOBOŹNAKOPERNIKAKRÓLEWSKAP R Z E D MI E Ś C I EThe statue of Nicolaus Copernicusis situated at the southernend of KrakowskiePrzedmieście.. University of WarsawThe University of Warsawis the largest educationalinstitution in Poland.Only some of the facultiesare situated at its mainsite on KrakowskiePrzedmieście 6. Church of theHoly CrossInside this churchare urns contain-ing the hearts ofFryderyk Chopinand WładysławReymont, winnerof the Nobel Prizefor Literature 7Church ofSt Anne 1ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 68.Map 2 D3. Tel 022 826 89 91.@ 116, 175, 178, 180, 195, 222,503. v 13, 23, 26, 32.This Gothic church wasbuilt for the Bernardineorder by Anna, widowof the Mazovian princeBolesław III, in the secondhalf of the 15th century.It was extended between1518 and 1533. Destroyedduring the Swedish invasionin 1655–60, it was rebuiltin a Baroque style to adesign by Józef SzymonBellotti. The Gothic chanceland the external walls wereretained. The Neo-Classicalfaçade, by Chrystian PiotrAigner and Stanisław KostkaPotocki, is a later addition.When the monasterywas closed in 1864, thechurch became a religiousacademic institution, a rolethat it maintains to thepresent day. The relics ofSt Ładysław of Gielniów,one of the patron saintsof Warsaw, are preservedin a side chapel. Themagnificent interior of thechurch has polychromepaintings by WalentyŻebrowski and a seriesof Rococo altars. In themonastery, part of whichdates from the 16th century,the crystalline vaulting inthe cloisters has survived.Crystalline vaulting in the cloisterof the Bernadine monasteryStaszic PalaceThis Neo-Classical palacenow houses the PolishAcademy of Sciences 8LOCATOR MAPSee Street Finder, map 2KEYSuggested routeSTAR SIGHTS. Church of St Anne. Church of Holy Cross. University of Warsaw0 m0 yds100100
  • 70. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A7 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Statue of AdamMickiewicz 2ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście.Map 2 D4.This statue of Poland’s mostdistinguished Romantic poetwas unveiled in 1898, on thecentenary of his birth. Erect-ing the statue during theperiod of intense Russificationthat followed the JanuaryInsurrection of 1863 was agreat achievement on the partof the committee in charge ofthe project, led by MichałRadziwiłł and Henryk Sienkie-wicz. The statue was designedby Cyprian Godebski, andthe plinth by Józef PiusDziekoński and WładysławMarconi. It was set up ina square off KrakowskiePrzedmieście that wasonce lined with housesflanked by side streets.The houses were laterdemolished and the roadwidened. Only the statueof the Mother of Godof Passau, dating from1683, on the edge of thesquare, survives. It wasmade in the workshopof Szymon Bellotito a commissionfrom Jan III Sobie-ski as an offeringin thanks for aPolish victory atthe Battle ofVienna and for the protectionof the royal family.CarmeliteChurch 3ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 52/54.Map 2 D4. @ 100, 116, 175, 180,195, 222, 503.The Baroque Church of OurLady of the Assumption(Kościół WniebowzięciaNMP) was built for the orderof Discalced Carmelites in1661–82, probably to adesign by Józef SzymonBelloti, although the Neo-Classical façade is considera-bly later. Designed by EfraimSchroeger, it dates from 1782and is one of the earliestexamples of Neo-Classicismin Poland. Despite sufferingwar damage, the church,consisting of a nave withinterconnecting side chapelsand a transept, has manyof its original features.The main altar, withsculptures by Jan JerzyPlersch, is beautiful.Plersch also carved thesculptural group of theVisitation of the Virgin,a very sophisticated andRomantic piece whichwas transferred from anearlier Dominican churchand can now be seenon the altar near therood arch. Alsonoteworthy arethe Baroquepaintings, espe-cially the twosmall works inthe side altarsnear the chancel,by Szymon Czechowicz.During the Northern War of1705, Stanisław Leszczyńskiheld peace negotiationswith Charles XII in thechurch. From 1864, after theclosure of the monastery,the monastic buildingshoused a seminary.The early Neo-Classical façade ofthe Carmelite ChurchNamiestnikowski Palace with a statue of Józef PoniatowskiStatue of Adam MickiewiczNamiestnikowskiPalace 4ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 46/48.Map 2 D4. @ 100, 116, 175, 180,195, 222, 503. ¢ to the public.The palace owes its elegantNeo-Classical form torefurbishment carried out byChrystian Piotr Aigner in1918–19. However, this workconceals much older walls, asa palace stood on this site asearly as the mid-17th century.Namiestnikowski Palacewas home to several prom-inent familes, among themthe Koniecpolskis, theLubomirskis and, from 1685,the Radziwiłłs. From them thegovernment of the Kingdomof Poland bought the palacein 1818 as the residence ofthe governor-general of thetsarist government. Amongthe people who lived herewere General Józef Zajączek,viceroy of Tsar Alexander,and the much-hated GeneralIwan Paskiewicz. The wife ofGeneral Zajączek was a verycolourful figure; she was aprima ballerina and shockedthe town with her love affairslate into old age.The palace escaped seriousdamage during World War II.After refurbishment, it wasdesignated the seat of theCouncil of Ministers andwitnessed many importantpolitical events: the signing ofthe Warsaw Pact in 1955, thetreaty normalizing relationswith Germany in 1970, andthe Round Table Talks in 1989.Since 1994 the palace has beenthe residence of the presidentof the Republic of Poland.
  • 71. T H E R O Y A L R O U T E 7 7Church of theVisitation 5ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 34.Map 2 D4. @ 100, 116, 175, 180,195, 222, 503.The Order of the Visitationwas brought to Poland byMaria Gonzaga, wife of JanKazimierz. Work on theChurch of the Visitation(Kościół Wizytek) beganin the same year but wasinterrupted, and not resumeduntil the 18th century, whenthe architect Karol Bay tookcontrol of the project. Thefaçade, by Efraim Schroeger,was completed in 1763. Thechurch suffered no war dam-age, so its interior featureshave survived intact. The mostsplendid of these are theRococo pulpit in the form of aship and the sculptures on thehigh altar. Many fine paintingshave also survived, includingThe Visitation by TadeuszKuntze-Konicz, St Luis Gonza-ga by Daniel Szulc and StFrancis of Sales by SzymonCzechowicz. The ebony taber-nacle, decorated with silverplaques by Herman Pothoff,was commissioned by Ludwi-ka Maria and completed in1654. Next to the church, theBaroque convent building andgarden are still used by theNuns of the Visitation today.University ofWarsaw 6ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28.Map 2 D5. Tel 022 552 00 00. @100, 116, 175, 180, 195, 222, 503.The nucleus of the Universityof Warsaw (UniwersytetWarszawski) grew from asummer palace known asthe Villa Regia. In the firsthalf of the 17th century, thepalace belonged to the Vasadynasty. From then on itunderwent many phases ofrefurbishment, and in 1816was chosen to house whatwas then the new university.After further alteration, theformer palace acquired thelate Neo-Classical appearancethat it has today – asdid the outbuildingsto each side (designedby Jakub Kubicki in1814–16), the main school(Corrazzi, commenced1841), and the lecturehall and the formerFine Arts Department(both by MichałKado, 1818–22).After theJanuaryInsurrection –when theuniversitywas runby theRussianChurch of theHoly Cross 7ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 3. Map2 D5. Tel 022 556 88 20. @ 100,116, 175, 180, 195, 222, 503.The original Church of theHoly Cross (Kościół śwKrzyża, 1626) was destroyedduring the Swedish Delugeof the 1650s. The currentBaroque missionaries’ churchwas designed by GiuseppeSimone Bellotti and builtbetween 1679 and 1696. Thefaçade was completed in 1760.The church is a splendidexample of Varsovianchurch architecture of thelate 17th century. DuringWorld War II, it sufferedmajor damage and most ofits interior was destroyed.The most interesting survivingfeature is the altar in thesouth wing of the transept,designed by Tylman vanGameren. Many importantceremonies have takenplace in the church,including the funeralsof political thinkerStanisław Staszic(1755–1826),composer KarolSzymanowski(1882–1937)and painter LeonWyczółkowski(1852–1936). Urnscontaining the heartsof composer FryderykChopin (1810–49)and novelistWładysław Rey-mont (1867–1925) are builtinto a pillarof the nave.authorities – a library wasadded (Stefan Szyller andAntoni Jabłoński, 1891–4).The Auditorium Maximumwas built when the universitypassed back into Polish handsafter the country regained itsindependence.Today, the University ofWarsaw is Poland’s largesteducational establishment. Thecomplex around KazimierzPalace (Pałac Kazimierzowski),which houses several build-ings, is now mainly used asits administrative centre.Baroque ebony tabernacle in the Church of the VisitationStatue of Christ, Church of the Holy Cross
  • 72. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A7 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Monument to Nicolaus Copernicus in front of Staszic PalaceStaszic Palace 8ul. Nowy Świat 72. Map 2 D5.@ E-6, 100, 116, 125, 150, 174,175, 180, 195, 222, 503, 506.Contrary to what its namesuggests, Staszic Palace(Pałac Staszica) neverbelonged to StanisławStaszic, nor did he ever livehere – although he did fundit. The palace was built byAntonio Corazzi between1820 and 1823 in the lateNeo-Classical style, as theheadquarters of the RoyalSociety of Friends of Science.Since World War II it hashoused the Polish Academyof Science and the WarsawScientific Society. The monu-ment to astronomer NicolausCopernicus that stands infront of the building is byBertel Thorvaldsen. It wasunveiled in 1830.Gniński-OstrogskiPalace 9ul. Okólnik 1. Map 4 D1. Tel 022826 59 35. @ 102, 111, 116, 150,174, 175, 178, 180, 195, 506.# 1 May–30 Sep: 10am–5pm Mon,Wed, Fri, noon–6pm Thu, 10am–2pmSat, Sun; 1 Oct–30 Apr: 10am–2pmMon–Wed, Fri, Sat, noon–6pm Thu.9 d & Concerts.Built after 1681, Gniński-Ostrogski Palace (PałacGnińskich-Ostrogskich) is oneof Tylman van Gameren’sgrand masterpieces. Thepavilion was erected on anelevated terrace above acellar. According to legend, agolden duck lived under thepalace, guarding its treasures. Nowy Świat, a street of elegant shops and cafésToday the palace is home tothe Fryderyk Chopin Museum(Muzeum Fryderyka Chopina),which houses portraits, lettersand autograph manuscripts,as well as the grand pianoat which Chopin composedduring the last two years ofhis life. It is also the home ofthe Chopin Society, and regu-lar performances of Chopin’smusic take place here.Nowy Świat 0Map 3 C1, 3 C2, 4 D1. @ E-2, E-5,111, 116, 150, 174, 175, 180, 195,222, 503, 506. v 7, 8, 9, 12, 22,24, 25, 44.The street known as NowyŚwiat (New World) is astretch of the medieval routeleading from the castle toCzersk and on to Cracow, andthus forms part of the RoyalRoute. Buildings started toappear along a section of theroad at the end of the 18thcentury. First came a smallnumber of Neo-Classicalpalaces; by the beginning ofthe 19th century they had beenjoined by late Neo-Classicaltown houses. At the end of the19th century, Nowy Świat wasan elegant street of restaurants,cafés, summer theatres, hotelsand shops. After serious dam-age in World War II, only theNeo-Classical buildings werereconstructed, although laterbuildings were given pseudo-Neo-Classical features topreserve a uniformity of style.Today, Nowy Świat is oneof the most attractive streets inWarsaw, with wide pedestrianareas and cafés with pavementgardens. Blikle, the café at No.33, boasts a 130-year traditionand the best doughnuts(pączki) in town. KossakowskiPalace, at No. 19, was remodel-led by Henryk Marconi in1849–51. Strolling along NowyŚwiat it is worth turning downUlica Foksal, where there are anumber of 19th-century housesand small palaces. The mostbeautiful, at Nos. 1/2/4, wasbuilt for the Zamoyski familyby Leandro Marconi in 1878–9.Today, it houses an up-marketart gallery and the Associationof Architects of the PolishRepublic. At the roundabouton the intersection of NowyŚwiat and Aleje Jerozolimskiestands the huge building of theformer Polish United Workers’Party Central Committee.Transformed after the fall ofcommunism into a “den ofcapitalism”, it now housesbanks, the Polish stockexchange and the officesof various companies.
  • 73. T H E R O Y A L R O U T E 7 9National Museum qSee pp80–81.of Calvary). The third crossis held by St John Nepomuk,whose statue was erectedin 1752 by Grand CrownMarshal Franciszek Bielińskito mark the completion ofthe project to pave thestreets of Warsaw. A fourthcross crowns the dome ofthe 19th-century Church ofSt Alexander (Kościółśw. Aleksandra).The oldest buildingsaround the squareare two 18th-centurytown houses: No. 1Nowy Świat, withan early Neo-Classical façade,and No. 2 PlacTrzech Krzyży,part of the complexof the Instituteof the Deaf andBlind, establishedin 1817. Newbuildings recentlyerected roundthe square haverestored some-thing of itsurban character.and No. 19, by architectStanisław Grochowicz,are especially splendid.No. 17, built in 1903–4,has an eclectic façade.No. 1, formerly a barracks,houses the offices of theCouncil of Ministers.Parliament tul. Wiejska 2/4/6. Map 4 D3, 4 D4.Tel 022 694 25 00. @ E-2, 107, 108,116, 118, 151, 155, 159, 166, 171,180, 195, 222, 503. # by priorarrangement.The parliamentary traditionin Poland dates from 1453,but it was interrupted by theloss of Polish sovereignty inthe late 1700s. Only after therestoration of Poland’s indep-endence in 1918 was its two-chamber parliament – compris-ing the Sejm and the Senate –reconvened. Lacking a suitablebuilding, representatives andsenators gathered for a timein the former Institute for theEducation of Young Ladies.In 1925–8, a lofty semi-circular hall was built, with adebating chamber for the Sejm.It was designed by KazimierzSkórewicz and decorated withArt Deco bas-reliefs by JanSzczepkowski. After damagesuffered in World War II, theparliamentary buildings weresignificantly extended in thespirit of the comparativelyrefined Socialist Realist style, toa design by Bohdan Pniewski.In 1989, after the first freeelections since World War II,the upper parliamentarychamber, abolished undercommunist rule, was restored.In 1999, a monument inhonour of the HomeArmy was unveiled infront of the Sejm.AlejeUjazdowskie rMap 3 C3, 3 C4, 3 C5. @ 116, 138,151, 166, 180, 182, 187, 188, 195,502, 503, 514, 515, 520, 523, 525.Aleje Ujazdowskie is oneof the most beautiful streetsin Warsaw – a good placefor a stroll in the summer.While the east side is bor-dered by parks, the west islined with elegant housesoriginally built for Warsaw’sruling classes but nowlargely occupied by embas-sies. There are also palatialhouses;No. 17Plac TrzechKrzyży eMap 3 C2, 3 C3. @ E-2, 100, 101,108, 116, 118, 151, 166, 171, 180,195, 222, 503.Plac Trzech Krzyży (ThreeCrosses Square) is somethingof a misnomer. Mounted ontop of Baroque columns, twogilded crosses, commissionedby August II and made byJoachim Daniel Jauch in1731, mark the beginningof Droga Kalwaryjską (RoadStatue of St JohnNepomukThe semicircular parliament (Sejm) building, with Art Deco bas-reliefsPolish MilitaryMuseum wAleje Jerozolimskie 3. Map 4 D2 and6 E1. Tel 022 629 52 71/2. @ E-5,111, 117, 158, 507, 517, 521. v 7,8, 9, 21, 22, 24, 25. # 10am–5pmWed, 10am–4pm Thu–Sun. &(free on Sat). 8 Outdoorexhibition # until dusk,free admission. - =www.muzeumwp.plThe Polish MilitaryMuseum (MuzeumWojska Polskiego),established in 1920,contains a collection ofPolish arms and armourspanning more than1,000 years. The mostinteresting aspect of thepermanent exhibitionis the collection ofarmour from the EarlyMiddle Ages to the endof the 18th century. Itincludes a rare gildedhelmet that belonged to aPolish chieftain of the EarlyChristian era and numerouspieces relating to the greatestmedieval battles fought onPolish territory.Among the more unusualexhibits are medieval joustingarmour and an impressivecollection of 17th-centuryarmour of the Husaria, thefamous Polish cavalry, witheagle wings, leopardskinsand a mounted cavalryman infull regalia. Heavy weaponsfrom the two World Wars aredisplayed in the park outside.
  • 74. National Museum qThe National Museum (MuzeumNarodowe) was originally theMuseum of Fine Arts, acquiring itspresent status in 1916. Despite wartimelosses, today it has a large collectionof works of art covering all periodsfrom antiquity to modern times.Due to lack of space, not all theexhibits are on permanent display.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A8 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17. Virgin and ChildThis importantpainting by SandroBotticelli is the onlywork by the artist inPolish collections.Virgin from WrocławThis “Beautiful Madonna”is an early 15th-centurysculpture that exemplifies theInternational Gothic style.Greek VaseSome of the Greek vasesdisplayed in the Gallery ofAncient Art are partlyfrom a privatecollection.. St Anne FrescoThis fresco of StAnne is one of the10th-century wallpaintings dis-covered by Polisharchaeologists inFaras, Sudan.W. Szymanowski,The KissGround floorBattle ofGrunwald, apainting by JanMatejko (see pp40–41),is the most famous inthe Gallery ofPolish Art.KEYAncient ArtFaras CollectionMedieval ArtPolish Paintings20th-century Polish ArtForeign ArtPolish Decorative ArtEuropeanDecorative ArtL. KronenbergSilver RoomTemporary exhibitionsNon-exhibition areas
  • 75. T H E R O Y A L R O U T E 8 1VISITORS’ CHECKLISTal. Jerozolimskie 3. Map 4 D2.Tel 022 629 30 93. @ E-5,111, 117, 158, 517, 521. v 7,8, 9, 21, 22, 24, 25. # 10am–4pm Tue–Fri, 10am–6pm Sat &Sun. ¢ Mon, 1 Jan, Easter Sun,1 and 3 May, Corpus Christi, 15Aug, 1 Nov, 24–26 Dec. & freeSat. = m ^ - 9 7 8e Films. www.mnw.art.plSTAR PAINTINGS. Virgin and Child. Polish Hamlet. St Anne FrescoThe Raising of LazarusThis painting by Rembrandtpupil Carel Fabritius isone of his finest, andthe most importantexhibit in theForeign ArtGallery.FurnitureThis bedroom designed byKarol Tichy in 1909 reflectsthe utilitarian aspect of 20th-century design. It is on displayin the Decorative Arts Gallery.. Polish HamletThis portrait of the aristo-crat and politician AleksanderWielopolski painted by JacekMalczewski in 1903, is in the styleof the Polish Symbolist school.BanquetThe painter and mathematician LeonChwistek developed a theory of “zonism”,according to which various areas of apainting are dominated by certain shapesand colours, as in this scene.First floorSecond floorGALLERY GUIDEThe collections are arranged on three floors. On theground floor are the Galleries of Ancient Art, the FarasCollection and the Gallery of Medieval Art. On the firstfloor is the collection of Polish art. Foreign paintingscan be seen on the first and second floors.
  • 76. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A 8 3The Palace of Culture and Science by night, seen from Ulica ZłotaSIGHTS AT A GLANCEPlaces of WorshipCapuchin Church 3Evangelical Church of theAugsburg Confession wNożyk Synagogue tBuildings and HistoricMonumentsArsenal 6Branicki Palace 2Krasiński Palace 5Pac Palace 4Palace of Culture and Science rPrimate’s Palace 1Przebendowski-RadziwiłłówPalace 7Monuments andCommemorative SitesMonument to the Heroesof the Ghetto iMonument to those Fallen andMurdered in the East oUmschlagplatz Monument uStreets and SquaresPlac Bankowy 8Plac Teatralny 9ParksSaxon Gardens 0Museums and GalleriesEthnographical Museum ePawiak Prison yZachęta qGETTINGTHEREThe major trans-port routes cross inthe city centre. Thebest way to get aroundthe main streets there isby tram along UlicaMarszałkowska, Ulica JanaPawła II, Aleje Solidarnościand Aleje Jerozolimskie.From Ursynów andMokotów you can alsotravel by metro. Buses goalmost everywhere.century, the city’s commercial centremoved to the area around UlicaMarszałkowska, prompted bythe opening in 1845 of Warsaw’sfirst railway station at the junctionwith Aleje Jerozolimskie. The citycentre was completely trans-formed after the damageinflicted during World War II.Today, its principal landmark isthe Palace of Culture and Science (PałacKultury i Nauki). The western part ofthe city centre is dominated by towerblocks. For tourists, the eastern side isof most interest. Here, several historicbuildings have survived, dating fromthe 18th up to the early 20th century.From the late 18th to the mid-19th century, the areaaround Ulica Senatorskaand Plac Teatralny was thecommercial and cultural centreof Warsaw. Imposing Neo-Classical buildings with impressivecolonnades are still to be seenthere. The Grand Theatre(Teatr Wielki) on Plac Teatralnyis one of the largest buildings of itstype in Europe. The Saxon Gardens(Ogród Saski), stretching through thecentre of the district, are what remainsof a former royal park that adjoinedthe residence of the Saxon kingAugust II. In the second half of the 19thNike MonumentTHE CITY CENTREKEYStreet-by-Street mappp84–5Metro0 m0 yds500500
  • 77. Ulica MiodowaUlica Miodowa lies just outside the much-visitedOld Town. Tourists rarely venture here, but itholds many attractions nonetheless. The street hasthree Baroque churches and several palaces –including the Neo-Classical Primate’s Palace andthe Rococo Branicki Palace – set behind spaciouscourtyards. The former Collegium Nobilium, themost famous Polish school for the children of thenobility in the 18th century, now houses theAcademy of Dramatic Arts.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A8 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17MIODOWAMIODOWAS CHI L L E RAKAPI TUL NASENATORSKAAL.SOLIDARNOśCI. Pac PalaceThe 19th-century interiorsare decorated in the Gothic,Renaissance, Greek andMoorish styles 4. Capuchin ChurchIn accordance with the ruleof poverty of the Capuchinorder, the altars in thischurch have no gilt orpolychrome decoration 3The Basilian church is hiddenbehind the palace façade.Byzantine-Ukrainian massesare celebrated here.BranickiPalaceRebuilt after WorldWar II, the palace wascrowned with sculpturesderived from paintingsby Canaletto 2NikeMonument
  • 78. T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 8 5CITY CENTREROYAL ROUTEOLD & NEWTOWNSDŁ UGASTAR SIGHTS. Capuchin Church. Pac PalacePrimate’s Palace 1ul. Senatorska 13/15. Map 2 D3.Tel 022 829 69 99. @ 100, 111,116, 175, 180, 195. ¢ to the public.The present-day appearanceof the Primate’s Palace(Pałac Prymasowski) reflectsthe refurbishments carriedout by Efraim Schroeger in1777–84 for the Primate ofPoland, Antoni Ostrowski.Schroeger’s work was thencontinued by Szymon Zugfor the next primate, MichałPoniatowski. The unusualarrangement of the building,with its semicircular wings, isreminiscent of the designs ofthe most celebrated architectof the Italian Renaissance,Andrea Palladio (1508–80).The Primate’s Palace isgenerally considered to bethe first Neo-Classical palacebuilt in Poland. It wasdestroyed during WorldWar II, then was rebuilt in1949–52. Today it is usedas an office building.The superb Great Hall (SalaWielka) is decorated withIonic columns and delicateNeo-Classical stuccowork.Branicki Palace 2ul. Miodowa 6. Map 2 D3. @ 100,116, 180, 195. ¢ to the public.Branicki Palace (PałacBranickich) was built for JanKlemens Branicki, adviser toAugust III. This powerfulmagnate was known bothas a distinguished soldierand a connoisseur of fineart. Work began on thepalace in 1740, to a designby Jan Zygmunt Deybel,and was completed byGiacopo Fontana.Capuchin Church 3ul. Miodowa 13. Map 1 C3.@ 100, 116, 174, 175, 180, 195.The Capuchin Church(kościół Kapucynów), orChurch of the Transfiguration,was built by Jan III Sobieskiin gratitude for the Polishvictory over the Turks at theBattle of Vienna in 1683.Building began in the sameyear under the direction ofIzydor Affaita – probably todesigns by Tylman vanGameren and Agostino Loccithe Younger – and was com-pleted by Carlo Ceroni in1692. The modest façaderecalls the Capuchin churchin Rome. The church housesurns containing the heart ofJan III and the ashes of theSaxon king, August II. In thecrypt, there is a nativity scenewith emotive figures.Sarcophagus with the heart of Jan IIISobieski in the Capuchin churchThe Primate’s Palace, a building in the Neo-Classical styleLOCATOR MAPSee Street Finder, maps 1 & 2Following almost completedestruction during World WarII, this Rococo palace wasrebuilt in 1947–53. Thereconstruction was based ondetailed historical researchand 18th-century paintings.The Field Cathedral of thePolish Armed Forces wasbuilt in the 17th century asa church for the Piarist order.KEYSuggested route0 m0 yds5050
  • 79. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A8 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Pac Palace 4ul. Miodowa 15. Map 1 C3.Tel 022 634 96 00. @ 100, 116,175, 180, 195. # occasionally.The Baroque Pac Palace(Pałac Paca), formerly theresidence of the Radziwiłłfamily, was designed andbuilt by Tylman van Gamerenin 1681–97. One of thepalace’s 19th-century owners,Ludwik Pac, commissionedthe architect Henryk Marconito redesign it; work was com-pleted in 1828. The interiorswere decorated in the Gothic,Renaissance, Greek andMoorish styles, and thefaçade remodelled in thePalladian manner. Thepalace gate was modelledon a triumphal arch anddecorated with Classical bas-relief sculptures – the work ofLudwik Kaufman, a pupil ofthe celebrated Neo-Classicalsculptor Antonio Canova.Today the palace housesthe Ministry of Health.Neo-Classical medallion on thefaçade of Pac PalaceKrasiński Palace 5pl. Krasińskich 5. Map 1 C2.Tel 022 635 62 09. @ 116, 178,180, 222. # during exhibitions.Krasiński Palace (PałacKrasińskich), in the Baroquestyle, is regarded as one ofthe most beautiful late 17th-century buildings in Warsaw.It was designed by Tylmanvan Gameren and builtbetween 1687 and 1700 forthe mayor of Warsaw,Jan Dobrogost Krasiński.A triangular pedimentfeatures ornamental reliefsdepicting the heroic deedsof the Roman patricianMarcus Valerius (knownas Corvinus), a legendaryKrasiński Palace seen from the palace gardensancestor of Jan DobrogostKrasiński. The reliefs are thework of Andreas Schlüter,an outstandingly giftedsculptor and architect wholater designed the Arsenaland Royal Castle in Berlin.Rebuilt after war damage,the palace now houses acollection of antique printsand manuscripts from theNational Library.Arsenal 6ul. Długa 52. Map 1 B3. Tel 022 83115 37. @ E-2, 100, 107, 111, 127,171, 180, 195, 410, 503, 520, 522.v 4, 13, 18, 23, 26, 32, 35, 36, 46.Q Ratusz. www.pma.plArchaeological Museum #9am–4pm Mon–Fri, 10am–4pm Sun.¢ 3rd Sun in the month. & (freeon Sun). 8The arsenal was built in1638–47, in the Baroquestyle, by Władysław IV Vasa.There, during World War II,boy scout soldiers of theGrey Ranks (the SzareSzeregi, who were activelyinvolved in the resistancemovement) released 21 pris-oners from the hands of theGestapo; this brave action iscommemorated by a plaque.The Arsenal now housesthe Archaeological Museum,with exhibits from excava-tions carried out within boththe country’s pre-war andpresent day borders. Also ondisplay are objects from otherEuropean countries, Asia, theAmericas and Africa. The ex-hibition on prehistoric Polandis highly recommended. Byprior arrangement, youngervisitors may make clay potsusing prehistoric methods.Przebendowski-RadziwiłłówPalace 7al. Solidarności 62. Map 1 C3.Tel 022 826 90 91. @ E-2, E-3, 100,107, 111, 127, 171, 175, 180, 195,409, 410, 503, 520, 522. v 4, 13,18, 23, 26, 32, 35, 36, 46. QRatusz. Independence Museum(Muzeum Niepodległości) # 10am–5pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat & Sun.& (free on Sun). 8 www.muzeumniepodleglosci.art.plBefore World War II, thisBaroque palace was in anarrow shopping street. Whenthe East-West (W-Z) route wasconstructed (1948–9), it wassuddenly surrounded by amajor traffic artery. The palace,which has the most beautifulmansard roofs in Warsaw andan oval bow-fronted façade,was built in 1728 to a designby Jan Zygmunt Deybel. Since1990 it has housed the Inde-pendence Museum (MuzeumNiepodległości), which featuresa collection of documentsrelating Poland’s history.The Baroque Przebendowski-Radziwiłłów Palace
  • 80. T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 8 7Plac Bankowy 8Map 1 B3 and 1 B4. @ E-2, E-3,100, 107, 111, 127, 171, 180, 195,410, 503, 520, 522. v 4, 13, 18,23, 26, 32, 35, 36, 46. Q Ratusz.John Paul II Collection pl. Bankowy 1.Tel 022 620 27 25. # 10am–5pm(4pm in winter) Tue–Sun. &Today Plac Bankowy (BankSquare) is one of the busiestplaces in Warsaw. Once aquiet little square, it wasradically altered after theconstruction of the East–Westroute and Ulica Marszałkowska.A statue of Feliks Dzierżyński,the founder of the Sovietsecurity service, was erectedhere, and the square wasrenamed in his honour. In1989, to the joy of local inhab-itants, the statue was removedand the square’s original namerestored. Plac Bankowy wasonce the site of the largestsynagogue in Warsaw. It wasdemolished after the collapseof the Ghetto Uprising of1943. A tower block nowstands on the site. The mostinteresting buildings are onthe west side of the square.The group of Neo-Classicalbuildings zealously rebuiltafter World War II weredesigned by Antonio Corazzi.The most impressive is thethree-winged palace of theCommission for Revenues andTreasury, which today servesas a town hall. From the junc-tion with Ulica Elektoralna,the fine building of the formerBank of Poland (Bank Polski)and Stock Exchange (Giełda)can be admired. The buildingnow houses the John Paul IICollection, donated by Janinaand Zbigniew Porczyński.It consists of over 450 worksby famous artists andis arrangedthematically.Neo-Classical frieze on the façade of the Grand TheatrePlac Teatralny 9Map 1 C4. @ 111.Before 1944, Plac Teatralny(Theatre Square) was theheart of Warsaw. Theenormous Neo-ClassicalGrand Theatre (TeatrWielki) on the south sidewas designed byAntonio Corazzi andLudwik Kozubowskiand completed in1833. The façade isdecorated with aNeo-Classical friezeby Paweł Malińskidepicting Oedipusand his companionsreturning from theOlympian Games.The theatre wasrebuilt and greatlyenlarged aftersuffering war damage.Two statues stand infront of the building:one depictsStanisławMoniuszko, thefather of Polish opera (seep26), and the other WojciechBogusławski, who instigatedthe theatre’s construction.Today it is the home of theNational Opera and theNational Theatre.In 1848, the Russiancomposer Mikhail Glinka(1803–57) lived and workedin the house at No. 2 UlicaNiecała, just off Plac Teatralny.Opposite the theatre, on thenorth side of the square, stoodthe small Church of St Andrewand the enormous, repeatedlyextended Jabłonowski Palace,which was refashioned as thetown hall in 1817–19. Closeby was Blank’s Palace, a lateBaroque building, whichwas owned by Piotr Blank,a banker at the time ofStanisław AugustPoniatowski(1764–95). At thebeginning of theNazi occupation ofPoland, the Germansarrested StefanStarzyński, theheroic mayor ofWarsaw, in thisbuilding. Duringthe WarsawUprising, the poetKrzysztof KamilBaczyński died amidits ruins. In the yearsafter World War II,only Blank’sPalace wasrebuilt; Jabłon-owski Palace and the church –now the Church of St BrotherAlbert and St Andrew – wererebuilt only recently. The NikeMonument, which once stoodin Plac Teatralny in memoryof Warsaw’s resistance againstthe Nazis, was moved to anew site near the East-Westroute, where it stands on ahigh plinth.Municipal government buildings on Plac BankowyBogusławski Monument
  • 81. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A8 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the Saxon GardensFaçade of the Zachęta building (National Gallery of Contemporary Art)Zachęta qpl. Małachowskiego 3.Map 1 C5. Tel 022827 58 54. @ E-2,160, 410. # noon–8pmTue–Sun. & (free on Thu).www.zacheta.art.plThe Zachętabuilding – now theNational Gallery ofContemporary Art –was built in 1899–1903for the Society for thePromotion of Fine Arts.It was designed byStefan Szyller, the leadingarchitect of Warsaw’s Revivalperiod, a 19th- and earlyEvangelical Churchof the AugsburgConfession wpl. Małachowskiego 1. Map 1 C5. Tel022 556 46 60. @ 106, 160, 310.The Evangelical Church ofthe Augsburg Confession(Kościół św Trójcy) wasdesigned by Szymon BogumiłZug and built in 1777–81. TheNeo-Classical building iscrowned by a dome 58 m(189 ft) high. For a long timethe church was the highestbuilding in Warsaw, and borewitness to the religioustolerance of the Polish nationand of Stanisław AugustPoniatowski (1764–95), thelast king of Poland. Thechurch is reminiscent of the20th-century architecturalmovement. It was conceivedas a monumental building inthe Neo-Renaissance style,with four wings (onlycompleted in 1995) and aglass-roofed inner courtyard.In order to promote thework of contemporary Polishartists, the Society organizedexhibitions and competitions,and purchased works of art.The Zachęta’s permanentcollections were transferred tothe National Museum, and thebuilding, as before, now servesas a venue for temporaryexhibitions of modern art.It was here in 1922 thatGabriel Narutowicz, the firstpresident of the newlyindependent Polish Republic,was assassinated by EligiuszNiewiadomski, a Polishpainter, critic and fanatic.Saxon Gardens 0Map 1 C4, 1 C5. @ 107, 119, 127,128, 160, 171. v 15, 18, 35, 36.The Saxon Gardens (OgródSaski) were laid out between1713 and 1733 by AugustII, the Strong, to a designby Jan KrzysztofNaumann and MateusDaniel Pöppelmann.Originally the royalgardens adjoiningMorsztyn Palace,they became thebasis for a Baroquetown planningproject in Warsawknown as the SaxonAxis (Osią Saską).In 1727 the SaxonGardens becamethe first publicpark in Poland, andfor two centuriesthey served as analfresco “summersalon” for Varso-vians. At the timeof August III, KarolFryderyk Pöppelmann built aBaroque summer theatre here;this stood until 1772. Between1816 and 1827, James Savagerefashioned the gardens inthe English style. In 1870 theywere graced by an enormouswooden summer theatre,which was destroyed inSeptember 1939, at the startof World War II. The gardensare now adorned with 21Baroque sandstone statuesmade by sculptors includingJan Jerzy Plersch in the 1730s.There were once many morestatues here; some wereremoved to St Petersburgby Marshal Suvorov, whorecaptured Warsaw duringthe uprising led by TadeuszKościuszko in 1794.Saski Palace was destroyedat the end of 1944. All thatremains today is the Tomb ofthe Unknown Soldier, wherethe body of a soldier whofell in the defence of Lvov(1918–19) was interred on 2November 1925. Plans areafoot to restore the palaceto its former glory.Baroque sculpturefrom the SaxonGardens
  • 82. T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 8 9The interior of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg ConfessionPalace of Culture and Science, reminiscent of a Socialist Realist tower blockPantheon in Rome; however,this ancient model wasmerely a starting point fromwhich Zug developed aunique design. The interiorof the church featuresa vast barrel-vaultednave with rectangulartransepts. The westfront features amassive Doric porticowhich emphasizes theseverity of the façade,regarded as one of theoutstanding examplesof Neo-Classicalarchitecture inPoland. The interior,with its double tier ofgalleries supportedby columns, hasexcellent acousticsand is used for choraland other concerts.EthnographicalMuseum eul. Kredytowa 1. Map 1 C5. Tel 022827 76 41/5. @ 125, 150, 160, 506.# 10am–6pm Tue–Thu, 10am–4pmFri, 10am–5pm Sat, noon–5pm Sun.¢ public hols. & (free on Sat). ed m 8 = 6The Ethnographical Museum(Muzeum Etnograficzne) ishoused in a Neo-Renaissancebuilding on the south side ofPlac Małachowski. The formerhead office of the Land CreditAssociation, it was built in1854–8, to a design by HenrykMarconi, an Italian architectwho settled in Warsaw. Itrecalls the Libreria Sansovini-ana in Venice, and is one ofthe city’s finest 19th-centurybuildings. The museum con-tains permanent displays ofPolish folk costumes, folkloreand arts and crafts, and collec-tions of ethnic and tribal artfrom around the world, includ-ing Africa, Australia, thePacific and Latin America.It also mounts occasionaltemporary exhibitions.In a neighbouringbuilding on UlicaMazowiecka, behind agate with bullet marks,is the glass-frontedArtist’s House (DomArtysty), whichcontains a modern artgallery. Also on UlicaMazowiecka areseveral bookshops,the best of whichare at theintersection withUlica Święto-krzyska. Upuntil the beginningof World War II,Ziemiańska, a veryfamous café, was tobe found at No. 22Ulica Mazowiecka.This was where thecream of societyand the artisticcommunitymet toexchangeideas andgossip overcoffee.Palace of Cultureand Science rpl. Defilad 1. Map 3 A1, 3 B1.Tel 022 656 76 00. @ E-5, 100,102, 105, 107, 117, 118, 119, 125,127, 130, 131, 150, 151, 158, 160,171, 174, 175, 178, 501, 502, 504,505, 506, 507, 510, 512, 514, 517,519, 520, 521, 522, 525, 700.v 4, 7, 8, 9, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 35,36. Q Centre (Centrum). Viewingplatform # 10am–6pm daily.& e m www.pkin.plQueen Juliana of theNetherlands is reputed tohave described the Palaceof Culture and Science (PałacKultury i Nauki) as “modestbut tasteful”. This enormousbuilding – a gift for thepeople of Warsaw from thenations of the USSR – wasbuilt in 1952–5 to the designof a Russian architect, LevRudniev. At the time, thismonument to “the spirit ofinvention and social progress”was the second tallest build-ing in Europe. It resemblesMoscow’s Socialist Realisttower blocks, and althoughit has only 30 storeys, withits spire it is 230 m 68 cm(750 ft) high. Its volumeis over 800,000 cubic m(28 million cubic ft) andit contains 40 millionbricks. It is said toincorporate manyarchitectural anddecorative elementstaken from statelyhomes after WorldWar II. Despite thepassage of time,this symbol ofSoviet dominationstill provokesextreme reactions,from admiration todemandsfor itsdemo-lition.Sacred figure,EthnographicalMuseum
  • 83. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A9 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Interior of Nożyk SynagogueNożyk Synagogue tul. Twarda 6. Map 1 A5. Tel 022620 43 24. @ 100, 151, 160.Jewish Historical Institute ul.Tłomackie 3/5. Tel 022 827 92 21.Nożyk Synagogue wasfounded by Zelman andRyfka Nożyk. In 1893 theydonated the land on whichit was to be built. Later theyleft half of their estate to theOrthodox Jewish community.The synagogue was builtbetween 1898 and 1902. Theinterior has an impressiveportico, crowned by a metaldome bearing the Star ofDavid, which contains the Arkof the Covenant. In the centreof the nave is a raised pulpitknown as a bema. The naveis surrounded by galleries thatwere originally intended forfemale worshippers.Today, this is the onlyactive synagogue in Warsaw.When it was built, it washidden away in the heart of ahousing estate, surrounded byhigh-rise tenement buildings.After the war, few of thesewere still standing. Duringthe Nazi occupation, thesynagogue was closed forworship and the Germanforces used it as a warehouse.Reopened in 1945, it waseventually (1977–83) restoredto its original condition.Of a total population ofno more than 1,300,000,there were about 400,000Jews in Warsaw beforeWorld War II; the city hadthe second largest Jewishpopulation after that of NewYork. The northern part ofWarsaw, which was inhabitedpredominantly by Jews, wasdensely built up, with manytenement blocks. Thelanguages spoken in the areawere Yiddish, Hebrew andalso Russian, spoken by Jewswho had fled Russia.Those interested in Jewishhistory and culture shouldalso visit the historic – thoughsomewhat overgrown –cemetery on Ulica Okopowa.The museum of the JewishHistorical Institute (ŻydowskiInstytut Historyczny), with alibrary, archives and Judaicmuseum, is also worth a visit.Pawiak Prison yul. Dzielna 24/26. Map 1 A2.Tel 022 831 13 17. @ 107, 500,510. v 16, 17, 19, 33. # 9am–5pm Wed, 9am–4pm Thu & Sat,10am–5pm Fri, 10am–4pm Sun.6 8 7 = mPawiak Prison was builtin the 1830s by HenrykMarconi. It became notoriousduring the Nazi occupation,when it was used to imprisonPoles and Jews arrested bythe Germans. Now in ruins,Pawiak serves as a museum.In front of the ruin standsa long-dead tree, coveredwith obituary notices forprisoners who died there.Tree with obituary notices infront of Pawiak PrisonUmschlagplatzMonument uul. Stawki. Map 1 A1.@ 100, 157, 303, 307.v 16, 17, 19, 33, 35, 36, 41.The Umschlagplatz Monument,unveiled in 1988, marks thesite of a former railway sidingUmschlagplatz Monument on the Path of Remembrance
  • 84. T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 9 1on Ulica Dzika. It was fromhere that some 300,000 Jewsfrom the Warsaw Ghetto andelsewhere were loaded ontocattle trucks and dispatchedto almost certain death in theextermination camps. Amongthem was Janusz Korczak andhis group of Jewish orphans.Living conditions in the Ghettowere inhuman, and by 1942over 100,000 of the inhabit-ants had died. The monu-ment, on which the architectHanna Szmalenberg and thesculptor Władysław Klameruscollaborated, is made ofblocks of black and whitemarble bearing the names ofhundreds of Warsaw’s Jews.Between the Monument tothe Heroes of the Ghetto andthe Umschlagplatz Monumentruns the Trail of JewishMartyrdom and Struggle,unveiled in 1988. It is markedby 16 blocks of granitebearing inscriptions in Polish,Hebrew and Yiddish and thedate 1940–43. The site of abunker, in which theuprising’s commanders blewthemselves up has beenspecially marked. Each blockis dedicated to the memory ofthe 450,000 Jewsmurdered in theWarsaw Ghetto inthe years 1940–43,to the heroes ofthe GhettoUprising in 1943and to certain keyindividuals fromthat time.Stone on the Path ofJewish RemembranceMonumentto theHeroes ofthe Ghetto iul. Zamenhofa. Map 1B2. @ 100, 111, 180.The Monumentto the Heroes ofthe Ghetto (PomnikBohaterów Getta)was erected in1948, when the cityof Warsaw still layin ruins. Created bythe sculptor NatanRapaport and thearchitect MarekSuzin, it symbolizesthe heroic defianceof the GhettoUprising of 1943,which was plannednot as a bid forliberty but as anhonourable wayto die. It lastedone month.Reliefs on themonument depictmen, women and childrenstruggling to flee the burningghetto, together with aprocession of Jewsbeing driven todeath camps underthe threat of Nazibayonets.In front of thismonument, on 7December 1970,Willy Brandt,Chancellor of WestMonument to the Heroes of the Ghetto (detail)Germany, knelt in homage tothe murdered victims. Today,people come here from allover the world to rememberthe heroes of the Uprising.A new museum dedicatedto the history of Polish Jewsis in the process of beingbuilt near to the monument,within the former ghetto areaof the city.Monument tothose Fallen andMurdered in theEast oul. Muranowska. Map 1 C1.@ 100, 116, 127, 157, 178, 222,503. v 4, 18, 35, 36, 41.This emotionally stirringmonument, designed byMirosław Biskupski, has theform of a typical railwaywagon in which Poles weredeported from the countryinto the depths of the SovietUnion. It is filled with a pileof crosses symbolising thehundreds of thousands ofPoles carted off to the Eastin cattle vans and murderedin Soviet prison camps.GHETTO UPRISINGThe Nazis created the Jewish ghetto on 16 November 1940.The area was carefully isolated with barbed wire fencing,which was later replaced with brick walls. Over 450,000people were crowded into the ghetto: Jews from Warsawand other parts of Poland as well as gypsies. In March 1942the Germans began to liquidate the ghetto, deporting over300,000 people to thedeath camp inTreblinka. The GhettoUprising, which beganon 19 April 1943 andlasted one month, wasorganized by the secretJewish FightingOrganization. Follow-ing the suppression ofthe Uprising, the Nazisrazed the whole areato the ground.
  • 85. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A9 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Grave of Father Jerzy Popiełuszko,Church of St Stanisław KostkaCentre for Con-temporary Art 2Jazdów 2. Map 3 C5. Tel 022 628 1271. @ E-2, 116, 138, 151, 166, 180,182, 187, 188, 195, 408, 411, 502,503, 514, 515, 520, 523, 525. #noon–7pm Tue–Sun (to 9pm Fri). &(free on Thu). 8 6 = m d 0The Centre for ContemporaryArt (Centrum SztukiWspółczesnej) organizesexhibitions of the work ofartists from all over the worldon a scale unequalled else-where in Europe. The centreis housed in UjazdowskiCastle, an early Baroquefortification built at thebeginning of the 17thcentury for Zygmunt IIIVasa and his son WładysławIV. The castle’s layout wasspacious – it had an internalcloistered courtyard and fourtowers – but its splendourwas destined to be short-lived; the Swedish armysacked it in 1655 and it laterchanged hands repeatedly,being rebuilt many times.During World War II,Ujazdowski Castle wasdestroyed by fire. Theruins were completelyremoved in 1953 andrebuilding of the castleonly began in the 1970s.Refreshments are availablein a room called the QchniaArtystyczna, which isdecorated in an original – ifperhaps mad – manner andwhich commands exquisiteviews from the escarpment.Church of StStanisław Kostka 1ul. Hozjusza 2. Tel 022 839 45 72.@ 103, 114, 116, 121, 122, 148,157, 181, 185, 195, 510.v 17, 27, 36.The Modernist Church ofSt Stanisław Kostka (Kościółśw. Stanisława Kostki), setamong the villas of Żoliborz,is the burial place of FatherJerzy Popiełuszko, the pastorof the Solidarity movement,and because of this it is aplace of pilgrimage for Poles.Popiełuszko was a nationalhero, renowned for hiscourageous sermons indefence of Poland’s freedom.He was eventually murderedin 1984 by communistsecurity agents. His grave isin the church cemetery; it iscovered with a stone crossand surrounded by linkedrocks arranged in the mannerof a rosary. The churchitself is distinguished byits openwork twin towers.Inside, there are Baroquepaintings by the Silesianartist Michael Willmann.Ujazdowski Castle, the home ofthe Centre for Contemporary ArtŁazienki Palace 3See pp94–95.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEBelvedere Palace 4Centre for Contemporary Art 2Church of St Anthony 6Church of St Stanisław Kostka 1Królikarnia Palace 5Łazienki Palace 3Warsaw Rising Museum 7Wilanów 8KEYCity centreMain roadOther roadRiverAirportFurther AfieldThere are many places of interest outside thecentre of Warsaw. The most important lie alongthe Royal Route stretching from the Royal Castlein the north to Wilanów in the south, and also onthe edges of the escarpment that runs down to theleft bank of the River Vistula; here there are severalcountry mansions with extensive parks. Most can bereached by tram or by bus.
  • 86. F U R T H E R A F I E L D 9 3Façade of the Neo-Classical Belvedere Palace, looking onto the gardensBelvedere Palace 4ul. Belwederska 52.@ 116, 166, 180, 195, 503.# weekends Jun–Aug.The history of BelvederePalace (Belweder) goesback to the 17th century. Itspresent appearance, however,dates from 1818, when it wasrefashioned by Jakub Kubickifor the Russian governorgeneral Prince Constantine(the much hated brother ofTsar Alexander I) and hisPolish aristocrat wife. On thenight of 29 November 1830, adetachment of cadet officers,together with a number ofstudents, attacked thepalace, startingthe NovemberInsurrection.After 1918,Belvedere Palacebecame the officialresidence of thepresidents of Poland,including MarshalJózef Piłsudski(1867–1935), to whoman exhibition situatedin the palaceis devoted.To the southof the palace,on the formersite of theUjazdowskiChurch, aterrace wasbuilt with alandscaped park at the footof the escarpment. It wasadorned with canals, apool and several romanticpavilions in Greek, Egyptianand Gothic styles. Thesegrounds are now part ofŁazienki Park.KrólikarniaPalace 5ul. Puławska 113a. Tel 022 843 1586. @ 505. v 4, 18, 19, 33, 36. #10am–4pm Tue–Sun (6pm Thu & Sat).& (free on Thu). 8 d 6 no flash.m www.krolikarnia.mnw.art.plKrólikarnia Palace (PalacykKrólikarnia) owes its name(“rabbit hutch”) to the factthat it stands on the site of arabbit farm that belonged toAugust II in the 1700s. It is asquare building covered witha dome, recalling Andrea Pal-ladio’s masterpiece, the VillaRotonda, nearVicenza. Thisexquisite littleNeo-Classicalpalace is set ina garden onthe slope ofthe escarpmentin the districtof Mokotów. Itwas designed byDominik Merlini forKarol de Valery Thom-atis, the director ofStanisław August Poni-atowski’s royal theatres.Today the palacehouses the XaweryDunikowskiMuseum,dedicated tothis contem-porary Polishsculptor.The Baroque Church ofSt Anthony (Kościół śwAntoniego), built between1687 and 1693 by the monksof the Bernardine order, wasdesigned by Tylman vanGameren. The church standson the site of the formervillage of Czerniaków, whichbelonged to StanisławHerakliusz Lubomirski, theGrand Crown Marshal.The relatively plainfaçade of this church beliesits ornate interior, whichincludes trompe l’oeilpaintings, stuccoworkand altars by the painterFrancesco Antonio Giorgioloand the renowned sculptorAndreas Schlüter, amongothers. The main theme ofthe paintings is the life ofSt Anthony of Padua.Fatum, a sculpture by XaweryDunikowski in Królikarnia ParkBaroque Church of St Anthonyat CzerniakówWarsaw RisingMuseum 7ul. Grzybowska 79. Tel 022 539 7905. @ 100, 106, 155. v 20, 22,24, 32, 45. # 8am–6pm Mon,Wed–Fri (to 8pm Thu), 10am–6pmSat & Sun. & (free on Sun).One of the most popularmuseums in Warsaw openedin 2004 to commemoratethe 60th anniversary of theWarsaw Rising in 1944. Atribute to those who foughtand died for Poland’s inde-pendence, the museum re-creates the atmosphere duringthose 63 days of militarystruggle, but it also conveyswhat everyday life was likeunder Nazi occupation.Church ofSt Anthony 6ul. Czerniakowska 2/4. Tel 022 84203 71. @ 131, 159, 162, 180, 185,187. # by appt only, or duringceremonies.
  • 87. W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A9 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Łazienki Palace 3Łazienki Park is part of a great complex of heritagegardens. In the 17th century there was a royalmenagerie along the foot of the escarpment. In 1674,Grand Crown Marshal Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirskiacquired the park and, engaging the services of Tylmanvan Gameren, he altered the southern part of themenagerie, building a hermitage and a bathing pavilionon an island. The pavilion gave the park its name(Łazienki meaning “baths”). In the second half of the18th century, the park was owned by Stanisław AugustPoniatowski, who commissioned Karol Ludwik Agricola,Karol Schultz and later Jan Christian Schuch to lay it outas a formal garden. Lubomirski’s baths were refashionedinto a royal residence, Łazienki Palace, or Palace on theWater, which is now a museum.Temple of the SibylThis Neo-Classicalbuilding, basedon an ancientGreek temple,dates from the1820s. It ismade of wood.Old OrangeryIn 1774–8, Dominik Merlini created theStanisławowski Theatre in the OldOrangery. It is one of the few remaining18th-century court theatres in the world.Monument to ChopinThis Secessionistmonument wassculpted in 1908 byWacław Szymanowski butnot unveiled until 1926.Positioned at the side of alake, it depicts Poland’smost celebratedcomposer sittingunder a willow tree,seeking inspirationfrom nature.PeacockJust as in Stanisław AugustPoniatowski’s time, visitorsto Łazienki Park canadmire the peacocks andtake a boat ride on the lake,which is full of carp.STAR SIGHTS. Palace on the Water. Theatre on the Island0 m0 yds100100
  • 88. F U R T H E R A F I E L D 9 5Myślewicki PalaceDominik Merlini designed the earlyNeo-Classical Myślewicki Palace in 1775–84for Stanisław August Poniatowski’s nephew,Prince Józef Poniatowski.New OrangeryThis building incast iron and glasswas designed byJózef Orłowski andAdam Loewe in1860–61.. Theatre on the IslandThe stage of the Theatre on the Island has apermanent backdrop imitating the ruins of atemple in the ancient city of Baalbek, Lebanon.. Palace on the WaterStanisław Lubomirski’s 17th-centurybaths were converted (1772–93) intothe Palace on the Water, StanisławAugust Poniatowski’s summer home.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTŁazienki Królewskie, ul. Agrykola1. Map 3 C5. Tel 022 506 0101. @ 108, 116, 138, 166, 180,187, 195, 503. Park # dailyuntil dusk. Palace on theWater # 9am–4pm Tue–Sun.& (free on Thu). MyślewickiPalace # by appt (022 621 8212). & Old Orangery # byappt. & (free on Thu). 8www.lazienki-krolewskie.com
  • 89. Wilanów 8Wilanów Palace wasbuilt at the end of the17th century as thesummer residence of JanIII Sobieski. This illus-trious monarch, whovalued family life asmuch as materialsplendour, commissioned AugustynLocci to build a modest country house.Later the palace was extended and adornedby renowned architects and artists includingAndreas Schlüter and Michelangelo Palloni.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A9 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17Main GatewayDating from the time of Jan III Sobieski,the Main Gateway is crowned withallegorical figures of War and Peace.. Poster MuseumA former ridingschool rebuilt in the1960s now housesthe Poster Museum,the first of its kindin Europe.Detail from GloryGreat CrimsonRoomOriginally a three-room apartment, theGreat Crimson Roomwas reconstructed in1900 to house themuseum’s array offoreign paintings.ChinesePavilionThis small buildingstands in the English-style garden on thenorth side of thepalace.
  • 90. F U R T H E R A F I E L D 9 70 m0 yds5050VISITORS’ CHECKLISTul. SK Potockiego 10/16. Tel 022842 25 09. @ E-2, 116, 117, 130,139, 164, 180, 519, 522, 700, 710,724. Palace # 9:30am–6:30pmMon–Sat (4:30pm Tue, Thu, Fri &Oct–Apr), 10:30am–6:30pm Sun(4:30pm Oct–Apr). ¢ Jan, Tue(Oct–Apr). & (free Sun). Park #9am–dusk. & 8 m = - ^d www.wilanow-palac.art.pl. Queen’sAntechamberThe walls arecovered withoriginal Baroquefabric while theceiling has alle-gorical paintings.King’sBedchamberThe bed canopyis made of fabricbrought back byJan III Sobieskifrom his victoryagainst the Turksat the Battle ofVienna in 1683.Rear Façade of the PalaceOpen perspectives allow the rearfaçade of the palace to be seen fromacross the park, and even from theadjoining fields of Morysin.. Rose GardenThis section of Wilanów’s garden was createdin the 19th century to the south of the palace.STAR FEATURES. Queen’s Antechamber. Poster Museum. Rose Garden
  • 91. WARSAW STREET FINDERThecoordinatesgivenalong-side the names of buildingsand attractions in Warsawrefer to the street plan on pages100–3. Map coordinates arealso given alongside informa-tion about Warsaw hotels (seepp298–9) and restaurants (seepp316–17). The first digit indi-cates the relevant page number;the letter and following numberare grid references. On the planopposite, Warsaw is dividedinto four sectors correspondingto the four maps on pages 100–103. The symbols that appear onthe maps are explained in the keybelow. The plan of the city iden-tifies the most important monu-ments and places of interest.W A R S A W A R E A B Y A R E A9 80 m0 yds500500Façade of the Neo-Classical GrandTheatre designed byAntonio Corazzi, onPlac TeatralnySummer café garden in the Old TownMarathon runners on Krakowskie PrzedmieścieChurch of the Holy Spirit from Ulica FretaTourists in WarsawKEYImportant monumentPlace of interestOther buildingRailway stationMetroParkingTourist informationHospital or first aid stationPolice stationChurchSynagoguePost officeTaxi rankRailway lineOne-way streetPedestrianized street
  • 92. W A R S A W S T R E E T F I N D E R 9 9250250Fountain in Saxon GardensStatue of TheMermaid in theOld TownSCALE OF MAPS 1–4THECITYCENTRETHEROYALROUTEOLD&NEWTOWNS0 m0 yds
  • 94. Poland at a GlanceWhile southern Poland consists of a band ofmountains and uplands, Central Poland is aland of endless plains. In the north, a post-glacial landscape dominates, and the Balticcoast, though fairly cool, has beautiful sandybeaches. Its provinces also offer unblemishednatural landscapes. The Tatra Mountains, thehighest in Poland, are traversed by well-marked footpaths, from which fine viewsand a pure alpine environment can beenjoyed. For admirers of manmadestructures, many historic buildings havesurvived in regional Poland, despite thecountry’s stormy history.Panorama over the Vistula from Kazimierz DolnyP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 0 6The GdańskCrane (see p237)is one of the largestEuropean cranesdating from theMiddle Ages.Restored after wardamage, it standsas a symbol of thecity’s formercommercial might.Raczyński Palace (seepp212–13) at Rogalin is oneof the most splendidresidences in Greater Poland.The late Baroque palace nowhouses a museum of interiorsand a valuable collection ofpaintings. It is surroundedby a beautiful park withancient oaks.The town hall inWrocław (see p191)is one of the mostinteresting lateMedieval buildingsin Central Europe. Itis crowned withunusual finials and finestone sculptures.POMERANIA(See pp250–73)GDAŃSK(See pp230–49)WIELKOPOLSKA(GREATER POLAND)(See pp206–29)WCRACOW(See pp126–45)Many of the attractive sandybeaches (see p259) on theBaltic Sea are backed by cliffs,which are vulnerable tostorm damage.SILESIA(See pp174–205)0 km0 miles7575
  • 95. P O L A N D A T A G L A N C E 1 0 7The Mazurian Lake District (see pp284–5), known as“The Land of a Thousand Lakes”, is a wilderness, withgreat forests, extensive woods and marshlands, andbrick-built houses, Gothic churches and castles. Its purecharacter, unspoilt by civilization, is appreciated bystorks: more nest here than anywhere else in Europe.The Cloth Hall in Cracow (see p131), anunusual building in the centre of MainMarket Square, once contained marketstalls. Today it is filled with shops sellingsouvenirs and local folk art, and popularcafés. On the first floor there is a splendidgallery of 19th-century Polish art.Krasiczyn Castle (see p170),dating from the early 17thcentury, is defended bysturdy towers. The walls haveelaborate parapets.WARMIA, MAZURIA ANDBIAŁYSTOK REGION(See pp274–91)MAZOVIA ANDTHE LUBLIN REGION(See pp108–25)WARSAW(See pp56–103)MAŁOPOLSKA(LESSER POLAND)(See pp146–73)In Kazimierz Dolny (see p119), underthe Renaissance colonnades of the townhouses in the market square, paintingsare on display and wicker basketsoffered for sale. Fortune-telling gypsiesmingle among the tourists.
  • 96. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 1 0 9Neo-Gothic mansion of Zygmunt Krasiński in OpinogóraFor centuries, Mazoviawas, both culturally andeconomically, one of theleast developed areas ofthe ethnically Polish landsof the Commonwealth ofTwo Nations. In the earlyMiddle Ages it was the home-land of the Mazowie tribe. It wasunited with the state of the Polanieunder Prince Mieszko I (963–92). ThePrincipality of Mazovia came into exis-tence in 1138, during the division ofPoland, and it preserved its indepen-dence for nearly 400 years. Mazovia wasincorporated into the Kingdom ofPoland in 1526 after the death of thelast Mazovian princes, and in 1596,Sigismund III Vasa moved the capitalof the Commonwealth of Two Nationsfrom Cracow to Warsaw, in Mazovia.Mazovia’s cultural distinctivenesshas been influenced by the presenceof a politically activeyet conservative pettyyeoman-gentry. Eventoday, in the east of theregion and in Podlasie,farmsteads, with humblecottages built in the styleof mansions, can be seen.Apart from Warsaw, thetowns of Mazovia have always beenmodest, and this is evident eventoday in more recent buildings andmodern urban planning.After the Congress of Vienna (1815),Mazovia and the Lublin region formedpart of the Congress Kingdom, underRussian rule. In 1918, the whole areawas returned to the reborn Poland.The Lublin area differs considerablyfrom Mazovia, in both landscape andculture. Its architectural jewel is thedelightful town of Kazimierz Dolny,on the banks of the Vistula.MAZOVIA AND THE LUBLIN REGIONMazovia – a region famous for its orchardsIn the nostalgic lowland landscape of Mazovia, sandy roads windthrough the fields, lines of windswept willows stand in isolation, andmeadows stretch to the edge of valleys where swift rivers flow. Forcenturies, Podlasie was the borderland between the Poles and the easternSlavonic peoples. The hilly Lublin region has many excellent examples ofRenaissance and Baroque architecture.
  • 97. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 1 0The Kampinoska Forest (Puszcza Kampinoska),a national park, extends out from the suburbs ofWarsaw. There are also large tracts of woodland, withwild animals, in the north and south of Mazovia.The Lublin region has a more diverse landscape.The gorge of the Vistula, around the town ofKazimierz Dolny, is one of the region’smost beautiful sights. Roztocze andZamość, widely described as the“pearl of the Renaissance”, are alsovery picturesque. In Mazovia, theruins of brick-built castles canbe seen, and in both regionsthere are many countrymansions. Żelazowa Wola isFrédéric Chopin’s birthplaceand nearby Łowicz is a well-known centre of folklore.SEE ALSO• Where to Stay p300.• Restaurants and Bars pp317–18.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEArkadia 8Chełm aCiechanów 2Czersk wCzerwińsk on the Vistula 5Iłża tKazimierz Dolny uKozłówka oŁowicz 7Lublin pp120–121 iNieborów 9Opinogóra 3Płock 1Pułtusk 4Radom eRadzyń Podlaski pSzydłowiec rTreblinka 0Węgrów qZamość pp124–125 sŻelazowa Wola 6ToursA Tour aroundKazimierz Dolny yExploring Mazovia and the Lublin RegionFor additional map symbols see back flapThe house of the novelist Stefan Żeromski(1864–1925) in NałęczówLandscape of Roztocze, in the Lublin uplands
  • 98. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 1 1Detail of the Romanesque portal of the church inCzerwińsk on the VistulaGETTING AROUNDWarsaw, the chief city of Mazovia, hasregular air links to major cities worldwideand to principal towns in Poland. All thelarger towns in both regions have raillinks. Travelling by express fromWarsaw to Lublin takes a littleover two hours. All placesrecommended in thisguidebook are accessibleby bus. However, manyof the smaller ones aremore easily reachedby car. Highway E 30crosses Mazovia from eastto west. From Warsaw, takehighway E 77 for Radomand highway 17 for Lublin.KEYMain roadMinor roadMain railwayMinor railwayInternational borderRegional border250 km0 miles 25
  • 99. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 1 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300 and pp317–18Płock 1Road map D3. * 126,000.£ @ n ul. Stary Rynek 8(024 367 19 44). www.ump.plThis city, beautifully situatedon the high Vistula Bluff, isbest known today for itslarge petrochemical plants. Itshistory, however, goes backmany centuries. From 1075,Płock was the seat of thebishopric of Mazovia. UnderWładysław I (1079–1102)and his heir Bołesław IIIWrymouth (1102– 1138), Płockwas the capital of Poland andthe favoured royal seat. From1138 to the end of the 15thcentury, Płock was the placeof residence of the Mazovianand Płock princes. In the12th century, it was animportant centre of politicaland cultural life in Poland.The buildings of old Płockare relatively modest,although the small Neo-Classical houses, nowrestored, make a picturesqueensemble. Particularlynoteworthy is the Neo-Classical town hall, builtin 1824–7 to a design byJakub Kubicki. Here, on 23September 1831 during theuprising against Russian rule,the final session of theinsurgent Sejm of theKingdom of Poland was held.Another notable buildingis the large Neo-Gothiccathedral (1911–19) of theMariavite Church of Poland.Also worth seeing are theBaroque church, the Classicaltoll-gates and the remains ofthe Gothic city walls.R Cathedral of Our Ladyof Mazoviaul. Tumska 3. Tel 024 262 34 35.# 10am–5pm Mon–Sat, 11am–2pmSun (use the side entrance).The most interesting part ofPłock is Tum Hill (WzgórzeTumskie), with its RenaissanceCathedral of Our Lady ofMazovia and castle remains.The cathedral, built in 1531–5was the first large Renaissancechurch in Poland. It was raisedby Andrzej Krzycki, Bishop ofPłock, later Primate of Polandand a noted scholar and poet.Giovanni Cini and BernadinoZanobi de Gianotisa were thearchitects, with later rebuildingby Gianbattista of Venice. Theinterior of the cathedral is fullof Renaissance and Baroquetombstones. A marble sarcoph-agus in the Royal Chapel hoststhe remains of Władysław Iand his son Bołesław III. Thegrand Neo-Renaissance façadeof the cathedral, with its twintowers, was built at the startof the 20th century to acontroversial design by StefanSzyller, who was in charge ofthe restoration work.Tum Hill from the Vistula, with the cathedral and Benedictine abbeyE Museum of Mazoviaul. Tumska 8. Tel 024 364 70 71.# 1 May–14 Oct: 10am–5pmTue–Sun; 15 Oct–30 Apr: 10am–3pmTue, 10am–4pm Wed–Fri, 10:30am–4:30pm Sat & Sun. & (free on Thu).The Museum of Mazovia(Muzeum Mazowieckie) islocated in a former monasteryand houses one of the largestcollections of Art Nouveau inthe world. Exhibits includereconstructions of domesticinteriors, with works of art,furniture, textiles, andeveryday objects of the period.EnvironsThere are sports facilities onLake Włocławek, a reservoir onthe Vistula, and a stud farm atŁąck, 9 km (5 miles) from Płock.The nave of the Renaissancecathedral in PłockThe Neo-Classical town hall in theOld Market Square in PłockE Diocesan Museumul. Tumska 3a. Tel 024 262 26 23.# May–Sep: 10am–3pm Tue–Sat,11am–4pm Sun & public hols; Oct–Apr: 10am–1pm Wed–Sat, 11am–2pm Sun & public hols. & 8www.muzeumdiecezjalneplock.plThe Diocesan Museum(Muzeum Diecezjalne) containsa rich collection of cathedraltreasures. Especially note-worthy are the gold vesselsand liturgical textiles, particu-larly the chasubles, the oldestof which date from the 1400s.The museum also possesseswoven sashes from the oldcourt dress of the nobility(see pp28–9). Sashes wereoften made into vestments.
  • 100. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 1 3Ciechanów 2Road map E3. * 47,000. £ @n ul. Warszawska 34.On the edge of the townstand the Gothic ruins ofthe red-brick Castle of theMazovian princes, builtaround 1420–30. AfterMazovia was incorporatedinto the Kingdom of Poland,the widowed Queen Bonaoften stayed here. Today,the castle accommodatesone of the exhibitions of theMuseum of the MazovianNobility (Muzeum SzlachtyMazowieckiej).In the town itself is theGothic Church of theAnnunciation, founded in thefirst half of the 16th centuryand rebuilt in the 17th, theparish Church of the Nativityof the Blessed Virgin Mary,dating from the 16th century,and the modest Neo-Gothictown hall, designed byHenryk Marconi in the mid-19th century. The low-riseapartment blocks with gableroofs near the railway stationwere built during the Nazioccupation. After the fallof Poland in September1939 and the annexation ofnorthern Mazovia to the ThirdReich, the Nazis planned tosettle German colonists inmany towns here. Except forthe castle and parish church,they intended to demolish thewhole of Ciechanów andbuild it anew.E Museum of theMazovian Nobilityul. Warszawska 61a. Tel 023 67253 46. # 8am–4pm Tue–Sun(Jul–Aug: 10am–6pm). & (freeone day a week, usually Sat).www.muzeumciechanow.plRegional Museum. Of equalinterest is the Gothic-Renaissance collegiatechurch, with barrel vaultingover the nave executedby Gianbattista of Venicein 1551 and 1556.To the south of the marketsquare rise the walls of thecastle of the bishops of Płock.Destroyed and rebuilt anumber of times, it incorpor-ates Renaissance, Baroqueand Neo-Classical elements.After restoration work in the1980s the House of the PolishDiaspora (Dom Polonii) wasset up here. Visitors can stayin the hotel and enjoy tennis,canoeing, rowing, horse ridingand winter sledging parties.The old-time Polish kitchen,which serves home-made fruitand berry liqueurs and home-baked sourdough bread, isrecommended. Also worthseeing in the old town is the18th-century Jesuit Churchof Saints Peter and Paul.E Regional MuseumRynek 1. Tel 023 692 51 32.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun & publichols. & (free on Thu).EnvironsNear the town, on the rightbank of the Narwa are watermeadows and the WhiteForest (Puszcza Biała), whichhas a rich variety of plantsand wildlife, including over200 species of birds.Opinogóra 3Road map E3. * 580. £ @Opinogóra is closelyassociated with CountZygmunt Krasiński (1812–59),a leading poet of the Romanticmovement. The tiny Neo-Gothic mansion, situated inan extensive landscaped park,was built as a wedding presentfor him. According to thelocals, it was designed bythe French architect EugèneEmmanuel Viollet-le-Duc,although art historians attributeit to Henryk Marconi. Today,the mansion houses theMuseum of Romanticism(Muzeum Romantyzmu).The romantic park in whichthe mansion is set alsocontains the parish church,with the mausoleum of theKrasiński family where thepoet is buried. Noteworthytoo is the marble tomb ofCount Zygmunt’s mother,Maria Krasińska, by LuigiPampaloni, dating from 1841.E Museum of Romanticismul. Krasińskiego 9. Tel 023 671 7025. # 10am–6pm Tue–Sun (Oct–Apr: 8am–4pm).The town hall at Pułtusk, in one ofEurope’s longest market squaresRuins of the Gothic Castle of the Mazovian princes in CiechanówPułtusk 4Road map E3. * 18,600. @n Wieża Ratuszowa 11 (023 69251 32).Of all the small towns inMazovia, Pułtusk has the mostbeautiful setting. Its historiccentre, located on an islandformed by an arm of the RiverNarwa, has one of the longestmarket squares in Europe.The town hall, with its Gothicbrick tower, houses the small
  • 101. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 1 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18Czerwińsk onthe Vistula 5Road map E3. * 1,200. @The church and monasteryin Czerwińsk on theVistula, formerly owned bythe Canons Regular and nowby the Salesian order, areamong the oldest buildings inMazovia. The monastery wasin existence by 1155 and theRomanesque basilica wasprobably built in the time ofBishop Aleksander of Płockin the mid-12th century. Inspite of later Gothic andmodern alterations, the mainbody of the building largelyretains its original appear-ance. The basilica’s nave andaisles each end in an apse –a characteristic feature ofRomanesque churches. In1410, the massed armies ofMałopolska, Lithuania andRuthenia gathered around theGothic bell tower on theirmarch to war against theTeutonic Knights.EnvironsA few miles west of Czerwińskis the poor but nonethelesscharming little town ofWyszogród, overlooking theVistula. In the Middle Ages ithad a castle (demolished at theend of the 18th century) andwas the seat of a castellany.Evidence of the town’s pastglory survives in the churchand partially preserved formerFranciscan friary, foundedin 1406 and rebuilt severaltimes in the 17th and 18thcenturies. There is also aBaroque parish churchdating from 1779–89.Żelazowa Wola 6Road map E3. * 60. @The romantic manor set ina verdant, well-tended parkis the birthplace of thecomposer Fryderyk Chopin(1810–49). At the time of hisbirth, however, it was no morethan a thatched outbuildingin which Chopin’s parents,Mikołaj and Justyna Tekla,rented a few rooms. In1930–31, the building wasconverted into the ChopinMuseum (Muzeum – DomUrodzenia Fryderyka Chopina)and the park around it plantedwith trees and shrubs donatedby horticulturalists from allover Poland. Inside wereassembled all kinds of objectsassociated with the composer.During the German occup-ation, many of these werelooted by the Nazis, the musicof Chopin was banned and allpictures and busts of thecomposer were destroyed.After World War II, the manorwas rebuilt, and in 1948 themuseum was finally reopenedonce more to the public.Concerts of Chopin’s musicare given in the house andgarden, providing visitors witha unique opportunity to hearthe music of the most inspiredcomposer of the Romanticperiod in the atmosphere of anearly 19th-century mansion.Near Żelazowa Wola liesthe village of Brochów, onthe edge of the KampinoskaForest (Puszcza Kampinoska).Fryderyk Chopin waschristened in the fortifiedRenaissance church here.E Chopin MuseumTel 046 863 33 00. # May–Sep:9:30am–5:30pm Tue–Sun;Oct–Apr: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun.Concerts May–Sep: noon Tue–Sun(Sun also 3pm). &The manor in Żelazowa Wola, birthplace of Frédéric ChopinŁowicz 7Road map D3. * 31,000. £ @n Stary Rynek 3 (046 830 91 49).www.um.lowicz.plThe relatively small townof Łowicz, established in the13th century, was the seat ofone of the oldest castellaniesin Poland. For severalcenturies, its castle (which isno longer standing) was theresidence of the bishops ofGniezno, primates of Poland.The collegiate church, whichwas founded in the MiddleAges and rebuilt in the 17thcentury, contains many notableworks of art. It also houses anumber of tombs, the mostThe twin-towered basilica inCzerwińsk on the VistulaWoman from Łowicz dressed inregional costume
  • 102. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 1 5illustrious occupant of whichwas Primate Jakub Uchański(d. 1581). His tomb’s mostnoteworthy features are a 16th-century alabaster carving byJan Michałowicz of Urzędówand an early Neo-Classicalframe by Ephraim Schroeger,dating from 1782–3.The magnificent lateBaroque high altar was madebetween 1761 and 1764 byJan Jerzy Plersch to a designby Schroeger. It is consideredby many to be one of themost original altars in Poland.The altar painting, crownedby an aureole and enclosedbetween the pilasters of anarrow frame, makes a greatimpression on churchgoersand tourists alike.Near the collegiate churchis the old Piarist church(kościół Pijarów) – thePiarists were a Catholic order.Its late Baroque undulatingfaçade, which dates fromaround 1729, is extremelyeye-catching. The interior ofthe building has Baroquealtars by Jan Jerzy Plersch.On the other side of OldMarket Square, in the build-ings of a former monasteryand seminary for missionaries,is the Łowicz RegionalMuseum (Muzeum ZiemiŁowickiej) devoted to thefolklore of the Łowicz area.Its exhibits include character-istic Łowicz costumes of the19th and early 20th centuries,decorative paper cutouts andfolk embroidery.In the former chapel, builtin 1689–1701 to designs byTylman van Gameren anddecorated with frescoes byMichelangelo Palloni, objectsfrom the prehistoric Sarmatianculture are on display.Łowicz comes alive atCorpus Christi, when inhonour of this celebrationlocal people dress incolourful traditional costumesto take part in a splendidprocession that winds its waythrough the centre of town.E Łowicz Regional MuseumStary Rynek 5/7. Tel 046 837 39 28.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun. ¢ Mon& pub hols. & (free on Sat).www.muzeum.low.plR Collegiate ChurchStary Rynek 27. Tel 046 837 67 08.Nieborów 9Road map E3. * 950. @The Baroque palace inNieborów was built byTylman van Gamerenbetween 1690 and 1696for Primate Michał S.Radziejowski, Archbishopof Gniezno. Radziejowskiwas a noted connoisseur ofliterature, music, art andarchitecture, and as such wasa client worthy of Tylman.A symmetric garden wasalso laid out. Around 1766,at the wish of a later owner,Prince Michal K. Ogiński,the building’s façade wasadorned with a Rococofigure portraying a dancingBacchus, with a bunch ofgrapes and a garland onhis head. Ogiński is alsofamous for the constructionof a canal, which, via theriver system, linked theBlack Sea to the Baltic.Between 1774 and 1945,Nieborów Palace was theproperty of the aristocraticRadziwiłł family. It is famousfor its fine furnishings, whichinclude Antoine Pesne’sportrait of the famous beautyAnna Orzelska, who was thenatural daughter of AugustII (1697–1733), and theantique head of Niobe,praised in the poetry ofKonstanty IldefonsGałczyński (1905–53).This Roman head, whichwas carved in white marbleafter a Greek original ofthe 4th century BC, waspresented to PrincessHelena Radziwiłłowaby Catherine the Great.Arkadia 8Road map D3. * 250. @Not far from Łowicz, onthe road to Nieborów,lies Arkadia, a sentimentallyromantic landscaped park.Laid out in 1778 by PrincessHelena Radziwiłłowa,Arkadia’s attractions includea lake with two islands and anumber of romantic pavilionsfancifully designed onhistorical or mythologicalthemes by Szymon BogumiłZug and Henryk Ittar.Among ancient trees standthe Temple of Diana, theHigh Priest’s House, theMargrave’s Cottage withGreek arch, the GothicCottage, the Grotto of theSybil and the Aqueduct.On some of the pavilionwalls, fragments of decorativecarving and stoneworksalvaged from the destroyedRenaissance bishops’ castlein Łowicz are mounted.A grand interior at Nieborów PalaceTemple of Diana in Arkadia, thelandscaped park near Łowicz
  • 103. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 1 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300 and pp317–18Treblinka 0Road map F3. * 270. £ @In 1941, the Nazis establisheda labour camp, Treblinka I,and in 1942 a death camp,Treblinka II. Around 800,000people, mainly Jews fromliquidated ghettos, weremurdered here. Thosebrought to Treblinka IIwere taken off the trainsand herded, withouteven being registered,to the gas chambers.Up until March 1943,the victims were buriedin mass graves. After March1943, the graves were dugup and the bodies burned.Thereafter all bodies wereburned. In November1943, Treblinka II wasclosed and the groundploughed over andseeded. Today, the TreblinkaMuseum of Struggle andMartyrdom stands as areminder of the past.In 1964, two monumentswere erected on the site ofthe camp. The monument atTreblinka II is large, spread-ing over 13 ha (30 acres).It gives an impression of“hundreds of thousandsof human beings, comingfrom nowhere, in a spectralpilgrimage, going to theirdeaths”. It is the work ofthe architect Adam Hauptand the sculptors FranciszekDuszenko and FranciszekStrynkiewicz.E Treblinka Museum ofStruggle and MartyrdomKosów Lacki 76. Tel 025 78116 58. # 9am–6:30pm daily(Nov–Mar: to 4pm). & 8Ruins of the castle at CzerskCzersk wRoad map E4. * 400. @Today, Czersk is no morethan a small village; in thedistant past it was the capitalof Mazovia. By 1413 – mostprobably due to a change inthe course of the Vistula,which had suddenly movedaway from Czersk – that rolehad passed to Warsaw. Thespectacular ruins of theprincely castle tower overthe Vistula. The road to thefortress crosses a bridge overthe moat. Here, three hightowers still stand. In the 12thcentury, Prince KonradMazowiecki used one of itsdungeons to imprison thesmall boy who later becamePrince Bolesław the Shy ofMonument to the victims of the death camps at TreblinkaWęgrów qRoad map F3. * 12,900. @Węgrów is a small townsituated on the historicalboundary between Mazoviaand Podlasie. Its large, rect-angular marketplace isdistinguished by theGothic-Baroque parishchurch, dating from1703–6. Its interioris decorated withpaintings byMichelangeloPalloni and fineBaroque images.The sacristrycontains a mirror witha Latin inscriptionindicating that thelegendary PanTwardowski – thePolish Faust, whoreputedly flew to theMoon on the back of acockerel – used it in hispractice of the black arts.Nearby stands a somewhatneglected post-Reformationchurch, datingfrom 1693–1706. Inside isan impressiveBaroquemonumentto thefounder, JanBonawenturaKrasiński,depicting Chronos and afemale figure pointing to thespot where Krasiński is buried.EnvironsAt Liw, 6 km (4 miles) west ofWęgrów, are the remains of aGothic castle erected in the15th century. The castle wassurrounded by marshes, andthe gates could be reachedonly by a causeway. It wastwice stormed by Swedes inthe 17th century. In 1782, asmall house was erected onthe rubble for the countychancellery. Today it houses aMuseum of Arms (MuzeumZbrojownia), which besides adisplay of weaponry containsportraits by the 18th-centurySarmatian School.In Stara Wieś to the northis the palace of the Krasiński-Golicyny family, which hasthe finest examples in Polandof interiors in the EnglishGothic style.E Museum of ArmsLiw, ul. Batorego 2. Tel 025 792 5717. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sat, 11am–4pm Sun & public hols (May–Sep:11am–6pm Sat & Sun). & 8Armour, Museumof Arms, Liw
  • 104. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 1 7Cracow and Prince Henrykthe Bearded of Wrocław.EnvironsGóra Kalwaria, 3 km(2 miles) north of Czersk,was once an important placeof pilgrimage. Interestingfeatures include the marketsquare, with the Church ofthe Exaltation of the HolyCross and the small Neo-Classical trade halls. Thepresent parish church oncebelonged to the Bernardines.Before World War II,many Jews lived in GóraKalwaria. Today, the Jewishcemetery serves as amemorial to that time.Instruments, the onlymuseum of its kind in Poland.E Museum of Folk MusicalInstrumentsul. Sowińskiego 2. Tel 048 61717 89. # 7am–3:30pm Tue–Fri,9:30am–5:30pm Sat, 9am–5pm Sun(Nov–Apr: 8:30am–3:30pm Tue–Sun).¢ public hols. & (free on Sat).EnvironsIn Chlewiska, 11 km (7 miles)west of Szydłowiec, are theremains of an early 19th-century ironworks. A palacestands nearby.which contain 30 tombs andmemorial plaques, the oldestof which dates from the 1500s.Wooden cottages, windmillsand two 18th-century manorsare displayed in the skansenat Radom Rural Museum.E Radom Rural Museumul. Szydłowiecka 30. Tel 048 33292 81. # 8am–6pm Tue–Fri,10am–6pm Sat & Sun (winter:to 3pm). ¢ public hols.www.muzeum-radom.plEnvironsIn parkland at Orońsk, 17 km(11 miles) from Radom, is themansion of Józef Brandt(1841–1915), the noted painterof battle scenes. It is open tovisitors, for whom a displayof objects relating to the artist’slife and work has been laidout. Another attraction is theCentre for Polish Sculpture,housed in a modern buildingwithin the park. Internationalexhibitions and a sculpturebiennale are held here.Centre for Polish Sculptureul. Topolowa 1, Orońsk. Tel 048618 45 16. # Apr–Oct: 8am–4pmTue–Fri, 10am–6pm Sat & Sun; Nov–Mar: 7am–3pm Tue–Fri, 8am–4pmSat & Sun. www.rzezba-oronsko.plLate Renaissance town hall in SzydłowiecSzydłowiec rRoad map E4. * 12,800. @www.szydlowiec.plThe most significant featuresof this small town are the lateRenaissance town hall and theGothic-Renaissance castle,set on an island. The castlewas built in 1510–16 andremodelled in the 17thcentury. Of its richinterior decoration,only traces remain. Ofgreater interest is theMuseum ofFolk MusicalRadom eRoad map E4. * 225,000. £ @n ul. Traugutta 3 (048 360 06 10).www.radom.plThis comparatively largetown was at one time bestknown for its arms industry,but today it is more readilyassociated with the workers’protests of 1976, which tookplace four years before thefounding of Solidarity.Although Radom was rebuiltin the 19th century, severalof its older buildings canstill be viewed. Nothing,however, remains of the oldtown itself, which until 1819was surrounded by a wall.The most interesting featureof Radom is the Gothicparish church in UlicaRwańska, which was built in1360–70 and later remodelled.Two Baroque buildings –Esterka and Gàska – at Nos.4 and 5 Rynek – house theGallery of ContemporaryArt; beside them stands thearcaded town hall, byHenryk Marconi. Also worthvisiting are the Bernardinemonastery and church,Iłża tRoad map E4. * 5,600. @Although the castle of thebishops of Cracow hasbeen in ruins since thebeginning of the 19thcentury, its tower stilldominates the town. It wasbuilt in the 14th centuryby Bishop Jan Grot. Laterowners transformed itinto an elegant Renaiss-ance residence. In 1637,Władysław IV camehere in disguise.Hiding in the crowd,he wanted to get asecret look at thebride he had marriedby proxy, CeciliaRenata, daughter ofLeopold II of Austria.Dazzled by herbeauty, he quicklymade his presenceknown. Unfortun-ately, the marriagedid not prove ahappy one.An exhibit at the Centre for PolishSculpture in OrońskTower of the castle of the bishopsof Cracow in Iłża
  • 105. A Tour around Kazimierz DolnyThe environs of Kazimierz Dolny are renowned for theirpicturesque landscapes and rich heritage of historicbuildings. Here the Vistula valley is cut by deep ravines,while from the gentle hills magnificent views unfold. It istempting to linger in Nałęczów, with its popular spa, and inPuławy, where Czartoryski Palace stands in a landscapedpark. The journey from Kazimierz Dolny to Janowiec canonly be made by ferry; this provides an excellentopportunity for photographing both banks of the Vistula.For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 1 80 km0 miles55Janowiec 1The extensive ruins of the castle that was built for theFirlej family in the 16th century now house a museum. Itincludes a small skansen where several woodenbuildings, including an 18th-century manor andstorehouse, have been re-erected.Czarnolas 8This was the home of Jan Kochanowski(1530–84), the greatest poet of thePolish Renaissance. Little is left of hiswooden manor, and the museumdevoted to the poet’s life and work ishoused in the 19th-century mansion.Gołąb 6The Mannerist-Baroquechurch, which dates from1628–36, has brick wallsand fantastic decoration;beside it stands theLorentine Chapel.Sieciechów 7The late BaroqueChurch of theAssumption of theBlessed Virgin towersover the buildings ofthe former Benedict-ine abbey. It was builtbetween 1739 and1769, though the wallscontain Romanesqueremains. The interioris adorned withpaintings by SzymonMankowski in theRococo-Neo-Classical style.
  • 106. For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 1 9TIPS FOR DRIVERSTour length: 150 km (94 miles).Stopping-off points: Good cafésand restaurants are in KazimierzDolny, Nałęczów and Puławy. Theferry from Kazimierz to Janowiecruns from Apr to Nov, every 30 mins.KEYTour routeOther roadViewpointBochotnica 4In this hamlet stand theruins of a 14th-centurycastle that, according tolegend, Kazimierz theGreat (1333–70) built forEsterka, the beautifulJewish girl who becamehis mistress.Kazimierz Dolny 2During the summer, KazimierzDolny swarms with tourists. It isa popular weekend destinationfor Varsovians. The town is wellprovided with guesthouses, goodrestaurants and cafés. There are alsohandicraft stalls and young artistsoffering their work for sale.CZARTORYSKI PALACE ATPUŁAWYAfter the fall of the Commonwealthat the end of the 18th century, thePuławy residence of Princess Izabellaand her husband became an importantcentre of artistic and political life. In thegarden pavilions, the princessestablished the first Polish nationalmuseum, called the Shrine of Memory.After the November Insurrection of 1831 failed, Puławywas deserted. The Czartoryskis went into exile abroadand their property was confiscated by the Russians.St Christopher, House of KrzysztofPrzybyła, Kazimierz DolnyKazimierz Dolny uRoad map F4. * 2,300. @n Rynek 27 (081 881 00 46)._ Festival of Folk Bands and Singers(Jun); Film Summer (Aug).www.kazimierzdolny.plThis delightful little town, thefavourite holiday resort ofpoets and painters, was prob-ably founded by Kazimierz theGreat. In the 16th and 17thcenturies, it grew rich fromthe grain trade. The ruins ofa Gothic castle with a hightower dominate the town.At its foot can be seen theRenaissance Parish Churchof Saints John the Baptistand Bartholomew built in1610–13, which incorporatesthe walls of an earlier Gothicchurch. The interior hasprovincial stuccoworkdecoration in the vaultingand early Baroque chapels.The most attractive part oftown is the market square,flanked by several Manneristhouses, with rich ornamentalcoverings. Particularly attractiveare the House of MikołajPrzybyła and House ofKrzysztof Przybyła, atNos. 12 and 13, dating fromaround 1615. There are alsosome 16th-century houses inUlica Senatorska, which leadsdown to the Vistula, includingthe Celej House, which datesfrom around 1635. While strol-ling through the town, notethe former synagogue, datingfrom the 18th century, thegranaries on the banks of theVistula, and the pre-war villas.Puławy 5The former residence of theCzartoryski family is set in a largelandscaped park, now sadly neg-lected. Many small ornamentalbuildings, such as the Temple ofthe Sybil and the Gothic House,are to be seen here.Nałęczów 3This health resort alsohas a spa park, with apump room, baths andBaroque palace. Thewooden cottagehousing the museumof the novelist StefanŻeromski (1864–1925)is open to visitors.IzabellaCzartoryska
  • 107. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 2 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18Exploring LublinThe most attractive district ofLublin is the Old Town (StareMiasto), situated on the edge ofthe escarpment. It is reachedthrough Cracow Gate (BramaKrakowska), which hasbecome a symbol of the city.This old part of Lublin isa maze of romantic lanesand alleys. The façadesof the houses aredecorated withMannerist andBaroqueornamentationand have splendidattics. Many of thebuildings haveSocialist Realistpaintings datingfrom 1954,when the wholetown wasrenovated tocelebrate thetenth anniv-ersary of theestablishmentof thecommunistLublinCommittee(see p51).At the centre of the Old Townis the Market Square, withLublin’s town hall. Here, theCrown Tribunal of theKingdom of Poland once hadits seat. In the 18th century,the town hall was rebuilt byDominik Merlini in theNeo-Classical style. Todayit houses the Museumof the History of theTown Hall andCrown Tribunal ofthe Kingdom ofPoland. The mostmagnificent placeof worship in theOld Town is theDominican church(kościół Domini-kanów), founded in1342 and rebuiltin the 17th and18th centuries.The finest of its11 chapels is themid-17th-centuryMannerist-Baroque FirlejChapel. Itsribbed dome isan ambitiousconfectionascribed to theR Cathedral of SaintsJohn the Baptist andJohn the Evangelistul. Królewska 10. Tel 081 532 11 96.The interior of this formerJesuit church is a triumph ofBaroque art. Trompe l’oeilfrescoes painted by JosephMayer in 1756–7 depict scenesset against a background ofillusory architecture. Themost beautiful frescoes arethose in the cathedral treas-ury, depicting HeliodorusExpelled from the Temple.Historic houses round the Market Square in Lublinmason Jan Wolff. The mainstreet in Lublin, KrakowskiePrzedmieście, is now apedestrian precinct lined withelegant shops. In Plac UniiLubelskiej are the Capuchinchurch (kościół Kapucynów)and the Church of Our LadyVictorious (Kościół MatkiBoskiej Zwycięskiej), foundedby Władysław Jagiełło(1386–1434) to commemoratehis victory over the TeutonicKnights at the Battle of Grun-wald in 1410 (see pp40–41).The Jewish cemetery adjoin-ing Ulica Kalinowszczyna,established in 1555, is evidenceof the Jewish community thatexisted in Lublin for manycenturies, celebrated in thenovels of Nobel laureate IsaacBashevis Singer (1904–91).E Museum of the Historyof the Town Hall and CrownTribunal of the Kingdomof PolandRynek 1. Tel 081 532 68 66.# 9am–4pm Wed & Sat,9am–5pm Sun. &Lublin, the largest city in southeasternPoland, is well-endowed with historicbuildings. It is also an important centre ofacademic life; its best-known seat of learn-ing is the Catholic University of Lublin.Before World War II, the only Jewishcollege of higher education in Polandwas located here. In 1944, after Lublin hadbeen liberated from the Nazis, Poland’sfirst communist government, convened at Stalin’sbehest, arrived here on the tanks of the Red Army.Lublin iManneristwindowframeCracow Gate, one ofLublin’s symbolsInterior of the dome of the FirlejChapel in the Dominican church
  • 108. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 2 1+ Lublin Castlepl. Zamkowy 1. Muzeum LubelskieTel 081 532 50 01. # 9am–4pmTue, Thu–Sat, 9am–5pm Wed & Sun(Jun–Aug: 10am–5pm Tue–Sat,10am–6pm Sun). 8 d =www.zamek-lublin.plLublin’s most important historicbuilding is the Chapel of theHoly Trinity (Kaplica ŚwietejTrójcy). It forms part of LublinCastle, which was built in the14th century and remodelled inthe Gothic style in 1823–6 foruse as a prison. The interior ofthis Catholic chapel (see p40)is covered with Byzantinefrescoes painted in 1418 byOrthodox artists. Among thesaints and angels is a portraitof Władysław Jagiełło, thechapel’s founder. The chapelis evidence of the culturaldiversity of the Kingdom ofPoland and the coexistenceat this time of the RomanCatholic and Orthodox faiths.In the museum laid outin the rest of the castle areexhibitions of Polish andforeign paintings, folk artand weaponry.E Majdanek State MuseumDroga Męczenników Majdanka 67.Tel 081 744 26 47. # 9am–5pmdaily (Nov–Mar: to 4pm). ¢ publichols. www.majdanek.plIn 1941, the Nazis establisheda camp at Majdanek for Sovietprisoners of war; it laterbecame a death camp. Ofthe half million people whopassed through Majdanek,360,000 were murdered. Thecamp has been preserved asa museum and memorial tothe victims of extermination.0 m0 yds200200VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map F4.* 350,000. £ for informationcall 081 94 36. @n ul. Jezuicka 1–3 (081 53244 12). _ Festival of Music,Antiques, Fine Arts (Mar–Apr);Lublin Folklore Meetings (Jul).www.lublin.plE Lublin Rural MuseumAleja Warszawska 96. Tel 081 53331 37. # Apr, Oct: 9am–5pm daily;May–Sep: 10am–6pm daily; Nov,Dec: 9am–3pm Fri–Sun; Jan–Mar:by appt (call 081 533 85 13). & 8Rural buildings from villages,small towns and manorialestates, together with their fur-nishings, are to be seen here.Capuchin Church 1Lublin Castle 8Lublin Cathedral 4Church of Our LadyVictorious 2Cracow Gate 3Dominican Church 7Market Square 5Town hall 6CENTRAL LUBLINKey to Symbols see back flapNeo-Gothic façade of Lublin CastleFrescoes in the Chapel of theHoly Trinity
  • 109. SOCIALIST REALIST ART, KOZŁÓWKASocialist Realism was a doctrinal art style that was developedin the Soviet Union in the Stalinist era. In Poland, it wascurrent after World War II, from about 1949 to 1955. Itstheoretical principles were unclear, and in practice whatcounted were the instructions given to the artists. The heroesof Socialist Realist works wereparty apparatchiks, buxompeasant women and muscularworkers. A great number ofsuch works, which wereoften to be seen on the roofsof public buildings andmuseum storehouses, canbe seen in Kozłówka, wherethe largest collection inPoland of Socialist Realistart has been assembled.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 2 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and p317–18Kozłówka oRoad map F4. * 800. @The magnificent palace atKozłówka is one of thebest-preserved aristocraticresidences in Poland. Builtbetween 1735 and 1742 in theBaroque style by GiuseppeFontana, its first owner wasMichał Bieliński, Palatine ofChełm, who at the wish ofAugust II was married –albeit briefly – to one AuroraRutkowska, who happenedto be the king’s illegitimatedaughter by a Turkish ladynamed Fatima.Kozłówka Palace laterpassed to the famousZamoyski family, and wasrebuilt in the Empire style andrenamed Zamoyski Palace. In1903, Konstanty Zamoyskiestablished what in propertylaw is called an “entail”, inorder to ensure that thepalace would remain theundivided inheritance ofthe Zamoyski family.Zamoyski was regarded bycontemporaries as a “hand-some man, outstanding forhis good companionship andsense of humour”. He was agreat collector, a lover ofmusic and a connoisseur ofpainting. He was educatedin the France of Louis-Napoleon, and the style ofthe Second Empire is clearlyvisible in the rich décor ofthe palace interior, with itsNeo-Rococo stuccowork,enormous ceramic stoves,chimneypieces in colouredmarble, huge chandeliers,lambrequins, curtains, andfurniture decorated withinlays and bronze – mainlyexcellent copies in Louis XVand Louis XVI style from thebest French workshops.Today, the palace isa museum. Its entire contentshave been preserved, makingit Poland’s finest collectionnot only of 19th-century artbut also of everyday objects.(Do not miss the early 20th-century bathroom, which ismost elegantly equipped,or the palace kitchens.)Most impressive of all theexhibits is the collection ofsome 1,000 paintings, whichalmost completely cover thewalls. These are not originalworks but high-quality copiesof the masterpieces ofEuropean painting – the largestcollection in Poland of its kind.The palace chapel – whichwas modelled on the RoyalChapel at Versailles – wasbuilt between 1904 and 1909by Jan Heurich junior, thepioneer of modern architec-ture in Poland. It contains acopy by Lorenzo Bartolini ofthe tomb of Zofia Zamoyskain the Church of Santa Crocein Florence.An annexe of KozłówkaPalace is occupied by aunique gallery housingSocialist Realist art. Thebuilding is surrounded bya park that extends over190,000 sq m (47 acres).E Zamoyski Palace andMuseumTel 081 852 83 00. # 15 Mar–30Nov: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (to 5pmin summer). & www.muzeumzamoyskich.lublin.plPicture gallery and White Staircase, Kozłówka PalaceExhibition at Kozłówka
  • 110. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 2 3Radzyń Podlaski pRoad map F4. * 16,800.£ station 8 km (5 miles) fromthe town. @ n ul. Jana Pawła II 4(083 352 73 14).In its splendour, PotockiPalace rivals BranickiPalace in Białystok, the“Versailles of Podlasie” (seep290). It was built for theambitious Eustachy Potocki,who later became a generalin the Lithuanian artillery. Thepalace was to be dazzling. Itwas reconstructed in 1750–58,in the Rococo style, byGiacopo Fontana and histalented team of artists. Thepainted decoration is by JanBogumił Plersch and thecarving by Michał Dollingerand Chrystian Redler. Theappearance of the palace, likethe career of its owner, wascalculated to have a greateffect. With its elongatedwings, it was different notonly in form but also incharacter. Viewed from thecourtyard, the unusualmonumental wing, with itsimposing gate-tower (visibleeven from the town), looksalmost like a single-storeyoutbuilding. Similarly, themain block of the palace,which looks modest fromthe courtyard, overwhelmswith its richness whenviewed from the garden.Dynamic Rococo carvingsdecorate the palace andadjacent orangery. The mostinteresting are the fourgroups of Hercules andthe Lion, the Hydra, theMinotaur, and theDragon.The best view of Chełmis from Castle Hill (GóraZamkowa), where remains ofa 13th-century princely castlecan be seen. From here, thetowers of Roman Catholicchurches, the onion domesof a Greek Catholic and anOrthodox church, and a fineBaroque synagogue can bemade out. A Jewish commun-ity, one of the earliest inPoland, settled here in the12th century.E Chalk Minesul. Lubelska 55a.Tel 082 565 25 30.# visits at 11am, 1pm and 4pmdaily. ¢ public hols. &EnvironsThe Polesian National Park(Poleski Park Narodowy) lies40 km (25 miles) northwestof Chełm. It forms part ofthe Łęczyńsko-WłodarskieLake District and has manyswamps, peatbogs andsmall lakes.Chełm aRoad map G4. * 69,000. £ 0n ul. Lubelska 63 (082 565 36 67)._ International Choral Meetings(Apr). www.chelm.plThe most interesting aspectof Chełm is its network ofunderground tunnels, theremains of chalk mines(Podziemia). The tunnels areon three levels and descendto a depth of 30 m (100 ft);visitors may walk along them,candle in hand. In the 17thcentury, as many as 80 houseshad an entrance to the work-ings. Mining ended in the1800s. Above ground, thetown’s most impressive build-ing is the Piarist church. Itwas built by Paolo Fontana in1753–63 and has an undulantfaçade, elliptic nave andimposing dome. The Baroqueinterior is decorated withpaintings by Joseph Mayer.Rococo carvings on the orangery at Potocki Palace, Radzyń PodlaskiToday, the palace housesvarious institutions.In Radzyń Podlaski itselfis the Church of the HolyTrinity (Kościół ŚwiętejTrójcy), built in 1641 by JanWolff, the illustrious masonof the Zamoyski family. Thechurch contains the imposingred marble Renaissance tombof Mikołaj Mniszech and hiswife Zofia, possibly the workof Santi Gucci.Interior of the Piarist churchin Chełm
  • 111. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 2 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18. Town HallWith its fine ornamentaltower and imposing fanstaircase, the Town Hall isthe focal point ofZamość.ArsenalThe Arsenal, closely connected withthe town’s formidable fortifications,is today the Polish Army Museum.. CathedralThe cathedral, designedby Bernardo Morandi in1587, was completed inthe 1630s. It wasrebuilt in 1824–6.It has anunusualManneristfaçade anddistinctivelydecoratedvaulting.Zamość sZamość is one of the best-preserved Renaissance townsin Europe. It was one of the firstto be planned and built fromscratch according to Italian con-cepts of the ideal town. Themoving force behind this projectwas Jan Zamoyski (1541–1605),chancellor and commander-in-chief of the Crown, one of the most powerful andenlightened magnates of Poland’s Golden Age, and theowner of Zamość. Bernardo Mornando was the architectand work began in 1581, continuing for more than tenyears. A programme of restoration was carried out in the1970s, and in 1992 UNESCO declared the town a WorldHeritage Site. Today, theatrical performances and manyother cultural events take place in the Main Square.Detail from building, Zamość
  • 112. M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 1 2 5VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map G5. * 67,000. £@ n Rynek Wielki 13 (084 63922 92). Regional Museum ul.Ormiańska 30. Tel 084 638 64 94.# 9am–4pm Tue–Sun. & d_ Jazz on the Borderlands (May);InternationalMeetingofJazzVocal-ists (Aug). www.zamosc.plDoorway of theOld RectoryThis magnificentrectory, adjoiningthe cathedral,is one of theoldest housesin Zamość.FranciscanChurchIn the 19thcentury, thislarge churchwas turned intoa barracks andits Baroquegables pulleddown.BastionFortificationsThe fortificationsaround Zamośćallowed the townto resist aCossack siegeas well as theSwedish Delugeof the 1650s.. Main Market SquareThe Main Market Square (RynekWielki) is surrounded on all foursides by arcaded houses two storeyshigh. They were built to a unifieddesign, but many of their façadeshave unusual and elaboratedecorations with an Oriental flavour.FormerChurch andMonastery ofthe Order of StJohn of GodChurch of St NicholasThis church, built for theGreek Catholic Basilianorder, is now RomanCatholic, demonstratingthe multi-ethnic characterof old Zamość.STAR SIGHTS. Main MarketSquare. Town Hall. Cathedral
  • 113. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 1 2 7Wawel Cathedral’s Zygmunt Chapel, “the Pearl of the Renaissance north of the Alps„The earliest mention ofCracow in the historicalrecords dates from themiddle of the 10th century;it had certainly been incor-porated into the Kingdomof Poland before 992. In 1000it became a see, and around 1038it assumed the importance of acapital. Wawel Hill became the seat ofgovernment, and from 1257, whenBolesław the Chaste gave the city a newmunicipal charter, it began to spreadand flourish at the foot of the hill. In1364 the Cracow Academy wasfounded, increasing the city’s impor-tance on the European stage. Duringthe 14th and 15th centuries, large sumsof money were spent on the develop-ment of the city, as can be seen from thenumerous Gothic churches and secularbuildings that survive to this day.At the beginning of the 16th century,Cracow came under the influence of theRenaissance. The WawelRoyal Castle, the Cloth Hallin the Main Market Square,and many private housesand mansions in the citywere rebuilt in theRenaissance style. Cracowgradually lost its significance,and in 1596 the capital wasmoved to Warsaw, but it was in WawelCathedral that successive kings ofPoland were crowned and entombed,and the city continued to acquiremany magnificent buildings. Under thePartition of Poland (see pp46–9),Cracow came under Austrian rule,which nevertheless permitted a rela-tively large degree of local autonomy.Hence it began to assume the role of thespiritual capital of all Poles, both in theirnative country and abroad. Cracowescaped significant damage during thetwo World Wars, and in 1978 UNESCOdeclared it a World Heritage site.CRACOWCracow is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Over the cen-turies, many important artists and architects came to work here,among them Veit Stoss from Germany, Bartolomeo Berrecci andGiovanni Maria Padovano from Italy, and Tylman van Gameren fromHolland. Cracow has been spared major destruction, so it preserves thelargest assemblage of historic buildings and monuments in Poland.Memorial to Adam Mickiewicz, Poland’s national poet, outside the Cloth Hall in the Main Market Square
  • 114. For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 2 8Exploring CracowAs most places of interest in Cracow are located in its fairlycompact historic centre, the city is best seen on foot. A goodplace to start is Wawel Hill (Wzgórze Wawelskie), with itsimposing Wawel Royal Castle and Gothic cathedral, in thecrypt of which many kings of Poland are interred. North ofWawel Hill lies the old city of Cracow with its attractive market,the Church of St Mary, the picturesque Cloth Hall andmany interesting old houses. To the south ofWawel Hill is the Kazimierz district, withits preserved Jewish quarter.Outlying parts of the cityare served by anextensive bus andtram network.ChurchesBenedictine Abbey in Tyniec bCamaldolite Monastery inBielany vThe Cathedral pp142–3 hChurch of Corpus Christi kChurch of St Anne wChurch of St Mary pp132–3 3Church of Saints Peterand Paul oCistercian Abbey in Mogiła nDominican Church 4Franciscan Church uPauline Church on the Rock jPiarist Church 0Premonstratensian Church xBuildings, Squares andStreetsBarbican 7City Hall Tower 2Decjusz Villa cFortifications on the Wawel sMedical Society Building 5Plac Matejki 6Plac Szczepański qUlica Floriańska 8Ulica Grodzka iUlica Kanonicza pUlica Retoryka yMuseums and GalleriesCathedral Museum dCloth Hall 1Collegium Maius eCzartoryski Museum 9Józef Mehoffer Museum r“Lost Wawel” Exhibition fNational Museum tThe Wawel Royal Castlepp140–41 gStanisław WyspiańskiMuseum aSynagogues andCemeteriesOld Synagogue lRemuh Cemetery andSynagogue zSIGHTS AT A GLANCE0 m0 yds300300
  • 115. C R A C O W 1 2 9SEE ALSO• Where to Stay pp300–1.• Restaurants and Bars pp318–19.GETTING AROUNDCracow has an internationalairport and is an important pointon the railway network. By car,it can be reached by motorwayfrom Katowice or rapid transitroute from Warsaw.LOCATOR MAPKEYStreet-by-Street mappp130–31Street-by-Street mappp138–9ParkingTourist informationRailway stationBus stationCloth Hall, a historic building in the centre of theMain Market Square in CracowCzęstochowaZakopaneCRACOW
  • 116. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 3 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20Main Market SquareThis huge market square (RynekGłówny) was laid out when Cracowreceived its new municipal charter in1257. One of the largest in Europe, itseethes with life all year round. Insummer, pedestrians find themselvesnegotiating the maze of café tables thatfill the square, along with a host of shops,antique dealers, restaurants, bars andclubs. There are also many interestingmuseums, galleries and historic sights,including some splendid Renaissanceand Baroque houses and mansions.. Cloth HallThis beautifulRenaissance buildingreplaced an earlierGothic market hall.The upper floor housespart of the NationalMuseum 1The Church of StWojciech is a small butsplendid Romanesquechurch. It predates theplanning of the vastMain Market Square andis all but lost in it.. Church ofSt MaryThe façade ofthis church hasfor centuriesstood as asymbol of Polisharchitecture 3City Hall TowerThe Gothic tower is the onlyremaining part of the form-er City Hall. A café has beenopened in the basement 2BRACKAWIŚLNAŚ W . A N N YS Z E W S K AS Z C Z E P A Ń S K AR Y N E KG Ł Ó W N YSŁAWKOWSKAŚW.JANAFLORIAŃSKAKEYSuggested route
  • 117. C R A C O W 1 3 10 m0 yds5050Cloth Hall 1Rynek Główny 1/3. @ 103, 124,152, 502. v 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, 18,19. Gallery of Polish Painting Tel012 422 11 66. # 10am–3:30pmTue, Thu, Sat & Sun, 10am–6pm Wed& Fri. & (free on Thu). ^ 8 dSet in the centre of the MainMarket Square, the ClothHall (Sukiennice) replacesan earlier Gothic trade halldating from the second halfof the 14th century. Destroyedin a fire, then rebuilt byGiovanni Maria Padovano, itowes something of its presentappearance to TomaszPryliński’s Romantic-stylerestoration (1875–9). Today,the ground floor is filled withcafés and souvenir shops,while on the upper floor isthe Gallery of Polish Painting.Its collection of 19th-centuryworks, including art by JanMatejko, Marcello Bacciarelli,and Piotr Michalowski, ishoused in Niepołomice’s royalcastle (see p162) until renova-tion work on the gallery iscompleted in spring 2010.Church of St Mary 3See pp132–3.DominicanChurch 4ul. Stolarska 12. Tel 012 423 16 13.v 1, 3, 6, 8, 18. # 6:30am–8pm daily.The origins of the DominicanChurch (kościół Dominik-anów) go back to the secondhalf of the 13th century. Rebuilta number of times, by themiddle of the 1400s it hadbecome the magnificent Gothicbuilding that still stands today.A number of mortuarychapels were also added;many of them are majorworks of Renaissance andBaroque art in their own right,with rich decorations andfurnishings. Of particular noteare the Baroque chapel of theZbaraski family, at the westend of the north aisle, and theMannerist chapel of the Mysz-kowski family, in the first bayof the south aisle. The churchwas badly damaged by a greatfire that swept through the cityin 1850, destroying most of itswooden furnishings, althoughit was promptly restored.pulled down in the first halfof the 19th. Today the towercontains a branch of theHistorical Museum. Aspectsof the city’s history are alsodocumented in the Museumof the History of the Market,in the crypt of the neighbour-ing Church of St Wojciech.Frenzy, by Władysław Podkowiński(1866–95), in the National MuseumLOCATOR MAPSee pp128–9.GRODZKAS I E N N ACity Hall Tower 2Rynek Główny 1. @ 103, 124, 152,502. v 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19.Branch of the Historical Museumof Cracow Tel 012 619 23 18.# Apr–Oct: 10:30am–6pm daily.¢ 1, 3 May & 15 Aug. & eThe Gothic tower, crownedby a Baroque cupola, thatdominates the Main MarketSquare is the only remainingvestige of the City Hall, builtin the 14th century andSTAR SIGHTS. Church of St Mary. Cloth HallThe Church ofSt Barbara, datingfrom the late14th century,contains manytreasures, includinga 15th-centuryGothic pietà.Shrine of St Jack in theDominican churchHouse knownas “At the Signof the Lizards”
  • 118. Church of St Mary 3The imposing Church of St Mary(Kościół Mariacki) was built bythe citizens of Cracow to rival theRoyal Cathedral on Wawel Hill.Building began in 1355, but workon the vaulting and the chapelscontinued until the mid-15th century,and the lower tower was not com-pleted until the early 16th. At thistime, sermons were preached inGerman. This great basilica, withits rows of side chapels, containsan exceptional number ofimportant works of art.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 3 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20Baroque PorchThis pentagonal porchwas built in the mid-18thcentury to a design byFrancesco Placidi.. CrucifixThe large sandstonecrucifix byVeit Stoss is a fineexample of 15th-century sculpture.MainentranceHejnał TowerThe famous trumpetcall – the Hejnał – issounded hourly fromthe tower. The call isunfinished, in mem-ory of a medievaltrumpeter, shotwhile soundingthe alarm. TheHejnał is broad-cast live byPolish radiodaily at noon.STAR SIGHTS. Altar of the Virgin. CrucifixCiboriumThis large ciborium,in the form of a Renaissancechurch, was made byGiovanni Maria Padovanoin about 1552.
  • 119. C R A C O W 1 3 3Plac Matejki 6@ 105, 129, 130, 179, 502.v 1, 8, 14, 15, 18.This typical Cracoviansquare was laid outat the end of the19th century. TheChurch of St Florian(Kościół św.Floriana), on thecorner of UlicaWarszawska, isconsiderablyolder. Its presentappearance is theresult of frequentrebuilding – inparticular aNeo-BaroquereconstructionMedical SocietyBuilding 5ul. Radziwiłłowska 4. Tel 012 42275 47. v 1, 3, 9, 10, 13, 19, 22. #10am–3pm Mon–Fri (stained glass byappointment). www.tlk.krakow.plThe Medical Society Building(Gmach TowarzystwaLekarskiego) was designed byWładysław Kaczmarski andJózef Sowiński and built in1904. It would hardly meritmention were it not for itsinterior decor, the creation ofStanisław Wyspiański, one ofthe most talented artists of theYoung Poland movement. Hewas responsible for the interiordecoration of individual roomsand furnishings inspired byfolk art, as in the magnificentstained-glass window Apolloand The Solar System.. Altar of the VirginThe great Gothicpolyptych is 12 m (39 ft)long and 11 m (36 ft)high. It was carved byVeit Stoss in 1477–89.Barbican 7ul. Basztowa. @ 124, 152, 502.v 3, 4, 5, 13, 15. # May–Oct:10:30am–6pm daily. & (free on Sat).The Barbican (Barbakan)is one of the remainingelements of Cracow’smedieval fortifications.The double ring of wallsthat once surrounded thecity was built in stagesfrom 1285 to the beginningof the 15th century. Most ofthe circumvallation waspulled down in the 19thcentury. The Barbicanwas built in 1498–9, whenthe city’s defences werestrengthened in responseto advances in military tacticsand equip-ment. It protectedthe Florian Gate, to whichit was con-nected by anunderground passage. Thelatter’s route is indicatedby a change in the colourof the paving stones.in the early years of the 20thcentury. The original churchon this site was built in theearly 13th century. At theend of the 19th century,huge monumental publicbuildings and splendidprivate houses were erectedaround the square. TheAcademy of Fine Arts, atNo. 13, designed by MaciejMoraczewski and builtbetween 1879 and 1880,is particularly impressive.The Grunwald Monumentin the centre of the squarewas unveiled in 1910 to markthe 500th anniversary of theBattle of Grunwald (see p41),in which the armies of theTeutonic Knights wererouted. The huge sculptureof Władysław Jagiełło is byAntoni Wiwulski.Stained-glass window, MedicalSociety BuildingGothicstained-glasswindow madearound 1370VISITORS’ CHECKLISTpl. Mariacki 5. Tel 012 422 0521. @ 103, 124, 179, 192, 424,502. v 1, 7, 8, 18, 36, 38. #11:30am–6pm daily (from 2pmSun). Altar of the Blessed Vir-gin # 11:50am Mon–Sat, 2pmSun. & ^ www.mariacki.comVisitors’entranceThe 15th-century Barbican, based on Arab designs
  • 120. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 3 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20Ulica Floriańska 8@ 105, 124, 129, 152, 179, 424,502, 512. v 2, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15,24. Matejko’s House Tel 012 42259 26. # 10am–7pm Tue, Wed, Sat;10am–4pm Thu, Fri; 10am–3pmSun. & (free on Thu). 8 mThis charming street in theold town is full of restaurants,cafés and shops. It leads fromthe Main Market Square to theFlorian Gate and was oncepart of the Royal Route, alongwhich rulers would ride ontheir way from Warsaw totheir coronation in Cracow.Matejko’s House (DomMatejki), at No. 41, is thebirthplace of the painter JanMatejko (1838–93). He spentmost of his life here. Ondisplay is a collection ofMatejko’s paintings – also hisstudio, full of artist’s materials.A little further on, at No. 45,is Jama Michalika, a caféthat was extremely fashion-able in the late 19th to early20th centuries. The fine ArtNouveau décor by KarolFrycz can still be seen.The Florian Gate at theend of the street, is one of thefew surviving remnants of thecity’s medieval fortifications,along with a section of thecity wall and three towers.Piarist Church 0ul. Pijarska 2. Tel 012 422 22 55.@ 124, 152, 502. v 3, 4, 5, 13,15, 19. # during services only.The exceptionally beautifulRococo façade of thePiarist church (kościółPijarów), which stands atthe top of Ulica św Jana,was built to the design ofFrancesco Placidi between1759 and 1761. It concealsthe façade of the olderBaroque church of 1718–28designed by Kacper Bażanka.The interior has stuccoworkby Chrystian Bol and paint-ings by Franz Eckstein.CzartoryskiMuseum 9ul. św. Jana 19. Tel 012 422 55 66.@ 124, 152, 424, 502, 512.v 2, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 24.# 10am–6pm Tue–Sat, 10am–4pmSun. & e 8 mThe relatively smallCzartoryski Museum hasone of the most interestingart collections in Poland.Assembled in Puławy at theend of the 18th century byIzabella Czartoryska (seep119), it was the privatecollection of the Czartoryskifamily. The collection wasPlac Szczepański q@ 124, 179, 424, 502. v 2, 4, 5,12, 13, 14, 15, 24. Fine ArtsSociety Building Tel 012 422 6616. # 8:15am–8pm daily. &The Bunker Tel 012 422 10 52.# 8:15am–6pm daily (from 10amSat & Sun). &Plac Szczepański is alwaysfull of cars. Nonetheless,it contains a number ofinteresting buildings thathouse the arts and is wellworth exploring.At No. 1, the Old Theatre(Teatr Stary) is the oldesttheatrical building in Poland.It opened in 1798 and hassince been rebuilt twice –most recently between 1903and 1905, when it wasremodelled by FranciszekMączyński and TadeuszStryjeński in the Art Nouveaustyle. The frieze on thefaçade is by Józef Gardecki.Exhibitions are regularlyheld at the Fine Arts SocietyBuilding (Pałac Sztuki) atNo. 4. Built by FranciszekThe Florian Gate, Ulica Floriańskalater taken to Paris andthen to Cracow, where itwas put on public view.It includes remarkableexamples of handicraftsand carving, but mostsignificant are the paintings –foremost among themLeonardo da Vinci’s Ladywith an Ermine (c.1485) andRembrandt’s Landscape withGood Samaritan (1638).Leonardo da Vinci, Lady with anErmine, Czartoryski Museum
  • 121. C R A C O W 1 3 5Church ofSt Anne wul. św. Anny 11. Tel 012 422 53 18.@ 124, 152, 424, 502. v 2, 4, 8,14, 15, 18. # during services.In the narrow Ulica św.Anny, it is impossible to missthe imposing Baroque façadeof the twin-towered Churchof St Anne (Kościół śwAnny). The architect wasTylman van Gameren. Indesigning the façade, he tookinto account the fact that anyview of it would be acutelyforeshortened by virtue ofthe narrowness of the street.The church building waserected between 1689 and1703, although work on thedecoration was not com-pleted until much later.The interior has muralsby Karol and InnocentiMonti and a fine high altarby Baldassare Fontana. Thepainting of St Anne thatadorns it is by Jerzy EleuterSiemigonowski. Also notableNationalMuseum tal. 3 Maja 1. Tel 012 633 53 31. @103, 144, 152, 173, 179, 192, 512.v 15, 18. # 10am–6pm Tue–Sat,10am–4pm Sun. & (free on Sun).- www.muzeum.krakow.plThe enormous edificethat dominates thispart of the city isthe main building ofCracow’s NationalMuseum. Buildingbegan in the 1930sbut was not fin-ished until 1989.The exhibits aredivided into threemain sections. Thefirst is devoted tothe applied arts. Thesecond comprises aninteresting collectionof militaria andobjects of historicalinterest, such asthe military jacketof Józef Piłsudski(see p51). The thirdhas an importantcollection of 20th-century painting andsculpture. The work of theartists of the Young Polandmovement is particularly wellrepresented. The display alsofeatures pieces by schoolsthat were active in the inter-war years, and some fineexamples of the art of thepostwar period.Auditorium of the Collegium Maius,with Renaissance coffered ceilingare the Baroque choirstalls, decorated by SzymonCzechowicz, and the pulpit,which was carved by AntoniFrączkiewicz.In the south transept is theshrine and reliquary of St Johnof Cantinus, a 15th-centurytheologian and the patron of StAnne’s. The church was builtafter the saint’s beatification.Józef MehofferMuseum rul. Krupnicza 26. Tel 012 421 11 43.v 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 15, 24. # 10am–6pm Tue–Sat, 10am–4pm Sun. &(free on Sun). 8This small museum islocated in the housewhere Józef Mehoffer(1854–1946), the leadingArt Nouveau stained-glassartist, lived. It containsfurnishings made byMehoffer, as well asexamples of his artisticoutput, including thecaptivating Portrait of theArtist’s Wife. The well-known artist and writerStanisław Wyspiański (1869–1907) also lived in the house.Baroque shrine of St John ofCantinus in the Church of St AnneMączyński in 1901, thistoo is in the Art Nouveaustyle. Interesting exhibitionsof contemporary art arealso on display for viewingat The Bunker (Bunkier),a Brutalist building erectedin the 1960s, located atNo. 3a.Collegium Maius eul. Jagiellońska 15. Tel 012 422 0549. @ 124, 152, 424, 502. v 2, 4,8, 13, 14, 15, 18. # 10am–2:20pmMon–Fri (Apr–Oct: to 5:20pm Tue &Thu), 10am–1:20pm Sat. & (free onSat). www.maius.uj.edu.plThe Collegium Maius is theoldest surviving collegeof the Jagiellonian University,which grew from the CracowAcademy established byKazimierz the Great in1364. Queen Jadwiga,wife of Władysław Jagiełło,bequeathed her personalfortune to the Academy in1399. In the second half of the15th century the CollegiumMaius acquired new pre-mises, which incorporatedthe walls of several olderbuildings. Its presentappearance is largely dueto a 19th-century restorationin a Romantic style, althoughthe building’s Gothic structuresurvives. Copernicus (seep273) undoubtedly walkedin the cloistered courtyardwhen he was a student here.In the Jagiellonian UniversityMuseum are numerousexhibits documenting therich history of the university.Model of theMonumentto AdamMickiewicz inthe NationalMuseum
  • 122. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 3 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20Ulica Retoryka y@ 103, 144, 152, 164, 173, 179,192. v 15, 18.Take a walk down UlicaRetoryka and it is impossibleto miss the remarkablehouses that were designedand built here by TeodorTalowski (1857–1910) inthe late 19th century.The architect had anexuberant imagination anda lively sense of humour; thehouses that he designedare in an unusualmixture of the Neo-Gothic and Neo-Mannerist styles.They have startlingornamentation,sometimes artificiallydamaged so as tobestow a patina of age.At No. 1, forexample, is thehouse “At the Signof the SingingFrog”. Close by is the house“At the Sign of the Donkey”,with a motto in Latin thattranslates as “Every man ismaster of his own fate”. Thearchitect gave to his ownhouse the motto “Festinalente”, or “Make haste slowly”.Ulica Grodzka iv 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40.Many interesting buildingsgive this picturesque, windingstreet leading from the MainMarket Square to the Wawela historical atmosphere. AtNo. 53 is the cloisteredcourtyard of the CollegiumIuridicum, a law collegefounded in the 15th centuryand rebuilt in 1718.A little further along risesthe façade of the Church ofSaints Peter and Paul, withthe white stone tower of the13th-century RomanesqueChurch of St Andrew(Kościół św Andrzeja)gleaming behind it. Thewalls of the latter concealan earlier, late 11th-centurybuilding. The interior wasradically altered around 1702by Baldassare Fontana.The adjacent Baroquebuilding is the formerCatholic Church of St Martin(Kościół św Marcina). Builtbetween 1637 and 1640 forthe Discalced Carmelites, itis now in the hands of theEvangelical Church of theAugsburg Confession.Stained-glass window in theFranciscan churchFranciscanChurch upl. Wszystkich Świętych. Tel 012422 53 76. @ 103, 124, 179, 192,424, 502. v 1, 3, 6, 8, 18.# 9:45am–4:15pm Mon–Sat,1:15–4:15pm Sun; also duringservices. www.franciszkanska.plThe origins of the GothicFranciscan church goback to the 13th and 15thcenturies, although rebuildingin the 17th and 19th centurieshas considerably altered itsappearance. The church, how-ever, is renowned more for itsinterior decoration than for itsarchitecture and attracts manyvisitors from all over the world.A number of interestingfeatures from different ageshave been preserved,although the most notable arethe Art Nouveau murals andstained-glass windows byStanisław Wyspiański, datingfrom around 1900.The chancel andtransept aredecorated with avertiginous schemefeaturing entwinedflowers, heraldic motifsand religious scenes.The stained-glasswindows are monu-mental compositions ofgreat expressive powerand represent one ofthe highest achieve-ments of the Secessioniststained-glass movement.Particularly noteworthy is Letthere be Light (see p49), whichshows the figure of God theFather creating the world.The cloisters are lined withmurals that include the Galleryof Cracovian Bishops, in whichthe finest portrait is that ofBishop Piotr Tomicki, paintedby Stanisław Samostrzelniksome time before 1535.Church of SaintsPeter and Paul oul. Grodzka 54. Tel 012 422 65 73.v 1, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 18. # 9am–7pm Mon–Fri, 9am–5:30pm Sat,1:30–5:30pm Sun; also duringservices. &The Church of Saints Peterand Paul (Kościół św Piotrai Pawła) is one of the mostbeautiful early Baroquechurches in Poland. It wasbuilt for the Jesuits soon aftertheir arrival in Cracow.Work began in 1596, butafter a structural disaster in1605, the church was almostcompletely rebuilt to thedesign of an architect whoremains unknown to this day.The church is enclosedby railings topped with thetwelve figures of the apostlesdating from 1715–22. Theinterior of the buildingcontains fine stuccoworkby Giovanni Battista Falconiand rich Baroque furnishings.The high altar and theThe Church of St Andrew inUlica Grodzka“At the Sign ofthe Singing Frog”
  • 123. C R A C O W 1 3 7Ulica Kanonicza pv 1, 6, 8, 10. ArchdiocesanMuseum Tel 012 421 89 63.# 10am–4pm Tue–Fri, 10am–3pmSat, Sun. Ukrainian Art GalleryTel 012 421 99 96. # 11am–4pmThu–Sat. Cricoteka Tel 012 42283 32. # 10am–4pm Mon–Fri(also Sat & Sun in Jul & Aug).www.cricoteka.com.plUlica Kanonicza is namedafter the canons of theCracow Chapterhouse, whoonce had their houses here.Most of the houses wereestablished in the MiddleAges, but in the course oflater rebuilding they wereembellished with Renaiss-ance, Baroque and Neo-Classical elements. Theyconstitute one of the mostimportant groups of historicalbuildings in Cracow today.The finest of these housesis considered to be theDeanery, at No. 21. Itspresent form dates from the1580s – a rebuilding projectprobably undertaken by theItalian architect Santi Guccithat preserved the arcadedcourtyard and the mysteriousdecoration of the façade.During the 1960s, KarolWojtyła – later Pope JohnPaul II – lived in this house.The adjacent house at No. 19,with a modest Neo-Classicalfaçade, contains the Arch-StanisławWyspiańskiMuseum aul. Szczepańska 11.Tel 012 422 70 21.v 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 14, 15.# 10am–6pm Tue–Sat, 10am–4pmSun. & (free on Sun). 8Admirers of the splendidstained glass in theFranciscan church and theMedical Society Buildingshould also visit thismuseum. Many of StanisławWyspiański’s works arehere; designs for stained-glass windows, stage sets,textiles and pastels.Monumental portal of the Deanery in Ulica Kanoniczadiocesan Museum, whichhas many valuable religiousartifacts and a reconstructionof the room at No. 21 wherethe future pontiff lived.The house at No. 15 alsodates from the 14th century,although its present form isa result of rebuilding duringthe Renaissance era. Thehouse is the headquarters ofthe Ukrainian Art Gallery,and an interesting collectionof icons from disused Greek-Catholic and Orthodoxchurches in southeasternPoland can be seen here.A visit to Cricoteka, at No.5, is a different kind of artisticexperience. Cricoteka was thehome of the famous avant-garde theatre group Cricot 2,founded by Tadeusz Kantor(1915–90) in 1956. A painter,stage-set designer andproducer of “happenings”,Kantor was an extremelyversatile artist, and the showshe staged at Cricoteka – forexample, Wielopole, Wielopoleand The Dead Class – broughthim universal renown. Hiscompany continued his workafter his death. The Gothichouse contains no stage –just archives and documentsthat relate the history of thetheatrical company.Helenka, a pastel portrait byStanisław WyspiańskiBaroque façade of the JesuitChurch of Saints Peter and Paulorgan screen, designedby Kacper Bażanka, areparticularly noteworthy.Among the many funerarymonuments, the most strikingis the black and white marbletomb of Bishop AndrzejTomicki, dating from 1695–6.
  • 124. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 3 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20Fortifications onthe WawelThe Wawel’s systems offortification have beendemolished andrenewed severaltimes since theMiddle Ages –right up tothe 20thcenturysThe WawelOn the Wawel, the Vistulanians built acitadel. It was replaced by a series ofbuildings, including the Renaissancecastle and Gothic cathedral that standthere today. Once the site of coronationsand royal burials, the Royal Cathedral isregarded by Poles as a spiritual shrine.The Wawel Royal Castle beside it, oncethe hub of cultural and political life inPoland, is a symbol of national identity.. Wawel Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski)The Wawel Royal Castle, once home to theJagiellonian kings, has survived without majordamage. It incorporates the wallsof older Gothic buildings g. CathedralThe Gothic cathedral, linedwith royal burial chapelsfrom different ages, hassome extraordinarilyvaluable furnishings hCathedral MuseumOn display are importantartifacts from the cathedraltreasury, including themagnificent robe of StanisławAugust Poniatowski(1764–95) d0 m0 yds5050KEYSuggested route
  • 125. C R A C O W 1 3 9quilted embroidery depictingscenes from the life of StStanisław (see pp38–9). Themuseum also contains replicasof funeral regalia, royal swordsand trophies from battles won.“LostWawel”ExhibitionOn displayare variousfinds fromarchaeologicalexcavations on theWawel hill fLOCATOR MAPSee pp128–9.Fortifications onthe Wawel sWawel. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40.The Wawel was fortifiedfrom early times. Of theoldest Gothic fortificationsonly fragments remain, butthree towers raised in thesecond half of the 15th cent-ury survive; they are knowntoday as the Senatorial Tower,the Sandomierz Tower andthe Thieves’ Tower. Of thefortifications dating from the16th to 17th centuries themost interesting is the VasaGate. Since 1921 it has beencrowned with a monument tothe 18th-century national heroTadeusz Kościuszko. TheWawel continued to play adefensive role into the 19thcentury, and a relatively well-preserved system of fortific-ations dating from the late18th to mid-19th centuriescan still be seen today.CathedralMuseum dWawel 3. Tel 012 422 51 55. v 3, 6,8, 10, 18, 40. # 9am–5pm Mon–Fri(Nov–Mar: to 4pm). ¢ 1 Jan, Easter,Corpus Christi, 15 Aug, Christmas. &This museum is located inbuildings near the cathedraland contains a valuablecollection of pieces from thecathedral treasury. Here visitorscan admire liturgical vesselsand vestments; one of thefinest is the chasuble of BishopPiotr Kmita, which dates from1504 and is ornamented with“Lost Wawel”Exhibition fWawel 5. Tel 012 422 51 55.v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. # Apr–Oct:9:30am–1pm Mon, 9:30am–5pmTue–Fri, 11am–6pm Sat & Sun; Nov–Mar: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun. & (freeon Mon Apr–Oct; on Sun Nov–Mar).www.wawel.krakow.plFor anyone who is interestedin archaeology, this exhibitionis a real delight. The displaycharts the development of theWawel over a considerableperiod of time, and includesa virtual image of the Wawelbuildings as they existed inthe early Middle Ages,archaeological finds fromWawel hill, and a partiallyreconstructed early Roman-esque chapel dedicated tothe Blessed Virgin (SaintsFelix and Adauctus).Built at the turn of the 11thcentury, the chapel wasdiscovered during researchwork carried out in 1917.STAR SIGHTS. Wawel Royal Castle. CathedralSandomierz Tower, one of threetowers on the WawelEmbroidered hood of BishopTrzebicki’s cope, Cathedral MuseumChapel of the Blessed Virgin, partof the “Lost Wawel” exhibition
  • 126. The Wawel Royal Castle gOne of the most magnificent Renaissance residences inCentral Europe, the Wawel Royal Castle was built forZygmunt I, the penultimate ruler of the Jagielloniandynasty. The four-winged palace, built in 1502–36 butincorporating the walls of a 14th-century building that stoodon the site, was designed and constructed by the Italianarchitects Francisco Fiorentino and Bartolomeo Berrecci.After the royal court was transferred from Cracow toWarsaw, the palace fell into neglect, and during the era ofthe Partitions it served as a barracks. At the beginning of the 20thcentury the castle was given to the city of Cracow, which started arestoration programme and turned into a museum.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 4 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–201st floorSenators’StaircaseEntrance tocourtyardEntrance to RoyalTreasury andRoyal ArmouryHead in theAudience HallRoyal Treasuryand ArmouryThe Royal Armoury has a richcollection of arms and armour.The Royal Treasury has manyprecious objects, including thischalice from the abbey at Tyniec.CASTLE GUIDEThe area open to visitors consists of part of the groundfloor of the Royal Castle, where items from the RoyalTreasury and Royal Armoury are displayed, as wellas the halls on the first and second floors of the eastand north wings. The castle’s Oriental collection fillsthe first floor of the west wing.The Castle CourtyardA mix of architectural styles can be found at thecastle. One of the highlights is the beautifulRenaissance-style courtyard, which wasbuilt in the 16th century.Senators’ HallKEYRoyal ApartmentsRoyal TreasuryRoyal ArmouryOrientalCollectionNon-exhibition space
  • 127. C R A C O W 1 4 1STAR FEATURES. Hall of Deputies. Chamber of the BirdsVISITORS’ CHECKLISTWawel Hill. Tel 012 422 16 97.@ 103, 502. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18,40. # Nov–Mar: 9:30am–4pmTue–Sat; Apr–Oct: 9:30am–noonMon, 9:30am–5pm Tue–Fri,11am–6pm Sat & Sun. ¢ 1 Jan,Easter Sat & Sun, 1 & 11 Nov, 24,25 & 31 Dec. & (free on MonApr–Oct; on Sun Nov–Mar). 8BedchamberThe bedchamber is adorned with Italianpaintings of the 14th and 15th centuriesdonated by Countess KarolinaLanckorońska. They include theenchanting Angel by Simone Martini.Interior of theHen’s FootThe 14th-century Hen’s Foottower was rebuilt after firedamage in the 16th and17th centuries. The roomshere are among the mostbeautiful in the castle.. Chamber ofthe BirdsThe chamber is partof a suite furnished inthe early Baroque stylefor Zygmunt III Vasa.2nd floorAudiencehall stairsGround floorEntrance toapartments. Hall of DeputiesUsed for debates by the lower houseof Parliament (Sejm), this hallfeatures a coffered ceiling containingrealistically carved heads, as well astapestries and a decorative frieze.
  • 128. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 4 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20The Cathedral hThe Cathedral of Saints Stanisław andWacław, which stands on the Wawelin Cracow, is one of the most importantchurches in Poland. Before the presentcathedral was erected (1320–64), two earlierchurches stood on the site. The cathedralhas many fine features, including a seriesof chapels founded by rulers and bishops,the most beautiful being the RenaissanceZygmunt Chapel. There are royal tombsin both the cathedral and the Crypt of StLeonard, a remnant of the RomanesqueCathedral of St Wacław begun in 1038.. Tomb of Kazimierzthe JagiellonianThis royal tomb in theChapel of the Holy Cross,completed in 1492, is oneof the last commissions thatthe German sculptor VeitStoss fulfilled in Poland.Shrine of St StanisławThe silver coffincontaining the relics ofSt Stanisław, the bishopof Cracow to whom thecathedral is dedicated,was made in 1669–71by Pieter van derRennen, a goldsmithfrom Gdańsk.Zygmunt BellThis is thelargest bellin Poland. Itwas made in1520, weighsalmost 11tonnes and hasa diameter ofover 2 m (6 ft).MainentranceThe top of theclock tower isdecorated withstatues of saints.
  • 129. C R A C O W 1 4 3StallsThe early Baroque oakstalls in the chancel weremade around 1620.. Zygmunt ChapelThe chapel contain-ing the tombs of thetwo last Jagielloniankings is the jewel ofItalian Renaissanceart in Poland. Thetomb of Zygmunt theOld was made after1530 by BartolomeoBerrecci. That ofZygmunt August wasmade in 1574–5 bySanti Gucci.Royal tombsThese Baroque sarcophagiwere made for membersof the royal Vasa dynasty.The cathedral is the finalresting place of most ofthe Polish kings, as wellas national heroesand revered poets.Pauline Churchon the Rock jul. Skałeczna 15. Tel 012 421 72 44.@ 103, 124, 128, 144, 164, 169,173, 179, 184, 194, 502. v 8, 10,18, 19, 22. # 8am–4pm Mon–Sat.Crypt of Honour # Apr–Oct:9am–5pm daily; Nov–Mar: by appt. &The impressive BaroquePauline Church on the Rock(Kościół Paulinów na Skałce),with its adjoining monasterycomplex, was built in 1733–42by Gerhard Müntzer in collab-oration with Antoni Solari. Thepresent church was precededby two earlier buildings. It wasat the foot of the altar of theRomanesque church, the firstto be built on the site, that StStanisław, Bishop of Cracow,was murdered (see pp38–9).The interior includes Baroquestuccowork by Jan Lehnert. Thecrypt was converted by TeofilŻebrawski into a pantheon toPolish writers and artists.Among the eminent peoplewho lie here are the paintersJacek Malczewski (1854–1929)and Henryk Siemiradzki, thewriters and poets Józef IgnacyKraszewski, Adam Asnyk(1839–97) and Wincenty Pol(1807–72), and the artist andwriter Stanisław Wyspiański.Return along Ulica Skałecznatowards Ulica Augustiańskaand take a look at the beautifulGothic Convent and Churchof St Catherine (Kościół śwKatarzyny), begun in the mid-14 century. It once belongedto the Augustinian order, butwas deconsecrated and usedas a warehouse. Of the originalfeatures only the high altarremains. The 15th-centuryHungarian Chapel (KaplicaWęgierska) next door isconnected by a covered bridgeover Ulica Skałeczna to theBaroque Augustinian convent.Crypt of the Pauline Church on theRock, pantheon to Polish creativityHighaltarSTAR FEATURES. Tomb ofKazimierzthe Jagiellonian. Zygmunt ChapelVISITORS’ CHECKLISTWawel 3. Tel 012 422 51 55 (ext.291). v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. #9am–5:45pm (3pm winter) Mon–Sat, 12:15–3pm Sun. & 7 8
  • 130. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 4 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20Church of CorpusChristi kul. Bożego Ciała 26. Tel 012 656 2863. @ 502. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18.# 9am–noon, 1:30–7pm andduring services Mon–Sat.The Mighty Gothic Church ofCorpus Christi was built asthe parish church of the newtown of Kazimierz, whichwas founded to the south ofthe castle by Kazimierz theGreat in the 14th century.Work on the church beganaround 1340, continuing intothe early 15th century. Thebasilica-like interior containssome fine works of art in theBaroque style, including themagnificent high altar of1634–7 with the paintingof The Birth of Christ byTomasso Dolabella, a finemid-18th-century pulpit,and stalls dating from 1632,originally built for the monks(although the church hasbeen in the care of canonssince the 15th century).The monastery is on thenorth side of the church.Remuh Cemeteryand Synagogue zul. Szeroka 40. Tel 012 422 12 74.@ 184, 198. v 3, 9, 13.# 9am–4pm Mon–Fri. ^Museum of NationalRemembrance (Muzeum PamieciNarodowej) Plac Bohaterów Getta 18.Tel 012 656 56 25. # 10am–4pmMon–Fri, 10am–2pm Sat. &This small and humbleprayer house known as theRemuh is one of two Jewishsynagogues in Cracow thatare still in use. It was builtaround 1557 by Izrael benJózef for his son MojżeszIsserles, a famous scholar,rabbi and reputed miracleworker, known as Remuh.The Renaissance building waslater extended, although itsbasic outline remains as itwas. Inside, the RenaissanceArk of the Covenant and thebema, rebuilt as a replica ofthe original, have survived.Behind the synagogue isone of the most importantJewish cemeteries in Europe.Despite the damage that thecemetery suffered duringWorld War II, many of thetombstones have survived.Many of the oldest, datingfrom the late 16th century,have been unearthed frombeneath the soil. Fragmentsof shattered tombstones havebeen built into the cemeterywall abutting Ulica Szeroka.The town houses of theformer Jewish quarter stillstand along this road; amongthem is the family home ofHelena Rubinstein, founderof the cosmetics business.This part of town wasimmortalized in StevenSpielberg’s film Schindler’sList. The district now hasshops and kosher restaurants.Nearby, on the other sideof the Vistula, is the Museumof National Remembrance.Located in a former pharma-cy, it is dedicated to Jewsthat lost their lives in WorldWar II.The old Synagogue wasbuilt by Matteo Gucci in themid-16th century in theRenaissance style. It replacedan earlier Gothic synagoguethat burned down in 1557.In the Hall of Prayer you willfind a reconstructed bemaand Ark of the Covenant.The synagogue houses abranch of the Historical Mus-eum. The displays withinconsist of some finely craftedartifacts that were used inJewish rituals, and documentsrelating to the history ofCracovian Jews and theirmartyrdom during the Nazioccupation in World War II.Gothic-Renaissance bema in theOld SynagoguePremonstratensianChurch xul. Kościuszki 88. Tel 012 427 13 18.v 1, 2, 6, 100, 101, 109, 209, 229,239, 249, 259, 269, 409.This church (Kościół Norber-tanek) and convent on thebanks of the Vistula at Zwi-erzyniec was founded in 1162.The present appearance of thesmall nave church is due torebuilding in 1595–1604. Theextensive convent also datesfrom the early 17th century.The Chapel of St Margaret(Kaplica św Małgorzaty), anoctagonal building in theearly Baroque style, waserected nearby, on Ulicaśw Bronisława. Behindthe chapel is the Churchof Our Saviour (KościółNajświętszego Salwatora).Built in the second half of the12th century, it was remod-elled at the beginning of the17th, when it was reducedto a small nave church witha tower at the west end.Old Synagogue lul. Szeroka 24. @ 184, 198.v 3, 9, 13. Museum of JewishHistory Tel 012 422 09 62.# May–Oct: 10am–2pm Mon,10am–5pm Tue–Sun; Nov–Apr:10am–2pm Mon, 9am–4pm Wed,Thu, Sat & Sun, 10am–5pm Fri.¢ Tue (Nov–Apr). & www.mhk.plTomb in Remuh Cemetery fromthe first half of the 17th century
  • 131. C R A C O W 1 4 5Decjusz Villa cal. 28 Lipca 1943 r. 17a. Tel 012 42536 38. @ 102, 134, 152, 192. Fordetails of the cultural programme,visit the website www.villa.org.plIn the charming residentialdistrict of Wola Justowskastands the Decjusz Villa, amanor house whose origins goback to the late Middle Ages.It was rebuilt around 1530in the Renaissance style forJustus Ludwik Decjusz, andacquired its present shapearound 1620, when it wasextended for StanisławLubomirski, Palatine ofCracow. It was thenremodelled in the earlyBaroque style.Visitors who want to makesure they get the best viewof the Decjusz Villa, animpressive three-storeyarcaded loggia that is flankedby towers, should view itfrom the garden. Today thevilla houses the EuropeanAcademy. There is a goodrestaurant in the basement.was replaced in the 15thcentury by a Gothic church.The present Baroque abbeywas built in 1618–22.Although in the course ofits stormy history the churchhas lost many fine and valu-able features, it still retains itsmonumental Baroque altars.Some elements of the originalRomanesque building havesurvived in the undergroundparts of the abbey adjacentto the church.Cistercian Abbeyin Mogiła nul. Klasztorna 11. Tel 012 644 2331. @ 113, 123. # 6am–7pm.Behind the fine Baroquefaçade of the church, whichwas designed and erected byFranciszek Moser in 1779–80,lies a much older interior.Founded by Bishop IwoOdrowąż, the Cistercianabbey was built in the13th century. Theconsecration of the churchtook place in 1266. Theinterior of the early Gothicbasilica, which contains anumber of Renaissancepaintings by StanisławSamostrzelnik, has survivedalongside later, mainlyBaroque, features.Other interesting parts ofthe abbey are the Gothiccloisters and the chapterhouse, which containspaintings by the 19th-centuryartist Michał Stachowicz.These depict the legendof Wanda, whose patriotismled her to throw herself intothe Vistula. Her tomb,situated under a tumulus,is located nearby.inhabitants, are committedto absolute silence and nocontact with the outsideworld. Visits are thereforeseverely restricted, especiallyfor women.The monastery wasfounded in the early 17thcentury by Valentin vonSäbisch and completed byAndrea Spezza. It is richlyadorned with Baroquefeatures, and from thewindows of the chapel it ispossible to glimpse themonks’ dwellings, to whichvisitors are not admitted.Benedictine abbey, Tyniec, perched on a chalky outcrop above the VistulaBenedictine Abbeyin Tyniec bul. Benedyktyńska 37.Tel 012 688 52 00. @ 112, 203.# daily for morning services &1–6:30pm.This impressive abbey is seton a high chalky outcropoverlooking the River Vistula.The history of the abbey goesback to the mid-11th century.Originally, a Romanesquebasilica stood on the site. ItRemoved from the world: theCamaldolite Monastery at BielanyDecjusz Villa from the garden, thearcaded loggia flanked by towersCamaldoliteMonastery inBielany vul. Konarowa 1–16. Tel 012 429 7610. @ 109, 209, 239, 249, 269.# to men: during services; towomen: 2 and 7 Feb, 25 Mar, Easter,Whitsun, 19 Jun, the first Sun after15 Aug, 8 Sep, 25 Dec.Seen from afar, thismonolithic Mannerist-Baroque monastery seton Srebrna Góra (SilverMountain) appears to be atempting tourist attraction.However, the monks, whoare the monastery’s sole
  • 132. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 1 4 7Wooden house in the forest, beneath the towering Tatra MountainsIn the 9th century,the Vistulanian tribeestablished a statein Małopolska. Theircapital was Cracow, orWiślica. In 990, Małopol-ska became part of thePolanian duchy of Mieszko I,and in 1039, Prince Kazimierzthe Restorer made Cracow the centreof his realm of power. For centuries,Małopolska was the heart of Poland.However, its importance began towane at the end of the 16th century,when the capital of the Republic wasmoved to Warsaw.After the Partitions of Poland,Małopolska went into a gradualdecline. While Galicia, its southernpart, came under Austrian rule, itsnorthern part was incorporated intothe Russian empire. When Galiciagained autonomy within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Galician towns,and especially Cracow, becameimportant centres of Polishculture, retaining their iden-tity despite a succession ofannexations. Not until1918, when Poland at lastregained its indepen-dence, did Małopolskaagain become part of thePolish state.The Małopolska region isdotted with picturesque towns, ruinedcastles, palaces, country mansions,great monasteries and pretty woodenchurches. The eastern fringes of theregion are distinguished by theirUniate Orthodox churches. There arealso many monuments to the Jewishpopulation that was present inMałopolska before 1945.In many parts of the region, folk cus-toms survive and flourish, nowheremore than in the Podhale region; inZakopane, the regional capital ofPodhale, folklore and folk art are alocal industry.MAŁOPOLSKA (LESSER POLAND)The Galician small town of Stary Sącz, at the foot of the Sądecky Beskidy MountainsMałopolska is the country’s most picturesque and varied region.Attractions such as the ski resort of Zakopane, hiking trails inthe Tatra Mountains, the magical Black Madonna of Często-chowa and a lively folk tradition make it Poland’s most popular touristdestination. Cracow, not only the regional capital but the spiritual andhistoric capital of the nation, is one of the noblest cities in Europe.
  • 133. Exploring MałopolskaMałopolska, in the south of Poland, is thecountry’s main tourist region. Apart from Cracow,the greatest attractions for visitors are the mountainski resort of Zakopane, which is the winter sportscapital, and the picturesque Tatra Mountains. Insummer many hikers are drawn to the region, andits mountains are traversed by well-marked hikingtrails. There are numerous welcoming hostels forthose in need of overnight shelter. Parts of theBeskid Niski Mountains are almost without humanhabitation, so that it is still possible to walk forseveral hours without encountering a single livingsoul. Spiritual relief can be found deep within theforests, where walkers may be surprised toencounter pretty wooden churches.A detail of Neo-Classical decorative moulding inthe palace at ŁańcutP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 4 8GETTING AROUNDCracow and Rzeszów can be reachedby air. The larger towns all havegood rail links with the rest of thecountry. Some small villages canonly be reached by bus or car. TheE77 highway goes north and southfrom Cracow, while the E40 goeseastwards through Tarnów,Rzeszów and Przemyśl. Parallelto it, but further south, major road28 connects Nowy Sącz with Biecz,Krosno and Sanok.SEE ALSO• Where to Stay pp301–3.• Restaurants and Bars pp319–21.KEYMotorwayMain roadMinor roadMain railwayMinor railwayInternational borderRegional borderPeakInterior of a cottage in Zalipie,with traditional decorationFor additional map symbols see back flap
  • 134. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 4 9SIGHTS AT A GLANCEKrasiczyn .Krosno mKrynica bKurozwęki 0Łańcut pp172–3 £Leżajsk @Niepołomice fNowy Wiśnicz kOblęgorek 1Opatów 5Oświęcim (Auschwitz) iPińczów tPrzemyśl /Rytwiany 9Rzeszów $Sandomierz 7Stary Sącz vSzydłów qTarnów hUjazd 6Baranów Sandomierski 8Biecz nBielsko-Biała oBusko Zdrój eChochołów lCzęstochowa pp156–7 yDębno near Brzeska jDębno Podhalańskie xGrabki Duże wHoly Cross Mountains 3Jarosław !Kalwaria Zebrzydowska sKielce 2Wąchock 4Wadowice aWieliczka dWiślica rZakopane zZalipie gŻywiec pToursBieszczady Mountains Tour ,Dunajec Raft Ride cEagles’ Nests Trail uNiedzica Castle overlooking the artificial lakeon the Dunajec0 km0 miles5050
  • 135. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 5 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21The Henryk Sienkiewicz Museum in OblęgorekOblęgorek 1Road map E5. * 950. @The writer HenrykSienkiewicz (see p25)received a small manor housein Oblęgorek as a gift fromthe nation in 1900. It is aneclectic building with a tallcircular tower. The interior isas it was when Sienkiewiczlived and worked here.Today it houses the HenrykSienkiewicz Museum.Sienkiewicz is the best-known Polish novelist. Hereceived the Nobel Prize forLiterature for his historicalnovel Quo Vadis? in 1905.E Henryk SienkiewiczMuseumTel 041 303 04 26. # Nov–Apr:10am–4pm Wed–Sat; May–Oct:10am–4pm Tue–Sat. &Kielce 2Road map E5. * 205,000.£ @ n pl. Niepodległości 1 (041367 64 36). Tel 041 345 86 81.www.um.kielce.plIn a city whose beauty hasbeen defaced by buildingsthat went up after World WarII, the Bishops’ Palace standsout like a jewel. It is anexceptionally fine example ofa well-preserved aristocratictown house of the first halfof the 17th century (see p45).The early Baroque façadeswith four corner towers havebeen preserved almost intact,as has the decoration of the The Dining Hall in the Bishops’ Palace in Kielcerooms on the first floor. Themarble doorways and beamedceilings are original.The palace was built in1637–41, probably by the royalarchitect Giovanni Trevano,under the direction of Tomas-so Poncino, for the Bishop ofCracow, Jakub Zadzik. Duringthe reign of Zygmunt III, thisexceptional clergyman wasin charge of the Republic’sforeign policy, successfullymaking peace with Russia andestablishing a long-standingceasefire with Sweden. Hisrole as a bishop, however,was inglorious. He contributedto the shameful decision tocondemn the Polish Brethrenduring the Sejm of 1641. Theseevents are illustrated on thepalace ceilings, which werepainted in 1641.The period interiorsform part of the NationalMuseum in the palace. Thereis also an excellent gallery ofPolish painting here.Next to the palace is thecathedral, built on the site ofan earlier church of 1632–5,the time of Bishop Zadzik.Several dozen woodenvillage buildings from thearea around Kielce are laidout over an area of 4.2 sq km(1.6 sq miles) in the KielceRural Museum.E National Museumpl. Zamkowy 1. Tel 041 344 40 14.# 10am–6pm Tue, 9am–4pmWed–Sun. & (free on Sat).www.muzeumkielce.netE Kielce Rural MuseumTemporary exhibition ul. JanaPawła II 6. Tel 041 344 92 97.# 10am–3pm Mon–Fri, Sun. &(free on Sun). www.mwk.com.plSkansen in Tokarnia Tel 041315 41 71. # Apr–Oct: 10am–5pm Tue–Sun; Nov–Mar: 9am–3pm Tue–Sun. &EnvironsThe ruins of a 13th-centurycastle dominate the town ofChęciny, 15 km (9 miles) tothe west of Kielce. ParadiseCave (Jaskinia Raj), to thenorth of Chęciny, containsspectacular stalactites andstalagmites.
  • 136. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 5 1Holy CrossMountains 3Road map E5. £ @ n 041 36764 36 or 367 60 11.In geological terms, the HolyCross Mountains (GóryŚwiętokrzyskie) – part of theMałopolska uplands – areamong the oldest in Europe.Eroded over many thousandsof years, they are neither highnor steep, but they are except-ionally rich in minerals, whichhave been exploited sinceancient times. The remains ofprehistoric mines and furnaceshave been found here. TheŁysogóry range, with MountŁysica at a mere 612 m(2,000 ft), the highest peak inthe mountains, lies within theBroken rock on the Łysogóry slopes,Świętokrzyski National ParkŚwiętokrzyski National Park.The primeval forest of fir treesthat once covered the rangewas seriously damaged by acidrain in the 1970s and 1980s,so that only vestiges remaintoday. In ancient times ŁysaGóra, the second-highest peakin the Holy Cross Mountains,was a pagan place of worship.Its slopes are covered withgołoborza, heaps of brokenrock. Legend tells of thewitches’ sabbaths that aresaid to have taken place here.The Benedictine abbey inŚwięty Krzyż on the summitof Łysa Góra was built in the12th century and extendedduring the rule of the Jagiell-onian dynasty. The church,which replaces an earlierRomanesque church, was builtin 1782–9 and has predom-inantly Baroque and Neo-Classical features. The interioris decorated with paintingsby the 18th-century artistFranciszek Smuglewicz. Thecloisters and vestry, with lateBaroque frescoes, date fromthe 15th century. The domedchapel of the Oleśnicki family,dating from the 17th century, isthe abbey’s most outstandingfeature. Kept in the chapelsince 1723, the relic of theHoly Cross attracts crowds ofpilgrims. In the crypt beneathRuins of the Baroque Bishops’Palace at Bodzentynthe chapel is a glass coffincontaining the supposedlymummified body of PrinceJeremi Wiśniowiecki. In hisnovel With Fire and SwordHenryk Sienkiewicz portrayedthis magnate as a saviour, andhero of the battles againstUkrainian insurgents in 1648.History judges him less kindly:a seasoned soldier, an unimag-inative politician and a brute,who by passing sentences ofimpalement earned himself thenickname Palej (The Impaler).Bodzentyn, north ofŁysogóry, is worth a visit forits 18th-century Gothic parishchurch. The Renaissance altarcomes from Wawel Cathedralin Cracow. The stately ruinsof the Bishops’ Palace canalso be seen in the town.ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKI NATIONAL PARKThe Łysogóry range constitutes the major part of thepark. Natural features of particular interest includegołoborza, created by the fragmentation of quartzitesandstone, and vestiges of the primeval fir forest. OnChełmowa Góra, native Polish larch can be seen.KEYHiking trailRoadCar parkTourist informationViewpoint0 km0 miles33
  • 137. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 5 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Wąchock 4Road map E4. * 3,300. £ @Wąchock is a neat townwith a well-preservedCistercian abbey. It wasfounded in 1179 by Gedko zGryfitów, Bishop of Cracow.The church, built in the early13th century, has Romanesqueand Gothic features. Thearchitect is unknown, althoughthe inscription “Simon” thatcan be seen on the façade isthought to be his signature.The interior is decorated withmural paintings and containstombstones and altars. Themost important Romanesqueinteriors of the abbey – thoseof the chapter house and therooms off the cloisters – havebeen preserved almost intactto this day. The abbey wasremodelled between 1636 and1643, the façade being giventhe appearance of a palacewith the addition of arcadesand an enormous tower.royal chancellor who becamethe owner of Opatów. Thetomb dates from 1533–6 andbears a relief known as theOpatów Lament (see pp42–3).The marble tombstone ofAnna Szydłowiecka carvedby Bernardino de Gianoti in1536 is also noteworthy.The curious holes and rutsin the walls of the church arean unusual mark of the past.Noblemen would use thechurch walls to sharpen theirsabres, which they would oftendo on horseback. This explainswhy the holes are so high.Ujazd 6Road map E5. * 1,600. @ n077 463 70 37. www.ujazd.plThe main attraction in Ujazdare the ruins of KrzyżtopórCastle, built for the palatineThe stately ruins of Krzyżtopór Castle in UjazdCollegiate Church of St Martin in OpatówOpatów 5Road map E5. * 7,100. @The collegiate church ofSt Martin (Kolegiata św.Marcina), built in the first halfof the 12th century, is amongthe best-preserved of the majorRomanesque churches inPoland. The massive façadehas two quadrilateral towersand representations of dragonsand plants on its borders. Theinterior contains interestingfurnishings and tombs, themost eminent being the tombwith the bronze effigy ofKrzysztof Szydłowiecki, theKrzysztof Ossoliński, probablyby Agostino Locci the Elder in1627–47. It is one of the mosteccentric residences of itstime in Europe (see pp44–5).Having been attacked duringthe Swedish Deluge (see p44),the castle fell into neglect.The palace was enormous,and for 300 years its wallsprovided the surroundingvillages with vast amounts ofbuilding material. However,the magnificent ruins arestill extremely impressive.EnvironsOssolin, situated 15 km(9 miles) to the east of Ujazd,is the town from which theOssoliński family came.The historic remains hereare much more modest.It survived an explosion in1816, inflicted by subsequentowners who sought to blowit up in search of the treasurerumoured to be hidden there.
  • 138. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 5 3Sandomierz 7Road map F5. * 23,000. £ @n PTTK, Rynek 12 (015 832 2682). Underground Tourist Routeul. Oleśnickich 1. Tel 015 832 3088. # 10am–6pm daily (Apr: to5pm, Oct–Mar: to 4pm).www.sandomierz.plThe best view of this small,ancient town is from theRiver Vistula. In 1138,Sandomierz became thecapital of an independentduchy, and from the 14thcentury until the Partitionsof Poland it was a regionalcapital. Part of the networkof underground passagesthat runs beneath the townis open to tourists.The main entrance to theold town is Opatów Gate.The charming, slightly slopingMarket Square is surroundedby elegant houses. In thecentre stands the town hall,with its splendid Renaissanceparapet. It houses theRegional Museum. Themost important building inthe town is the cathedral,built around 1360 on the siteof an earlier Romanesquecathedral and later altered.The 15th-century Ruthenian-Byzantine frescoes in thechancel depict scenes fromthe lives of Christand the Virgin.The Church of St James(Kościół św Jakuba) is anexceptionally fine lateRomanesque aisled basilica.Built in brick, it was begun in1226. Its ceramic decorationand beautiful portal areevidence that it was builtby master craftsmen fromLombardy. The remainsof 49 Dominican friarsmurdered by Tartars in 1260lie in the Martyrs’ Chapel.BaranówSandomierski 8Road map E5. * 1,500.£ 3 km (2 miles) from the centre.@ www.baranow.com.plLeszczyński Castle, built inBaranów Sandomierski for theLeszczyński family in1591–1606, is one of the finestexamples of Mannerist archi-tecture in Poland. The castleconsists of four wings arrangedaround a rectangular arcadedcourtyard. The grand exteriorstaircase and the façades, withtheir elaborate attics giving theimpression of a massive (but infact delicate) curtained wall,are striking. The square towerin the central façade serves apurely decorative purpose. Onaccount of its architecturalornamentation, featuringspheres, rosettes and strangecreatures, the castle is thoughtto have been designed by SantiGucci. The Sulphur BasinMuseum on the ground floorcontains furniture, suits ofarmour and other interestingobjects from the castle’sheyday, as well as exhibitsrelating to the history ofsulphur exploitation in thehuge quarries nearby.E Sulphur Basin Museumul. Zamkowa 20. Tel 015 811 80 39.# 9am–7pm Tue–Sun (Nov–Mar: to4pm). 8 (compulsory, every hour).E Diocesan Museumul. Długosza 9. Tel 015 833 26 70.# Apr–Oct: 9am–4pm Tue–Sat,1–4pm Sun; Nov–Mar: 9:30am–3pmTue–Sat, 1:30–3pm Sun. &The museum is in the Gothichouse of Jan Długosz (1415–80), the celebrated chroniclerof Poland. It features religiouspaintings and sculptures fromthe Middle Ages to the 19thcentury, including Madonnawith the Christ Child andSt Catherine by LucasCranach the Elder.E Regional MuseumCastle Tel 015 644 57 57/58. #9am–4pm Tue–Fri, 9am–3pm Sat,10am–3pm Sun (May–Sep: 10am–5pm Tue–Fri, 10am–6pm Sat & Sun).Town Hall Rynek 10. Tel 015 832 2265. # 9am–4pm Tue–Fri, 9am–3pmSat, 10am–3pm Sun (May–Sep: 10am–5pm Tue–Fri, 9am–5pm Sat & Sun).The Regional Museum is splitbetween the town hall andStaircase in the courtyard of Leszczyński Palace in Baranów SandomierskiOpatów Gate, defending the oldtown of SandomierzThe Mannerist and Baroquecollegiate church inKlimontów, 13 km (8 miles)east of Ujazd, and begun in1643, is something of anarchitectural curiosity. Theelliptical nave with galleriesis an unusual combination,and the columns sunk intoniches hollowed out in thepillars make a mockery ofthe principles of tectonics.the recently refurbishedGothic and Renaissancecastle. The museum containsarchaeological, ethnographicand historical displays.
  • 139. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 5 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Rytwiany 9Road map E5. * 950. £ @The main attraction ofRytwiany is the early BaroqueCamaldolite church thatstands next to the monastery. Itwas built in 1624–5 by theTęczyński family and isconsidered to be one of thefinest examples of Camaldolitearchitecture in Europe. Inaccordance with the rules ofthe order, the entrance to thesanctuary leads through anarrow passageway, with thetiny houses of the monks lyingbehind the monastery walls.The clock in the church towermarked the times for differentactivities in the monastery.The modest appearance ofthe façade contrasts with theexuberant interior: stuccoworkis complemented by colourfulfrescoes painted by the prior,Venante da Subiaco. Thechurch is hidden deep inthe forest in a vast clearing,unfortunately beyond thereach of most tourists.For the intrepid traveller,the ruins of the 15th-centuryGothic castle of WojciechJastrzębiec, Archbishop ofGniezno, which stand onthe edge of the village,are also worth visiting.vestiges remain, incorporatedin the large Rococo-Neo-Classical castle that now standson the site, surrounded by aneglected park and with stablesnearby. The castle was builtfor an influential Poraj family,who were at the height of theirpower in the times of Zawisza,Chancellor and Bishop ofCracow (died c.1382), knownfor his sumptuous lifestyle.EnvironsIn Raków, 12 km (7 miles)north of Kurozwęki, is theProtestant church of the PolishBrethren. It is contemporarywith the establishment ofRaków Academy in the 1600s.The castle in Kurozwęki, with its severe Neo-Classical façadeGrabki Duże wRoad map E5. * 410. @Between 1742 and 1750, thearchitect Francisco Placidibuilt a Rococo palace herefor the castellan StanisławRupniewski. At the time, theunusual shape of the buildingaroused suspicions that thecastellan intended it to be fora harem. Rupniewski lovedwomen, so did nothing tocontradict the gossip.The nucleus of the “harem”is a central hall covered witha fanciful roof. This is sur-rounded by four single-storeyThe Camaldolite churchin RytwianySzydłów qRoad map E5. * 1,100. @_ Jousting tournament (early Jun).www.szydlow.plThis attractive medieval townis reached by crossing a bridgeover a moat and passingthrough one of the old towngates. In the 16th century thiswas a flourishing town, andin 1528 it even had its ownsophisticated water supply.By the mid-17th century,however, it was falling intodecline. Features of interestare the town walls, 2 m (6 ft)thick and 680 m (2,230 ft)long, with spiked battlements,and the Market Square,dominated by the parishChurch of St Władysław (Faraśw Władysława), initially inthe Gothic style but rebuiltin the 17th century.Also worth a visit are theGothic castle of Kazimierzthe Great, with its RegionalMuseum, and the 16th-century synagogue, withBaroque wall paintings.E Regional Museumul. Szkolna 8. Tel 041 354 51 46.# 7:30am–3:30pm Mon–Fri,10am–2pm Sat & Sun.¢ Mon & Wed in summer.Kurozwęki 0Road map E5. * 840. @The 14th-century Gothic castlethat once stood in the smallvillage of Kurozwęki was oneof the earliest stone fortressesin Małopolska. Today, onlyCracow Gate, the Gothic southgate into the old town of Szydłów
  • 140. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 5 5wings that once containedsmall apartments. The designof the palace is not dissimilarto that of a windmill.Jan Długosz. During theRenaissance, the castlewas remodelled for theMyszkowski family by SantiGucci. It was dismantledbefore 1799, the result beingthat little remains today.Between 1556 and 1586, thehumanistic Calvinist collegewas active in Pińczów – justas the printing house of thePolish Brethren was to be afew decades later. A beautifulRenaissance house decoratedwith sgraffito is sometimesidentified as the PolishBrethren’s printing house:it is not, but it still meritsthe visitor’s attention.The Chapel of St Anne(Kaplica św Anny), on thetop of the hill, is an unusualMannerist building. It wasfounded in 1600 by ZygmuntMyszkowski and built, it isthought, by Santi Gucci.In nearby Mirów, theFranciscan church andthe 17th-century Mannerist-Baroque parish church,which has early Baroquevaulting and rich furnishings,are both worth a visit. In thevestibule of the parishchurch, a marble tombstoneof a middle-class woman,Anna Jakubczyńska, whodied in 1618, attracts thevisitor’s attention.Also worth seeing is thelate Renaissance synagogue,which is the last remainingtrace of the Jews who oncelived in Pińczów.within it date from the secondhalf of the 12th century andmay perhaps represent thePiast princes (see p39) whofounded the church.The parish and Franciscan church in Mirów, near PińczówThe palace of Stanisław Rupniewski in Grabki Duże, said to be for a haremPińczów tRoad map E5. * 12,400. @n pl. Wolności 22 (041 351 54 04)._ Days of Ponidzie (Jun).www.pinczow.com.plIn the 16th century, thetown of Pińczów was animportant centre of artisticand intellectual life. It isdominated by the castlebuilt in the 15th century forCardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki.Oleśnicki was a politicianand confidant of WładysławII and Kazimierz IV, as wellas being a patron of themedieval Polish chroniclerWiślica rRoad map E5. * 610. @This sleepy village mayhave been the capital of theVistulanians in the 11thcentury. The Market Square,which is planted with trees,is unexpectedly dominatedby the enormous Gothiccollegiate church, foundedby Kazimierz the Great after1350. The chancel is decoratedwith Ruthenian-Byzantinefrescoes dating from1397–1400 which are nowbarely visible. The floor isthat of an earlier Romanesquechurch; the figures engravedBusko Zdrój eRoad map E5. * 18,400. @ £n ul. Waryńskiego 4a (041 378 4883). _ K. Jamroz Music Festival (Jun,Jul). www.busko.com.plSprings with healing proper-ties were discovered herein 1776, but it was not untilthe beginning of the 19thcentury that they began tobe exploited. In 1836 asanatorium was openedand a park laid out. TheNeo-Classical bath housedates from 1836–8; visitorsmay sample the waters inthe pump room. The spaitself is valued for its raresulphur and salt springs andfor its therapeutic mud.
  • 141. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 5 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21RefectoryThe ceiling is decorated with richfrescoes by the 17th-centurypainter Karl Dankwart. In1670, a wedding receptionwas held here for the Polishking Michał KorybutWiśniowiecki and hisbride, Eleanor.Częstochowa yThe monastery of Jasna Góra in Częstochowa isthe most famous shrine of the Virgin in Poland andthe country’s greatest place of pilgrimage – formany, its spiritual capital. The image of the BlackMadonna of Częstochowa, to which miraculouspowers are attributed, is Jasna Góra’s most precioustreasure. Founded in 1382 by Pauline monks whocame from Hungary at the invitation of Władysław,Duke of Opole (who probably brought the image ofthe Black Madonna to Częstochowa), the monasterywithstood several sieges, including the legendary40-day siege by the Swedes in 1655 (see p44).Bastion ofSt Roch(belonging toMorsztynowie)Knights’ HallThe hall contains a series of late17th-century paintingsdepicting major events in themonastery’s history.The 600th AnniversaryMuseum has animpressive displayof artifacts madeby concentrationcamp inmates.ArsenalStations of the CrossThe 14 Stations of the Crossstanding on artificial rocks in themoat were created by the architectStefan Szyller and the sculptorPius Weloński in 1900–13. Everyday, groups of pilgrims attend areligious service here.STAR FEATURES. Black Madonna. Basilica of the HolyCross and the Nativityof the Virgin Mary
  • 142. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 5 7. Black MadonnaThe most important icon of theCatholic faith in Poland, depict-ing the Virgin with the ChristChild, was probably paintedin 1434 on top of an olderByzantine icon – the originalBlack Madonna, which wasdamaged by robbers in 1430.Monastery GatesThe Lubomirski Gate, theStanisław August Gate,the Gate of the SorrowfulVirgin Mary and theBank (or Jagiellonian)Gate all lead to themonastery hill.Chapel of the LastSupperThis chapel was designedby Adolf Szyszko-Bohuszin the 20th century.. Basilica of the HolyCross and the Nativity ofthe Virgin MaryThe present basilica dates from1692–1728. The Baroquedecoration of the high altar andof the ceiling, the latter by KarlDankwart, is rich in detail.TreasuryGold and silver vessels, churchvestments, tapestries and votiveofferings are among theitems on display.ConfessionalOutdoor altar,where servicesare held forthe crowdsof pilgrims.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map D5. * 245,000. £@ n al. Najświętszej Marii Panny65 (034 368 22 50); Jasna Góra,Pauline Monastery ul. Kordec-kiego 2 (034 377 72 46). JasnaGóra # 5am–9:30pm. BlackMadonna of Częstochowa(unveiling times) 6am–noon daily(to 1pm Sat & Sun), 3–9:30pm(May–Sep: from 2pm). Times mayvary. Treasury, Arsenal, 600thAnniversary Museum # 9am–4pm daily (May–15 Oct: to 6pm)._ “Gaude Mater” InternationalFestival of Religious Music (earlyMay). www.czestochowa.pl
  • 143. Eagles’ Nests Trail uThe Cracow-Częstochowa upland isa limestone mountain range formedin the Jurassic period. Perched onrocky outcrops, some of the castles,most of which were built in the MiddleAges and ruined during the Swedish Delugeof the 1650s (see p44), resemble eagles’ nests.Ojców National Park, with Pieskowa Skała Castle,encompasses some of the most beautiful uplandareas. This castle was once the stronghold ofkings, but at the end of the Middle Ages it passedinto the hands of bandits – Piotr Szafraniec andhis son Krzysztof – who lured rich merchants totheir deaths. Today all is peaceful: tourist trails,rock-climbing and beautiful scenery.For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 5 8Mirów 2The castle oncebelonged to theMyszkowski family.It is perched on arocky ridge, turningthe natural lie of theland to defensiveadvantage.Bobolice 3Today, joustingtournaments andoutdoor games takeplace in the surroundingsof the splendid ruins ofthe castle built byKazimierz the Greatin the 14th century.Olsztyn 1Every autumn,thousands of spectatorsgather to watch as amagnificent fireworkdisplay and laser showilluminate the statelyruins of the castle.TIPS FOR WALKERSLength of trail: 190 k m(118 miles).Stopping-off points: Many barsand restaurants are to be foundalong the trail. There is a restaurantand café in Pieskowa Skała Castle.0 km0 miles55
  • 144. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 5 9Ogrodzieniec 4In the 16th centurythe castle belongedto the Boner familyof Cracow. With itsgate, towers andgalleries, it is oneof the mostpicturesque castleson the trail.Olkusz 6The town iswell endowedwith historicbuildings.Itowes itsprosperity tosilver and leadmining.Błędowski Desert 5This miniature desert is 320 sq km (123sq miles) of drifting sand and dunes.Unique in Central Europe, it is slowlybecoming choked with vegetation.Pieskowa Skała 7The well-preserved castlewith its arcaded courtyardand bastions dominatesthe Prądnik valley. It issituated on an inaccessiblerock surrounded byspectacular scenery.Ojców National Park 8The Prądnik valley has a karstlandscape; there are outcropsof limestone, a multitude ofgorges and caves with bats.The most famous rock is thepillar known as Hercules’ Club.Imbramowice 0This small village hasa late BaroquePremonstratensianconvent built in the18th century.Grodzisko 9The obelisk with a stone elephantis an unusual monument. It wasmade in 1686 and stands next tothe Church of the Assumption.KEYTrailOther roadViewpoint
  • 145. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 6 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Oświęcim(Auschwitz) iRoad Map D5. * 43,000. £ @Although the nameOświęcim means little toforeigners, its German equiva-lent, Auschwitz, evokes fearin almost everyone. It washere that the Nazis establishedtheir largest concentration andextermination camp. Auschwitzis synonynous with death,cruelty, the annihilation ofthe Jews and the Holocaust.It is a massive graveyard. Novisitor can leave unmoved.The Auschwitz camp, knownas Auschwitz I, opened in June1940 when the first Polishpolitical prisoners arrived.In March 1941 a much largercamp at Birkenau (Brzezinkain Polish), Auschwitz II, wasstarted, 3km (2 miles) fromOświeçim. Auschwitz III,a labour camp, was builtnearby in Monowice in 1943.The Nazis brought in people,overwhelmingly Jews, fromall over Europe. The gaschambers, which had thecapacity to kill thousands daily,started working ceaselessly in1942. Trains drew up to theramp where people would beherded out for selection forextermination (the fate of themajority), forced labour ormedical experiments. Thoseselected for exterminationwould be gassed and theirbodies incinerated in one ofthe four crematoria. Apart fromJews, a number of Poles, Sovietprisoners of war, gypsies andhomosexuals died here too.For the Poles, Auschwitz is aparticular symbol of their ownsuffering. It was here that StMaksymilian Kolbe died fromstarvation after volunteeringhis life for that of a fellowprisoner, who survived. Sovietforces liberated the camp inJanuary 1945. They found7,650 sick and dyingprisoners when they arrived.Above the entrance toAuschwitz are inscribed thewords “Arbeit macht frei”(“Work makes you free”). Thecamp has been preserved asa memorial, and the prisonblocks that survive havebeen turned into a museumcharting the history of thecamp and of persecutionin wartime Poland. In all,between 900,000 and 1.5million Jews and others weremurdered in the exterminationcamps here. The camp is aUNESCO World Heritage Site.E Oświęcim-BrzezinkaMuseumul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20.Tel 033 843 20 22. # Dec–Feb:8am–3pm; Mar & Nov: 8am–4pm;Apr & Oct: 8am–5pm; May & Sep:8am–6pm; Jun–Aug: 8am–7pm. 8www.auschwitz.org.plGate and unloading platform, Birkenau extermination campLake Żywiecki, a man-made reservoir on the River SolaBielsko-Biała oRoad Map D6. * 174,000. £ @n Plac Ratuszowy 4 (033 819 0050). www.bielsko.plThe city was created byjoining the Silesian town ofBielsko and the Galician townof Biała. It was once an import-ant centre for the productionof textiles and wool, as aninteresting early 20th-centurycomplex of buildings testifies.Many streets containminiature versions of oldViennese houses. The Castleof the Sułkowski princes,built in the Middle Ages andaltered in the 19th century, isalso of interest. The unusualhilltop Church of St Nicholas(Kościół św Mikołaja) began asa modest 15th-century Gothicchurch and was extensivelyremodelled in 1907–10.Bielsko-Biała is a goodstarting point for excursionsinto the Beskid Śląski Mount-ains. The chair lift from thesuburbs takes visitors to theSzyndzielnia peak, 1,026 m(3,365 ft) up.Żywiec pRoad Map D6. * 32,000. @£ n Rynek 12 (033 861 43 10).www.zywiec.plThe town of Żywiec isassociated with one of thebest Polish brands of beer,which is brewed locally. It is
  • 146. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 6 1Wadowice aRoad Map D6. * 19,400. £ @n 033 873 23 65. ww.wadowice.plKarol Wojtyła, who becamePope John Paul II in 1978, wasborn in Wadowice on 18 May1920. His childhood home hasbeen turned into the Museumof the Holy Father John PaulII, with objects relating to hisearly life. He was christenedin the late Baroque Church ofthe Presentation of theVirgin Mary (Kościół Ofiaro-wania NMP), near the MarketSquare. The church, built in1791–8, replaces an earlyGothic church, of which onlythe chancel remains. Thetower, with Baroque cupola,was built by Tomasz Prylińskiin the late 19th century.E Museum of the HolyFather John Paul IIul. Kościelna 7. Tel 033 823 26 62.# 9am–4pm Tue–Sun (summerto 6pm).the ruler of Cracow and anardent Catholic, whose planit was to replicate the layoutof Jerusalem.The calvary (built 1605–32)consists of 40 chapels, set onthe surrounding hills. Themost distinctive are the workof the Flemish architect andgoldsmith Paul Baudarth.Some have unusual shapes:the House of the Virgin Marytakes the form of the MysticRose, and the House ofCaiaphas that of an ellipsis.Their façades have Dutchornamentation. The largeBaroque monastery churchdates from 1702; the monasticbuildings were constructedby Baudarth and GiovanniMaria Bernadoni in 1603–67.For nearly 400 years,the calvary has attractedthousands of pilgrims.Passion plays are performedhere during Holy Week, andthe Feast of Assumption iscelebrated in August.KalwariaZebrzydowska sRoad Map D6. * 4,400. £ @www.kalwaria-zebrzydowska.plKalwaria Zebrzydowska is theoldest calvary in Poland andone of the most unusual. Itwas commissioned in 1600by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski,Arcaded courtyard of theRenaissance castle in ŻywiecHerod’s Palace, one of the stationsof Kalwaria ZebrzydowskaBernardine church in Kalwaria Zebrzydowskaalso a good starting point forexcursions into the BeskidŻywiecki Mountains. LakeŻywiecki, with its water-sportsfacilities, is another touristattraction. This is also a townof thriving folk traditions; aparticular high point is CorpusChristi, when women dressedin traditional costumes takepart in a festive procession.Local monuments include theMarket Square, surroundedby old houses, the 19th-century town hall and theChurch of the Nativity ofthe Virgin Mary (KościółNarodzenia NajświętszejMarii Panny), built in1582–3. Not far from theMarket Square is the GothicChurch of the Holy Cross(Kościół św Krzyża).The most important build-ings in the town are theRenaissance castle and the19th-century palace, started inthe 16th century for MikołajKomorowski. In the mid-17thcentury, Jan Kazimierz, Kingof Poland, was the owner ofŻywiec. When he abdicatedin 1668, he lived here brieflybefore leaving Poland.In the early 19th century,the town became the prop-erty of the Habsburgs, whobuilt a palace next to thecastle. Marrying into thePolish aristocracy, the last ofthe Habsburgs were stronglyconnected with Poland.E Town Museumul. Zamkowa 5. Tel 033 861 21 24.# 9am–5pm Mon–Fri, 10am–4pmSat & Sun. www.muzeum-zywiec.pl
  • 147. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 6 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Wieliczka dRoad map D5. * 19,000. £ @Wieliczka is famous for itsancient salt mine, whichwas opened 700 years agoand is still being exploitedtoday. Unique in the world,it has been listed by UNESCOas a World Heritage Site.Only 2 km (1½ miles) ofthe network of undergroundgalleries and chambers areopen to the public. Theyreach a depth of 135 m(442 ft) and have a stabletemperature of 13–14° C(55–57° F). The two-hourvisit takes in ancient under-ground chambers, salinelakes, wooden miningmachines and undergroundbuildings. The mostimpressive of these is theChapel of St Kinga, withaltarpieces, chandeliers andsculptures made of salt.Additional figures carved insalt, the oldest dating fromthe 17th century, can beseen in other chambers. TheStaszic Chamber has thehighest ceiling, at 36 m(115 ft). At the end of theGerman occupation, theNazis tried to establish anaircraft factory in the mines.There is also an undergroundsanatorium where respiratorydiseases are treated.The Salt Mine Castle atUlica Zamkowa 8 is alsoworth a visit. From the 13thcentury right up until 1945 itwas a base for the manage-ment of the salt mine.Today it houses a museumwith – among other things –a splendid collection ofantique salt mills.Niepołomice fRoad map E5. * 8,500. £ @www.niepolomice.comIn the 14th century, the royalcastle at Niepołomice was thehunting base of Kazimierzthe Great. Between 1550and 1571 it was convertedinto a Renaissance palaceby Zygmunt August. Theentrance gate, dating from1552, was once decoratedwith a Jagiellonian eagle; theplaque, with the Latin inscrip-tion “May the King Win andLive”, hints at its formersplendour. The monarchsloved hunting in the gamepark nearby. In 1525 ZygmuntI brought “in a wooden trunka great bear from Lithuania”.The bear hunt ended unhap-pily. Confronted by the angryanimal, the pregnant QueenBona Sworza turned and fled,falling from her horse andsuffering a miscarriage.At the castle in 1551, QueenBona Sworza’s son, ZygmuntAugust, sat at the deathbed ofhis sweetheart wife, BarbaraRadziwiłłówna. Their marriagehad caused a moral andpolitical scandal, and QueenBona was unjustly suspected ofpoisoning her daughter-in-law.Today, the forest is muchsmaller than it was in the timeof the Jagiellonians. It is still,however, a sizeable naturereserve with plenty of sec-luded areas, and bison areraised there.Salt Mineul. Daniłowicza 10. Tel 012 278 7302. # Apr–Oct: 7:30am–7:30pm;Nov–Mar: 8am–5pm. ¢ 1 Jan,Easter, 1 Nov, 24–26 Dec, 31 Dec.& 0 = www.kopalnia.plPainted cottage in ZalipieZalipie gRoad map E5. * 710. @£ 6 km (4 miles) from the village.Zalipie has a unique folk arttradition: cottages, barns,wells and fences are paintedwith colourful floral, animal,geometric and other motifs.Domestic interiors andfurnishings are alsodecorated. The painters arepredominantly the womenof the village. Every year inJune, a competition calledthe Painted Cottage isorganized and exhibitionsof paintings are held.The underground Chapel of St Kinga in the salt mine at Wieliczka
  • 148. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 6 3Tarnów hRoad map E5. * 118,000.@ £ n Rynek 2 (014 621 0432). www.tarnow.plTarnów received its municipalcharter in 1330; the medievallayout of the old town isperfectly preserved and manyancient houses are stillstanding. Those around thearcaded Market Square areamong the finest. The townhall, in the centre, dates fromthe 15th century and wasremodelled in the secondhalf of the 16th century byGiovanni Maria Padovano. TheRenaissance attics and elegantportal date from that time.The late Gothic Cathedral ofthe Nativity of the Virgin Mary(Katedra Narodzenia NMP)was built in 1400 and hasbeen extended many times.It is the grandest buildingin Tarnów, its Gothic portaldecorated with sophisticatediconography. Its DiocesanMuseum is worth a visit.The monuments, stalls, epi-taphs and tombstones withinare mostly those of the Tar-nowski family, who at one timeowned the town. The largetombs belonging to Grand Het-man Jan Tarnowski and his sonJan Krzysztof were fashionedby Giovanni Maria Padovanobetween 1561 and 1570.The portraits of thedeceased are remarkable.The marble bas-reliefs depictJan Tarnowski’s victories inbattle at Orsza, Obertyn andliving quarters but also thecastle’s kitchen, pantry andwine cellar are included inthe exhibition.E Museum ofPeriod InteriorsTel 014 665 80 35. # Mar–Dec:10am–4pm Tue, Thu; 9am–3pmWed, Fri; 11am–2pm Sat & Sun.¢ Jan, Feb. &Nowy Wiśnicz kRoad map E6. * 1,900. @The enormous castle and theMonastery of the DiscalcedCarmelites overlook this townfrom the hills above. Theparish church stands in theMarket Square below. Each ofthese early Baroque buildingswas raised by StanisławLubomirski, Palatine ofCracow, in the 17th century.This rich and wise magnateearned renown in the Battlesof Chocim against the Turks,and grew so strong that he“felt more powerful than theking”. Twice the emperorbestowed a dukedom on him.The castle, which previouslybelonged to the Kmita family,was extended by Lubomirskiafter 1615. It has corner towers,an arcaded courtyard and anunusual entrance gate, framedby enormous volutes. Now aprison, the monastery is notopen to visitors. The façadeof the parish church is one ofthe most unusual pieces ofarchitecture in Poland,combining Baroque elementsin a Mannerist way.Starodub. Tarnowski, a friendof the poet Jan Kochanowski,was known as a charismaticand witty commander as wellas a renowned author ofmilitary theory.E Diocesan Museumpl. Katedralny 6. Tel 014 621 9993. # 10am–3pm Tue–Sat, 9am–2pm Sun. www.muzeum.diecezja.tarnow.plLubomirski Castle, towering abovethe town of Nowy WiśniczDębnonear Brzeska jRoad map E6. * 1,400. @This small, well-proportionedcastle surrounded by a moatwas built in 1470–80 for thecastellan and royal chancellorJakub Dębiński. It survives inan excellent state of preserv-ation. The Museum of PeriodInteriors installed in the castlere-creates the atmosphere ofnoble houses of the 15th to18th centuries. Not only theThe castle in Dębno, which housesa Museum of Period InteriorsThe Gothic-Renaissance town hall in Tarnów
  • 149. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 6 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Chochołów lRoad Map D6. * 1,100. @Along the main street of the16th-century village standtraditional wooden cottages,the best examples of highlandarchitecture in the wholePodhale region. One of thecottages, at No. 75, is opento the public. It dates from1889 and has “white” and“black” rooms, a vestibuleand a cellar. It also housesthe Museum of theChochołów Insurrection,which took place in 1846against Austrian rule.Chochołów has a curiouslocal custom that involvescleaning the walls of thebuilding once a year untilthey are white.E Museum of theChochołów InsurrectionChochołów 75. # 10am–2pmWed–Sun.of Mt Kasprowy Wierch orfrom the funicular railwayascending Mt Gubałówka.Later in the day, many ofthe tourists gather inKrupówki, the town’scentral pedestrianizedarea, which is linedwith cafés, restaurants,exclusive souvenir shopsand art galleries.Walking down Krupówkiit is impossible to resist themarket near the funicularrailway station. On sale canbe found leather kierpce(traditional highlandmoccasins), woollen highlandpullovers, wooden ciupagi(highlanders’ sticks withdecorative axe-like handles),and also bryndza andoscypek (regional cheesesmade from sheep’s milk).Villa Atma, the woodenhouse where the composerKarol Szymanowski (see p26)lived from 1930 to 1936now houses a museumdedicated to this eulogistof the Tatra Mountains.Zakopane zRoad Map D6. * 27,000. £ @n ul. Kościuszki 17 (018 201 2211). _ Autumn in the Tatras; Inter-national Festival of Mountain Folklore(end Aug). www.zakopane.plFor more than 100 years,the Polish people haveregarded Zakopane as theircountry’s winter capital, ona par with alpine resorts asan upmarket winter sportsand leisure centre.Many tourists are alsoappreciative of Zakopanein the summer months.While some go hiking in themountains, most are contentto admire the scenery fromthe windows of their cablecars gliding to the summitOld cottages along the main streetof ChochołówEntrance to the VillaKoliba MuseumZakopane, cable-car line fromKuźnice to Kasprowy WierchPANORAMA FROMMOUNT GUBAŁÓWKAThe finest panorama of theTatra Mountains from thenorthern, Polish side of therange is from Mt Gubałówka orGłodówka pod Bukowiną. TheTatras, the highest mountainsin Central Europe, with alpinelandscapes, lie within Polishand Slovak national parks. Themain attractions for touristsinclude the excursion to theLake Morskie Oko (Eye of theSea) and the ascent by cablecar to the summit of MountKasprowy Wierch. In summer,hikers can follow the manydesignated trails. In winter,the mountains offer favoura-ble conditions for skiing.Mt Jagnięcy Szczyt2,231 m (7,319 ft)Mt Lodowy 2,630 m(8,628 ft)Mt Kościelec2,155 m (7,070 ft)Mt Świnica2,301 m (7,549 ft)
  • 150. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 6 5DębnoPodhalańskie xRoad Map E6. * 790. @The picturesque larch timberParish Church of St Michaelthe Archangel (Kościółparafialny św MichałaArchanioła) is one of themost highly regardedexamples of wooden Gothicarchitecture in Europe. Theceiling, walls and furnishingsare covered with colourfulgeometric, figural and floralmotifs painted in around1500. A magnificent domedtower rises over the church.The church is still used forreligious services.include the Convent of theOrder of St Clare (KlasztorSióstr Klarysek), founded in1208 by the Blessed Kinga. TheGothic church was consecratedin 1280 and the vaulting datesfrom the 16th century. Its altars,with stuccowork ornamenta-tion made by BaldassareFontana in 1696–9, and apulpit from 1671 showing adepiction of the Tree of Jesse,complement the moderndecoration of the church.EnvironsNowy Sącz is situated 8 km(5 miles) northeast of StarySącz. In the large MarketSquare stands the Neo-Baroque town hall of 1895–7.The town’s major buildingsare the old collegiate church,now the parish Church of StMarguerite (Kościół parafialnyśw Małgorzaty), founded byZbigniew Oleśnicki in 1466,and a fine synagogue.Stary Sącz vRoad Map E6. * 8,800. £ @n 018 443 55 97. _ Early MusicFestival (Jun–Jul). www.sacz.plThis charming Galician townhas a picturesque cobbledMarket Squaresurrounded bysmall houses thatin summer arebedecked withflowers. Wereit not for thepresence of cars,tourists andmodern shops,one mightimagine that timehad stood stillhere. The town’sfinest buildingsDunajec Raft Ride cSee pp166–7.It is worth a visit since it isin typical Zakopane style.P Villa Atmaul. Kasprusie 19. Tel 018 201 34 93.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (summer2–6pm Fri).Wooden Gothic church in Dębno PodhalańskieMt KasprowyWierch1,987 m (6,519 ft)DolinaBiałegoMt Sarnia Skała1,372 m (4,500 ft)LittleGiewontBurbotValleyMt Małołączniak2,096 m (6,876 ft)StarorobociarskiWierch 2,176 m (7,139 ft)Mt Giewont1,894 m (6,214 ft)KominiarskiWierch 1,929 m(6,328 ft)The Convent of the Order of St Clare in Stary Sącz
  • 151. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 6 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Niedzica Castle 1The castle was builtin 1330 for theHungarian Berzevicyfamily. It now housesthe Museum of theSpisz Region.Dunajec Dam 3Despite protests, thebuilding of this damwent ahead. On the dayof its opening in 1997, itsaved the Dunajec valleyfrom a disastrous flood.Dunajec Raft Ride cThe pieniny mountains form a smallrange famous for its spectacularlandscapes cut through by theDunajec valley. The raft ride onthe river that flows through thelimestone mountain gorges is oneof the best-known tourist attractions in Poland. Atfirst the rafts move with deceptive calm, but as theyapproach the gorge behind the cloister ruins thewater becomes rougher as the river twists andwinds. This lasts for about 8km (5 miles), after which thewater once again flows moreslowly. The exhilarating rideends in Szczawnica, a well-known health resort.Czorsztyn Castle 2The castle once guarded thePolish border with Hungary. Itsruins perch on a precipitousoutcrop of rock.KEYRaft ride routeTour routeOther roadViewpointKrynica bRoad map E6. * 11,000. £@ n ul. Piłsudskiego 8 (018 47156 54). _ Jan Kiepura Festival(Aug–Sep); concerts by spa orchestras(all year round). www.krynica.plWell-equipped withsanatoria and pump rooms,Krynica is one of the largesthealth resorts in Poland.Fashionable and luxuriouspre-war boarding housesstand next to old woodenvillas. The best known is“Patria”, built by BohdanPniewski in the Art Nouveaustyle, and owned by singerJan Kiepura (1902–66). TheNew Sanatorium near thepedestrian promenade(Deptak) is also worth avisit. Completed in 1939, itretains its original furnishingsand décor. The Great PumpRoom nearby is always verypopular with visitors.The town is surroundedby tree-covered mountains.Mt Jaworzyna, at 1,114 m(3,654 ft) the highest peak inthe area, can be reached bycable car, departing fromCzarny Potok. In winter, themountain turns into a skier’sparadise. The local ski trailsare the longest in Poland.Remote areas of the mount-ains are inhabited by lynxes,wolves and bears, so cautionshould be exercised awayfrom the established trails.The work of amateur painterNikifor (d. 1968) is displayedin the “Romanówka” villa,now the Nikifor Museum.E Nikifor MuseumBulwary Dietla 19. Tel 018 47153 03. # 10am–1pm and 2–5pmTue–Sun.One of Nikifor’s paintings on viewat the Nikifor MuseumBiecz nRoad map E6. * 4,500. £ @City bus from Gorlice. _ PogórzeFolklore Days.In the 16th century this smalltown was one of the mostimportant centres of clothmanufacture in Poland. It isdominated by the town halltower, built in 1569–81, andthe Parish Church of CorpusChristi (Kościół farny BożegoCiała). One of the mostmagnificent late Gothicchurches in all of Małopolska,it was built at the turn of the15th century in a style thatseeks to reconcile the Gothictradition with the new canonsof the Renaissance. The firstpharmacy in the Carpathianfoothills was located in theRenaissance house at UlicaWęgierska 2, dating from1523; it now houses a divisionof the Regional Museum.E Regional Museumul. Kromera 3. Tel 013 447 10 93.# 8am–5pm Tue–Fri, 8am–4pmSat, 9am–4pm Sun (Oct–Apr: 8am–3pm Tue–Sat, 9am–2pm Sun).0 km0 miles11
  • 152. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 6 7Ostra Skała 7After Ostra Skała (Sharp Rock)the River Dunajec turnssharply as it flows through thenarrowest part of the gorge.Szczawnica 8This well-known healthresort is mainly a centre forthe treatment of respiratorydiseases. It is also thedisembarkation point forthe Dunajec river raft ride.Cerveny Kláštor 5The ruins of the Red Monastery can beseen on the Slovak side of the Dunajec.Trzy Korony 6Trzy Korony (Three Crowns) is themost beautiful massif in the Pieninyrange. In 1287, the Blessed Kingatook refuge from the Tartars in theCastle of the order of St Clare,whose ruins stand on one peak.Kąty 4Departure point for the raft ride.TIPS FOR VISITORSRaft ride: 21/4–23/4 hours.Length: 18 km (11 miles) toSzozwnica; 23 km (14 miles) toKrósicienko. Tel 018 262 97 21or 262 97 93.Starting point:Sromowce Wyżne – Kąty. Apr–Nov:daily. & www.flisacy.com.plEnvironsIn the village of Harklowa isa late Gothic wooden churchdating from the turn of the15th century.historical monument is theOświęcim Chapel in theGothic Franciscan church.Completed in 1647, the chapelis decorated with exquisitestuccowork by GiovanniBattista Falconi. It contains thetombs of the half-siblings Annaand Stanisław, whose loveended in tragedy. The MarketSquare is surrounded by oldarcaded houses, the mostinteresting of which is No. 7,with its Renaissance doorway.EnvironsIn Odrzykoń, 10 km (6 miles)north of Krosno, stand theruins of Kamieniec Castle.Kamieniec was the settingfor Revenge (1834), the mostpopular comedy by the19th-century writer CountAleksander Fredro (see p25),the plot of which involves adispute over the hole in thewall dividing the courtyardof the castle.In the geological park notfar from the castle stands agroup of sandstone and shalestructures known as Prządki(The Spinners), which haveunusual, sometimes quitestartling shapes.Iwonicz Zdrój and Rymanów,15 km (9 miles) east of Krosno,are very popular health resorts.At Dukla are the BaroqueMniszcha Palace, which todayhouses a historical museum,and the 18th-century Bernardinechurch with the charmingRococo tomb of Maria AmaliaBrühla Mniszkowa, with itspeaceful effigy.In Bóbrka, 12 km (7 miles)south of Krosno, an industrialskansen has been created inwhat is certainly one of theoldest oil wells in the world,established in 1854.Krosno mRoad map F6. * 49,000. £ @n ul. Rynek 5 (013 432 77 07)._ Krosno Fair (Jun); Krosno MusicAutumn (Oct).Krosno was once the centreof the Polish oil industry, butthere is more to the town thanits industrial past. The finestView of the Parish Church of Corpus Christi in Biecz
  • 153. The Bieszczady mountains, together with the neigh-bouring Beskid Niski, are the wildest in Poland.Tourists return with blood-curdling tales of encounterswith bears and wolves, or the discovery of a skeletonin the forest undergrowth. Needless to say, thesestories are often exaggerated. Before World War II, theregion was densely populated by Ukrainians andethnic groups known as the Boyks and the Lemks.After the war, because of fighting and resettlements, itbecame deserted, and farming largely disappearedfrom the region by the 1970s. Pastures and burnt-outvillages became overgrown as the forest encroachedand wild animals returned to the mountains.Bieszczady Mountains Tour ,For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 6 8BIESZCZADY MOUNTAIN ANIMALSThe lynx, emblem of Bieszczady National Park, isnot the only feline to make its home in thesemountains. Wildcats also live here. They arerarely seen because they are very shy, concealingthemselves in the forest undergrowth. Carpathiandeer, with a population of 5,000, are more oftenencountered. Roe deer are also abundant andrelatively tame. Wolves, a protected speciesnumbering about 100 here, are more cautious.Bison, kings of the Polish forest, number up to 120,and brown bear mayalso be seen. TheBieszczady Mountainsare also popularwith ornithologistsfor the many speciesof birds of prey:eagles, including thegolden eagle, falconand hawk.Połonina Wetlińska 6Known as “połoniny”, theseelongated ranges with picturesquealpine meadows above forest levelare a characteristic feature of theBieszczady Mountains. The mostinteresting, 1,250 m (4,100 ft) up,are Caryńska and Wetlińska.BieszczadyNational Park 5The highest and wildest partof the mountains falls withinBieszczady National Park,which covers an area of 2,700sq km (1,042 sq miles). Insummer, many tourists walkthe hiking trails. The maintourist base is in the smallvillage of Ustrzyki Górne.Komańcza 7Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński,Primate of Poland, was sent intoexile to this village, desertedafter World War II. He wasinterned by the communistauthorities in 1955–6.Zagórz 1Zagórz, dominated by the ruins ofthe 18th-century Baroque fortifiedChurch of Discalced Carmelites, isthe starting point of hiking trailsinto the Bieszczady Mountains.A wild mountain wolf
  • 154. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 6 9KEYTour routeOther roadViewpointRównia 4The most beautifulOrthodoxchurches in theBieszczadyMountains arevestiges of thenumerous villagesof the Boyks andthe Lemks.Lesko 2This charming town hasmany fine buildings,including a castle and a16th-century parishchurch. The Baroquesynagogue houses amuseum, and theJewish cemetery isalso of interest.Solina 3The highest damin Poland – 82 m(269 ft) high and664 m (2,178 ft)long – was builtat Solina. Thereservoir thatwas created isideal for sailing.The dam issurroundedby magnificentforests withnature reserves.TIPS FOR DRIVERSTour length: 106 km (66 miles).Stopping-off points:Restaurants, boarding housesand inns can be found inPolańczyk, Lesko, Wetlin, UstrzykiDolne and Ustrzyki Górne. In thesummer season, bars also open.0 km0 miles55
  • 155. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 7 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21Krasiczyn .Road map F6. * 440. @ CastleTel 016 671 83 21. # summer:10am–4pm Tue–Sun; winter: 9am–3pm Tue–Sun, but call ahead. & 8compulsory. 0 www.krasiczyn.plKrasiczyn Castle is one of themost magnificent castles inthe old Ruthenian territoriesof the Polish crown. Buildingbegan in 1592 on the site ofan earlier castle by StanislawKrasicki, castellan of Przewór.It was continued by his sonMarcin and completed in1608. The architect wasGaleazzo Appiani.The castle takes the form ofan arcaded courtyard, with atall clock tower over the gateand four stout cylindrical tow-ers at the corners. The DivineTower contains a chapel. ThePapal Tower is crowned by adome and decorated with aparapet symbolizing the papaltiara. The Royal Tower has acrown-shaped dome, and theTower of the Gentry is top-ped with sword pommels.The Baroque sgraffito onthe walls is striking. Myth-ological scenes are depictedon the upper tier; the centraltier is filled with portraits ofthe kings of Poland from the14th-century Jagiellonianmonarchs to Jan III Sobieski,King of Poland at the time,and portraits of nobles. In thelowest tier are medallions withthe busts of Roman patricians.Little of the original decorationof the interior survives, as itPrzemyśl /Road map F6. * 67,000. £ @n ul. Grodzka 1 (016 675 21 64)._ Canoe rally (Apr, May); GitariadaInternational Festival (Jul).www.um.przemysl.plThe history of Przemyśl,picturesquely laid out on ahill and the banks of the RiverSan, goes back to prehistorictimes. In the Middle Agesit was a regional capital andlay on a busy trade route. Theobject of dispute betweenPoland and Ruthenia, itbecame part of Poland in1340, later passing intoAustrian control.During World War I, thestrongly fortified city success-fully held out against thebesieging Russian army. Thefortifications from that timesurvive. From 1939 to 1941 theRiver San, which flows throughthe city, constituted a borderbetween territory held by theSoviet Union and Germany.The city’s Catholic andOrthodox churches, togetherwith its synagogues, areevidence of its multiculturalhistory. Today, a Ukrainianminority lives alongside thecity’s Polish population.The cathedral, remodelledin 1718–24, is pre-dominantly in theBaroque style; of itsearlier Gothic formonly the chancelremains. Notablefeatures of theinterior include theRenaissance tombof Bishop JanDziaduski, byGiovanni MariaPadovano, andthe late Gothicalabaster figure of the Virginfrom Jacków. Near thecathedral are the BaroqueChurch of the Discalced Carm-elites and the former Jesuitchurch, now Uniate, datingfrom 1627–48. The castle,founded by Kazimierz theGreat in the 1340s, stands on ahill above the city. The top ofits tower offers a panorama ofthe city and the San valley.was destroyed by fire in 1852,on the eve of the marriage ofa later owner, Duke LeonSapieha. The castle is open tovisitors; the residential sectioncontains a hotel and restaurant.EnvironsIn Krzywcza, 10 km (6 miles)west of Krasiczyn stand theruins of the castle of the Kąckifamily. About 12 km (7 miles)south of Krasiczyn, in PosadaRybotycka, can be seenthe only stone fortifiedUniate church in Poland.In Kalwaria Pacławicka,the 18th-century Franciscanmonastery has about a dozenchapels marking the Stationsof the Cross. Passion playsare performed here on GoodFriday and many processionsand plays are organizedduring the year for differentchurch festivities.The Divine Tower, one of fourtowers in Krasiczyn CastlePrzemyśl, on the banks of the River SanThe funeral of the Virgin enacted in a passionplay in Kalwaria Pacławicka
  • 156. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 7 1Jarosław !Road map F5. * 41,000. £ @Jarosław Museum in the OrsettiHouse Tel 016 621 54 37. #10am–2pm Wed–Sun (Jul & Aug:9am–3pm Wed & Thu). &_ Early Music Festival (Aug).www.jaroslaw.plThe city of Jarosław owes itswealth to its location on theRiver San and the trade routelinking the east with westernEurope. In the 16th and 17thcenturies, the largest fairs inPoland were held here. WhenWładysław IV attended a fair inJarosław, he mingled with aninternational crowd and con-versed with merchants from asfar away as Italy and Persia.The Orsetti House, built inthe style of an Italian Ren-aissance palazzo, testifies tothe wealth of the city’s mer-chants. Built in the 16th cen-tury and extended in 1646, itis crowned with a Manneristparapet. The town hall, withcoats of arms on the cornertowers, stands in the centreof the broad Market Square.Leżajsk @Road map F5. * 14,500. £ @n 017 240 18 18. _ Organ recitalsin the basilica (Jun–Sep: 7pm; bookingrequired). www.lezajsk.um.gov.plThe major attractions ofLeżajsk are its Bernardinebasilica and monastery, builtby the architect AntonioPellacini and the organ recitalsthat take place in the basilica,Łańcut £See pp172–3.Rzeszów $Road map F5. * 165,000. £@ k n ul. Asnyka 6 (017 85246 11). www.erzeszow.pl/enThe dominant building in thistown is the Gothic Churchof Saints Stanisław andAdalberg (Kościół św śwStanisława i Wojciecha),dating from the 15th centuryand with a later Baroqueinterior. The former PiaristChurch of the Holy Cross(Kościół św Krzyża),extended in 1702–07 byTylman van Gameren, andthe Baroque monasteryand Bernardine church of1624–9 are also worth a visit.The latter contains the un-finished mausoleum of theLigęz family, with eightalabaster statues carved bySebastian Sala around 1630.The remains of the oldcastle of the Ligęz family canstill be seen. It later passedinto the ownership of theLubomirskis, who surroundedit with bastions in the 17thcentury. The Market Square,with an eclectic town hallremodelled in 1895–8, isanother interesting feature.Highlights of the MuzeumMiasta Rzeszowa include thegallery of 18th- to 20th-centuryPolish painting and the collect-ion of glass, china and faïence.E Muzeum Miasta Rzeszowaul. 3 Maja 19. Tel 017 853 52 78.# 9am–3pm Tue–Thu, Sun;10am–5:30pm Fri. & (free on Sun).which was built in 1618–28.Its interior decoration and thefurnishings, such as the oakstalls, pulpit and high altar,are mostly the work of themonks themselves. Thebasilica was established byŁukasz Opaliński, who earnedrenown by his defeat of thelawless magnate StanisławStadnicki in mortal combat.The west end of the nave isfilled with the complex organ,completed in 1693 and said tobe the finest in Poland. Thecentral theme of the elaborateBaroque casing is Hercules’fight with the Hydra, the nine-headed monster of Greekmythology. Not only is this asymbol of the age-old struggleof virtue against vice but alsoof Polish victory over theTurks, who were threateningEurope at the time.The Jewish cemetery inLeżajsk is a place of pilgrimagefor Jews from all over theworld, who come to visit thetomb of Elimelech, the great18th-century Orthodox rabbi.Orsetti House, a palace in the Renaissance style, in JarosławFair in Leżajsk, a centre of folk pottery
  • 157. Łańcut £The town of Łańcut was purchased by StanisławLubomirski in 1629. Securing the services of thearchitect Maciej Trapola and the stuccoist GiovanniBattista Falconi, this powerful magnate went aboutbuilding a fortified residence in the town. It wascompleted in 1641. After 1775 the palace, by thenowned by Izabella Lubomirska, was extended andthe interiors remodelled. The Neo-Classical Ballroomand the Great Dining Room were created during thisperiod, and the magnificent gardens with their manypavilions laid out. In the 19th century, ownershipof the palace passed to the Potocki family. From1889 to 1914, the penultimate owners, Roman andElżbieta Potocki, modernized the residence. Thepalace, now a museum, attracts numerous visitors.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 7 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21. Column RoomThe statue in this room is that ofthe young Henryk Lubomirski,carved by AntonioCanova inaround 1787.Mirror RoomThe walls are lined withRococo panelling broughtback to Łańcut by IzabellaLubomirska – probably fromone of her visits to France.CarriageThe largest collection of carriages in Poland isdisplayed in the coach house. It comprises 120different types of coaches, carriages and otherhorse-drawn vehicles.STAR FEATURES. Theatre. Ballroom. Column RoomLibrary
  • 158. M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 1 7 3. TheatreThe small court theatre was built around 1800.Its present appearance is the result of remodellingcarried out by the eminent Viennese workshop ofFellner & Helmer.. BallroomThe Neo-Classical ballroom wasdesigned by Christian PiotrAigner in 1800. The stuccoworkis by Fryderyk Baumann.FaçadeThe palace façadesare fundamentallyBaroque. Therustication of thelower storey, however,is typical of FrenchRenaissance style –part of the remodellingthat the palaceunderwent at the endof the 19th century.Neo-Rococo ClockThis typically FrenchNeo-Rococo gilt clock ismounted in the mirrorthat hangs over thefireplace in theBilliard Room.SculptureGalleryMany pieces, mostly19th-century,make up thecollectionondisplay;amongthem is thisstatue ofPsyche carriedby Zephyrs, acopy of a pieceby John Gibson.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map F5. * 17,000. @£ Palace Tel 017 225 20 08.# Feb–Nov: noon–3:30pm Mon,9am–4pm Tue–Sun (to 5pm Sun)(Jun–Sep: extended hours – callahead for details). ¢ Easter, 3May, 2 wks in May, Corpus Christi,1, 6, 11 Nov. & ^ = 0 8The mainentranceCorner towerknown as theHen’s Foot
  • 159. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 1 7 5Książ Castle (seat of the Hochberg family) near WałbrzychThe stormy history ofSilesia (Śląsk) and thegreat variety of culturalinfluences that have flour-ished here have given thisregion a rich heritage. Itbelonged initially to theBohemian crown and passedinto Polish control around 990.When Poland split into principalities,Silesia began to gain independence.Divided into smaller independentduchies, it returned to Bohemian rulein the 14th century. After 1526, togetherwith other Bohemian territories, itbecame part of the Habsburg Empire.During the Reformation, many of itsinhabitants were converted toLutheranism. The Thirty Years’ War(1618–48) inflicted devastation onSilesia, bringing in its wake the repres-sion of Protestantism. While Jesuits andCistercians erected magnificent Baroquemonasteries at that time, under the termsof the Peace of Westphalia of 1648,Protestants were limited to building thethree “peace churches„. The Habsburgslost Silesia to Prussia in 1742. Althoughthe main language wasGerman, many areas, espe-cially the Opole region andUpper Silesia, were inhab-ited by an influential Polishminority. After World WarI, as a result of the SilesianUprisings of 1919–21, theeastern part of Upper Silesia,together with Katowice, wasincluded within Polish borders. After1945, nearly all of historical Silesiajoined Poland, and its German popula-tion was deported. Poles who hadbeen resettled from Poland’s easternprovinces (which had been annexedby the Soviet Union) took their place.Silesia is an enchanting region, notonly for the breathtaking beauty of itsmountain landscapes but also for itsoutstanding architecture. Themedieval castles built to defendancient borderlands, the grandRenaissance manor houses andimpressive Baroque residences, thegreat Gothic churches and statelymonasteries – all these provide ampleattractions and a historic atmosphere.SILESIASilesia’s great wealth of architectural monuments, its eventfulhistory and its beautiful and varied landscape distinguish itfrom other regions of Poland. The region’s well-preservedhistoric towns and the many hiking trails in the picturesque SudetenMountains make it an area that invites long exploration.A hint of spring: melting snow in the Karkonosze Mountains
  • 160. For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 7 6Exploring SilesiaThe most attractive part of the region isLower Silesia. A good starting point forexploration is Wrocław, the provincialcapital and a city full of historicbuildings as well as interesting20th-century architecture. Fromhere, the area of Kotlina Kłodzka,with the fantastically shaped TableMountains, is within easy reach.Not far away lies Jelenia Góra,a good base for hiking in theKarkonosze Mountains in summeror for skiing on the nearby slopesin winter. The visitor to Silesiawill also find beautiful palacesand churches in almost everyvillage. Many fine residences,however, are gradually falling into ruin.Sheep in the alpine pastures of theBeskid Śląski MountainsSEE ALSO• Where to Stay pp303–5.• Restaurants and Bars pp321–3.KEYMotorwayMajor roadMinor roadMain railwayMinor railwayInternational borderRegional borderKrzeszów eKsiąż yLegnica 4Legnickie Pole 5Lubiąż 3Lubomierz qLwówek Śląski 9Mt Ślęża oNysa zOleśnica sOpole xOtmuchów lPaczków kBolków tBrzeg fCieszyn vCzoch Castle 0Głogów 2Góra Świętej Anny cUpper SilesianIndustrial Region nGrodziec 8Henryków gJawor 6Jelenia Góra rKamieniec Ząbkowicki hPszczyna bŚwidnica uTrzebnica aWojnowice pWrocław pp188–97 dŻagań 1Zagórze Śląskie iZłotoryja 7ToursThe Foothills of theKarkonosze Mountains wKłodzko Valley jSIGHTS AT A GLANCE
  • 161. S I L E S I A 1 7 7GETTING AROUNDThere are rail links between all the major Silesiancities, so that is possible to travel by train fromWrocław to Jelenia Góra, Legnica, Głogów, Świdnica,Wałbrzych and Kłodzko. There are also good connec-tions between Katowice, Opole and Wrocław, andtrains also stop in Brzeg. Although smaller towns areaccessible by bus, the service can be very infrequent,so that outside the major cities the best way to travelis by car. Parts of the motorway that will run throughSilesia have already been opened.The house of Gerhard Hauptmann in JagniątkówThe Baroque plague column in theMarket Square in Świdnica0 km0 miles2525
  • 162. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 7 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3Żagań 1Road map B4. * 26,000. £ @www.um.zagan.plThe origins of Żagań go backas far as the 13th century. Aparticularly happy episode inthe history of this pretty townon the River Bóbr was theperiod from 1845 to 1862,thanks to the beautifulDorothea Talleyrand-Périgord,the youngest daughter ofPeter Biron, Duke of Kurland.Dorothea was something of asocial magnet. She was a friendof Maurice Charles de Talley-rand, one of Louis Napoleon’sministers, and his nephew’swife. Her circle attracted themost eminent composers andwriters of the day, among themFranz Liszt and GiuseppeVerdi. Her residence was thepalace built for Albrecht vonWallenstein, a commander inthe Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). Dorothea had alterationsmade, and the palace’s presentNeo-Classical appearance andthe layout of the rooms werecommissioned by her in themid-19th century. It nowhouses the Cultural Institute.Other prominent buildingsin the town are the FranciscanChurch of Saints Peter andPaul (Kościół św Piotra iPawła), built in the Gothicstyle and dating from the14th century. The enormousChurch of the Assumption(Kościół WniebowzięciaNMP), which once belongedto the Augustinians, alsomerits attention. It was builtin stages from the late 13thto the early 16th century,although the finely furnishedinterior dates from the 1830s.The library of the monasterynext to the church containsworks by the 18th-centurypainter George WilhelmNeunhertz and itemsconnected to the Germanastronomer Johannes Kepler,who worked in Żagańbetween 1628 and 1630.E Cultural Instituteul. Szprotawska 4. Tel 068 477 6475. # 8am–8pm daily. &R Church ofSaints Peter and Paulul. Łużycka.R Church of theAssumptionpl. Klasztorny 2. Tel 068 377 29 82.Głogów 2Road map B4. * 69,000. £ @n ul. Poczdamska 1 (076 833 3134). _ Jazz in Głogów (Oct, Nov).www.glogow.plThis town on the Odra Riverwas established about 1,000years ago but fell into ruinduring World War II. TwoGothic churches, theLubiąż 3Road map B4. * 2,300. £Malczyce. @ Abbey. LubiążFoundation Tel 071 389 71 66.# Apr–Nov: 9am–6pm daily;Oct–Mar: 10am–3pm daily. &The gigantic Cistercianmonastic complex situated onthe high bank of the RiverOdra comes into view froma great distance. Cistercianmonks first settled in Lubiążin 1175. They built aRomanesque church followedby a Gothic basilica, of whichthe twin-tower façade andducal chapel remain. Thepresent abbey dates from1681–1715. After WorldWar II, it was used as awarehouse for unsold books,mostly works by Lenin. Itsrestoration began in themid-1990s. An exhibitionof Silesian sculpture as wellas certain rooms of themonastery, including theArchitecture old and new: a streetin the old town in GłogówThe Baroque-Neo-Classical palace of the Talleyrand family in Żagańcollegiate Church of theAssumption, set on an islandin the Odra, and the Churchof St Nicholas in the oldtown, have not been rebuilt.However, the beautiful JesuitBaroque Church of CorpusChristi (Kościół BożegoCiała), built in 1694–1724 toa design by Giulio Simonetti,has been reconstructed. Itsoriginal twin-tower façadewas added in 1711 by JohannBlasius Peintner. The pictur-esque town hall with itsslender tower owes itspresent form to remodellingcarried out by Augustus Sollerin 1831–4. It too has beenreconstructed. On the bank ofthe Odra stands the castle ofthe dukes of Głogów, with anoriginal 14th-century medievaltower and Gothic cellars, andlater Baroque walls. It housesthe Archaeological andHistorical Museum. Amongthe exhibits are a collectionof instruments of torture.E Archaeological andHistorical Museumul. Brama Brzostowska 1.Tel 076 834 10 81.# 10am–5pm Wed–Sun.R Church of Corpus Christiul. Powstańców. Tel 076 833 36 01.
  • 163. S I L E S I A 1 7 9refectory and the Ducal Hall,are now open to the public.The ceiling of the refectoryis decorated with paintingsby Michael Willmann, whosework is also to be seen onthe altars of the parish churchin Lubiąż. The great DucalHall is a magnificent exampleof the late Baroque style, itspurpose being to glorify thefaith and the feats of theHabsburg dynasty.Legnickie Pole 5Road map B4. * 1,300. @It was at Legnickie Pole thata great battle between thePoles, led by Henry II, thePious, and the Tartars tookplace on 9 April 1241. Despitethe Turks’ defeat of the Polesand the death of theircommander, Poland preventedwestward Tartar expansion.The Museum of the Battleof Legnica details this event.The Benedictine abbey,dating from 1727–31 and builtby Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhoferin the Baroque style, is thegreatest attraction of this smallvillage. The abbey church,dedicated to St Jadwiga,has an elliptical nave andundulating vaulting coveredwith trompe l’oeil paintingsby Cosmas Damian Asam. Itsfurnishings are equally fine.E Museum of the Battleof LegnicaTel 076 858 23 98. # 11am–5pmWed–Sun. & (free on Wed).E Copper Museumul. Partyzantów 3. Tel 076 862 4949. # 11am–5pm Tue–Sat. &(free on Sat and one Wed a month).www.muzeum-miedzi.art.plR Parish Church of John theBaptistul. Partyzantów 25.Tel 076 862 29 95.R Church of the Virgin Marypl. Mariacki 1. Tel 076 854 34 40.¢ to the public.R Cathedral of SaintsPeter and Paulpl. Katedralny 6. Tel 076 724 42 71.Legnica 4Road map B4. * 105,000. £n Rynek 29 (076 851 22 80).www.portal.legnica.euLegnica, after Wrocławand Opole Silesia’s third-largest city, became thecapital of the independentduchy of Legnica in the 13thcentury. Today it is a largeadministrative centre andcopper-mining town, asevidenced by the displaysin the Copper Museum.The Parish Church of Johnthe Baptist (Fara św JanaChrzciciela) is one ofthe most beautiful Baroqueshrines in Silesia, built forthe Jesuits in 1714–27. Thepresbytery of the originalchurch was converted intoa chapel, the Mausoleum ofthe Silesian Piasts (1677–8).In the northern part ofthe old town stands theDukes’ Castle. It hasmedieval origins and wasremodelled many times.The fine Renaissance gatewas added by George vonAmberg in 1532–3. Fromhere, Ulica Mariacka leadsto the Gothic Church of theVirgin Mary (Kościół NMP),dating from the 14th centuryand remodelled in the firsthalf of the 15th.In the Market Square standthe Baroque town hall of1737–46, which houses atheatre, and the GothicCathedral of Saints Peterand Paul (Katedra św Piotrai Pawła), built in the 14thcentury and preserving a13th-century baptismal font.In the centre of the MarketSquare are eight narrowarcaded houses knownas the Herring Stalls and,at No. 40, a 16th-centuryhouse known as By theQuail’s Nest House, withsgraffito decoration.The Baroque façade of the Benedict-ine abbey church in Legnickie PoleRefectory of the Cistercian Abbey in Lubiąż
  • 164. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 8 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3Złotoryja 7Road map B4. * 17,400. £ @n Basztowa 15 (076 878 18 73)._ World Gold-PanningChampionships (May).Derived from the Polishword złoto, meaning gold,the town’s name reflects thefact that the gold-rich sandsof the River Kaczawa, whichflows through Złotoryja, havebeen exploited since the EarlyMiddle Ages. Even todaygold-seekers flock to contestsorganized by the local gold-panning association.Features of interest inZłotoryja include the GothicChurch of St Mary (KościółNMP), which has a 13th-century presbytery, and theremains of the town walls.EnvironsThe volcanic Wilcza GóraGeological Park, alsoknown as Wilkołak, lies2 km (1¼ miles) south ofZłotoryja. Unusual basaltformations known as “basaltroses” can be seen in thewestern part of the park.Church of St Martin (Kościółśw Marcina), and the late15th-century Church of StMary (Kościół Mariacki). Thebest place to finish a walkaround the town is the MarketSquare, which is surroundedby arcaded Baroque houses.E Gallery of SilesianEcclesiastical Artul. Klasztorna 6. Tel 076 870 30 86or 870 23 21. # Apr–Oct: 10am–5pm Wed–Sun; Nov–Mar: 10am–4pm Wed–Sun.Grodziec 8Road map B4. * 500.£ Złotoryja. @An imposing fortificationcrowning a basalt hill,Grodziec Castle was built inthe 15th century in the Gothicstyle as the seat of the dukesof Legnica. It was extendedin 1522–4 and over the nextfour centuries it wasdestroyed several times, onceduring the Thirty Years’ War(1618–48). It was rebuilt inthe Romantic style in 1906–8.The walls, which followthe contours of the hill, areirregular. The castle’s towerand living quarters survive.At the bottom of the hill isthe magnificent, althoughneglected, palace built for theFrankenberg family by JohannBlasius Peintner in 1718–27.Its overgrown surroundingswere once attractive gardens.Gold-panning competition in ZłotoryjaGothic doorway of the15th-century Grodziec CastleLwówek Śląski 9Road map B4. * 9,300.£ @ n pl. Wolności 22(076 647 79 12).www.lwowekslaski.plLwówek Śląski is a smalltown set on a precipiceoverlooking the River Bóbr,in the foothills of the IzerskiMountains. Remnants of thestone walls that oncesurrounded the settlementcan be seen all around.The centrepiece of the townis its Gothic-Renaissancetown hall. Built in the 15thcentury, it was extended inJawor 6Road map B4. * 24,000. £ @n Rynek 3 (076 870 33 71).The capital of an independentduchy in the Middle Ages,Jawor is dominated by acastle that is a vestige ofthose times. Reconstructionhas robbed the castle of muchof its original splendour, butother buildings, which werepainstakingly restored afterWorld War II, enhance thetown’s historic atmosphere.The most picturesquebuilding is the large Churchof Peace (Kościół Pokoju). Itwas one of three Protestant“peace churches” erected inSilesia after the Peace ofWestphalia that marked theend of the Thirty Years’ War(1618–48). It was built byAndreas Kempner, to a designby Albrecht von Säbisch, in1654–6. With the church inŚwidnica (see p185), it isamong the world’s largesttimber-framed structures.Other notable buildings inJawor are the 14th-centuryTower of the Baroque Church ofPeace in Jawor
  • 165. S I L E S I A 1 8 1The church was built byFranciscan monks but fellinto disuse in 1810.EnvironsThe castle at Płakowice, 2 km(1¼ miles) south of LwówekŚląski, is one of the finestRenaissance castles in Silesia.It was built in 1550–63 forthe von Talkenberg family.Czoch Castle 0Road map A4. @ Sucha.Tel 075 721 15 53.www.zamekczocha.plCzoch Castle (ZamekCzocha) is one of Silesia’smajor tourist attractions.Standing in a picturesquelocation on the banks ofLake Leśniańskie, it can beseen for miles around.The castle dates from the14th century, and because itwas destroyed and rebuiltseveral times over manycenturies, incorporates arange of architectural styles.It was most recentlyrenovated in the early partof the 20th century, whenthe Gütschoff family ofDresden had their dilapidatedfamily seat rebuilt by BodoEbhardt in 1904–14. Ebhardt’sRomantic vision restoredZamek Czocha to its formerglory and the castle hassince been used as thesetting for several films.It is now an atmospherichotel (see p304).Lubomierz qRoad map B4. * 1,800. £ @n ul. Wacława Kowalskiego 1(075 783 35 73). _ Review of PolishComedy Films (Aug).A sleepy little town in thefoothills of the IzerskieMountains, Lubomierz boastsa picturesque market squarelined with large arcadedhouses. The BaroqueBenedictine church built byJohann Jakob Scheerhof in1727–30 dominates the town.Many Polish films havebeen shot in Lubomierz.The popular comedy filmSami swoi (“Just Our Own”)brought it the greatestrenown. The film follows thefortunes of displaced personsfrom Poland’s eastern territo-ries – which were lost to theSoviet Union after World WarII – as they settle in the town,itself a former Germanterritory ceded to Poland.E The Kargul and PawlakMuseumul. Wacława Kowalskiego 1.Tel 075 783 35 73. # 10am–4pmTue–Fri, 11am–4pm Sat & Sun. &www.sami-swoi.com.plThis museum is housed inPłóciennik House, built inthe 16th century and recon-structed around 1700. Itscollection includes itemsused during themaking of SylwesterChęciński’sfilm Samiswoi.Gothic-Renaissance town hall inLwówek Śląski1522–5 and restored in1902–5, when the delightfularcades around the buildingwere added. Several townhouses of historical intereststand in the Market Square.The twin-towered Churchof the Assumption (KościółWniebowzięcia) has animposing Romanesque façadewhich dates from the 13thcentury. The tympanumover the portal depicts theCoronation of the Virgin.The main body of thechurch was not addeduntil the turn of the 16thcentury. The Gothic chapelon the south side, whichdates from 1496, has vaultingwith beautiful 16th-century frescoes.The ruins ofanother Gothicchurch also survivein LwówekŚląski.The imposing outline of Czoch Castle in Sucha
  • 166. The Karkonosze Mountains, the highest in the Sudeten(Sudety) chain, draw holidaymakers all year round.There are many footpaths and good facilities for hikersthroughout the summer, while in winter skiers come toenjoy the exhilarating pistes. The upper parts of theKarkonosze Mountains are a national park, recognizedby UNESCO as a WorldBiosphere Reserve.In the lower parts ofthe mountains are severalattractive small towns,such as Karpacz andSzklarska Poręba, aswell as Cieplice andSobieszów in JeleniaGóra district (see p184).The Foothills of theKarkonosze Mountains wFor additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 8 2Szklarska Poręba 3This health resort is a good starting point forexcursions into the Karkonosze Mountains. It isalso famous for its glassworks – handmadecrystal artifacts are available in local kiosks.Szklarka Waterfall 2A forest of fir treesprovides a scenicsetting for the 15-m(45-ft) waterfall.Cieplice 1This popular spa town has anumber of fine Baroquebuildings, includingSchaffgotsch Palace and itsCistercian and Protestantchurches. There is also anatural history museum.Miłków 6A Baroque palace andchurch surrounded bystone walls covered inpenitentiary crosses arethe main attractions ofthis village.Sobieszów: Chojnik Castle 5Situated on a high escarpment,this 14th-century castle was builtfor Duke Bolko II. In the 15th and16th centuries it was renovated bythe Schaffgotsch family, but in1675 was gutted by a fire afterbeing struck by lightning.Jagniątków 4A picturesque villa wasbuilt here by the NobelPrize-winning authorGerhart Hauptmann forhis second wife in1900–02. It now housesa gallery of paintingsillustrating scenes fromHauptmann’s works.
  • 167. For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3S I L E S I A 1 8 3Karpacz 7The buildings of thispopular health resortare concentrated alonga single street 7 km(4½ miles) long. Thewooden Romanesquechurch here wasbrought from Vang, inNorway, in 1842–4.Mysłakowice 8The village is noted forits Neo-Gothic palace,which once belonged toKaiser Friedrich WilhelmIV, for a church designedby Karl Friedrich Schinkeland for Tyrolean-stylehouses built by religiousrefugees fleeingpersecution in the Tyrol.Interior of the Cistercian Church ofSt Mary in KrzeszówTIPS FOR DRIVERSTour length: About 70 km(46 miles).Stopping-off points: Bars andrestaurants can be found inSzklarska Poręba, Cieplice andKarpacz. The Spiż restaurant inMiłków is recommended.Other attractions: Karpaczalso has a chair lift to Kopa,which is one hour’s walk fromMt Śnieżka. Another chair liftfrom Szklarska Poręba goesto Szrenica.0 km0 miles55KEYScenic routeOther roadViewpointKrzeszów eRoad map B5. * 1,300.£ Kamienna Góra. @ Church ofSt Mary, Church of St Joseph andMausoleum of the Silesian PiastsTel 075 742 33 80. # 9am–6pmdaily (Nov–Mar: to 4pm). & ^This tiny village in theGóry Kamienne Mountainshas one of the mostpicturesque groups of historicbuildings in Poland.Benedictine monks settledhere in 1242, followed byCistercian monks in 1292.They were responsible forbuilding the Church of StJoseph (Kościół św Józefa),which has frescoes by MichaelWillmann, in 1690–96. Theyalso built the abbey Churchof St Mary (Kościół NMPŁaskawej) in 1727–35. Theinterior is decorated withvertiginous trompe l’oeilpaintings by Georg WilhelmNeunhertz; sculptures byAnton Dorazil and FerdinandMaximilian Brokoff makethe pilasters, cornices andvaulting appear to float inmid-air. The figures of saintson the stalls in the chancelare of particular interest.Behind the presbytery isthe Mausoleum of theSilesian Piasts (MauzoleumPiastów Ślàskich), with theGothic tombs of Bolko I(d. 1301) and Bolko II(d. 1368), dukes of Świdnica-Jawor. Figures of their wives,Agnieszka and Beatrycze,stand opposite the tombs.On the wall is an epitaph bythe son of Bolko II, the lastmember of the Piast dynasty.
  • 168. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 8 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3Bolków tRoad map B4. * 5,800. £ @The great toweringCastle of the Dukes ofŚwidnica-Jawor is the mainfeature of this small town. Itwas built in stages from themid-13th to the mid-14thcentury. Sacked and destroyedseveral times, in the 16thcentury it was rebuilt in theRenaissance style by JakobPaar. Today the castle is alocal history museum. TheGothic Church of St Jadwiga(Kościół św Jadwigi) is alsoworth a visit. In the old town,several fine houses survive.E Castle Museumul. Księcia Bolka. Tel 075 741 32 97.# Apr–Oct: 9am–4pm Mon–Sat,9am–6pm Sun; Nov–Mar: 9am–4pm Tue–Sun. & (free on Mon).Arcaded houses around the Market Square in Jelenia GóraThe crenellated tower ofBolków CastleJelenia Góra rRoad map B4. * 86,000. £ @n pl. Piastowski 36 (075 755 88 44or 755 88 45). # 9am–5pm Mon–Fri, 10am–2pm Sat. n ul. Grodzka16 (075 767 69 25). # 9am–6pmMon–Fri, 10am–2pm Sat, Sun. _Cieplice Spring (May); InternationalStreet Theatre Festival (Jul); JeleniaGóra (Aug). www.jeleniagora.plSituated at the foot of theKarkonosze Mountains,Jelenia Góra is a favouritetourist destination and amajor starting point formountain hikers. Thetown was granted citystatus at the end of the13th century. It wasonce renowned for itstextiles – delicate batisteand voile that wereexported as far as Africaand America. It wasalso one of the maincentres of engravedglassware, examplesof which can be seen inthe Regional Museum.The town’s historic centreis the Market Square, witha Baroque town hallsurrounded by arcaded townhouses. In Ulica MariaKonopnicka, east of theMarket Square, is the Churchof Saints Erasmus andPancras (Kościół św Erazmai Pankracego), a Gothicbasilica of the late 14th toearly 15th centuries. The lineof the old defensive wallshere is marked by a chapelthat was once a keep.In Ulica 1 Maja, on thesame axis, is the Churchof Our Lady, with twopenitentiary crosses (seep185) set into the outer walls.The street then leads to theBaroque former ProtestantChurch of the Holy Cross(Kościół św Krzyża), knownalso as the Church of Peace.The town boundaries ofJelenia Góra were expandedin 1976 and now includethe spa of Cieplice, with itsNatural History Museum, andthe town of Sobieszów (seepp182–3), which includes theKarkonosze National ParkNatural History Museum.E Natural HistoryMuseumJelenia Góra – Cieplice, ul.Wolności 268. Tel 075 755 74 00.# Apr–Sep: 9am–6pm Tue–Fri, 9am–5pm Sat, Sun; Oct–Mar:9am–4pm Tue–Sun. & (free onSun). www.muzeum-cieplice.plE Karkanosze National ParkNatural History Museumul. Chałubińskiego 23.Tel 075 755 33 48.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun.Silesian glasswareR Church of Saints Erasmusand Pancraspl. Kościelny. Tel 075 752 21 60.This Gothic basilica of thefirst half of the 14th centuryfeatures late Gothicvaulting datingfrom about 1550and a Baroquealtar depicting theTransfiguration.R Church ofthe Holy Crossul. 1 Maja.Tel 075 642 32 82.This church (Kościółśw Krzyża), built by MartinFranze in 1709–18, ismodelled on St Catherine’sin Stockholm. A triple tierof galleries lines the interiorand frescoes by Felix AntonScheffler and Jozef FranzHoffman cover the ceilings.The altar, which is structurallyintegrated with the organ loft,is particularly striking.E Regional Museumul. Matejki 28. Tel 075 752 34 65.# 9am–4pm Tue–Fri, 9am–5pm Sat& Sun. & (free on Sun).www.muzeumkarkonoskie.plJelenia Góra’s RegionalMuseum contains the largestcollection of decorativeglassware in the wholeof Poland. A traditionalKarkonosze hut nearbyhouses an ethnographicalexhibition.EnvironsIn Świny, 2 km (1¼ miles) northof Bolków, are the hauntingruins of a castle. The upper partwas built in the 14th century.The lower wing is a 17th-century late Baroque palace.
  • 169. S I L E S I A 1 8 5High altar in the Church of SaintsStanisław and WenceslasŚwidnica uRoad map B5. * 60,000. £ @www.swidnica.plFor almost 100 years from1292, Świdnica was thecapital of the independentduchy of Świdnica-Jawor. Itminted its own coins and wasrenowned for its beer, whichwas exported to many citiesin central Europe. The town’smercantile traditions are wellillustrated in the Museum ofSilesian Trade that is housedin the town hall.From the pretty marketsquare, with its fine Baroqueplague column (see p177),Ulica Długa, the main street,leads to the 14th-centuryChurch of Saints Stanisławand Wenceslas (Kościół śwStanisława i Wacława), aGothic building with thehighest tower in Silesia. Theinterior is richly furnished anddecorated in styles rangingfrom Gothic toBaroque. The altarcanopy was madeby Johann Riedlin 1694. Thetown’s mostKsiąż yRoad map B5. Castle Wałbrzych,ul. Piastów Śl. Tel 074 664 38 34. #Apr–Sep: 10am–5pm daily (to 6pmSat & Sun); Oct–Mar: 10am–3pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat & Sun. - PalmHouse Wałbrzych-Lubiechowo, ul.Wrocławska 158. # Apr: 10am–5pmTue–Sun; May–Sep: 10am–5pm daily;Oct: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun; Nov–Mar:10am–3pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat &Sun. & 8 www.ksiaz-walbrzych.plKsiąż Castle, on theoutskirts of Wałbrzych, is thelargest residential building inSilesia. This huge edifice wasbuilt on a rocky hilltop over-looking the surroundingwooded countryside. The late13th-century Gothic castle ofPrince Bolko I was rebuilt inthe mid-16th century for theHochberg family of Meissen,who remained its owners untilWorld War II. One of the mostpowerful Silesian families, theyextended the building severaltimes, particularly in 1670–1724 and 1909–23. TheHochbergs’ reputation wascoloured by several scandals.The penultimate owner of thecastle was Hans Henry XVvon Pless. After divorcing hiswife, he married a muchyounger Spanish woman.She gave birth to a daughter,but then left the elderlyprince for his son Bolko.During World War IIattempts were made toconvert the castle into head-quarters for the Germanleader Adolf Hitler by drillingtunnels into the rocky hill.Today part of the castlehouses a museum, a hoteland a restaurant. The groundsare now the Książ NaturePark. The stables and palmhouse, still in use,are open tovisitors.PENITENTIARYCROSSESAs a form of punishment,criminals in the MiddleAges sometimes had tomake a stone cross andplace it at the scene oftheir crime or near achurch. Depictions ofthe implement used tocarry out the deed (suchas a crossbow) or a partof the victim’s body(such as the feet) wereengraved on the cross.Penitentiary cross in Łaziska,Upper SilesiaKsiąż Castle, set high above the River Pelcznicaimpressive building, however,is the Church of Peace(Kościół Pokoju). With that inJawor (see p180), it is one oftwo surviving Protestant “peacechurches” built after the Peaceof Westphalia that ended theThirty Years’ War (1618–48).The timber-framed church,designed by Albrecht vonSäbisch, was built in 1656–7.Its undistinguished exteriorconceals an unusual interior,with a two-tiered gallery, finepaintings and furnishings.E Museum of Silesian TradeRynek 37. Tel 074 852 12 91.# 10am–3pm Tue–Fri, 11am–5pm Sat & Sun. & (free on Fri).R Church of SaintsStanisław and Wenceslaspl. Kościelny. Tel 074 852 12 91.# daily. 8R Church of Peacepl. Pokoju. Tel 074 852 28 14.# 9am–1pm and 3–5pm daily.EnvironsJaworzyna, 10 km (6 miles)northwest of Świdnica, hasPoland’s largest museum ofsteam locomotives.
  • 170. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 8 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3Renaissance gate of Grodno Castlein Zagórze ŚląskieCountry track in ŚlężaZagórze Śląskie iRoad map B5. * 430.@ £The main attraction inthis small village isGrodno Castle. Built byBolko I at the end of the13th century, it was alteredby later owners and thenfell into ruin, but was savedby major restoration workin 1907–29.Today the castle housesa museum, whose morecurious exhibits includethe skeleton of a youngwoman. For the murderof her husband, she wascondemned to death bystarvation by her own father.+ Grodno CastleTel 074 845 33 60. # 10am–3pmTue–Fri (to 5pm in summer), 10am–4pm Sat & Sun (to 6pm in summer).EnvironsA few kilometres southof Zagórze Sląskie areunderground tunnelsdug secretly in the finalyear of World War II byprisoners of the Gross-Rosen (Rogoźnica)concentration camp.P Walim Tunnels(Sztolnie w Walimiu)Tel 074 845 73 00. # May–Sep:9am–6pm Mon–Fri, 9am–7pm Sat,Sun; Oct–Apr: 9am–4pm Mon–Fri,9am–5pm Sat, Sun. www.sztolnie.plP Osowiec Tunnels (Sztolniew Osówce)Tel 074 845 62 20.# 10am–6pm daily (Nov–Mar: to4pm). ¢ 1 Nov, 24, 25, 31 Dec. &8 www.osowka.plMt Ślęża oRoad map B5.Mt Ślęża is a conical peakvisible from great distances allaround. Used as a location forreligious rituals during theBronze Age (3500– 1500 BC),it is crowned with a stonecircle, and mysterious statuesof unknown origin standbeside the road leading tothe summit. The best viewof the surrounding country-side is from the terrace ofthe Neo-Romanesquechurch built on MtŚlęża in 1851–2. Thehill of neighbouringWieżyca has at itssummit a towererected in honour ofthe German statesmanOtto von Bismarck in1906–7, and is also agood vantage pointfrom which to viewthe entire area.In Sobótka, at thefoot of Mt Ślęża, aformer hospital builtby Augustinian monkshouses the ŚlężaMuseum. The bestplace to stay, or stopfor lunch, is the hotel ZamekGórka, located in a Gothic-Renaissance Augustinian pres-bytery that later became thepalace of the von Kulmiz family.Moated Renaissance manor housein WojnowiceWojnowice pRoad map B4. * 400. @£ Mrozów. Tel 071 317 07 26.www.zamekwojnowice.ig.pl/angWojnowice presents a rareopportunity to see a genuineand well-preserved SilesianRenaissance manor house.It was built in the early16th century for Nikolausvon Scheibitz and soon afterwas acquired by the Bonerfamily, who converted itinto a Renaissance castlewith a small arcadedcourtyard. Compact andmoated, it is now a hotel,with an excellent restaurant.It is a superb place for ashort break.E Ślęża MuseumSobótka, ul. św Jakuba 18. Tel 071316 26 22. # 9am–4pm Wed–Sunand last Tue in the month.Trzebnica aRoad map C4. * 12,100.£ Oborniki Śląskie. @www.trzebnica.plIn 1203 Jadwiga, wife ofHenry I, brought an orderof Cistercian monks fromBamberg, in southernGermany, to Trzebnica.Jadwiga was buried here and,after her canonization in 1267,the monastery became animportant place of pilgrimage.The entire complex under-went major rebuilding in thesecond half of the 1600s,obliterating its Romanesque
  • 171. S I L E S I A 1 8 7Coronation of the Virgin in theportal of the Chapel of St JadwigaBrzeg fRoad map C5. * 39,000. £ @www.brzeg.plThe attractive town of Brzeg,on the River Odra, has anillustrious history. It receivedits charter in 1245, and from1311 to 1675 was the capitalof the duchy of Legnica-Brzeg. The town’s mostsupported on bracketsoverlooking the courtyard.Attached to the castle is thepalace of Jan Podiebrad,built in 1559–63.A pleasant way of roundingoff a visit to Oleśnica is towalk through the old quarterto the Gothic Church of StJohn the Evangelist (Kościółśw Jana Ewangelisty). Besidethe presbytery is a Baroquechapel built in memory of thedukes of Wurtemberg, andcontaining the Renaissancetombs of Jan and JerzyPodiebrad. Other attractiveelements include the stylishMannerist pulpit from 1605and the Gothic stalls from thelate 15th and early 16thcenturies. Remnants of castlewalls, with the tower of theWrocławski Gate, and theNeo-Classical town hall,rebuilt after World War II,are other features of interest.Oleśnica sRoad map C4. * 38,000. £ @www.olesnica.plThe most impressive buildingin the town is the Castle ofthe Dukes of Oleśnica.While the Gothic interioris original, the exterior,with its circular cornertower, is the result ofsuccessive stages ofrebuilding from 1542to 1610 by the Italianarchitects FrancescoParr and BernardoNiuron. The castleretains ornamentalgables in the atticrooms in thewings and theunusual galleriesarchitecture, although thetympanum of the main portalretains a fine relief of around1230 representing the OldTestament figures David andBathsheba. The Gothic chapelof St Jadwiga contains herBaroque- style tomb, datingfrom 1677–8. The figure ofthe saint was carved by FranzJosef Mangoldt in 1750.Courtyard of the Castle of the Dukes of OleśnicaWrocław dSee pp188–197.Renaissance sculpture on the gatetower of Brzeg Castleimpressive building is withoutdoubt the Castle of the Dukesof Legnica-Brzeg. It was builtoriginally in the Gothic styleand a 14th-century Gothicchapel survives, in whosepresbytery a mausoleum tothe Silesian Piasts was built in1567. The castle wastransformed into aRenaissance palace in thesecond half of the 16thcentury. The three-wingedcomplex features a circularcourtyard and a tower overthe entrance gate dating from1554. The walls are decoratedwith busts of all the ancestorsof Duke Jerzy II and his wifeBarbara von Brandenburg.Today the castle houses theMuseum of the Silesian Piasts.Other buildings of interestare the town hall, erectedin 1570–7, the 14th-centuryChurch of St Nicholas(Kościół św Mikołaja) and thelate Baroque Jesuit church,which was built in 1734–9.E Museum of the SilesianPiastspl. Zamkowy 1. Tel 077 416 42 10.# 10am–4pm Tue, Thu–Sun,10am–6pm Wed. & (free on Sat).EnvironsA few kilometres from Brzegis the small village ofMałujowice, or Mollwitz,where on 10 April 1741 amajor battle was fought inthe Austro-Prussian war. TheGothic church there containsunusual 14th-century frescoesand Renaissance ceilings.
  • 172. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 8 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3CENTRAL WROCŁAWBernadine Church andMonastery 6Church of the Holy Nameof Jesus 2Church of St Elizabeth qChurch of Saints Wenceslas,Stanisław and Dorothy eKameleon Store 8Main Market Square 9National Museum 4Panorama of Racławice 5Plac Biskupa Nankera 3Royal Palace wCathedral of St Mary Magdalene 7Town Hall 0Wrocław University 1P Wrocław Universitypl. Uniwersytecki 1. Aula LeopoldinaTel 071 375 22 15. # 10am–3:30pm Mon, Tue, Thu; 11am–5pmFri–Sun. & www.uni.wroc.plWrocław University wasestablished as an academyby Emperor Leopold I in1702 and in 1811 became auniversity. Many of its alumnihave gained renown. Theyinclude eight Nobel laureates,among them the nuclearphysicist Max Born(1882–1970). Since 1945 ithas been a Polish centre oflearning and university.The centrepiece of thisimposing Baroque building isthe assembly hall, the AulaLeopoldina, of 1728–41. Thedecoration includes stucco-work, gilding and carvingsby Franz Josef Mangoldtand paintings by ChristophHandke glorifying wisdom,knowledge and science, andthe founders of the academy.The city of Wrocław bears the stamp of severalcultures. It was founded by a Czech duke inthe 10th century and a Polish bishopric wasestablished here in 1000. Later it becamethe capital of the duchy of SilesianPiasts, and then came under Czechrule in 1335. In 1526, with the wholeCzech state, it was incorporated intothe Habsburg Empire, and in 1741was transferred to Prussian rule.The fierce defence that Germanforces put up here in the last months of World War IIleft almost three quarters of the city in ruins. However,reconstruction has largely healed the ravages of the past.Wrocław dEmblem of theGolden Deer House inMarket SquareThe richly ornamented interior of the university assembly hallBaroque pietą in the Church ofthe Holy Name of Jesus0 m0 yds200200
  • 173. W R O C Ł A W 1 8 9+ Plac Biskupa NankeraThe buildings in this squaredate from various periods.The Gothic Church ofSt Vincent (Kościół śwWincentego), at No. 5, waserected in the 13th to the15th centuries. The late 17th-century Baroque monasteryis now part of the Universityof Wrocław.The group of Baroquemonastic buildings at No. 16encloses the small 13th-century Church of St Clare(Kościół św Klary). Thechurch was used by the Piastsas a mausoleum, and it stillcontains Gothic ducal tombs.Next door, at No. 17, is theGothic Church of St Maciej(Kościół św Macieja), whichdates from the 14th and early15th centuries and was onceowned by the KnightsHospitallers of the Red Star.The pavilion of the gallery atNo. 8, on the opposite sideof the street, contains 13th-century walls of the Houseof the Nuns of Trebnica,the oldest surviving secularbuilding in the city.E Panorama of Racławiceul. Purkyniego 11. Tel 071 344 16 61.# winter: 9am–4pm Tue–Sun;summer: 9am–5pm daily. & 7The Panorama of Racławicedepicts the Battle of Racławiceof 4 April 1794, when thePoles defeated the Russians. Itis 120 m (400 ft) long and 15 m(46 ft) high and took the artistsJan Styka and Wojciech Kossaknine months to paint. It wasunveiled in 1894 in Lviv, in theUkraine. Brought to Polandin 1946, it was finally put ondisplay in Wrocław in 1985,in a specially built rotunda.R Church of the Holy Nameof Jesuspl. Uniwersytecki 1.Tel 071 343 63 82.This church (Kościół Najświęt-szego Imienia Jezus), built forthe Jesuits in 1689–98, is agood example of SilesianBaroque church architecture.The modest exterior concealsa breathtaking interior, built in1722–34 by Krzysztof Tausch.The vaulting was decoratedby the Viennese artist JohannMichael Rottmayer in 1704–6.E National Museumpl. Powstańców Warszawy 5. Tel 071372 51 50. # 10am–4pm Wed, Fri& last Tue of month, 9am–4pm Thu,11am–7pm Sat, 11am–5pm Sun. &(free on Sat, limited availability).www.mnwr.art.plThe ground floor containsexamples of Silesian andGothic art, including thetombstone of Henry IV, theGood dating from 1300. Thefirst floor has a collectionof 16th- and 17th-centurypaintings, including worksby the Silesian artist MichaelWillmann (1630–1706) andwooden sculptures by Tho-mas Weissfeldt (1630–1712).The second floor is devotedto works by contemporaryPolish artists.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad Map C4. * 630,000.k Strachowice 11 km (7 miles)west of Wrocław.£ Wrocław Główny,ul. Piłsudskiego 105.n Rynek 14 (071 344 31 11)._ Festival of Stage Songs (Mar);Jazz on the Odra (May).www.wroclaw.plKey to Symbols see back flapThe Baroque Hochberg Chapelbeside the Church of St VincentFaçade of the National MuseumRotunda containing the Panoramaof Racławice
  • 174. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 9 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3R Cathedral of St MaryMagdaleneul. św Marii Magdaleny. Tel 071 34419 04. # 9am–noon, 4–6pm daily.The great Gothic Cathedral ofSt Mary Magdalene (Katedraśw Marii Magdaleny) waserected between about 1330and the mid-15th century,incorporating the walls of a13th-century church that hadpreviously stood on the site.Inside the basilica is aRenaissance pulpit of 1579–81by Friedrich Gross, a Gothicstone tabernacle andtombstones of variousperiods. The portal on thenorth side is a fine exampleof late 12th-centuryRomanesque sculpture. It wastaken from a demolishedBenedictine monastery inOlbina and added in 1546(see p20). The tympanum,depicting the Dormition ofthe Virgin, is now on displayin the National Museum.P Main Market SquareRynek.Wrocław’s Main MarketSquare is the second-largestin Poland, after that inCracow. In the centre standthe town hall and a groupof buildings separated byalleys. The houses aroundthe square date from theRenaissance to the 20thcentury. Some still havetheir original 14th and 15th-century Gothic vaults. Themost attractive sideof the square is thewest, with the lateBaroque House ofthe Golden Sun, atNo. 6, built in 1727by Johann Lucas vonHildebrandt, as wellas the House of theSeven Electors, itspaintwork dating from1672. Also to thesouth is the Griffin House, atNo. 2, built in 1587–9. It hasa galleried interior courtyard.On the east side, at Nos. 31and 32, is the SecessionistPhoenix store of 1904 and,at No. 41, the Golden Hound,a rebuilt town house of 1713.The north side was rebuiltafter World War II.Just off the corner of themarket square, fronting theChurch of St Elizabeth(Kościół św Elżbiety), aretwo small acolytes’ houses,the Renaissance Jaś, ofaround 1564, and the 18th-century Baroque Małgosia.P Kameleon Storeul. Szewska 6.The Kameleon store (DomHandlowy Kameleon) is anunusual building on thecorner of Ulica Szewskaand Ulica Olawska. Itssemicircular bay, formed ofrows of windows, juts outdramatically. It was built bythe German architect ErichMendelsohn as a retail storefor Rudolf Petersdorf in1927–8. Nearby, at theintersection of UlicaŁaciarskiej and OfiarOświęcimskich, is anotherinteresting example ofR Bernadine Church andMonasteryul. Bernardyńska 5. Museum ofArchitecture Tel 071 344 82 78.# 10am–4pm Tue, Wed, Fri, Sat;noon– 6pm Thu; 11am–5pm Sun.& (free on Wed). www.ma.wroc.plThis impressive group ofmonastic buildings (Kościółi Klasztor pobernardyński)was constructed by Bernadinemonks in 1463–1502. Havingbeen rebuilt from theirwartime ruins, they nowhouse Poland’s onlyMuseum of Architecture.The monastery is of interestfor its late Gothic cloistersand the Church of St Bernardof Siena, a towering Gothicbasilica with a typicallyBaroque gable.Late Gothic portal of theBernadine churchDetail of the ornamental façade ofthe House of the Seven ElectorsDetail of the Cathedral of St Mary MagdaleneWrocław OldTownFor those who enjoy exploring on foot, the oldtown of Wrocław is a delightful place. The restoredbuildings located around the large Main Market Squarehave been given over to an assortment of bars,restaurants and cafés with al fresco seating, whilethe churches nearby contain a wealth of religiousart and ecclesiastical furnishings. The impressiveGothic town hall has a finely decorated interior.On summer evenings the Main Market Square inthe old town comes alive as local people and touristsalike gather there, some to gossip and exchangenews, others to attend the concerts and manycultural events that are held in the square.Modernist architecture, anoffice building of 1912–13by an equally renownedarchitect, Hans Poelzig.
  • 175. W R O C Ł A W 1 9 1R Church of St Elizabethul. św Elżbiety. Tel 071 343 72 04.The large tower dominatingthe market square is that ofthe Church of St Elizabeth(Kościół św Elżbiety), oneof the largest churches in+ Royal Palaceul. Kazimierza Wielkiego 34/35.Ethnographical Museumul. Traugutta 111/113.Tel 071 344 33 13.# 10am–4pm Tue, Wed, Fri–Sun,9am–4pm Thu. & (free on Sat).www.muzeumetnograficzne.plArchaeological Museumul. Cieszyńskiego 9.Tel 071 347 16 96.# 11am–5pm Wed–Sat,11am–6pm Sun. &The Baroque palace,enclosed by a court ofannexes, was built in 1719.After 1750, when Wrocławcame under Prussian rule,it was a residence for thePrussian kings. On the sidefacing Plac Wolności, onlya side gallery remains ofthe Neo-Renaissance palacebuilt in 1843–6.The Royal Palace containstwo interesting collections:the Archaeological Museumand Ethnographical Museum,the latter illustrating Silesianfolk history and art.Wrocław. The Gothic basilicawas built in the 14th centuryon the site of an earlierchurch, although the towerwas not completed until 1482.It became a Protestant churchin 1525. Since 1946 it hasbeen a garrison church.The church has suffereddamage from a succession ofwars, fires and accidents. Afire in 1976 destroyed the roofand the splendid Baroqueorgan. Fortunately, more than350 epitaphs and tombstoneshave survived, forming aremarkable exhibition ofSilesian stone-carving fromGothic to Neo-Classical times.R Church of SaintsWenceslas, Stanisławand DorothyPlac Wolności 3.Tel 071 343 27 21.Dedicated to three saints,the Czech St Wenceslas, thePolish St Stanisław and theGerman St Dorothy, thischurch (Kościół św Wacława,Stanisława i Doroty) was builtin 1351 to cement relationsbetween the three nationalitiesin Wrocław. The church’sunusually narrow interioris Baroque. The Rococotombstone of Gottfried vonSpaetgen stands in the nave.OSSOLINEUMThe National OssolińskiInstitute was founded byCount Józef MaksymilianOssoliński in Vienna in1817. In 1827 it moved toLwów (later Lviv), whereit assembled collectionsof manuscripts, prints,etchings and drawings,promoted scientificresearch and engagedin publishing. AfterWorld War II mostof the collections weretransferred to the NationalMuseum in Wrocław,while the manuscriptswere housed in theBaroque monastery ofthe Knights Hospitallersof the Red Star.The Church of Saints Wenceslas,Stanisław and DorothyP Town Hallul. Sukiennice 14/15.Historical MuseumTel 071 347 16 90. # 11am–5pmWed–Sat, 10am–6pm Sun. &Rynek Stary Ratusz Museumof Bourgeois ArtTel 071 347 16 93.# 11am–5pm Wed–Sat,10am–6pm Sun. www.mmw.plThe town hall in Wrocławis one of the most importantexamples of Gothicarchitecture in central andeastern Europe. Its presentappearance is the resultof an extensive period ofrebuilding that took placebetween 1470 and 1510.The town hall’s southernfaçade was embellishedwith Neo-Gothic stonecarvings in around 1871.Inside are impressivevaulted halls, the largestbeing the triple-aisledGrand Hall on the groundfloor, and several late Gothicand Renaissance doorways.Outside the entrance tothe town hall is a plaquecommemorating theprominent poet and comedywriter Aleksander Fredro(1793–1876), who acquiredfame with his comediesabout the Polish upperclasses. The plaque wasmade in 1879 by LeonardMarconi and transferredto Wrocław from Lviv in1956 (see p25).Church of St Elizabeth with Jaś andMałgosia, acolytes’ housesGothic gables of the east façade ofthe town hallThe Baroque monastery thathouses the Ossolineum
  • 176. STAR SIGHTS. Cathedral ofSt John the Baptist. Church of St Mary onPiasekP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 9 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3Ostrów Tumski and Piasek IslandOstrów Tumski was once an island in theRiver Odra, and it is here that the history ofWrocław began. According to legend, thecity was founded by Duke Vratislav ofBohemia. In the year 1000 a bishopricwas established and the island grewinto a centre of ducal power. After thecity moved to the left bank of the Odrain 1292, the island remained the baseof ecclesiastical authority. In the 19thcentury the northern arm of the Odrawas filled in and Tumski ceased to bean island. Tumski Bridge connects it toPiasek Island, a small sandbank that since the firsthalf of the 12th century has been the location of amonastery for canons regular.Church of the Holy Cross(Kościół św Krzyża)This Gothic church is set ontwo levels. The upper churchis reached via a portalenclosed by a double arch.Church ofSt MartinTumski BridgeThe present bridge wasbuilt in 1888–92. Thefigures of St Jadwigaand St John the Baptistguarding it are byGustav Grunenberg.. Church of St Mary onPiasek (Kościół NMPna Piasku)The interior of the church wasrestored after World War II.Statue of StJohn NepomukśW,JADWIGIMOSTMŁYŃSKIś W . M A R C I N AŚWIĘTOKRZYSKA0 m0 yds250250
  • 177. W R O C Ł A W 1 9 3Church of St GilesThis tiny late Romanesquechurch, built in the 1230s, isthe oldest surviving churchin Wrocław.Gate of the Churchof St GilesThe gate of theChurch of St Giles isdecorated with astone “dumpling”about which guidestell a varietyof legends.Archbishop’s PalaceThe residence of the archbishopsof Wrocław was once thechapterhouse. It was rebuilt in1792 in the Neo-Classical style.. Cathedral ofSt John theBaptistThe cathedralpresents acombination ofstyles fromdifferent periods.The spires on itstowers wereadded in 1991.Arch-diocesanMuseumMonumentto St JohnNepomukK A T E D R A L N AP L . K A T E D R A L N YKARD.A.HLONDAK A R D . B . K O M I N K AK A N O N I AKEYSuggested route
  • 178. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 9 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3R Church of theHoly Crosspl. Kościelny. Tel 071 322 25 74.The two-tiered Church ofthe Holy Cross (Kościół śwKrzyża) was established in1288 by Henry IV, the Pious.Building continued in the14th century, and the southtower was not completeduntil 1484. The lower churchhas been used by Uniatessince 1956. The upper church,a narrow nave with atransept, was badly damagedduring World War II, whenmost of its interior fittingswere lost. The tombstonededicated to the church’sfounder has been moved tothe National Museum, but theoriginal tympanum, depictingthe ducal couple admiring theheavenly Throne of Grace,can be seen in the north aisle.The 15th-century triptychover the high altar comesfrom a church in Świny.R Church of St Maryon Piasekul. Najświętszej Marii Panny 1.The rather forbidding bulkof the Church of St Maryon Piasek (Kościół NMP naPiasku) dominates PiasekIsland. The church wasconstructed for canonsregular in the second half ofthe 14th century on the site ofa 12th-century Romanesquebuilding whose tympanum isbuilt into the wall over thesacristy in the south aisle.The Church of St Marysuffered extensive damagein World War II, but someimpressive features survive.The asymmetrical tripartiterib vaulting over the aislesis unusual. The church alsohouses a fine collection ofGothic altars brought herefrom other churches in Silesia.the 11th century. The presentchurch dates from the late13th century but was rebuiltafter World War II because ithad suffered major damage.The present building consistsof an octagonal nave and anunfinished presbytery.Exploring OstrówTumskiand Piasek IslandWrocław’s islands, bathed by the River Odra, arepeaceful places for a stroll away from the bustle of thecity. The cathedral, the islands’ principal landmark,preserves its valuable interior despite having sufferedthe ravages of World War II. The ArchdiocesanMuseum is a rich repository of Gothic art. A walkthrough the islands’ many narrow streets and alleyscan be followed by a visit to the Botanical Gardens.+ Archbishop’s Palaceul. Katedralna 11. ¢ to visitors.The present archbishop’sresidence, once the home ofthe canons of the cathedral,is a relatively plain buildingthat was reconstructed froma more splendid Baroqueedifice in 1792. The oldbishop’s palace, which standsat Ulica Katedralna 15 nearby,is a fine Neo-Classicalbuilding dating from thesecond half of the 18thcentury, although three13th-century wings fromthe earlier palace remain.R Cathedral of St Johnthe Baptistpl. Katedralny. Tel 071 322 25 74.# daily. Tower # 1 Apr–30 Sep:10am–6pm Mon–Sat.The Cathedral of St Johnthe Baptist (Archikatedra śwJana Chrzciciela) presentsa combination of stylesfrom different periods. Thepresbytery was built sometime between 1244 and 1272;R Church of St Martinul. św Marcina 7.The first ecclesiasticalbuilding raised on the sitenow occupied by the Churchof St Martin (Kościół śwMarcina) was a strongholdchapel erected at the turn ofGothic portal of the Church ofSt Mary on PiasekUlica Katedralna, with the Cathedral of St John the BaptistThe Gothic Church of the HolyCross, built on two levels
  • 179. W R O C Ł A W 1 9 5The Botanical Gardens on Ostrów TumskiTHE BRIDGES OF WROCŁAWSituated on the River Odra, the city of Wrocław boastsmore than 100 bridges crossing numerous streams, canalsand inlets. The oldest is the Piasek Island bridge, datingfrom 1845. The best known is Grunwaldzki SuspensionBridge, dating from 1908–10, which under German rulewas named the Kaiserbrücke.Portal of the Cathedral of St Johnthe Baptist on Ostrów Tumskithe basilica was built in thefirst half of the 14th centuryand the west tower wascompleted even later. Threequarters of the cathedral weredestroyed in World War II,and most of the presentbuilding is the result of post-war reconstruction. The eastend, with its interestingchapels accessible from thepresbytery, survives in itsoriginal form. The Chapel ofSt Elizabeth in the south aislewas built in the RomanBaroque style by GiacomoScianzi in 1680. The interiorof the chapel is also the workof Italian artists: the tomb ofCardinal Frederyk, a Hessianlandowner whose burialchapel this became, is byDomenico Guidi. The altaris by Ercole Ferrata.The presbytery contains alate Gothic polyptych of 1522,which was brought fromLubin, and Baroque choirstalls from a church of thePremonstratensian order.E Archdiocesan Museumpl. Katedralny 16.Tel 071 327 11 78.# 9am–3pm Tue–Sun.The Archdiocesan Museum(Muzeum Archidiecezjalne)stands among a group ofbuildings dating from threehistorical periods. The earliestis the Gothic-Renaissancechapterhouse built in1519–27, which has fineportals and arcades. The laterBaroque chapterhouse wascompleted in 1756. Thepurpose-built Neo-Gothicmuseum, libraries andarchives of the archdiocesewere built in 1896. Themuseum contains animportant and growingcollection of Silesian religiousart going back to the Gothicperiod. In addition to altarsand sculptures, it has ondisplay one of the earliestcabinets in the world, datingfrom 1455.Poland. They were establishedin 1811 by two professorsfrom the University of Silesiain Katowice, and after beingtotally destroyed in WorldWar II were reverently re-created. The gardens’ centralarea contains ponds fashionedfrom what was an arm of theRiver Odra when OstrówTumski was still anisland. The gardenscontain palms, analpine garden, cactusesand a 19th-centurymodel of the geologyof the Silesian town ofWałbrzych. On a walkthrough the gardens7,000 plant species canbe seen and a bust ofthe Swedish botanistCarolus Linnaeus(1708–78), dating from 1871,stands among the greenery.A branch of the gardens,with an extensive arboretum,has been established inWojsławice, near Niemcza.O Botanical Gardensul. H. Sienkiewicza 23.Tel 071 322 59 57.# Apr–Nov: 8am–6pm daily. &Wrocław boasts the mostattractive botanical gardens inGrunwaldzki Suspension BridgeArchdiocesan Museum on Ostrów Tumski
  • 180. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 9 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3Around Central WrocławMany places of interest lie within walking distanceof central Wrocław. A relaxing day can be spent atthe zoo, the museums of natural history, geologyand mineralogy and in Szczytnicki Park. The Jewishcemetery gives a fascinating insight into Poland’s past.There are also several notable 20th-century buildings,such as the People’s Hall and the 1920s Mieszkanie iMiejsce Pracy housing estate.Ostrich in a paddock at Wrocław ZooO Zooul. Wróblewskiego.Tel 071 348 30 24.# 9am–4pm daily(to 6pm in summer).www.zoo.wrocław.plWrocław hasone of thelargest and best laid-outzoos in Poland, thanks toits long-standing directorsHanna and AntoniGucwińscy, who for manyyears presented a TV pro-gramme on animal photo-graphy. The zoo, foundedin 1865, is situated abovethe River Odra oppositeSzczytnicki Park. Whilewalking among the animalpaddocks, it is worth takinga look at the old pavilions,which feature a variety ofarchitectural styles.E Natural History Museumul. Sienkiewicza 21. Tel 071 375 4145. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun.This museum, which isextremely popular withchildren, has a substantialcollection of animals andplants from all continents.The collections of tropicalbutterflies, shells and mammalskeletons are the largest inPoland. Some date back tothe 18th century, and formedthe beginnings of theUniversity’s ZoologicalMuseum, which was setP People’s Hallul. Wystawowa 1. Tel 071 347 5100. # 9am–4pm, except duringtrade fairs and sports events. &The People’s Hall (HalaLudowa), originally knownas the Century Hall, wasintended to be the centre-piece of an exhibitioncommemorating thecentenary of the coalition’svictory over Napoleon atLipsk. It was designed by MaxBerg and built in 1911–13. Atthe time of its construction, itwas regarded as one of thefinest modern buildings inEurope. The centre of the hallis covered by a reinforcedconcrete dome with adiameter of 65 m (200 ft). It islit by a sophisticated method– the openwork design insidethe stepped tambour consistsof rows of windows that canbe shaded or uncovered asrequired. The auditoriumcan accommodate up to5,000 people. The hall hasfunctioned as a concert halland theatre, and today is usedfor sports events and tradefairs. Around the hall aresome of the pavilions of theHistorical Exhibition. It is alsoworth walking through theSome of the exhibits in the Mineralogy MuseumE Geology and MineralogyMuseumsul. Cybulskiego 30.Geology Museum Tel 071 37593 27. # 9am–5pm Mon, Thu;9am–3pm Tue, Wed, Fri.Mineralogy Museum Tel 071 37592 06. # 9am–3pm Tue–Fri.A vast building in a styletypical of the German ThirdReich houses two interestingmuseums, both run bydepartments of the Universityof Wrocław. The GeologyMuseum contains a wealthof different rocks and fossilsspecimens from differentgeological eras, while theMineralogy Museum delightsits visitors with its colourfuldisplays of minerals collectedfrom all over the world.up in 1820. Since1904 the exhibitshave beendisplayed in apurpose-builtwing of thisArt Nouveaubuilding.
  • 181. W R O C Ł A W 1 9 7old exhibition groundsand seeing the oval pond,which is surrounded by shadypergolas. A steel needle96 m (316 ft) in heightmade by Stanisław Hempel,stands outside the mainentrance. It was erectedhere in 1948.of residential architecture inthe 1920s. The houses wereexamples of different residen-tial buildings designed forthe Exhibition of Living andWorking Space organized bythe Deutscher Werkbundmovement in 1929. Manyprominent German architectstook part in theproject. The mostimpressive buildingis an apartmentblock (at UlicaKopernika 9)designed by HansScharoun, architectof several buildingsin Berlin, includingthe National Libraryand the BerlinPhilharmonicOrchestra’s ConcertHall. Modern archi-tecture enthusiasts shouldalso visit Sępolno, which wasbuilt in 1924–8 and is a fineexample of a garden city.Y Szczytnicki ParkNorth of the exhibition areais an extensive park whosehistory dates back to the 18thcentury. It was originally thesite of the residence of DukeFriedrich Ludwig vonHohenlohe-Ingelfingen, butthat building was destroyedduring the Napoleonic Wars(1799–1815), after which thearea was remodelled as alandscaped park.One of Szczytnicki Park’sdistinctive features is itsdelightful Japanese garden,which has been painstakinglyrestored with the help ofJapanese gardening experts.The footbridges and pathwaysthat run among the pavilionsand plants make a charmingsetting for a leisurely walk.Look out for the rose gardenand a small 12th-centurywooden church that wasbrought over from StareKoźle and reconstructed.Z Jewish Cemeteryul. Ślężna 37/39. # 8am–dusk daily(to 6pm in summer). 8 until noonSun (free). ¢ Jewish holidays.This is one of the very fewJewish cemeteries in Polandthat escaped destruction atthe hands of the Nazis duringWorld War II. Originallyopened in 1856, it was theburial place of manycelebrated citizens ofWrocław, including thesocialist politician FerdinandLassalle, the painter ClaraSachs and the parents ofSister Theresa Benedicta ofthe Cross, who was born inWrocław as Edith Stein.Japanese garden in Szczytnicki ParkThe former Century Hall designed by Max BergHouse designed by Hans Scharoun on theMieszkanie i Miejsce Pracy housing estateP Mieszkanie i Miejsce PracyHousing EstateThe Mieszkanie i Miejsce Pracyhousing estate is a uniquelandmark in the development
  • 182. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N1 9 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3KamieniecZąbkowicki hRoad map B5. * 4,700. £ @The small town ofKamieniec Ząbkowickiis dominated by the 14th-century Gothic church andBaroque monastery of itsCistercian abbey, whichwas founded in 1272.There is also a Neo-Gothiccastle, perched on a hill butwell worth the effort of aclimb to visit. It wascommissioned by MariannaOrańska in the 1870s, andafter her death wascompleted for her son, DukeAlbrecht of Prussia. Thearchitect was Karl FriedrichSchinkel. A massive residencewith large circular externaltowers and two internalpiazzas, the castle has anideal symmetry. Itsmagnificent ballroom haspalm vaulting supported on asingle central basalt column.Unfortunately the palace’sonce superb art collectionand library were destroyedjust after World War II. Todaythe castle, while not yetwholly reconstructed, is openas a hotel. It stands in anattractive overgrown park.Henryków gRoad map C5. * 1,400. £ @Cistercian Church pl. Cystersów 1.Tel 074 810 50 69. 8The small town of Henrykówis known for its Cistercianchurch, founded in 1227 byHenryk the Bearded. A seriesof allotments surroundingthe abbey separate thechurch and monastery fromthe street, so that access tothe church is by way of aseries of gates. The church,originally in the Gothic style,was rebuilt in the early 14thcentury and remodelled inthe Baroque style by MatthiasKirchberger in 1687–1702.Prominent features of theBaroque interior are thehigh altar, with The Birthof Christ in theVision of StBernard ofClairvaux byMichael Willmann,and the large,highly ornamentedchoir stalls. Aplague columnoutside the churchdepicts the fourarchangels.Other pointsof interest arethe extensivemonastery and thescenic park laidout at the rearof the monasteryin the early 18thcentury. Asummerhousestands in the park.Kłodzko Valley jSee pp200–201.Paczków kRoad map B5. * 8,400. £ @n ul. Słowackiego 4 (077 431 6790). www.paczkow.plCompletely surrounded bya medieval wall set withtowers and gates, Paczkówhas been dubbed theFaçade of the Cistercian church in HenrykówNeo-Gothic castle in Kamieniec ZąbkowickiGothic town walls and towerin Paczków
  • 183. S I L E S I A 1 9 9Renaissance town hall in OtmuchówOtmuchów lRoad map C5. * 5,400. £ @Otmuchów has a picturesquesetting between two lakes,Lake Głębinowskie and LakeOtmuchówskie. In spring andsummer the town is filledwith flowers, partly as theresult of the spring flowerfestival that is held here.From the 14th century until1810, Otmuchów belongedto the bishops of Wrocław.Its historic buildings are allin close proximity aroundthe sloping Market Square.On the lower side is theRenaissance town hall, builtin 1538, with a later tower.On the upper side is theBaroque parish church of1690–6, and the Palace ofthe Bishops of Wrocław. Theadjacent palace, known asthe Lower Castle, was thebishops’ secondary residence.Nysa zRoad map C5. * 48,000. £ @n ul. Bracka 4 (077 433 41 71).www.nysa.plNysa, founded in 1223,was once the capital of thedukes of Wrocław and thesee of the duchy of Nysa(Niesse). In the 16th and17th centuries it became theresidence of the Catholicbishops of Wrocław, whowere driven there fromOstrów Tumski during theReformation. After 1742 thePrussians enclosed the townwith ramparts. Despitesuffering massive destructionduring WorldWar II, Nysaretains a numberof interestingbuildings. Thetown centre isdominated by theGothic Churchof Saints Jamesand Agnieszka(Kościół śwJakuba iAgnieszki), witha separate belfrydating from theearly 16th centu-ry. The wellbeside it, coveredwith unusualwrought iron-work, is knownas the BeautifulWelland datesfrom 1686. OfNysa’s many churches, thefinest are the Church of SaintsPeter and Paul (Św Piotra iPawla) and the Jesuit Churchof the Assumption(Wniebowzięcia NMP). Alsoof interest are the bishop’spalace and manor, whichstand beside a group of Jesuitbuildings. The palace housesa local history museum.“Carcassone of Silesia” afterthe medieval walled city insouthwest France. Paczkówwas founded in 1254, and theold town retains its originalstreet layout. It contains manydistinctive town houses, aNeo-Classical town hall andthe Church of St John(Kościół św Jana), anoriginally Gothic church thatwas rebuilt in the Renaissancestyle in 1529–36 and fortifiedfor defensive purposes.R Church of Saints Jamesand Agnieszkapl. Katedralny 7. Tel 077 433 25 05.A number of side chapelscontaining the tombs ofbishops flank the lofty naveof this 14th–15th-centurychurch (Kościół św Jakuba iśw Agnieszki). The high altaronly survived World War IIbecause it was removed andhidden in the mountains.R Church of Saints Peterand Paulul. św Piotra. Tel 077 431 05 13.This late Baroque church(Kościół św Piotra i Pawła)was built by Michael Kleinand Felix Anton Hammer-schmidt in 1719–27 for theCanons Regular of theHoly Sepulchre. Its originalfurnishings are intact. Entry isvia the office of the seminarysituated in the monastery.R Church of theAssumptionpl. Solny. # daily.Jesuits were brought to Nysaby Bishop Karol Habsburg.This Baroque Jesuit church(Kościół WniebowzięciaNMP), built in 1688–92, hasa magnificent twin-toweredfaçade. The interior featurespaintings by Karl Dankwart.It is one of a group ofbuildings known collectivelyas the Carolinum College.E Town Museumpl. Bpa Jarosława 11. Tel 077 43320 83. # 9am–3pm Tue–Fri, 10am–3pm Sat & Sun. & (free on Sat).www.muzeum.nysa.plThe Town Museum is locatedin the former bishop’s palace,dating from 1660–80. Itcontains a fine collection ofEuropean painting, includingpictures from the studios ofLucas Cranach the Elder(1472–1553) and Hugo vander Goes (c.1440–82).The Beautiful Well in Nysa, withBaroque wrought ironwork
  • 184. For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 0 0Kłodzko Valley jThe exceptionally beautiful KłodzkoValley is renowned for itsarchitecture and spas as well as for itsscenery. A border region for manycenturies, it is dotted with castles. Manydignitaries, attracted by its favourableclimate and its mineral springs, builtsplendid residences here. The area hasseveral well-equipped hiking trails,particularly on Gory Stołowe (TableMountains), and a number of ski resorts.Góry Stołowe 2The TableMountains arean unusualgeologicalphenomenon –the strangeshapes of thesandstone andmarl hills werecreated byerosion. AtSzczeliniec Wielkiand Błędne Skały,fissures formnatural mazes.Wambierzyce 1The village is an ancient place of pilgrimage. ThePilgrimage Church dates from 1695–1710, althoughits oval nave was built in 1715–20. In the village andnearby hills are more than 130 Stations of the Cross.Duszniki Zdrój 4Features of interestin this health spaare the Baroquepulpit in the Churchof Saints Peter andPaul (Kościół św śwPiotra i Pawła), byMichael Kössler,and the Museum ofthe Paper Industry.Kudowa Zdrój 3The Chapel of Skulls (Kaplicaczaszek) near Kudowa Zdrój wasbuilt in 1776. It contains 3,000skulls and other bones ofvictims of the Thirty Years’ War(1618–48) and ensuing plagues.Polanica Zdrój 5Founded in the early19th century, this spais considered to bethe most attractivein the wholeKłodzko Valley.TIPS FOR WALKERSTour length: 216 km (135 miles).Stopping-off points: Restaurantsare easy to find in towns such asKudowa Zdrój, Lądek Zdrój,Kłodzko or Bystrzyca Kłodzka.Other attractions: Bear’s Caveat Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia, nearKletno; pre-booking Tel 074 81412 50. Underground walk inKłodzko # Feb–Apr, Sep–Nov:10am–5:40pm; May–Aug:9am–4:40pm. ¢ Mon, Thu. &
  • 185. S I L E S I A 2 0 1Lądek Zdrój 0This picturesqueresort has luxuriousmineral baths anda historic marketsquare. For theenergetic, theruins of KarpieńCastle are withinwalking distance.Międzygórze 8This delightfulresort at the footof the Śnieżnikmassif in theWilczka RiverValley is an idealstarting point formountain hiking.BystrzycaKłodzka 7The town’sMuseum of Fire-Making is devotedto the manufactureof matches andcigarette lighters.The Gothic churchthat towers overthe old town hasan unusualdouble-naveinterior.Gorzanów 6The Renaissance-Baroquepalace in Gorzanów datesfrom the 16th century. Itspresent form is the resultof extensions carried outin the 17th century.Kłodzko qThe large 18th-century castlecommands a panoramic view overthe town. There is also a Gothicbridge with Baroque carving andan underground passage.KEYHiking pathOther routeViewpoint0 km0 miles55Kletno 9Bear’s Cave, the largest in theSudeten range, has 3 km (2 miles)of subterranean passages on fourdifferent levels with stalactites andstalagmites in a variety of shapes.
  • 186. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 0 4The town hall in the Market Square in OpoleRomanesque Rotunda ofSt Nicholas in CieszynOpole xRoad Map C5. * 126,000. £ @n 077 451 19 87. _ Festival ofPolish Song (Jun). www.opole.plThe origins of Opole, on theRiver Odra, go back to the8th century. Once the seat ofthe Piast duchy, from 1327 itwas ruled by Bohemia, from1526 by Austria, and from1742 by Prussia. Although ithas been part of Poland onlysince 1945, it has always hada sizeable Polish population.The town hall was built in1936 in imitation of thePalazzo Vecchio in Florence.Other notable buildingsinclude the Cathedral of theHoly Cross, a Gothic churchwith a Baroque interior, andthe late Gothic Franciscanchurch, containing the tombsof the dukes of Opole. OnPiaseka Island, near theamphitheatre in the park,stands the Piast Tower, allthat remains of the Gothicducal castle.E Regional Museumul. Mały Rynek. Tel 077 453 66 77.# 9am–3:30pm Tue–Fri, 10am–3pmSat, noon–5pm Sun. & (free on Sat).Góra Świętej Anny cRoad Map C5. £ Leśnica.www.swanna.plGóra Świętej Anny is a placeof pilgrimage for Catholics anda centre of commemoration ofthe Silesian uprisings of1919–21. The great PilgrimageChurch of St Anne was builthere by the Gaschin-Gaszyńskifamily in the second half ofthe 1600s. The Stations of theCross that make up the 18th-century Calvary are placedaround the church andmonastery. The Calvary drawslarge numbers of pilgrims.During the Third SilesianUprising in May and June1921, two major battles werefought in the mountains nearGóra Świętej Anny. They arecommemorated by acommanding monumentcarved by Xawery Dunikowskiin 1955 that stands on themountainside above a giganticamphitheatre built in 1930–34.A museum contains recordsrelating to the uprising.E Museum of the UprisingGóra Świętej Anny. Tel 077 461 5466. # 9am–3pm Tue–Sun. &Cieszyn vRoad Map D6. * 36,000. £ @_ Viva il Canto Festival of VocalMusic (Jun); Cieszyńska Jazz AutumnFestival (Sep–Oct); Bez Granic TheatreFestival (Oct). www.cieszyn.plThis delightful town on theCzech-Polish border wasfounded in the 9th century.From the 13th to 17th centuriesit was the capital of a Silesianduchy and in 1653 fell underHabsburg rule. On a hill wherea castle once stood is the 11th-century Romanesque Rotundaof St Nicholas (Rotunda śwMikołaja), the Piast Tower,in the Gothic style, and ahunting palace built byKarol Habsburg in 1838.The Market Square hassome fine town houses anda Neo-Classical town hall.Cieszyn also features anumber of churches, foremostamong them being theProtestant Church of Grace(Kościół Łaski), of 1709.The town is well kept, witha number of pedestrianizedstreets. Czech as well asPolish is heard in its homelypubs, bars and restaurants.Pszczyna bRoad Map D6. * 26,000. £ @n Brama Wybrańców (032 212 9999). www.pszczyna.plPszczyna, on the edgeof the ancient PszczynaForest, is named after a resi-dence that was built within thewalls of a Gothic castle in thearea. The building, situatednext to the forest and its wild-life, was used as a huntinglodge for many centuries.Góry Stołowe, the Table Mountains, overlooking Kłodzko Valley
  • 187. S I L E S I A 2 0 5Głiwice, one of 14 towns comprising the Upper Silesian Industrial RegionUpper SilesianIndustrial Region nRoad Map D5. £ @The vast conurbation of14 towns that make upthe Upper Silesian IndustrialRegion (Górnośląski OkręgPrzemysłowy) was createdby the coal-mining industry,which has been active in thearea since the 18th century.The conurbation’s hardwork-ing inhabitants have theirown unique dialect, which isspoken especially by theolder generation.After World War I andfollowing the three Silesianuprisings of 1919–21, almostthe entire region wasincorporated into Poland.Although the towns, withtheir mines, steelworks andpower stations, seemunappealing, the region is ofinterest to tourists. Katowice,the capital, has particularlyinteresting buildings datingfrom the interwar years. InKościusz Park stands awooden church of 1510 thatwas moved here from Syryna,a Silesian village, as well asthe Archdiocesan Museumand Museum of Silesia. Themuseum in Bytom has someinteresting works of art. InChorzów the main attractionis a park with a funfair.The Upper SilesianEthnographic Park hasa display of the traditionalbuildings of Upper Silesia.E Museum of SilesiaKatowice, ul. Korfantego 3.Tel 032 258 56 61. # 10am–5pmTue–Fri, 11am–5pm Sat & Sun.www.muzeumslaskie.plAmong the displays to beenjoyed at the SilesianMuseum is a collectionof 19th and 20th-centuryPolish painting.From 1846 Pszczyna wasruled by the Hochbergs ofKsiąż (see p185). The palacewas rebuilt for them in1870–76 in the FrenchNeo-Renaissance style.Today the palace houses amuseum with an interestingand well-stocked armoury, acollection of hunting trophiesand a fine array of periodfurniture. The centrepiece ofthe palace is the extraordinaryHall of Mirrors, whichcontains two vast mirrors,each with a surface area ofsome 14 sq m (150 sq ft).E Palace Museumul. Brama Wybrańców 1.Tel 032 210 30 37. # Jan–Mar &Nov–mid-Dec: Tue–Sun; Apr–Oct:daily. For opening hours, pleaseconsult the website. ¢ 1 and 3May, Easter, Corpus Christi, 1 and11 Nov, 15–31 Dec. & (free onMon Apr–Oct; Tue Nov–Mar).www.zamek-pszczyna.plPortrait of Princess Daisy in thePalace Museum in PszczynaBędzin Castle, now the home of the Coal MuseumFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3E Archdiocesan MuseumKatowice, ul. Jordana 39. Tel 032608 15 00. # 2–6pm Tue & Thu;2–5pm Sun.The museum hasa collection ofecclesiastical art, themost outstandingpiece being Head ofa Monk by José deRibera (1591–1652).E Coal MuseumBędzin, ul. Świerczewskiego 15. Tel032 267 77 07. Castle and Palace# 9am–4pm Tue, Thu, Fri, 9am–5pmWed (Nov–Mar: 8am–4pm), 9am–3pmSat, 10am–3pm Sun (15 Jun–Sep: to5pm). www.zamek.bedzin.plBędzin Castle was foundedby Kazimierz the Great.Constructed from roughlyhewn boulders, it was erectedin stages between 1250 and1350. In 1834 it was restoredin the romantic Neo-Gothictradition by Franciszek MariaLanci. The castle now housesthe fascinating Coal Museum.Another branch of themuseum is to befound in theMieroszewskiPalace.
  • 188. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 2 0 7Anger, one of the vices depicted on the Romanesque columns of the Premonstratensian Church in StrzelnoDuring the Thirty Years’War of 1618–48, theregion of Wielkopolskawas settled by largenumbers of dissentingGermans, particularly fromneighbouring Silesia. TheProtestant faith of the incomersset them apart from the existinginhabitants, who were Catholics.During the Partitions of Poland,Wielkopolska was divided. Under theterms of the Congress of Vienna of1815, the larger western part fell underPrussian rule, and the smaller easternpart came under Russian control. Inthe second half of the 19th century thePrussian part of Wielkopolska wassubjected to repeated but unsuccess-ful campaigns of Germanization.Polish activists fought back in thecourts and laid the economic founda-tions for the Polish section of thepopulation. At the end of 1918,insurrection broke out in the westernpart of Wielkopolska and almost theentire region as it had beenbefore the Partitions wasreincorporated into thePolish state.The inhabitants ofWielkopolska have a long-standing reputation forthrift and orderliness. Theyears of Soviet dominationthat followed World War II strainedthese qualities to the limit, althoughthe local state-owned farms workedmore efficiently than those in otherparts of the country and manypalaces and country mansions havesurvived in better condition than wasthe case elsewhere.Poznań, the capital of Wielkopolska,abounds in historic buildings, as doother towns in the region. Almostevery town, however small, containssomething of interest. Wielkopolskamaintains its identity: to this day thecustoms preserved in many of theregion’s towns and villages are distinctfrom those in other parts of Poland.WIELKOPOLSKA (GREATER POLAND)Old windmills in a typical Wielkopolska settingWielkopolska (Greater Poland) is the cradle of Polish state-hood. It was here in the mid-10th century that the Polonians,the strongest of the Polish tribes, set up an enduring statestructure. It was also in this region that the Piast dynasty, the first Polishdynasty, emerged to rule the country in the 10th century. The first twocapitals of Poland, Gniezno and Poznań, lie in Wielkopolska.
  • 189. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 0 80 km0 miles2525Exploring WielkopolskaWielkopolska’s extensive territory is mainly low-lying, butthe landscape is far from monotonous. In the northernpart of the region is a hilly area, with vast forests andlakes, that is ideal country for a walking or cyclingholiday. Besides Poznań, the regional capital, othertowns of interest include Gniezno, seat of anarchbishopric and the first capital of Poland.In the area around Gniezno traces of therise of Polish statehood can be seenon Ostrów Lednicki, in Strzelno,and in Kruszwica on Lake Gopło.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEŁęczyca dŁódź sOstrów Lednicki 0Piotrków Trybunalski pPoznań pp214–19 5Rogalin pp212–13 4Rydzyna 3Sulejów aŚmiełów yToursRomanesque ArchitectureTour rAntonin oBiskupin wCzerniejewo 9Gniezno pp222–3 qGołuchów uGułtowy 8Kalisz iKoszuty 7Kórnik 6Ląd tLeszno 2Lubostroń eŁagów 1GETTING AROUNDWielkopolska is situated on main transportroutes between eastern and western Europe.The efficient express train service from Berlinto Poznań takes just under 3 hours, and thejourney from Warsaw by express train alsotakes about 3 hours. All the larger towns ofthe region have rail connections, while smallerones can be reached by bus. Roads aregenerally good, although Poznań suffers fromalmost permanent traffic jams. Poznań canalso be reached by air, although the numberof international connections is limited.Skansen on Lake LednickiFor additional map symbols see back flap
  • 190. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 0 9Façade of Kórnik CastleSEE ALSO• Where to Stay pp305–7.• Restaurants and Bars pp323–4.KEYMotorwayMajor roadMinor roadMain railwayMinor railwayInternational borderRegional borderThe Raczyński Library in Poznań
  • 191. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 1 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4Palace in Rydzyna, former seat of the Sułkowski familyof its monumental buildingsdates from earlier than the18th century. The Baroquetown hall was built justafter the fire to a design byPompeo Ferrari. Beside themarket square is thedistinctive Baroque parishchurch, built by Jan Catenaciat the turn of the 18thcentury. It has a delightfulfaçade and interior withBaroque altars and tombs.Ferrari also designed theformer Lutheran Church ofthe Holy Cross (Kościołluterański św Krzyża),which was built after 1707.The Regional Museum’sfinest collection is in thePolish Portrait Gallery, andfeatures 18th-centurycoffin portraits of theBohemian Brethren.E Regional Museumpl. Metziga 17.Tel 065 529 61 40.# 9am–5pm Tue,9am–2pm Wed–Fri,10am–2pm Sat & Sun.Judaic sectionul. stkowskiego 6.Tel 065 529 61 45.# 9am–3pm Tue &Thu, 9am–2pm Wed& Fri, 10am–2pm firstSun of the month.¢ Day after publicholiday. & (free 1stSun each month).Łagów 1Road Map B3. * 1,600. £ @n 068 341 27 31. _ Lubuskie FilmFestival (Jun). www.lagow.plŁagów, situated inwoodland between lakesŁagów and Ciecz, is knownfor its film festival.The tower of the 14th-century castle built by theKnights Hospitallers affordsa magnificent view of thesurrounding countryside, asdoes the 19th-century towerof the Neo-Classical Churchof St John the Baptist (Kościołśw Jan Chrzciciela), datingfrom 1726. Around the townare also remains of the 15th-century town walls, with theirgate towers, the Polish Gateand Marchian Gate.EnvironsŁagów Nature Park, near thetown, contains protected areasof woodland and wild flowers.About 16 km (10 miles) eastof the town are the remainsof a system of fortificationserected by the Germans justbefore World War II. Itssurviving corridors andbunkers are now inhabitedby thousands of bats.Leszno’s Baroque town hallRogalin 4See pp212–13.Poznań 5See pp214–19.Leszno 2Road Map B4. * 63,000. £ @n ul. Słowiańska 24 (065 529 8234). _ Days of Leszno (May);Summer of Folklore (Aug).www.leszno.plIn the 17th century Lesznogave asylum to religiousdissidents fleeing the ravagesof the Thirty Years’ War(1618–48) in Silesia. Apartfrom Lutheran Protestants,they included a group knownas the Bohemian Brethren,who founded theArian Academy thatgained renownacross Europe. Oneof its members wasJan Amos Komeński(Commenius),a prominentphilosopher ofthe Reformation.The town wasdestroyed by fire in1707, so that noneRydzyna 3Road Map B4. * 2,200. @ £www.rydzyna.plThis small town isdominated by the palace,built in the 15th century.Its present late Baroqueappearance dates from after1737; further building workwas carried out by KarlMartin Frantz in 1742,when paintings by WilhelmNeunhertz were addedto the ballroom ceiling.The ballroom was destroyedby fire in 1945.The ceiling was painted inhonour of the palace’s owner,Prince Józef A. Sułkowski. Amember of a noble family ofrelatively low rank, he wascatapulted to success at thecourt of August III, but fellfrom the king’s favour in 1738and was replaced by HenrykBrühl. The palace remainedin the possession of theSułkowskis into the early20th century, when it wassold to the Prussian rulers.It is now a hotel (see p306).The Market Square is linedwith Baroque houses, thetown hall and two Baroquechurches: the Parish Churchof St Stanisław (Kościoł śwStanisława) designed by KarlMartin Frantz and IgnacyGraff in 1746–51, and theProtestant church, datingfrom 1779–83, also by Graff.
  • 192. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 1 1Country house in Koszuty dating from the 18th centuryKórnik 6Road Map C3. * 7,000. £ @www.kornik.plSet on an island andsurrounded by alandscaped park, KórnikCastle is one of themost picturesquecastles in Poland.Its presentappearance datesfrom the 19thcentury, when itwas rebuilt in theEnglish Neo-Gothicstyle by Karl FriedrichSchinkel. Therehave also beensome subsequentalterations.The castle’s original interiorsurvives: the Moorish Hall isdecorated in the style of theAlhambra Palace in southernSpain and in the DiningRoom the ceiling is coveredwith the coats of arms of allthe Polish knights who foughtat the Battle of Grunwald(1410). An inscription inTurkish on the ceiling ofone hall is an expressionof thanks to Turkey, whichrefused to recognize thepartition of Poland. The castlealso contains a collection of18th- and 19th-centuryporcelain and other pieces.The castle became therepository of the art treasuresthat were once kept atCzartoryski Palace in Puławy(see p119). In order to acquirethe library at Puławy, TytusDziałyński persuaded his sonJan to marry Izabella, heiressto the Czartoryski fortune.The castle has an extensivelibrary and a museum.The museum’scollections includea display of 16thto 19th centuryPolish and foreignpaintings, as well assculpture, drawingsand an intriguing arrayof militaria, including acomplete suit ofarmour. The KórnikLibrary containsmanuscripts ofPolish poets’ works and asubstantial collection of printsand maps. There is also aSuit of armour, KórnikCastle MuseumKoszuty 7Road Map C3. * 400. £ @In an enchanting 18th-centurycountry house, set in a land-scaped garden, the interior ofa Wielkopolska landowner’smansion has been recon-structed and is now theŚroda Land Museum.E Środa Land MuseumTel 061 285 10 23. # 9am–2pmMon–Sat.EnvironsThe town of ŚrodaWielkopolska, which is situatedjust 6 km (4 miles) east ofKoszuty, has an interestingGothic collegiate church datingfrom the 15th–16th centuries.A room with coffered ceiling and ornate floor in Kórnik Castlepark that contains anarboretum with many rarespecies of trees, and a walkhere is a relaxing way toround off a visit.P Kórnik Libraryul. Zamkowa 5. Tel 061 817 00 81or 817 19 30. # 8am–6pmMon–Fri, 8am–1pm Sat. ¢ publichols, Easter, 1 Sep, Dec–Feb.www.bkpan.poznan.plEnvironsThere are several holidayvillages scattered along theshores of lakes Kórnik andBniń, to the south of Kórnik.The best known of them isZaniemyśl, which boastsboth a bathing beach anda holiday camp among itsattractions. On Edward Islandthere is a 19th-centurywooden pavilion built inthe style of a Swiss chalet.
  • 193. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 1 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–40 m0 yds100100Raczyński Palace, in the villageof Rogalin, is one of themost magnificent buildings inWielkopolska. It was begunin around 1770 for KazimierzRaczyński, Palatine of Wielkopolskaand Grand Marshal of the Crown.It was designed in the Baroquestyle, but during construction thearchitectural ornamentation wasabandoned. The imposing mainbuilding, however, retains its late Baroquesolidity. In 1782–3 curving colonnades wereadded and complemented by annexes in theclassic Palladian style. A drawing room andgrand staircase designed by Jan ChrystianKamsetzer were added in 1788–9.. Art GalleryA pavilion built in 1909–12contains a collection ofEuropean and Polish paintingsdating from about 1850 to theearly 20th century, includingworks by Jacek Malczewskiand Jan Matejko.FrenchGardenThe Frenchgarden at thepalace’s rear iselevated at one endto provide a viewof the grounds.. PalaceThe main building of the late Baroque palace was given amore fashionable Neo-Classical character by the additionof curving colonnades.RocococlockRaczyński Palace, Rogalin 4The entrancecourtyard isapproached by atree-lined drive andflanked by coachhouses and stables. Italso has riding stableson the northeast side.STAR FEATURES. Palace. Art Gallery
  • 194. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 1 3The Coach HouseBuilt with the stables in around1801, the coach house wascommissioned by Filip Raczyński.The Oaks of RogalinRogalin park contains one of thelargest protected oak woodlandsin Europe. The three largest treesstand in the meadow off thepark’s main avenue.Staff cottagesMausoleum ChapelDesigned in the style of aclassical temple and built in1817–20, the mausoleumchapel contains the tombs ofprominent members of theRaczyński family.Bridge and GatewayA three-arched bridge and awrought-iron gateway openonto the entrance courtyard.Riding schoolStableStaff cottagesVISITORS’ CHECKLISTŚwiątniki nad Wartą, ul.Arciszewskiego 21. Road mapC3. Palace Museum Tel 061813 80 30. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (to 6pm Sun and May–Oct).& www.free.art.pl/rogalin
  • 195. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 1 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4P Działyński PalaceStary Rynek 78. Tel 061 852 09 50.www.bkpn.poznan.plThe palace was built in the late18th century for WładysławGurowski, Grand Marshal ofLithuania. The elegant Neo-Classical façade is crownedwith a large eagle and set withfigures of Roman soldiers madeby Anton Höhne in 1785–7.It is worth going inside tosee the columned Red Roomupstairs. The building is nowused as a library, theatre,exhibition and concert hall.R Church of the Heartof Jesusul. Szewska 18.Tel 061 852 50 76 or 853 33 59.The Church of the Heartof Jesus (Kościół SercaJezusowego), built in the13th century, is the oldestchurch in the old town. Itwas a Dominican church until1920, when it passed to theJesuits. During the Germanoccupation in World War II,a repository was set up herefor Polish books removedfrom the libraries of Poznań.Poznań is the capital of Wielkopolska and its largestcity. A stronghold by the name of Polan stood herein the 8th century, and in the 10th century it was thecapital of the emerging Polish state. In 968 it becamethe seat of the first bishopric in Poland. Poznań hasmany historic buildings, the finest of which are thecathedral and those in the old town. A visit to the late19th-century quarter is also rewarding. Today Poznańis Poland’s second financial centre after Warsaw and amajor centre of commerce. Annual trade fairs attendedby producers and traders from all over the world havebeen held here since 1921.Poznań 5The Old Market Square in PoznańP Old Market SquareThe Old Market Square(Stary Rynek) is the heartof the old town. It issurrounded by town houseswith colourful façades, amongwhich stands the Renaissancetown hall. The ground floorsof the buildings around thesquare are filled mainlyby banks, cafés andrestaurants, and thestreets leadingoff the squarecontainelegant shops.From spring toautumn thesquare bustleswith life, andthe outdoorcafés withtheir tablesand colourfulsunshades arepermanentlybusy. Localartists displaytheir paintings,while children play onthe steps of the town hall.The square is also a venuefor cultural events.Some of the houses in theOld Market Square weredestroyed during the battlesfor Poznań in 1945, andwere rebuilt after WorldWar II, but others escapedserious damage. They includeMielżyński Palace, whichdates from 1796–8, andDziałyński Palace, bothin the Neo-Classical style.Interior of the former DominicanChurch of the Heart of Jesus
  • 196. P O Z N A Ń 2 1 5CENTRAL POZNAŃChurch of the Heart of Jesus 1Church of Saints MaryMagdalene and Stanisław 5Działyński Palace 3Franciscan Church 6National Museum 8Old Market Square 2Przemysław Castle 7Raczyński Library 9Town Hall 4The Great Hall, orRenaissance Hall, on the firstfloor was lavishly decoratedto reflect the affluence of thecity’s municipal leaders. Thecoffered ceiling is coveredwith an intricate series ofpaintings. Other importantcollections can be seen inthe Royal Hall and the Court-room. The centrepiece ofthe Old Market Square is theBaroque Proserpine Fountainof 1766, depicting the abduc-tion of the ancient Romanfertility goddess Proserpineby Pluto, ruler of the under-world. Nearby stands a copyof a stone pillory of 1535 anda 20th-century fountain withthe figure of a Bamberka, apeasant woman from thePoznań area (see p216). Itcommemorates the Catholicsettlers who were sent toPoznań at the beginningof the 18th century fromBamberg, in southernGermany. Soon they becamePolonized, although manyof the city’s inhabitants stillclaim to be descendants ofthe Bamberg settlers.P Town HallStary Rynek 1. Museum of theHistory of Poznań Tel 061 856 8193. # 9am–3pm Tue–Thu, noon–9pm Fri, 11am–6pm Sat & Sun.& (free on Sat). www.mnp.art.plPoznań’s town hall is one ofthe finest municipal buildingsin Europe. It was built in1550–60 by the Italianarchitect Giovanni Battista diQuadro. The façade has threetiers of arcades, topped by agrand attic and a large towerand decorated with portraitsof the kings of Poland.The greatest tourist attrac-tion is the clock tower, whereat noon each day two clock-work goats emerge fromdoors 12 times to butt heads.R Church of Saints MaryMagdalene and Stanisławul. Gołębia 1.Tel 061 852 69 50.Construction work on thisBaroque church, which wasoriginally built for use as aJesuit chapel, began in 1651and continued for more than50 years. Several architects,craftsmen and artists had arole in this extended project,among them TomassoPoncino, BartołomiejWąsowski and Jan Catenaci.The most impressive aspectof the church is probably itsmonolithic interior. Giganticcolumns along the walls leadthe eye towards theilluminated high altar, whichwas designed and constructedin 1727 by Pompeo Ferrari.The Baroque buildings ofa former Jesuit monasteryand college stand close tothe church. They were builtfor the brotherhood in1701–33. Today, however,they are used for secularbusiness by the membersof Poznań’s town council.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad Map C3. * 560,000.£ Dworzec Główny.Tel 061 94 36. k ul. Bukowska283/285. Tel 061 849 22 51.n Stary Rynek 59 (061 852 6156). ( Poznań InternationalTrade Fair (Jun). _ MaltaInternational Theatre Festival(Jun); St Martin’s Day (11 Nov).www.poznan.plThe Renaissance town hall, with itsthree tiers of loggiasKey to Symbols see back flapThe façade of Działyński Palace0 m0 yds250250
  • 197. Poznań holds much of interest beyondthe old town. The Bernadine church inPlac Bernardyński has a remarkablynarrow twin-towered façade built inthe 18th century by Jan Steyner. Itis matched by the former LutheranChurch of the Holy Cross (Kościół śwKrzyża), dating from 1777–83. Walkingtowards the main railway station, yougo through the town centre and acrossPlac Wolności, a square lined withshops and banks, then following Ulica św Marcina,where the old Kaiser’s palace is located. The trade fairarea can be seen on the other side of the railway.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 1 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4The somewhat severe Neo-Renaissance façade of the National MuseumP Raczyński Librarypl. Wolności 19. Tel 061 852 94 42.# 9am–7pm Mon–Fri.www.bracz.edu.plWith its façade of columns,the Raczyński Librarycombines grandeur withelegance, and cannot becompared with any otherbuilding in Poznań. The ideafor a library was initiated byCount Edward Raczyński in1829. The aim of this visionaryaristocrat was to turn Poznańinto a “New Athens”; thelibrary was to be a centreof culture and “a shrine ofknowledge”. Although thelibrary’s architect isunknown, it is thoughtto have been built bythe French architectsand designers CharlesPercier and PierreFontaine. A seated figure ofHygeia, the ancient Greekgoddess of health, with thefeatures of Konstancja zPotockich, wife of EdwardRaczyński, was installed infront of the library in 1906.Another element of the“New Athens” of Poznań wasto be a gallery (now non-existent) for the outstandingart collection owned byEdward Raczyński’s brother,Atanazy (see p212).the canvases of JacekMalczewski (1854–1929). TheGallery of European Art,which is housed in a newmodern wing of the museum,contains works from variouscollections, including that ofAtanazy Raczyński, brotherof the philanthropist CountEdward Raczyński (see p212).The most outstanding are byDutch and Flemish paintersincluding Joos van Cleveand Quentin Massys. Italian,French and Spanish paintersare also represented.+ Przemysław CastleGóra Przemysła 1. Museum ofApplied Art Tel 061 856 81 86.# 9am–3pm Tue–Thu, noon–9pmFri, 11am–6pm Sat & Sun. & (freeon Sat). www.mnp.art.plLittle remains of the castlebuilt by Przemysław II in the13th century. The reconstruct-ed castle that now stands onthe site houses the Museumof Applied Art, which holds acollection of everyday objects,decorative artifacts and reli-gious items dating from theMiddle Ages to the present.The Baroque Franciscan churchon Ulica Góra Przemysładates from the early 18thcentury. Frescoes by theFranciscan painter AdamSwach decorate the nave.building of 1900–1903. Itscollections of Polish paintingare among the best in Poland.The Gallery of Polish Artincludes medieval art of the12th to 16th centuries and17th to 18th-century coffinportraits (see p29). The bestexamples of painting of theYoung Poland movement areExploring PoznańBamberka statuein PoznańE National Museumal. Marcinkowskiego 9. Tel 061 85680 00. # 9am–3pm Tue–Thu, noon–9pm Fri, 11am–6pm Sat & Sun.& (free on Sat). www.mnp.art.plThe National Museum ishoused in what was originallythe Prussian FriedrichMuseum, a Neo-RenaissanceStatue of Hygeia, Greek goddess of health,outside the Raczyński LibraryP Former Kaiser DistrictAfter the Second Partitionof Poland in 1793, Poznańcame under Prussian rule. Inthe second half of the 19thcentury, Prussia heightenedits policy of Germanizationin Wielkopolska. One ofits instruments was theDeutscher Ostmarkenverein(“German Union of theEastern Marches”), which the
  • 198. THE POZNAŃ TRADE FAIRThe trade fair area is in the city centre, the main entrancelying opposite Dworcowy Bridge. The PoznańInternational Trade Fair has been held here every yearsince 1921. It takes place in June, and for its duration thesurrounding area is filled with an international throng ofbusinessmen. If you visit at this time you will find thatthe local cafés and restaurants are often full and hotelaccommodation can beextremely hard to come by.The symbol of the TradeFair is a steel needle erectedover the lower part of theUpper Silesian Tower in1955, the main part havingbeen destroyed duringWorld War II. When thetower was built in 1911, toa design by Hans Poelzig, itwas considered by admiringcritics to be a masterpieceof modern architecture inreinforced concrete.P O Z N A Ń 2 1 7The needle rising over thePoznań International Trade FairPoles called the “Hakata”colonization commission fromthe acronym of the initials ofits founders. When the city’sring of 19th-century fortifi-cations was demolished, adecision was made to use thenew space for governmentbuildings. Designed by theGerman town planner JosefStübben, they were built in1903–14 and today standamid gardens, squares andavenues, with a theatre, thecolonization commission, apost office and the royalacademy (now theuniversity). Dominating thescene is the Kaiserhaus,designed by FranzSchwechten. The castle wasrebuilt by the Germans, butlittle survives of its originalsplendour apart from amarble imperial throne andthe décor of some of therooms. The chairs from theGreat Hall are now in theSejm (parliament) in Warsaw.Today the Kaiserhausaccommodates the KaiserhausCultural Centre.Beside it, in PlacMickiewicza, stands theMonument to the Victims ofJune 1956, which takes theform of two large crosses.The monument was unveiledin 1981 to commemorate theviolent suppression of theworkers’ uprising in Poznańin 1956 (see p52).Hill of St AdalbertThe hill is said to be thespot where, 1,000 years ago,St Adalbert gave a sermonbefore setting off on hiscampaign to evangelize thePrussians. On the summit twochurches face each otheracross a small square. Oneis the Discalced Carmelites’Church of St Joseph, built byCristoforo Bonadura the Elderand Jan Catenaci in 1658–67.It contains the tomb of MikołajJan Skrzetuski, who died in1668 and on whom HenrykSienkiewicz (see p25) basedthe hero of his historical sagaWith Fire and Sword.The other is the smallGothic Church of St Adalbert,forming a pantheon withpractically the same functionas the Pauline Church on theRock in Cracow (see p143).In the crypt are the remainsof great figures in the historyof Wielkopolska. Theyinclude Józef Wybicki (1747–1822), who wrote the Polishnational anthem, and theAustralian traveller andscientist Paweł EdmundStrzelecki (1797–1873). Astriking contrast to the restof the building is the ultra-modern glass, concrete andstainless steel entrance to thecrypt, which was designedby Jerzy Gurawski in 1997.The modern entrance to the cryptof the Church of St AdalbertThe Opera, built in 1910, is flanked by statues of lionsMonument to the Victims ofJune 1956
  • 199. Poznań CathedralThe first church, a pre-Romanesque basilica, was built inPoznań in 966, shortly after Poland adopted Christianity,and the first rulers of Poland were buried there. In1034–8 the basilica was destroyed during paganuprisings and the campaign of the Czechprince Brzetysław. It was thencompletely rebuilt in theRomanesque style. It wasremodelled in the Gothicand Baroque periods,and after suffering wardamage was restored toits earlier Gothic form.Vestiges of the pre-Romanesque andRomanesque churchescan be seen in the crypt.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 1 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4Tomb of theGórka FamilyThe tomb of theGórkas, a prominentWielkopolska family,was made in theChapel of the HolyCross by GirolamoCanavesi in 1574.Coffin PortraitThe cathedral hasa display of theseportraits, which wereused during funeralceremonies inthe 17th and18th centuries.High AltarThe late Gothic polyptych on thehigh altar was probably carved inthe workshop of Jacob Beinhart in Wrocław andpainted in the Pasje studio of Upper Silesia.It was brought to the cathedral in 1952.Main entranceSTAR FEATURES. Golden Chapel. Tomb of BishopBenedykt Izdbieński
  • 200. P O Z N A Ń 2 1 9. Tomb of BishopBenedykt IzdbieńskiThe tomb was made byJan Michałowicz ofUrzędów, the mostcelebrated sculptorof the PolishRenaissance, in1557–62.. Golden ChapelThe chapel, built in1834–41, contains the tombsof two of Poland’s first rulers,Mieszko I and Bolesław theBrave. Their statues werecarved by Chrystian Rauch.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTOstrów Tumski. Tel 061 852 9642 or 856 04 54. # Mar–Oct:9am–6pm Mon–Sat, 2–6pmSun; Nov–Feb: 9am–4pmMon–Sat, 2–6pm Sun.Ostrów Tumski IslandOstrów Tumski Island is theoldest part of Poznań. In the10th century it was the siteof one of the first capitalcities of the Polish state.Today the island isdominated by the Gothictowers of the cathedral,which contains many fineworks of art. Near thecathedral stands the smallGothic Church of St Mary(Kościół halowy NMP),which was built in the years1431–48 for Bishop AndrzejBniński by Hanusz Prusz, apupil of the notable latemedieval architect HeinrichBrunsberg.Also of interest is theLubrański Academy, thefirst institute of highereducation to be establishedin Poznań. It was founded in1518 by Bishop JanLubrański. Behind itsinconspicuous façade lies asmall arcaded Renaissancecourtyard. The academyacquired its greatest renownin the early 16th century. Oneof its alumni was Jan Struś, ascientist and a prominentphysician during the yearsof the Polish Renaissance.In the gardens on the otherside of Ulica ks. l. Podsadzegostand a number of canons’and vicars’ houses which arecharming in appearance – if alittle neglected. One of themcontains the collections of theArchdiocesan Museum.The late Gothic Psalter,which was built in around1520 by Bishop JanLubrański, is another ofOstrów Tumski Island’snotable buildings. Its finestepped and recessed gablesare enclosed by ogee arches.E Archdiocesan Museumul. Lubrańskiego 1. Tel 061 852 6195. # 10am–5pm Tue–Fri, 9am–3pm Sat. ¢ public hols. & 8The superb collection ofreligious art on display inthe Archdiocesan Museumincludes examples ofmedieval painting andsculpture, pieces of Gothicembroidery and some finekontusz sashes (see pp28–9).The most important piecesin the museum are probablythe Madonna of Ołobok, aRomanesque-Gothic statuedating from about 1310–29,and a fascinating group ofcoffin portraits (see p29).Gothic Church of St Mary, with the cathedral in the backgroundArcaded courtyard of LubrańskiAcademy
  • 201. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 2 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4Reconstructed fortifications of the Iron Age lake settlement in BiskupinBiskupin wRoad Map C3. * 320. @n 052 302 50 55. # summer:8am–6pm daily; winter: 8am–duskdaily. & _ Archaeology Gala (Sep).www.biskupin.plThe remains of a 2,500-year-old Iron Age fortifiedsettlement can be seen on anisland in Lake Biskupinskie.The settlement was builtentirely of wood and wasinhabited for about 150 yearsby people of the Lusatianculture. It was surroundedby a stockade and a wallof earth and wood 6 m(18 ft) high. Access wasover a bridge and through agateway. The wall enclosedmore than 100 houses built in13 terraces, and the streetswere paved with wood. Thepopulation was about 1,000.When the water level rose,the lake flooded the housesand covered the settlementwith a layer of silt, so that thesite was abandoned. It wasrediscovered in 1934 by a localteacher, Walenty Szwajcer. It isthe earliest known settlementin Poland and one of themost interesting prehistoricsites in the whole of Europe.Some of the buildings havebeen reconstructed and thereare pens with small ponies,goats and sheep similar tothose that the inhabitantswould have raised. Theannual Archaeology Galafeatures exhibitions – of IronAge hairstyles and archery,for example – and workshopswhere artifacts are made byprehistoric methods.Gułtowy 8Road Map C3. * 990. £ @Tel 061 852 61 56.# by appointment only.The pretty Baroque and Neo-Classical palace at Gułtowywas built in 1779–83 forIgnacy Bniński to a designby an unknown architectand subsequently alteredby Ignacy Graff. The moststriking feature of its interioris the two-tiered ballroomdecorated with delicatetrompe l’oeil paintingsdating from about 1800.where Poland is believed tohave adopted Christianity.In the 10th century a fortifiedtown stood on the island,surrounded by earth rampartsenclosing the earliest knownChristian buildings in Poland.Archaeologists haveuncovered the foundations ofa rotunda and a rectangularhall identified as a baptisteryand palace. The remains of achurch were also found.The town is assumed tohave been the seat of thePiasts (see pp38–9). Thebaptism of Poland, bywhich the country adoptedChristianity, is believed tohave taken place in thisbaptistery in 966.E Museum of the First PiastsLednogóra. Tel 061 427 50 10. #15 Feb–14 Apr: 9am–3pmTue–Sun (from 10am Sun); 15–30Apr & Jul– Oct: 9am–5pm Tue–Sun(from 10am Sun); May & Jun:9am–6pm Tue–Sun (from 10amSun). ¢ 1 Nov–14 Feb. &www.lednicamuzeum.plCzerniejewo 9Road Map C3. * 2,600.£ 4.5 km (3 miles). @Palace Hotel Tel 061 427 30 30.www.czerniejewo.plCzerniejewo has one ofthe finest Neo-Classicalpalaces in Wielkopolska. Itwas built for General JanLipski in 1771–80, and themonumental four-columnedportico was added in 1789–91. Situated in a large parkand connected to the townby a wide scenic avenue, itmakes a grand impression.Within, the unusual circularballroom is probably its finestfeature. Today the palaceis a hotel, a restaurant anda conference venue.Ostrów Lednicki 0Road Map C3. @ £g concides with opening hoursfor the Museum of the Firsts Piasts.¢ 1 Nov–14 Feb.The small island in LakeLednickie has specialsignificance as the placeGniezno qSee pp222–3.Façade of the Baroque and Neo-Classical palace in Gułtowy
  • 202. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 2 1Lubostroń eRoad Map C3. * 790. @ Tel 052384 46 23. www.palac-lubostron.plIn 1795–1800 Fryderyk JózefSkórzewski, a landowner,commissioned StanisławZawadzki to build a palacein the Neo-Classical stylehere. It has a square floorplan with a central rotundaand columned porticos on allfour sides, and is an outstand-ing imitation of the VillaRotonda built in Vicenza, Italy,by the Italian Renaissancearchitect Andrea Palladio.Lubostroń Palace has arather severe and monu-mental appearance, but itsinterior is one of the finestsurviving examples of PolishNeo-Classical architecture. Itis decorated with a bas-reliefdepicting the history of theWielkopolska region.The palace is set in land-scaped grounds which datefrom about 1800. Today itis used for conferences andalso has guest rooms for hire.RomanesqueArchitecture Tour rSee pp224–5.Ląd tRoad Map C3. * 530. @Ląd was settled byCistercian monks after 1193.The monastery retainsa number of Romanesqueand Gothic buildings, oneof which contains a Gothicfresco of about 1372commemoratingthe benefactors ofthe church. TheBaroque church isconsiderably later.The twin-toweredfaçade by GiuseppeSimone Belloti doesnot do justice to theornately decoratednave, which wasbuilt in 1730–33.Commissioned bythe abbot MikołajA. Łukomski,Pompeo Ferraridesigned a singleinterior space covered by alarge dome rising to a heightof 36 m (119 ft); the paintingsby Georg Wilhelm Neunhertzdepict the Church Fathersduring the land seizures andgive visual expression to themethods by which theCounter-Reformation wouldtriumph in Poland: byteaching and persuasionrather than by militancy.EnvironsIn Ciążeń, 5 km (3 miles) westof Poznań, is a late Baroquebishop’s palace, now ownedby Poznań University Library.Nadwarciański NatureReserve nearby is one of theworld’s most scenic refugesfor wading and aquatic birds.Interior of the Baroque churchin Ląd Śmiełów yRoad Map C3. @The Neo-Classical palacein Śmiełów, built by StanisławZawadzki for AndrzejOstroróg Gorzeński in1797, is associated withthe Romantic poet AdamMickiewicz, who stayed herein 1831, hoping to cross intothe annexed part of thecountry where the NovemberInsurrection against Russianrule was taking place.His plan failed, but thepalace at Śmiełów, with itsfine landscaped grounds,became the backdrop toMickiewicz’s love forKonstanta Łubieńska. Today,fittingly, the palace housesthe Adam MickiewiczMuseum, dedicated to thepoet’s life and works andcontaining exhibits fromthe age of Romanticism.E Adam MickiewiczMuseumŻerków.Tel 062 740 31 64.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun.& (free on Sat).Lubostroń Palace viewed from the courtyardNeo-Classical palace in Śmiełów, today the Adam Mickiewicz Museum
  • 203. Gniezno qThe 14th-century Gothic Cathedralof the Assumption (ArchikatedraWniebowzięcia NMP) stands on the site oftwo earlier churches. The first was a pre-Romanesque church built some time after970, and the second a Romanesque churchdating from the mid–11th century. WhenPrincess Dąbrowka, wife of Mieszko I, wasburied here in 977, Gniezno was the firstcapital of the Polonians. Its importanceincreased further when in 997 the relics ofSt Adalbert were laid in the church. From1025 to the 14th century Poland’s royalrulers were crowned in the cathedral.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 2 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4PotockiChapelThe chapel ofArchbishopTeodor Potockiwas built byPompeo Ferrariin 1727–30.It is decoratedwith Baroquepaintings byMathiasJohannesMayer.. Tomb ofArchbishopZbigniewOleśnickiThis tomb wascarved in redmarble by the lateGothic sculptor VeitStoss in 1495.. Bronze DoorsThe bronze doors of the cathedral,made in the late 12th century anddepicting scenes from the life andmartyrdom of St Adalbert, areamong the finest examples ofRomanesque art in Europe.Baroque towerswerereconstructedafter theoriginals of 1779.
  • 204. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 2 3E Gniezno ArchdiocesanMuseumul. Kolegiaty 2. Tel 061 426 37 78.# May–Sep: 9am–5:30pmTue–Sun; Oct–Apr: 9am–3pm Tue–Sat. & (free forclergy).This is an interestingmuseum containingvarious works ofreligious art,including anumber ofartifacts from thecathedral treasury.STAR FEATURES. Bronze Doors. Tomb of ArchbishopZbigniew OleśnickiNaveThe arcades separating thenave from the aisles haverich sculptural decorationmade from artificial stoneand dating from the secondhalf of the 14th century.ST ADALBERTSt Adalbert (St Wojciech in Polish) was a bishop fromPrague. In 977, at the suggestion of Bolesław the Brave,he left Poland for the heathen lands of Prussia, where heconverted the inhabitants to Christianity but was martyred.Bolesław bought the saint’s body from the Prussians,giving them in return its weight in gold, and laid theremains in Gniezno.Pope Sylvester IIacknowledged thebishop’s martyrdom andcanonized him.In 1038, when theCzech prince Brzetysławinvaded the city, thecathedral was sackedand the saint’s relicstaken to Prague.OriginalGothicarcheshave beenpreserved inthe aislesand theambulatory.Shrine of St AdalbertThe silver casket,made in 1662 byPeter van derRennen, containsa box withthe relics ofSt Adalbert.Visitors’entranceVISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad Map C3. * 68,400. £@ n ul. Rynek 14 (061 428 4100). Cathedral ul. Łaskiego 9.Tel 061 424 13 89.# 9am–6pm. ¢ services,noon–1pm. = 8Bronze Doors & 8www.gniezno.euExploring GnieznoBesides its magnificentcathedral, Gniezno has manyhistoric buildings and finemuseums, making for apleasant walk around thecity. Gniezno ArchdiocesanMuseum, next to thecathedral, contains religiousartifacts, including paintings,sculpture, textiles and coffinportraits (see p29). A smartstreet leads off the MarketSquare to the Gothic Churchof St John (Kościół św Jana),which has 14th-centurymurals. It is hard to imaginethat this small town was oncethe capital of the Polishnation. The history of the cityis told in the Museum of theOrigins of the Polish State, inPiast Park. In the park arethe remains of a late medievalfortified town.E Museum ofthe Originsof the PolishStateul. Kostrzewskiego1. Tel 061 426 4641. # 10am–5pmTue–Sun. & (free on Sun). d 8www.mppp.plThis interesting archaeologicalmuseum documents the earlyhistory of the town ofGniezno, as well as theperiod when it was thecapital of Poland.Baptism of the Prussians, a scenefrom the cathedral doorsMonument toBolesław the Brave
  • 205. Romanesque Architecture Tour rSadly, few buildings survive inWielkopolska from the earliest daysof the Polish nation in the 10th century.For hundreds of years most building inPoland was in wood, and more durablebrick or stone architecture was rare. A tourof pre-Romanesque and Romanesquebuildings in Wielkopolska might start atGniezno, then take in Trzemeszno andMogilno. The finest Romanesquearchitecture in Poland is to be found inStrzelno – examples are the Rotunda ofSt Procopius and the Church of theHoly Trinity, with its remarkableRomanesque pillars. Another town of interest isKruszwica, setting for the legend of King Popieland home to the “Mouse Tower” of that tale.For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 2 4Mogilno 3The Benedictine church probably datesfrom the 11th century. After manyphases of rebuilding it finally acquireda Baroque façade, although manyRomanesque elements remain, inparticular the crypt.Trzemeszno 2In the 12th centuryan order ofAugustinian canonsregular settled hereon the site of a pre-Romanesque basilicaand Benedictinemonastery that hadbeen demolished in1038. In 1782–91 thechurch was rebuilt inthe Baroque style.Strzelno 4The Rotunda of St Procopiusin Strzelno dates from theturn of the 13th century. Inthe Church of the HolyTrinity 12th-centurycarvings, discovered in1946, depictpersonifications ofthe virtues and vicesof Christian tradition.Romanesquecolumn inStrzelnoGniezno 1By the 14th century, Gniezno’sRomanesque church had beenreplaced by a Gothic cathedral, butthe bronze doors of the earlierbuilding survive (see pp222–3).
  • 206. W I E L K O P L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 2 5Inowrocław 5The most historic building in this healthresort is the Church of Our Lady, dating fromthe turn of the 13th century, built in the timeof the dukes of Inowrocław.Lake Gopło 7This narrow lake is surroundedmostly by marshy meadows.It is home to many birds,including bitterns, marshharriers, lapwings andwild geese.THE LEGEND OF KING POPIELThe legend of King Popiel was recordedin the early 12th century by Gall Anonim,the first Polish chronicler. Accordingto the legend, Siemowit Piast, founderof the Piast dynasty, was a peasantfrom Kruszwica. ThePolonians, terrifiedby the atrocitiescommitted by theirking, Popiel, decidedto depose him andchose Siemowit Piastas his successor.Popiel fled to histower but the rebelsturned into mice anddevoured him. TheGothic toweroverlooking LakeGopło in Kruszwica is called the “MouseTower” but was in fact built in the 14thcentury, a few hundred years after theseevents were said to have taken place.The Mouse TowerKruszwica 6Kruszwica was briefly the seat of abishopric and the mid-12th-centuryChurch of St Peter may well have beenits cathedral. The shell and the interiorof the church are built of graniteashlars, which remarkably survivealmost in their original state.TIPS FOR DRIVERSTour length: About 100 km(60 miles).Stopping-off points: Everytown mentioned has restaurantsand cafés as well asaccommodation available. Thereis a tourist hostel in Strzelno.KEYTour routeOther roadViewpoint0 km0 miles55
  • 207. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 2 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4Castle in Gołuchów, home of the Działyński familyGołuchów uRoad Map C4. * 1,500. @www.goluchow.plThe castle at Gołuchów looksas if it belongs in the LoireValley, in France, alongsidethe other Renaissancechâteaux for which thatregion is celebrated. Althoughthe castle at Gołuchów wasbuilt in the mid-16th to 17thcenturies, its present exteriordates only from 1872–85,commissioned by the owners,Izabella Czartoryska and herhusband, Jan Działyński.Izabella was the daughter ofAdam Czartoryski, a Polishémigré leader in Paris, andwas educated in France; herwish was to turn the residenceinto a “paradise on earth”according to her own tastes.She also built a museum thatwas open to the public. Initialplans for the renovation of thecastle were made in around1871 by the French architectEugène Viollet-le-Duc. Therest of the castle was designedby his son-in-law, MauriceAugust Ouradou, after plansby Polish architects. Todaythe castle museum containsEuropean and Oriental worksKalisz iRoad Map C4. * 108,000.@ £ n ul. Garbarska 2 (062764 21 84). _ Theatre Festival(May); International Jazz Festival(Nov–Dec). www.kalisz.plKalisz, a settlement on theamber route between theBaltic Sea and Rome, hasancient origins. It ismentioned as Calisia byPtolemy in his Geographyof AD 142–7. However, atown did not grow up hereuntil the 13th century, andit did not really developuntil the 15th century, whenKalisz became a provincialcapital. During the Partitionsof Poland, Kalisz was thefurthest outpost of theRussian empire. In 1914,just after the start of WorldWar I, it was severelybombarded by Prussianartillery. Its rebuildingbegan in 1917, and thepresent city centre, withtown houses surroundingthe Market Square, the townhall and the BogusławskiTheatre, dates from that time.A substantial number ofearlier buildings survive.These include the GothicCathedral of St Nicholas(Katedra św Mikołaja), thelate Baroque collegiateChurch of the Assumption(Kościół WniebowzięciaNMP), and the neighbouringMannerist church, formerly aJesuit college. The group ofBernadine monasteries andof art from the collection ofthe Działyński family.E Castle Museumul. Działyńskich 2. Tel 062 76150 94. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun(May–Sep: to 5pm). & (free onTue). - 6 www.mnp.art.plEnvironsIn Dobryczy, 23 km (14 miles)to the west of Gołuchów, isthe Neo-Classical residenceof Augustyn Gorzeński, afreemason, built in 1798–9.Bernadine church in Kalisz
  • 208. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 2 7Antonin oRoad Map C4. * 320. @ £_ Chopin Festival (Sep).When Duke AntoniRadziwiłł asked KarlFriedrich Schinkel to buildhim a hunting lodge, itwas an unusual commissionfor the architect. The smalllarchwood building,dating from 1822–4,has a cruciformplan and anoctagonal centre.The octagonal hallis surrounded bygalleries supportedby a large centralpillar. It was herethat, in 1827,Frédéric Chopintaught Wanda,Duke Radziwiłł’sdaughter, with whom hefell in love. Unfortunately,the piano on which thegreat composer playedwas chopped up forfirewood by soldiers of theRed Army who were billetedin the lodge. It now housesa Centre for Culture andArt, and is the venue forconcerts and festivals inhonour of Chopin, as wellas hunting balls.P Centre for Cultureand ArtPałac Myśliwski. Tel 062 734 81 14.# 7am–10pm daily.PiotrkówTrybunalski pRoad Map D4. * 80,000. £ @n pl. Czarnieckiego 10 (044 64770 52). www.piotrkow.plBefore the partition of Poland,this was the town wheresessions of the royal court andparliament were held, andafter 1578 it was the seatof the Crown Tribunal. Thetown flourished and manymagnificent churches bearwitness to those times. AboveTribunal Square (RynekTrybunalski) rises the bricktower and Baroque roof ofthe Gothic Parish Church ofSt Jacob. Synods and officialceremonies were conductedhere. The large Jesuit church,dating from 1695–1727,contains remarkable trompel’oeil paintings by AndrzejAhorn, himself a Jesuit anda self-taught painter. Thescheme includes apainting of a monklooking into thechurch through apainted grille. Otherinteresting churchesinclude the Piaristchurch andmonastery, now aProtestant church,a 17th-centuryDominicanmonasterycomplex andthe former Dominican Churchof Saints Jacek and Dorothy(Kościół św Jacka i Doroty),with Rococo interior.Sulejów aRoad Map D4. * 6,300. @www.sulejow.plIn 1177 a Cistercian abbeywas founded here byKazimierz the Just. The churchwas consecrated in 1232. It isin the Romanesque-Gothicstyle and has remained almostunaltered across the centuries,although the interior doescontain Baroque altars andpaintings in the same style.The Romanesque portal inthe west front bears what aresaid to be sword marks madeby knights who in 1410 wentto war with the TeutonicKnights. The monastery fellinto ruin, although theremaining parts of it have beenrenovated and are now a hoteland museum. Near the abbeyis a large artificial lake made inthe 1970s on the River Pilica.It is a popular holiday spot.E Regional MuseumTel 044 616 25 84.# 9am–6pm Mon–Sat. &www.cystersi.sulejow.plAntoni Radziwiłł’s hunting lodgein Antoninthe late Renaissance Churchof the Annunciation (KościółNawiedzenia NMP) are alsoworth a visit.R Cathedral of St Nicholasul. Kanonicka 5.Tel 062 757 39 19.There is also a RegionalMuseum located in a Gothic-Renaissance castle that isessentially a large brick towerdesigned as a residence. Themost interesting part of themuseum is the exhibition ofgrand interiors of the 16thto 20th centuries.E Regional Museumpl. Zamkowy 4. Tel 044 646 52 72.# 10am–3pm Tue–Sun (to 5pm Tue,to 4pm Sat). & (free on Tue). 8R Church of St Jacobul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 1.Tel 044 646 51 40.R Jesuit churchul. Pijarska 4. Tel 044 647 01 51.EnvironsIn the village of Bralin,36 km (22 miles) north ofAntonin, is a delightfulwooden church called NaPólku, dating from 1711.Cistercian abbey in SulejówDetail from the castle inPiotrków Trybunalski
  • 209. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 2 8stands the modest Neo-Classical town hall, whichdates from 1827, when thefoundations of industrywere being laid in Łódź.The city’s cemeteries –the Catholic and Protestantcemeteries in UlicaSrebrzyńska and the Jewishcemetery in Ulica Bracka –contain some exceptionallyinteresting monuments thatbear witness to the variety ofcultures and nationalities thatexisted in Łódź before 1939,when it was a city withone of the largest Jewishpopulations in Europe. Thegrand mausoleums werebuilt for local industrialists,who before 1914 were thewealthiest people in theRussian empire.The Leopold KindermannVilla at Ulica Wólczańska31/33 is another Art Nouveaubuilding designed by GustavLandau-Gutenteger. It wasbuilt in 1902 and features fineExploring ŁódźThe city’s main thoroughfareis Ulica Piotrkowska, whichis several kilometres long.Its most important sectionstretches from Plac Wolnościto Aleje Piłudskiego. It isPoland’s longestpedestrianized street andis lined with shops, cafés,restaurants and banks.Behind the town houses,the brick factory buildingsstill stand, many of themnow converted into stores.A noteworthy example isthe one at Piotrkowska137/139, built in 1907 for thecotton manufacturer JuliuszKindermann by the architectGustav Landau-Gutenteger,and featuring a gold mosaicfrieze depicting an allegoryof trade. In Plac Wolności isThe centre of the Polish textile industry, Łódź developedat an astonishing rate as the industry thrived. Itspopulation grew from just 15,000 in 1850 to more thanhalf a million in 1914. It was a place of great contrasts,which were vividly documented in the novel ThePromised Land (1899) by the Nobel Prize-winning authorWładysław Reymont. The contrasts can still be seen inthe architecture of the city, where vast fortunes andabject poverty existed side by side. Factories and opulentmansions sprang up in their hundreds, contrasting withthe ramshackle homes of the factory workers.Łódź s VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map D4. * 753,000.£ @ Railway informationTel 042 94 36.Coach information PKSTel 042 631 97 06. n ul.Piotrowska 87 (042 638 59 55)._ Kódi Festival (c.15 May).a Monument to TadeuszKościuszko of 1930, rebuiltafter its destruction in 1939and a favourite meeting placefor the city’s youth. Beside itKey to Symbols see back flapCENTRAL ŁÓDŹŁódź Historical Museum 3Museum of Modern Art 2Town Hall 1Leopold Kindermann Villa 4Stained-glass window inPoznański Palace0 m0 yds500500
  • 210. W I E L K O P O L S K A ( G R E A T E R P O L A N D ) 2 2 9For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp305–7 and pp323–4stained-glass windows. Todayit houses an art gallery.At the turn of the 20thcentury the townscape ofŁódź was dominated by theindustrialists’ palaces. Thefinest surviving examples arethe residences of the textilefactory-owner Izrael Kalmano-wicz Poznański, at Ogrodowa15 and Gdańska 36, and aremarkable palace at PlacZwycięstwa 1 that rivals theone built by Karol Scheibler,the merchant celebrated asthe “cotton king” of Poznań.The museum containsexhibits associated with thepianists Władysław Kędraand Artur Rubinstein, whowas born in Łódź.Łęczyca dRoad map D3. * 15,400. £ @The royal castle at Łęczyca,built in 1357 by Kazimierz theGreat, was the third fortifiedbuilding to be raised in thetown. Little is known about thefirst. The second was the seatof the rulers of another duchy.The castle, with its bricktower, served as a jail forimprisoned aristocrats.The Regional Museumwithin it containsartifacts from prehistorictimes to the present.The main attractionis the unusualexhibition dedicatedto the devil Boruta,legendary guardianof the treasurehidden in thecastle’s cellar.E Regional Museumul. Zamkowa 1. Tel 024 721 24 49or 721 25 43. # May–Sep: 10am–5pm Tue–Sun (from 11am Sat &Sun); Oct–Apr: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun(to 5pm Tue, to 3pm Sat & Sun).¢ public hols. & 8EnvironsIn Tum, 3 km (2 miles) fromŁęczyca, is a splendidly pre-served Romanesque church.This granite building, conse-crated in 1161, was remodelledseveral times, but its currentform is close to its original one.It consists of a triple-navebasilica with two circular andtwo square towers and an apseat the west and east ends. Thewest apse has a remarkableRomanesque fresco of Christin Glory, painted in 1161.E Łódź Historical Museumul. Ogrodowa 15. Tel 042 654 0323. # 10am–4pm Tue & Thu, 2–6pm Wed, 11am–4pm Sat & Sun.& 8 (free on Sun). www.poznanskipalace.muzeum-lodz.plThe museum is located inPoznański Palace, beside alarge group of brick factorybuildings. Alongside thepalace stands a formerspinning mill, a vast Neo-Renaissance edifice designedby Hilary Majewski in 1876.The eclectic palace, whichhas twin cupolas, was builtin stages from 1888 onwards.Notable features of the interiorare the grand staircase, theseries of private apartments,the beautifully restoredreception rooms, and thebelle époque furniture.E Museum of Modern Artul. Więckowskiego 36.Tel 042 633 97 90. # noon–7pmTue–Sun. & (free on Thu).www.muzeumsztuki.lodz.plThe Museum of ModernArt is housed inanother of IzraelPoznański’spalaces, this onebuilt in imitationof a FlorentineRenaissancepalazzo.Besides work byPoland’s foremostmodern painters,the museum alsocontains a collectionof modern art,including works byHans Arp, Piet Mondrian,Joseph Beuys and Max Ernst.E Museum ofCinematographypl. Zwycięstwa 1. Tel 042 674 09 57.# 10am–5pm Tue, 9am–4pm Wed,Fri–Sun, 11am–6pm Thu. & (free onTue). www.kinomuzeum.plSituated in the eclectic palaceof Karol Scheibler, the muse-um contains a rich collectionof films and film posters fromthe earliest days of cinema-tography to modern times. Italso documents the works ofŁódź’s renowned film school,whose graduates include thedirectors Andrzej Wajda,Roman Polański, KrzysztofKieślowski and Jerzy Skoli-mowski, and the much-praisedcameraman Witold Sobociński.The devil Boruta atŁęczyca royal castleMoorish stove in the ScheiblerPalace, ŁódźRomanesque basilica at Tum, near Łęczyca
  • 211. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 2 3 1The Gdańsk Crane, the largest medieval port crane in EuropeGDAŃSKGdańsk is among the finest cities of northern Europe, distin-guished by beautiful buildings and a history that stretchesback more than 1,000 years. For many centuries the wealth-iest city in Poland, it was in 1939 the place where the first shots ofWorld War II were fired. The end of the conflict brought destruction,but Gdańsk recovered as settlers moved in from other parts of Poland.View of the main town of GdańskThe earliest mention ofGdańsk occurs in 997. Formore than 300 years itwas the capital of a Slavduchy in Pomerania, andin 1308 it was taken overby the Teutonic Knights.Under their rule, the city grew.In 1361 Gdańsk became a memberof the Hanseatic League (a tradeassociation of Baltic towns), furtherbolstering its economic development.From 1466 until the Second Partitionin 1793, the city belonged to Poland;it was the country’s largest Balticport and an important centre of thegrain and timber trade betweenPoland and the rest of Europe.A wealthy city, Gdańsk played a piv-otal role in the Polish Republic (seep42). It also became a major centre ofthe arts – goldsmiths fashioned finejewellery for the royal courtsof Europe, and the city’sgemstone and amber work-shops won great renown.From 1793 it was incorpo-rated into Prussia, onlybecoming a free city underthe Treaty of Versailles afterWorld War I. It was almosttotally destroyed during World WarII, but a post-war rebuilding pro-gramme has restored many of thecity’s finest buildings and much of itshistoric atmosphere.Today Gdańsk, attractively setbetween the coast and wooded hills,is renowned for its mercantile tradi-tions and its openness to the world.Together with the coastal resort ofSopot and the port of Gdynia (seep263), it forms the conurbationknown as Trójmiasto (“the Tri-city”).
  • 212. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 3 2Exploring GdańskThe most important buildings in terms of thehistory of Gdańsk are to be found in the citycentre, which can be reached by takinga bus or tram to the Main Station (DworzecGłówny), the Highland Gate (Brama Wyżynna)or the Podwale Przedmiejskie, and continuingon foot from there. The bus, tram or urbanrailway (SKM) are all useful for travelling tooutlying parts of the city. You can also take theSKM to reach Oliwa in the northwest, whichhas a fine group of cathedral buildings, oneof which contains a famous organ, and agood park for walking.View of Ulica Długie Pobrzeże on the River MotławaGETTING THEREGdańsk has good transportlinks. There are rail servicesto and from all the majorcities in Poland – the expresstrain from Warsaw takes justover 4 hours. There is aninternational airport atRębiechowo, near Gdańsk. Itis also easy to reach Gdańskby car, whether from Warsaw(route E77), central Poland(route E75), Szczecin (routeE28) or Berlin (route 22).KEYStreet-by-Street mapSee pp234–5Street-by-Street mapSee pp240–41ParkingTourist informationRailway stationPier0 m0 yds300300
  • 213. G D A Ń S K 2 3 3LOCATOR MAPChurch of St CatherineSIGHTS AT A GLANCEMuseums and GalleriesCentral Maritime Museump245 dNational Museum p247 hChurchesChurch of St Bridget 5Church of St Catherine 4Church of St Mary pp238–9 9Church of the Holy Trinity gOliwa Cathedral pp248–9 jHistoric BuildingsArsenal qArtus Court pGdańsk Crane 7Golden Gate rGolden House aGreat Mill 3Green Gate sHighland Gate wMain Town Hall iMonument to theShipyard Workers 1Old Town Hall 2Polish Post Office 6Prison Tower eRoyal Chapel 0St George’s Court tUphagen House uMajor Streets and DistrictsDługi Targ oSpichlerze Island fUlica Długa yUlica Mariacka 8Westerplatte kWisłoujście Fortress lSEE ALSO• Where to Stay p307.• Restaurants and Bars pp324–5.KoszalinSzczecinGDAŃSK
  • 214. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 3 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5Street-by-Street: Along Raduna CanalDespite wartime destruction, some fine buildings havesurvived on either side of the Raduna Canal. It was dug inabout 1338, one of the greatest projects undertaken by theTeutonic Knights in Gdańsk, and for many centuries it wasof great importance to the city’s economy. Thecurrent in the canal was used to supply power forlocal mills, grindstones and a sawmill. Among thebuildings look out for the Mannerist-style House ofthe Abbots of Pelplin, the Great Mill, which datesfrom the rule of the Teutonic Knights, and theenormous churches of St Catherine and St Bridget.. Great MillToday thismedievalbrick millhousesa modernshoppingcentre 3. Old Town HallThe Lord’s Blessing inone of the rooms isfrom the ceiling of thehouse at Ulica Długa39. It is ascribed tothe workshop of17th-centuryPomeranian artistHermann Hahn 2SmallMillThe Church of StElizabeth was builtin 1417 beside aleprosorium, orlepers’ sanctuary.The Church of St Josephis a former Carmelitechurch, built in 1482.After the devastationof World War II, itwas rebuilt by theChurch Fathers.STAR SIGHTS. Great Mill. Old Town Hall. St Catherine’s ChurchHouse of theAbbots of Pelplin0 m0 yds5050KORZENNARAJSKAN AP I A S K A C HGARNCARSKAKOWALSKAWIELKIEMŁYNYELżBIETAŃSKA
  • 215. G D A Ń S K 2 3 5Monument to theShipyardWorkers1Plac Solidarności Robotniczej.@ v to Dworzec PKP.The monument was builta few months after thefamous Gdańsk Shipyardworkers’ strike of 1980and the creation of theindependent Solidaritytrade union (see p53).It was erected inhonour of theshipyard workerswho were killedduring the strike anddemonstrations ofDecember 1970; itstands 30 m (100 ft)from the spot where thefirst three victims fell.Its three stainless steelcrosses, 42 m (130 ft)high, were both awarning that such atragedy might happenagain and a symbol ofremembrance and hope.The monument wasdesigned by the ship-yard workers and agroup of artistsincluding BogdanPietruszka, WiesławSzyślak, RobertPepliński andElżbieta Szczo-drowska. It was builtby a team of workers fromthe shipyard. In the 1980s, thecross was the rallying pointfor Solidarity demonstrations,which were suppressed bythe police.Church of St BridgetThis church wasused as a place ofworship bySolidaritymembers 5LOCATOR MAPSee pp232–3Old Town Hall 2Nadbałtyckie Centrum Kultury, ul.Korzenna 33/35. Tel 058 301 10 51.7 - 0 www.nck.org.plBuilt by Antonis vanOpbergen in 1587–95, theOld Town Hall in Gdańsk isan outstanding example ofDutch Mannerist architecture.It is a compact, plain build-ing with no distinctiveornamentation, andis equipped with adefence tower. Thestone doorway wasprobably made byWillem van der Meer.Beneath each bracketare two distorted maskspersonifying vice, andtwo smiling, chubbymasks, personifyingvirtue. Within the townhall, the painting,sculpture and furnitureare very interesting,although little is left ofthe original decorativescheme of 1595. Ofparticular interest is thepainted ceiling in one ofthe rooms which is byHermann Hahn, a 17th-century Pomeranianartist. It wasremoved from ahouse at UlicaDługa 39 and trans-ferred to the OldTown Hall some time after1900. The theme of theceiling paintings is allegorical:the central one depicts TheLord’s Blessing and a figure ofZygmunt III Vasa also appears.Monument to theShipyard WorkersGDAŃSK SHIPYARDThe Gdańsk Shipyard is known throughout the world asthe birthplace of Solidarity (see p53). In December 1970, ashipyard workers’ strike and protests in the city were crushedby the authorities. The next strike, in 1980, led to theestablishment of the Independent Solidarity Trade Union.The strike leader was Lech Wałęsa, who was to becomePresident of Poland (1990–5). Since 1989, in free marketconditions, the shipyard has proved commercially unviable.. St Catherine’sChurchThe memorialto astronomerJohannesHevelius(1611–87)was installedin 1780 byDaniel G.Davisson, hisgreatgrandson 4Main entrance to the Gdańsk ShipyardKEYSuggested route
  • 216. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 3 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5Great Mill 3ul. Wielkie Młyny 16. # 10am–6pmMon–Fri, 10am–1pm Sat.7 = e mThe Great Mill (Wielki Młyn)was one of the largestindustrial buildings inmedieval Europe. It wasconstructed during the ruleof the Teutonic Knights,being completed in around1350. It is built in brick andis crowned by a tall, steeplypitched roof.At the front of the buildingstood a two-storey bakerywith a chimney set againstthe gable of the mill whichreached the height of its roof.Beside the mill stood 12, later18, large poles to whichmillstones were attached forgrinding various types ofgrain. The mill was destroyedby fire in 1945, but wasrestored after World War II.This remarkable old buildingnow contains a modernshopping centre.Church ofSt Catherine 4ul. Wielkie Młyny.Tel 058 301 15 95.The Church of St Catherine(Kościół św Katarzyny) is theoldest and also the mostimportant parish church inthe old town. It was built in1227–39 by the dukes ofGdańsk-Pomerania andunderwent major rebuildingin the 14th century.Most of the Gothic,Mannerist and Baroquefurnishings that the churchonce contained were pillagedor destroyed in 1945.The most notablesurviving pieces arethe paintings by AntonMöller and Izaak vanden Blocke, theBaroque memorials tovarious townspeopleand the tombstoneof the astronomerJohannes Hevelius,dating from 1659.The tower, 76 m(250 ft) high, was firstbuilt in 1486. Demo-lished in 1944 andlater rebuilt, it is once againa major landmark. It iswell worth climbing tothe top of the tower;the effort is rewardedby wonderful viewsof the city. Thepresbytery onthe east sideof the churchhas a finelate Gothicgable.Monument to Father Jerzy Popiełuszko in the Church of St BridgetChurch ofSt Bridget 5ul. Profesorska 17.Tel 058 301 31 52.The Church of St Bridget(Kościół św Brygidy) waswell known in Poland in the1980s as a place of worshipand sanctuary for members ofSolidarity. It was built on thesite of a 14th-centurychapel dedicatedto St MaryMagdalene,wherein 1374 the remains of thevisionary St Bridget weredisplayed as they were beingtaken from Rome to Vadstenain Sweden. Soon afterwards amonastery for the Sisters of StBridget was founded here.The church built beside it wascompleted in around 1514.The brick shell of theGothic church contrasts withthe more recent belfry, builtin 1653 by Peter Willer. Thechurch’s stark interior is aneffective foil for the modernaltars, tombstones andsculptures that it nowcontains. The most impressiveof these are the high altar andthe monument to Father JerzyPopiełuszko, who wasmurdered in 1984 by Polishsecurity service officials.Gothic tower of the Churchof St CatherinePolish Post Office 6pl. Obrońców Poczty Polskiej 1/2.Post Office Museum Tel 058 30176 11. # 10am–3pm Tue, 10am–4pm Wed–Fri. & (free on Tue).www.mhmg.gda.plThe Polish Post Office wasthe scene of some of themost dramatic events of thefirst days of World War II.At daybreak on 1 September1939, German troops attackedthe Polish Postal Administra-tion that had its base here, inwhat was then the free city ofGdańsk. For 15 hours thepostal workers resisted theonslaught, but they werefinally overwhelmed. On 5October more than 30 of themwere executed by Nazi soldiersat the Zaspa Cemetery. Theirheroism is commemorated inthe Post Office Museum andby a monument depicting aninjured postal worker atopscattered mail, handing overhis rifle to Nike, Greek goddessof victory. It was designed byWincenty Kućma in 1979 andbears an epitaph written byMaria and ZygfrydKorpalskiin 1979.The Great Mill from the Raduna Canal
  • 217. G D A Ń S K 2 3 7Ulica Mariacka 8Ulica Mariacka, regardedas Gdańsk’s finest street,runs eastwards from theChurch of St Mary to DługiePobrzeże, terminating at theMariacka Gate on theriverfront. Rebuilt from theruins that resulted from WorldWar II, the street containsoutstanding examples oftraditional Gdańskarchitecture. Here, townhouses that were once ownedby wealthy merchants andgoldsmiths have tall, richlyornamented façades; othersare fronted by external raisedterraces with ornamentedparapets. It is small wonderthat this picturesque streethas for centuries inspiredwriters and artists.The neighbourly porchgossip that once upon a timefilled the evening air is sadlyno more. Today, however,the street is a favourite hauntof lovers as well as tourists,most of whom are lookingfor picturesque subjects tophotograph or browsingthrough the amber jewelleryfor which Ulica Mariacka isnow celebrated. During thelong summer evenings, anumber of musicians providefree open-air concerts, andthe welcoming streetcafés stay open untillate at night.Gdańsk Crane 7ul. Szeroka 67/68.Maritime Museum Tel 058 30169 38. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (Jul &Aug: to 6:30pm). & www.cmm.plThe Gdańsk crane (Żuraw),icon of the city, is one ofits finest buildings and amedieval structure almostunique in Europe. Built in the14th century and renovated in1442–4, when it acquired itspresent appearance, itcombined the functions of acity gate and a port crane.The crane, an entirelywooden structure, is setbetween two circular bricktowers. It was operated bymen working the hugetreadmills within, and wascapable of lifting weights ofup to 2 tonnes to a heightof 27 m (90 ft). The cranewas used not only to loadand unload goods but alsoin fitting masts to ships.The crane was destroyed byfire in 1945. As part of therebuilding programme afterWorld War II it was repairedand reconstructed, togetherwith its internal mechanism. Itis now part of the collectionof the Central MaritimeMuseum (see p245). TheCrane Tower looks out overUlica Mariacka, once the haunt of writers and artistsUlica Długie Pobrzeże, whichruns alongside the RiverMotława. Once known as theLong Bridge, it was originallya wooden footbridge thatfunctioned as a quay whereships from all over theworld tied up. Today afleet of yachts and smallpleasure boats offeringtrips around theharbour in the Portof Gdańsk ismoored here.The Gdańsk Crane, a medieval building almost unique in Europe
  • 218. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 3 8Church of St Mary 9The Church of St Mary (Kościół Mariacki)is the largest medieval brick-built churchin Europe. Building work began in 1343 andtook 150 years to complete. The final stage ofconstruction, involving the 100-m (325-ft) longnave, was carried out by Henryk Hetzel. From1529 to 1945, when it was destroyed, St Mary’swas a Protestant church. Like so many otherparts of Gdańsk, it was rebuiltafter World War II. Theinterior contains furnishingsin the Gothic, Manneristand Baroque styles. Lookout for the memorial tabletsto prominent local families.. Tablet of CharityThis ornate panel, madeby Anton Möller in1607, once hung overthe church collectionbox. Its purpose wasto encouragechurchgoers tobe generous.. AstronomicalClockThe clock, madeby HansDürunger in1464–70, showsthe hour and alsothe days, dates ofmoveable feastsand phases of themoon. At noona processionof figuresrepresentingAdam and Eve,the Apostles, theThree Kings andDeath appears.. Tablet of theTen CommandmentsThis panel of around1480–90 depicts each of theTen Commandments in twoscenes, illustrating obedienceto and disregard of the laws.STAR FEATURES. Tablet of the TenCommandments. Astronomical Clock. Tablet of Charity
  • 219. G D A Ń S K 2 3 9For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5Gothic SacrariumThe sacrarium, inthe shape of an open-work tower decoratedwith pinnacles, isover 8 m (26 ft) high.Epitaph to Valentin von KarnitzThe memorial tablet to Valentyn von Karnitz,of around 1590, has many Dutch Manneristfeatures. The centre painting depicts thebiblical tale of the Lamentation of Abel.Royal Chapel 0ul. św Ducha 58.Tel 058 302 1423.The Royal Chapel (KaplicaKrólewska) was builtby Jan III Sobieski as aplace of worship forCatholics of the parish of StMary’s, which had becomea Protestant church in 1529.The chapel was built in1678–81 to designs by thegreat royal architect Tylmanvan Gameren.The carving in the KaplicaKrólewska is by AndreasSchlüter the Younger. Thechapel itself is enclosedwithin a chamber and issituated on a raised floor.The interior is lessostentatious than the façade.Arsenal qul. Targ Węglowy 6. Academyof Fine Arts www.asp.gda.plThe Arsenal is the finestexample of the DutchMannerist style in Gdańsk. Itwas built, probably to plansby Antonis van Opbergenin collaboration with JanStrakowski, in 1600–9.Today the ground floorof the former weaponsand ammunition store isfilled with shops, whilethe Academy of FineArts occupies the upperstoreys. The building hasa finely decorated façade,with fascinatingly originalcarvings by Wilhelm Barth.The Arsenal seen fromTarg WęglowyThe BeautifulMadonna ofGdańskThe Chapel ofSt Anne containsthis 15th-centuryfigure of theVirgin and Childby an unknownartist.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTul. Podkramarska 5. Tel 058 30139 82. # 9am–6pm (5pm inwinter) daily. Tower # openinghours vary. Call ahead for details.& www.bazylikamariacka.pl
  • 220. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 4 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5Street-by-Street: Długi Targ and DługaDługi Targ and Ulica Długa, its continuation, are themost attractive streets in Gdańsk. Długi Targ leadswestwards from the Green Gate on the River Motławato join Ulica Długa, which runs as far as the GoldenGate. These two pedestrianized streets are lined withold town houses that were once the residences of thecity’s wealthiest citizens. Most of the Main City’sprincipal buildings, including the town hall and ArtusCourt, are on Długi Targ. Together the streets formedan avenue that was used for parades, ceremonies andsometimes public executions and from 1457 for theprocessions that accompanied royal visits – which iswhy the two streets were known as the Royal Way.. Uphagen HouseThe interior of thisrestored town housefeatures 18th-century Rococopanelling, whichsurvived wartimedestruction uGolden GateThis ceremonial gatewayto the city, made in1612–14 andsurmounted byallegorical sculptures,embodies the spirit ofGdańsk’s golden age rSt George’s CourtBuilt for the patriciansof Gdańsk in 1487–98,the name derives fromthe exclusive Fraternityof St George, whoseseat it was tPrison TowerThis was once used to holdprisoners sentenced to death.The tower currently houses theAmber Museum eHighland GateThe gate, built in1574–5, has reliefdecoration withinscriptions andsculptures in theItalian Renaissanceand northernManneriststyle wTKACKAPOCZTOWAGARBARYSTAR SIGHTS. Main TownHall. Artus Court. Uphagen HouseD Ł U G ALEKTYKARSKAKALETNICZA
  • 221. G D A Ń S K 2 4 1. MainTown HallThe Allegory ofJustice by HansVredeman deVries decoratesthe main councilchamber, alsoknown as theRed Room iGreen GateThis building inthe Manneriststyle was theofficial residenceof the Polish kingswhen they cameto Gdańsk onstate visits sUlica DługaRebuilt after wartimedestruction, this is themain street of oldGdańsk yGolden HouseThe unusual façade of the house wasonce completely covered in gilt stonecarvings aDługi TargWhen the street was rebuiltafter World War II, the housesand their stepped terraceswere reconstructed o. Artus CourtThe bench of the Brotherhood of StChristopher, in this meeting house fordignitaries, is adorned with thestory of Lot and his daughter byLaurentius Lauenstein pLOCATOR MAPSee pp232–3.Fountainof NeptunełAWNICZAD ł U G I T A R GKEYSuggested route0 m0 yds300300KUśNIERSKAMIESZCZAŃSKA
  • 222. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 4 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5St George’sCourt tul. Targ Węglowy 27. ¢ to visitors.The fraternity of St George,an association of archers andthe oldest of its kind inmedieval Gdańsk, originallymet in Artus Court. However,in 1487 the fraternity acquiredits own premises, St George’sCourt, which was built underthe direction of Hans Glothauin the Flemish style. It wascompleted in 1494.The first floor contained anarchery range and storeroomsfor archery equipment.Members of the fraternity metin the Great Hall on the firstfloor. The hall was also usedfor ceremonies, meetings andGolden Gate rul. Długa.The Golden Gate was builtin 1612–14 on the site of themedieval Ulica Długa Gate.The architect, Abraham vanden Blocke, devisedthe new construction in thestyle of a classical Romantriumphal arch throughwhich the Royal Way wouldenter the city of Gdańsk.The arches of the gate areframed by Ionic columns inthe lower tier surmountedby composite columns inthe upper tier. The gate iscrowned with statues carvedby Piotr Ringering in 1648and reconstructed after theoriginals were damaged inWorld War II. The statueson the outer side of the gate,facing away from the city,depict peace, freedom,prosperity and glory, whilethose on the inner side,facing the city, representprudence, piety, justiceand harmony. The carveddecoration is complementedby inscriptions in both Latinand German on the theme ofcivic virtue. The whole gatewas designed and constructedin the Neo-Classical style butwith Mannerist elements.Highland Gate wul. Wały Jagiellońskie.The Highland Gate marks thebeginning of the Royal Waythat, following Ulica Długaand Długi Targ, descendseastwards to the Green Gate(see p240). It was built byHans Kramer of Saxony aspart of the fortifications thatwere erected along thewestern limits of the city in1571–6. Originally built inbrick, the gate acquired itspresent appearance in 1588,when the Flemish architectWillem van den Blocke facedit with stone on its westernside, making it look as if itwere made of masonry blocks.The upper level isdecorated with cartouchescontaining coats of arms: thatof Poland, held by two angels(on the breast of the eagle thecoat of arms of StanisławAugust, a bull calf, is visible)are flanked by the Prussiancoat of arms, borne byunicorns, and those ofGdańsk, borne by lions.Prison Tower eul. Długa–Przedbramie. Tel 058301 49 45. Amber Museum# 10am–3pm Tue, 10am–4pmWed–Sat, 11am–4pm Sun.The mix of architectural stylesin the Prison Tower is theresult of several rebuildings.The tower was originally builtas part of the now-destroyedUlica Długa Gate that waserected in the second half ofthe 14th century as part ofthe medieval fortificationsof the Main Town.In the 15th and 16thcenturies, the tower washeightened several times andthe surrounding buildingsaltered accordingly. Whenthe new fortifications werebuilt in 1571–6 the entirecomplex lost its purpose. Itbegan to be used as a prison,court and torture chamber.It was remodelled for itsnew purpose in 1604 byAntonis van Opbergen, whogave it a northern Manneristform, and by Willem van derMeer, who added decorativedetail. The tower was thescene of many blood-curdlinginterrogations. There is awhipping post on the west-ern wall, which was also thesite of many executions. Atthe turn of the 20th century,in accordance with the newfunctions of the buildings, astonecutter’s workshop wasinstalled in the courtyard.The Prison Tower nowhouses the Amber Museum.The Highland Gate, part of the new fortifications of 1571–6The Golden Gate, so called becauseof the gilding on its façade
  • 223. G D A Ń S K 2 4 3banquets and for theperformance of plays.In 1566 it was crowned bya figure of St George and theDragon, which was removedand is now on display in theNational Museum (the figureon the small tower is a copy).In the 19th century thebuilding housed the School ofFine Art. Today Artus Court isthe premises of the Gdańskbranch of the Association ofPolish Architects.Ulica Długa yToday, as in the past, UlicaDługa (“Long Street”) is theMain Town’s principalthoroughfare. The housesthat line the street were onceinhabited by the foremostburghers of Gdańsk, andvirtually every one has itsown colourful history.Although the oldest survivinghouses on the street datefrom the Middle Ages, mostwere built during the heydayof the Hanseatic League.With their narrow façadescrowned by a variety ofelements – from coats of armsand symbols to animals,allegorical figures and theheroes of classical mythology– the houses on Ulica Długaare typical of the architectureof Gdańsk. Unfortunatelywhen they were modernizedin the mid-19th century, allthe stepped terraces thatoriginally fronted the entrancesto the houses were removed.After the carnage ofWorld War II, almost everybuilding on Ulica Długawas left in ruins. Manyof the houses were laterreconstructed, but only thefinest buildings were rebuiltin architectural detail.Looking down Ulica Długa fromthe Golden Gate to Długi TargUphagen House uul. Długa 12. Tel 058 301 23 71.Section of the Museum of theHistory of Gdańsk # 10am–4pmWed–Sat, 11am–4pm Sun. &www.mhmg.gda.plThe house that originallystood at Ulica Długa 12was acquired by JohannUphagen, a town councillor,in 1775. He had it demol-ished, and a new residencewas built in its place. Thearchitect, Johann BenjaminDreyer, completed the projectin 1787. The result was anattractive building combiningBaroque, Rococo and earlyNeo-Classical features.The sole ornamentation ofthe restrained façade is theRococo decoration to thedoor, which is inscribedwith the initial A, forAbigail, the owner’s wife.The interiors, featuringRococo and Neo-Classicalelements, are splendid.The Rococo doorway ofUphagen HouseThe Red Room in the Main Town HallMain Town Hall iul. Długa 47. Museum of theHistory of Gdańsk Tel 058 767 9100. # noon–6pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat, 11am–4pm Sun. & (freeon Sun). d m www.mhmg.gda.plThe city’s first town hallwas built after 1298 onthe orders of Świętopełk II,Duke of Gdańsk-Pomerania.It functioned as an office ofthe Hanseatic League.Work on the currentbuilding was begun in 1327.An elegant tower was addedin 1486–8, during one ofseveral phases of rebuilding.After a fire in 1556, thisGothic town hall wasremodelled in the Manneriststyle. The interior was lavishlydecorated in 1593–1608 bythe most prominent paintersand craftsmen of the day,including Hans Vredemande Vries, Izaak van denBlocke and Simon Herle.Their combined geniusproduced one of the finesttown halls in all of northernEurope, proof of the city’swealth and power. It alsoserved as a royal residence.The highlight of the townhall is without doubt the RedRoom, which was once theGreat Council Chamber. TheRenaissance fireplace is byWillem van der Meer and thecentrepiece of the ceilingpaintings is the Apotheosisof Gdańsk by Izaak van denBlocke. After being destroyedin 1945, the town hall wasrebuilt and many of itsfurnishings reconstructed.It now houses the Museumof the History of Gdańsk.
  • 224. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 4 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5The Green Gate, not only a city gate but also a royal residenceDługi Targ oDługi Targ, a broadshort street that runson from Ulica Długa andterminates at the GreenGate on the RiverMotława, is the finalpart of the Royal Wayleading from theGolden Gate throughto the city centre. Italso functioned asa marketplace aswell as a site for thepublic executionof aristocraticprisoners. Thetownhouses onDługi Targ, likethose elsewhere inthe old town, weredestroyed in 1945 but havebeen restored. Today thesquare is filled with souvenirshops. Its focal point is theFountain of Neptune, whichwas installed outside ArtusCourt in 1633.Artus Court pul. Długi Targ 44.Museum Tel 058 767 91 83.# 10am–3pm Tue, 10am–4pmWed–Sat, 11am–4pm Sun.& (free on Tue). ^ d = mArtus Court was a meetingplace for the wealthyburghers of Gdańsk, whowere inspired by thechivalrous traditions of KingArthur and the Knights ofthe Round Table. Similarfraternities were set upthroughout Europe, and theywere particularly fashionableGolden House aul. Długi Targ 41. ¢ to the public.The Golden House, alsoknown as SpeimannHouse or Steffens House afterits owners, was built in1609–18 for Jan Speimann,mayor of Gdańsk and awealthy merchant and patronof the arts, and his wifeMaria Judyta.The architect was Abrahamvan den Blocke, who alsoexecuted some of the stonecarving. The most impressivefeature of the house is itsfaçade, which is covered inintricate gilt carvings, andwhich fortunately escapedthe fires that ravaged thebuilding in 1945.Today the building housesthe Maritime Institute. Localpeople claim that it ishaunted; in one of thecorridors the shining figure ofthe former lady of the house,Maria Judyta Speimann, issaid to appear and can beheard whispering the words“A just deed fears no man”.Green Gate sul. Długi Targ 24. ¢ to the public.With its pinnacled roofand elaborate decorativestonework, the Green Gatehardly resembles the usualcity gate – it is more like amansion. There is goodreason for this, because thegate was intended to serveas a residence for visitingroyalty. In the event it wasused in this way only once –when Maria Louisa Gonzagaarrived in Gdańsk fromFrance in order to marryWładysław IV in 1646.The gate was designed inthe Mannerist style by thearchitect Johann Kramer fromDresden, and built in 1564–8by Regnier from Amsterdam.Its windows provide amagnificent view of UlicaDługi Targ and the town hallin one direction, and theRiver Motława and SpichlerzeIsland in the other.in the cities of the HanseaticLeague. Visitors to the courtcame to discuss the issuesof the day and to enjoythe fine beer thatwas served therein unlimitedquantities. Thefirst ArtusCourt inGdańsk wasestablished in the 14thcentury, but the originalbuilding was destroyedby fire in 1477. Thepresent buildingopened in 1481. Its rearelevation preserves thebuilding’s originalGothic style, but thefaçade was twice rebuilt,first in 1552 and againin 1616–17 by Abrahamvan den Blocke. The interiorfurnishings were renewnedseveral times, funded mainlyby individual fraternities, whowould gather for meetingsseated on benches alongthe walls of the court.Despite wartime destruction,reconstruction has succeededin recreating something of thecourt’s historic atmosphere.A highlight of the interioris the intricately decorated16th-century Renaissancetiled stove, 12 m (40 ft) high.St George killing the Dragon, acarving of 1485 in Artus CourtFountain ofNeptune inDługi Targ
  • 225. G D A Ń S K 2 4 5VISITORS’ CHECKLISTul. Szeroka 67/68 i Ołowianka9/11. Tel 058 301 86 11.@ 106, 111, 138. # 10am–6pm Tue–Sun (to 4pm winter).& www.cmm.plCentral Maritime Museum dIn the 17th century Poland strove to be “master ofthe Baltic Sea” and her seafarers were dedicated tomaintaining Poland’s maritime presence. The themesof the displays in the Maritime Museum are Gdańsk’sseafaring traditions and navigation on the Vistula.Exhibits include a reconstruction of scenes froma sailor’s life aboard the Swedish ship Solen,sunk at the Battle of Oliwa in 1627 and raisedfrom the seabed in the Gulf of Gdańsk in 1970.. The GrainWarehouseThe naval weapons displayed hereinclude 17th-century Polish andRuthenic cannons, as well as cannonsfrom the Swedish warship Solen.SołdekThe Sołdek, the firstPolish oceangoingship to be built afterWorld War II, wasbuilt in the GdańskShipyard in 1948.Its holds are nowused for exhibitions.Poles on the World’s SeasThe Granaries containwaxwork exhibitionsdepicting the livesof Poles at sea.FerryAn easy way from onebuilding to another is by ferry.MUSEUM GUIDEThe museum consists of a number ofbuildings on either side of the RiverMotława. There is a Polish navalexhibition in the Gdańsk Crane. SkładKolonialny contains a collection ofboats from distant parts of the world. Theexhibition in the granaries is dedicated tothe presence of Poland and Gdańsk at seafrom the Middle Ages to the present.SkładKolonialnyPeriod GdańskThis reconstruction of amerchant’s office is inthe Harbour Town Lifeexhibition. It is part ofthe display in theGdańsk Crane.STAR FEATURE. GrainWarehouseKEYSuggested route
  • 226. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 4 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5Chapel of St Anne, near theChurch of the Holy TrinitySpichlerze Island f@ 106, 111, 112, 138, 166, 178,186. v 8, 13.Once joined to the mainland,Spichlerze Island was createdwhen the New Motława Canalwas dug in 1576. A centreof trade developed here atthe end of the 13th century.What was then a relativelysmall number of granarieshad grown to more than300 by the 16th century.Each granary had a name andeach façade was decoratedwith an individual emblem.The purpose of digging thecanal, and thus of surround-ing the district with water,was not only to protect thegranaries against fire butalso to safeguard theircontents against thieves.Everything was destroyedin 1945. Today a main roadbisects the island, and thecharred stumps that can stillbe seen in many places are allthat remain of the granaries.The name signs on someruins – such as Arche Noah(“Noah’s Ark”) on Ulica Żytnia(“Wheat Street”) – remain legi-ble. Reconstruction beganseveral years ago. The firstgranaries to be rebuilt werethose between the Motławaand Ulica Chmielna (“HopStreet”). One of them is nowthe headquarters of ZUS, thePolish social security organiza-tion. Restoration of a group ofbuildings on Ulica Stągiewnawas completed in 1999. Two16th-century Gothic castlekeeps, survivors of WorldWar II, are in this street. Theyare known as the StągwieMleczne (“Milk Churns”).Church of theHoly Trinity gul. św Trójcy 4. @ 106, 111, 112,138, 166, 178, 186. v 8, 13.The imposing Churchof the Holy Trinity(Kościół św Trójcy)was built byFranciscan monks in1420–1514. In 1480,the Chapel of StAnne was construct-ed alongsidethe church.Protestantismquickly spread toGdańsk, and oneof its most ardentproponents inthe region wasthe Franciscanfriar AlexanderSvenichen. Whencongregations declinedbecause of Svenichen’sactivities, the Franciscansdecided in 1556 to handthe monastery overto the city asa theological college. Thehead of the Franciscan orderdid not agree with theGdańsk friars’ decision tocede the monastery but theorder’s petitions to the Polishkings to have the propertyreturned bore no result.As a result, the church wastransferred to the Protestants.The grammar school that wasestablished here later becamethe widely celebratedAcademic Grammar School. Italso came to house the firstlibrary in Gdańsk. However,centuries later in 1945 it wasreturned to the Catholics, afterthe violence of World War IIhad reduced it to a ruin.The aisled church has adistinctive exterior withornamental Gothic spires.They crown the elongatedpresbytery, the façade and thewalls of the adjacent Chapelof St Anne. The presbytery,which was occupied by thefriars, was separated from theaisles by a wall. Interestingfeatures of the interior arethe many tombstonesthat are set into thefloor and thenumerous works byGdańsk artists. Thevery fine Gothicstalls were madeby local craftsmenin 1510–11. Theircarved decorationsdepict a widevariety of subjects,among themanimals including a monkey,a lion fighting a dragon andseveral birds.The church contains theoldest surviving pulpit inGdańsk – it dates from 1541and is another remarkableexample of local woodcarving. In the north aisle canbe seen the marble tombmade by Abraham van denBlocke in 1597 for GiovanniBernardo Bonifacio, Marquisd’Orii, a restless spirit andchampion of the Reformationwho founded the Gdańsklibrary. “Bones long sincethrown ashore here finallyrest from their earthlywanderings” reads thepoetic Latin inscription.Beside the church is a half-timbered galleried housedating from the 17th century.The Milk Churns, two medieval keeps on Spichlerze IslandMonkey from the stallsof the Church of theHoly Trinity
  • 227. G D A Ń S K 2 4 7VISITORS’ CHECKLISTul. Toruńska 1. Tel 058 301 6804. @ 106, 111, 112, 121, 138,166, 178, 186. v 8, 13. #10am–5pm Tue–Sun (Oct–Apr:9am–4pm Tue–Fri, 10am–5pmSat, Sun). & (free on Fri). www.muzeum.narodowe.gda.plNational Museum hThe National Museum is laid out mainly in a formerGothic Franciscan monastery of 1422–1522. It contains awealth of artifacts, from wrought-iron grilles to sculptureand painting. The museum’s most prized piece is TheLast Judgement by the Flemish painter Hans Memling(c.1430–94). In 1473,it was plundered byprivateers fromGdańsk from aship boundfor Italy.. The Last JudgementHans Memling painted thismonumental triptych in 1467–71.The left-hand side panel represents theGates of Heaven, while the right-handone shows the torments of Hell.“TheGriffin’sTalons”This bison-horn cup wasmade in the15th century andbelonged to asailing fraternity.Longcase ClockA Rococo clockmade c.1750 isdecorated withscenes fromthe biblicalstory of Tobiasand the Raising ofthe Copper Snake.MUSEUM GUIDEThe exhibits on the ground floorinclude Gothic art and goldjewellery. The first floor hasmore recent paintings. Theupper floor displays temporaryexhibitions.STAR FEATURE. The Last JudgementKEYPomeranianmedieval artGoldsmitheryMetalworkGdańsk and northernEuropean furniture,15th–18th centuriesCeramicsDutch and FlemishpaintingGdańsk painting,16th–18th centuriesPolish painting,19th and 20th centuries19th-century Gdańsk artists(temporary exhibitions)Furniture-making in Gdańskand eastern Pomeraniain the 18th centuryThe Last Judgement
  • 228. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 4 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see p307 and pp324–5Oliwa, a district to the northwest of Gdańsk,was once the base of wealthy Cistercians, whobuilt a cathedral and monastery here. Thepresent cathedral, built in the 14th century inthe Gothic style, replaced the original 13th-century Romanesque church that was destroyedby fire in 1350. While the exterior has survivedwithout major alteration, the interior has beenredecorated in the Baroque style. Its famousorgan can be heard in recitals.The monastery buildings arenow occupied by branches ofthe Diocesan, Ethnographicaland Contemporary Artmuseums. Oliwa Park,with lakes and woodedhills, is a pleasant placefor a walk.Mannerist StallsThe stalls in the chancel,decorated with bas-reliefs of theApostles, were made in 1604.MainentranceThe former high altar,built in 1604–6, has adepiction of the HolyTrinity.Oliwa Cathedral jTomb of theKos FamilyThe tomb was carved inaround 1599, probablyby the prominentGdańsk sculptorWillem van den Blocke.. Organ LoftThe organ loft was madeby local Cistercian monks in1763–88. The organ, made byJan Wulff and FryderykRudolf Dalitz and completedin 1793, was the largest inEurope at the time.STAR FEATURES. Organ Loft. High Altar
  • 229. G D A Ń S K 2 4 9VISITORS’ CHECKLISTul. Cystersów 10. Tel 058 552 4765. v 6, 12, 15. @ 117, 169,171, 179, 222, 627. £ # daily.Organ recitals Sep–May: noonMon–Sat, 3pm Sun; Jun–Aug:11am, noon, 1pm, 3pm, 4pmMon–Sat, 3pm, 4pm, 5pm Sun.Westerplatte k@ 106, 158, 606. Ferries in summerseason at Green Gate. GuardhouseNo 1 Museum ul. Mjr. H.Sucharskiego. Tel 058 343 69 74 or767 91 00. # Apr–Nov: 9am–4pmdaily (Jun–Sep: to 7pm).It was at Westerplatte that thefirst shots of World War IIwere fired, on 1 September1939. The German battleshipSchleswig Holstein opened fireon Polish ammunition dumpsin the Free City of Gdańsk.The Germans expected thecapture of the Westerplatte totake a matter of hours, but the182-man garrison under MajorHenryk Sucharski resisted forseven days, their heroismbecoming a symbol of Polishresistance in the struggleagainst the Nazi invasion.Today ruined barracks andconcrete bunkers, togetherwith a huge Monument to theDefenders of Westerplatteunveiled in 1966, bearwitness to that struggle.WisłoujścieFortress lul. Stara Twierdza.Tel 058 343 14 05. @ 106, 606.¢ for restoration.Fortifications were first builton this strategic point atthe mouth of the River Vistulain the time of the TeutonicKnights. Work on theconstruction of a brick towerbegan in 1482. From here, aduty was levied on passingships using a simpleenforcement method that wasimpossible to avoid – a chainwas stretched across the river,preventing the ship’s passage,and released only when thecaptain had made therequired payment. Equippedwith a brazier in which a firewas lit, the tower was alsoused as a lighthouse.In 1562–3 the tower wassurrounded by a system ofdefences, and afterwardswas repeatedly fortifiedand refortified as militarytechnology advanced. In1586–7 the entire complexwas reinforced by fourbastions, designed by Antonisvan Opbergen and JanStrakowski, and an outermoat was added. This wasfollowed by the addition of aditch in 1624–6. Also in the17th century, 15 tall barrackbuildings were added aroundthe now-ageing tower.Over the following years,constant building, oftenby prominent fortificationengineers of the time, steadilyenlarged the fortress. Itwithstood several siegesand was often used toaccommodate visiting royalty.The Monument to the Defendersof WesterplattePortrait GalleryPortraits of Polish kingsand Pomeranian dukes,the founders andbenefactors of thecathedral, hang inthe presbytery.They werepainted byHermannHahn in1613.. High AltarThought to be byAndreas Schlüter, it wasdecorated by AndreasStech with imagesof the Virgin andSt Bernard, patrons ofhe monastery at Oliwa. Wisłoujście Fortress, which once defended the mouth of the River Vistula
  • 230. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 2 5 1Wild cliffs on Pomerania’s Baltic coastPolish Pomerania isdivided into the tworegions of Western andEastern Pomerania, eachwith an ethnically diversepopulation. The borderbetween the two regions is inthe districts of Bytów and Lębork.Christianity was introduced toWestern Pomerania by Bishop Ottoof Bamberg, who founded a bishopricin Wolin in 1140. The Duchy ofPomerania, established in the 12th cen-tury, maintained its independence forseveral centuries and secured its eco-nomic development through thestrength of its port cities, which werepart of the Hanseatic League. The ThirtyYears’ War (1618–48) and the death ofthe last duke of the Gryfici dynastybrought this independence to an end.Most of Western Pomerania came underthe rule of Brandenburg, while Szczecinand the surrounding area was engulfedby Sweden until 1713. In the 18th and19th centuries, Western Pomeraniabecame first Prussian, thenGerman, territory. It wasreturned to Poland in 1945.Eastern Pomeraniawas Christianized in the10th century. Althoughit originally belonged toPoland, it became an inde-pendent duchy from the 12thcentury. Overrun by the TeutonicKnights in 1306, it then enjoyed strongeconomic development. In 1466, afterthe Second Peace of Toruń, areas ofEastern Pomerania, including RoyalPrussia, were ceded to Poland.However, during the Partitions ofPoland (see p46), Eastern Pomeraniabecame part of Prussia. It was finallyreturned to Poland in 1919. Gdańskwas given the status of a free city andonly became part of Poland in 1945.Pomerania’s landscape was formedby the movement of glaciers. Its hillycountryside with small, clear lakes andits varied Baltic coastline make theregion outstandingly beautiful.POMERANIABeautiful beaches and the resorts of the Baltic are Pomerania’smain attractions, which every summer draw large numbers ofholiday-makers in search of sand and sun. A less crowdedbut equally attractive aspect of the region are the Drawsko Lakes andthe alpine scenery of Szwajcaria Kaszubska, west of Gdańsk.Malbork Castle, the great fortress of the Teutonic Knights, on the River Nogat
  • 231. For additional map symbols see back flapP O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 5 2Exploring PomeraniaPomerania is one of Poland’s mostattractive regions, and in summerresorts such as Międzyzdroje,Kołobrzeg, Ustka, Łeba and Sopot teemwith sunbathers and watersportsenthusiasts. The most popular holidayspots are on the Hel Peninsula, whereswimmers can choose between theopen waters of the Baltic Sea or thecalm of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Forsightseeing at a slower pace there arethe villages of Kashubia. The shady,tree-lined lanes in the region of Słupskand Koszalin make for enjoyablecycle tours, while the clean riversare attractive for canoeing. Thosewith an interest in history will not bedisappointed with the great variety ofhistoric buildings, from castles andcathedrals to small village churches andthe stately houses of old seaside resorts.KEYMotorwayMain roadMinor roadMain railwayMinor railwayInternational borderRegional borderFishermen’s buoys on a Baltic beachA half-timbered house, typical of the Gdańskregion, in RóżynyGETTING AROUNDSzczecin and Gdańsk canbe reached by air (seepp352–3). The best wayto tour Pomerania is bycar. The E28 connectsGdańsk with Słupsk,Koszalin and Szczecin.Parallel to it but furtherto the south is route 22,which is part of the oldGerman A1 from Berlin toKaliningrad (Królewiec).The E75 goes south fromGdańsk to Gniew. Alllarger towns and citieshave rail links. In the Gulfof Gdańsk there are alsoferries to Sopot and Hel.
  • 232. P O M E R A N I A 2 5 3The lakes of Szwajcaria Kaszubska in autumnSEE ALSO• Where to Stay pp308–10.• Restaurants and Bars pp325–6.Bydgoszcz pBytów 9Chełmno pp268–9 oCiechocinek dDarłowo 6Drawsko Lakes 4Gdynia wGniew yGolub-Dobrzyń sGrudziądz iHel Peninsula qKołobrzeg 5Kwidzyn uMalbork pp264–5 rPelplin tSłowiński National Park 8Słupsk 7Sopot eStargard Szczeciński 3Szczecin pp254–5 1Toruń pp270–73 aToursKashubia 0Around Wolin 2SIGHTS AT A GLANCE0 km0 miles5050
  • 233. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 5 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308-10 and pp325-6(“Haken’s Terrace”) in honourof the mayor who initiated it.One of the buildings on theboulevard houses the MaritimeMuseum. From the terraces,with their decorative pavilionsand a statue of HerculesFighting the Centaur byLudwig Manzel, there is a fineview of the harbour below.North of the castle standsLoitz House, a sumptuous lateGothic town house built forthe Loitz banking family in1547. Further down, amongthe newly built townhousesin the old style, is the mainly15th-century Baroque townhall. It houses the SzczecinHistory Museum. The Cathe-dral of St James (Katedra śwJakuba) was also rebuilt afteralmost complete wartimedestruction; only the pres-bytery and west tower survivedthe bombing. It was originallyerected in stages from the late13th to the 15th centuries, withthe involvement of the archi-tect Heinrich Brunsberg. Thecathedral has several Gothicaltars origin-ating from otherchurches in Pomerania. Fromthe cathedral it is possible toExploring SzczecinThe old town of Szczecin ispicturesquely laid out on asteep escarpment. The largeCastle of the Dukes ofPomerania was founded inthe mid-13th century and wasrebuilt in the Renaissancestyle by Guglielmo di Zac-charia in 1575–7. It consists offive wings, with two interiorcourtyards and two towers.The east wing dates from the17th century. After damagesuffered during World War II,the castle was almost com-pletely rebuilt and its once-magnificent interior re-created.The basement of the east winghouses the Castle Museum. Ina Baroque building near thecastle is the main section of theNational Museum. From theSzczecin, on the river Odra, is a major port eventhough it is more than 65 km (40 miles) from the sea. Itserves both ocean-going vessels and river traffic, and islinked with Berlin by the Odra and by canals. A castleand a fishing village existed here in the 9th century.Szczecin was granted a municipal charter in 1243 andsoon after it joined the Hanseatic League. It becamethe capital of a Pomeranian duchy and in 1673–1713was overrun by the Swedes. Under Prussian rule itbecame a major port. The city suffered severelyduring World War II; post-war restoration hasbeen confined to its more important buildings.Szczecin 1castle balcony overlooking theOdra, the Tower of the SevenCloaks, the only remainingpart of the city’s medievalfortifications, can be seen.Across the road is the Gate ofPrussian Homage, formerlythe Royal Gate, one of a pairthat was built under Swedishrule in 1726–8. The architectwas Gerhard Cornelius deWallrawe, and the sculptorBerhold Damart. North of thecastle is the red-brick lateGothic Church of Saints Peterand Paul (Kościół św św Piotrai Pawla), while further alongthe banks of the Odra is UlicaWały Chrobrego. Thisboulevard, an impressivemunicipal project of 1902–13,was known in German times asthe HakenterrasseThe Castle of the Dukes of Pomerania, rebuilt in the Renaissance styleView of Ulica Wały Chrobrego, with the Maritime Museum and local government offices in the distanceThe Gate of Prussian Homage, onceknown as the Royal Gate
  • 234. P O M E R A N I A 2 5 5walk southwards towards theGothic Church of St John(Kościoł św Jana), founded bythe Franciscans, or to wanderthrough the part of the citystretching out to the west thatwas built in the late 19thcentury. Many town housesand villas in a variety of styleshave been preserved here,and the area has numerousbars and restaurants.mainly from WesternPomerania. Among themany interesting exhibitsare the displays of Gothicecclesiastical art and jewelleryand the ornate costumes ofPomeranian princes.E Maritime Museumul. Wały Chrobrego 3.Tel 091 431 52 67.# 10am–6pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pmSat & Sun. & (free on Thu).www.muzeum.szczecin.plThe museum’s principaltheme is the history ofseafaring in the Baltic sea.The archaeological displaysinclude amber and silverjewellery and a medievalboat. There are also modelsof ships, nautical instrumentsand an ethnographicalsection. Boats and fishingvessels are displayed in askansen behind the museum.Portal of the Cathedral of St JamesE National Museumul. Staromłyńska 27. Tel 091 431 5200. # 10am–6pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat & Sun. & (free on Thu).www.muzeum.szczecin.plThe museum’s extensivecollections comprise artifactsSZCZECIN CITY CENTRECastle of the Dukesof Pomerania 6Cathedral of St James 9Church of Saints Peterand Paul 3Gate of Prussian Homage 2Loitz House 7Maritime Museum 4National Museum 1Tower of the SevenCloaks 5Town Hall 8VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map A2. * 407,000.k 33 km north in Goleniów.£ ul. Kolumba. Tel 091 94600 11. @ pl. Grodnicki. Tel 091434 64 27. n ul. Niepodległo-ści 1. Castle ul. Niepodległości1a. Tel 091 489 16 30. Harbourboat trips ul. Jana z Kolna 7.Tel 091 434 57 00. _ Reviewof Church Music (mid-Nov–mid-Dec); Days of the Sea (late Jun).www.szczecin.pl0 m0 yds300300E Castle Museumul. Korsarzy 34. Tel 091 433 88 41.# 10am–6pm Tue–Sun. 8www.zamek.szczecin.plThis museum is housed inthe former crypt of the dukesof Pomerania. Among theexhibits are the tin coffinsof the last of the Gryficidynasty, and a specialexhibition on the history andthe restoration of the castle.Loitz House, once the home of afamily of bankersE Szczecin History Museumul. Mściwoja 8. Tel 091 431 52 55.# 10am–6pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pmSat & Sun. & (free on Thu).Key to Symbols see back flap
  • 235. Around Wolin 2Wolin’s forests, deserted sandybeaches and picturesque,sometimes dramatic, coastalcliffs delight walkers and inspirephotographers. Wolin also hasplenty to offer those with aninterest in historic buildings – thecathedral in Kamień Pomorski isone of the finest in Poland.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 5 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6StargardSzczeciński 3Road map B2. * 71,000.£ @ n Rynek Staromiejski 4.www.stargard.plWith its own port in theSzczecin Lagoon at the mouthof the River Ina, StargardSzczeciński once rivalledSzczecin as a merchant townof the Hanseatic League.Almost three quarters ofthe old town was destroyedduring World War II,although the Gothic defensivewalls with their towers andgates survived. The town’sfinest building is the GothicChurch of St Mary (KościółMariacki), which was foundedin the late 13th century butonly given its presentappearance by HeinrichBrunsberg in the mid-15thcentury. The rich decorationof glazed and moulded brickis quite striking. Themagnificent town hall, builtin the 16th century and thenremodelled in 1638, has agable with intricate tracery.A particularly pleasant wayto round off a trip to StargardSzczeciński is to visit the caféin the former salt granary, aGothic building overlookinga spur of the Ina.The Regional Museumhas some militaria and anarchaeological andethnographical display.E Regional MuseumRynek Staromiejski 3. Tel 091 57838 35. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (to2pm Sat). & (free on Sat).Drawsko Lakes 4Road map B2.The Drawsko Lakes are anoasis of quiet, unspoiledscenery. Their crystal-clearwaters teem with fish and,in season, the forests arecarpeted with mushrooms.The area is ideal for acanoeing or rowing holiday.Świnoujście 2The town straddlesPoland’s two islands –Wolin and Uznam. Theonly way of movingbetween the two parts ofthe town is by ferry. It hasa large port, wide beachesand the elegant buildingsof a coastal resort.Międzyzdroje 3This renownedhealth resort wascreated in 1830.It has a seafrontpromenade and apier from whichthe cliffs can beadmired. It is alsoa good base forhiking in WolinNational Park.Wolin NationalPark 4Apart from its beachesand lakes, the park isknown for its bison,which can be seen ina special reserve. Thebird life includes therare sea eagle.Interior of the Gothic Church ofSt Mary in Stargard SzczecińskiWolin 1In the Early MiddleAges this small townwas a major Balticport. Today it is thevenue for the VikingFestival that takesplace every July as areminder of thesettlement’s historicimportance (see p33).
  • 236. P O M E R A N I A 2 5 7Kołobrzeg 5Road map B1. * 46,000.£ @ n ul. Dworcowa 1(094 352 79 39)._ Kołobrzeg Summer Music Festival.www.kolobrzeg.turystyka.plThe fine sandy beachesof Kołobrzeg make itone of the mostpopular health resortson the Baltic coast. Ithas a full complementof hotels, sanatoria,holiday homes andfried-fish stalls, butit is also a workingfishing port. Inthe past it wasa fortifiedcoastal townof strategicsignificance.In summerthe longpromenade,The largest of the lakes isDrawsko, on whose shoresstands Stare Drawsko, withruins of a once-impressive14th-century TeutonicKnights’ castle. In thedelightful spa town ofPolczyn Zdrój the mineralsprings are surrounded by apark and there are someelegant early 20th-centurysanatoria. Złocieniec has anoutstanding example ofBaroque architecture in theform of a palace that wasbuilt here in 1704–45.leading to the lighthouse, iscrowded with holiday-makers.The brick-built Cathedral ofthe Virgin Mary (KatedraNMP) was begun in 1255 andlater altered and extended.Among the remarkableobjects it contains is achandelier made byJohann Apengheterof Lübeck in 1327depicting the Virginand St John theBaptist. The Neo-Gothic town hall wasbuilt by the Berlinarchitect Karl FriedrichSchinkel in 1829–32.It is surrounded byalleys lined withold houses. Thefortress, now inruins, wasunsuccessfullybesieged byNapoleon’stroops in 1807.Świerzno 7The modest timber-frame palace here was built for theFleming family in 1718–30. In the 17th century the familyalso founded the timber-framed church that stands nearby.Kamień Pomorski 6The town was the seatof a bishopric from 1176.Its widely admiredcathedral contains awell-preserved collectionof fine late Gothicmurals as well asfamous organs.Lake Drawsko, the second-deepestlake in PolandThe sturdy brick-built lighthouse inKołobrzeg harbourKEYTour routeOther roadViewpointTIPS FOR DRIVERSTour length: 103 km (65 miles).Stopping-off points: Plenty ofgood cafés and restaurants areto be found in Kamień Pomorskiand Międzyzdroje.Additional features: Golfcourse at Kołczewie. Bisonreserve # 1 Jun–15 Sep:10am–6pm Tue–Sun; 16 Sep–31 May: 9am–3pm Mon, Fri.Dziwnów 5A swingbridge acrossthe RiverDziwna linksWolin Islandwith themainland.0 km0 miles55
  • 237. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 5 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6The castle of Erik of Pomerania, Duke of Słupsk, in DarłowoShifting dunes in Słowiński National ParkDarłowo 6Road map B1. * 15,300.@ £ www.darlowo.plDarłowo, set 2.5 km(1½ miles) inland on thebanks of the River Wieprza,is one of the most attractivetowns of coastal Pomerania.In summer the waterfrontdistrict swarms with touristsand the fish stalls do a brisktrade, but the town’s realcharm lies in its old riversidedistrict, where there are manyhistoric buildings. The mostprominent of these is theGothic Castle of the Dukesof Pomerania. Founded in the14th century, it was rebuiltseveral times and partiallydemolished in the 19thcentury; its surviving partsnow house a museum.The castle is associated withErik of Pomerania, the war-like Duke of Słupsk, whoseroyal blood enabled him, in1397, to hold the thrones ofDenmark, Sweden andNorway. His turbulent rulewas marked by constant war-fare. He was finally deposedand returned to Darłowo,where he established theDuchy of Słupsk, crowninghimself and, as Erik I, retain-ing his rule over Gotland. Hewas buried in the Church ofSt Mary (Kościoł Mariacki),and his sarcophagus, made in1888, can be seen here in thesepulchral chapel. Erik mayalso have been the founderof the late Gothic Chapelof St Gertrude (Kaplicaśw Gertrudy) on UlicaTynickiego, an unusualtwelve-sided building.Słupsk 7Road map C1. * 99,000. @ £n ul. Henryka Sienkiewicza19 (059 842 43 26)._ International Festival of OrganMusic (Jun–Aug). www.slupsk.plFrom 1368 to 1648, this townon the River Słupia was thecapital of the Duchy ofWestern Pomerania. TheRenaissance ducal castle wasbuilt by Antonio Guglielmodi Zaccharia in 1580–87.Today it is the Museumof Central Pomerania,which, besides items of localinterest, has the country’slargest collection of portraitsby the painter and writerStanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz(1885–1939), better knownas Witkacy.The watermill opposite thecastle, dating from about1310, is one of the oldest inPoland. Now a branch of themuseum, it houses an ethno-graphical collection. In theDominican Church of StHyacinthus (Kościół św Jacka)nearby are the black marbleand alabaster tombs ofBogusław de Croy, the last ofthe dukes of Pomerania, andhis mother, the Duchess Annade Croy. They were carved byEffigy of Anna de Croy in theChurch of St HyacinthusSłowińskiNational Park 8Road map C1. @ Tel 059 811 7204. www.slowinskipn.plSłowiński National Park isrenowned for its large,shifting sand dunes, whichmove at a rate of about 9 m(30 ft) a year, leaving thestumps of dead trees behindthem. The area was once agulf, of which the glaciallakes Łebsko and Gardno arevestiges. The park, a WorldBiosphere Reserve, is a havenfor wild birds; more than 250species, including the raresea eagle, are found here.The park’s highest point,Rowokół, offers a fine viewof the dunescape. At its footis the village of Smołdzino,with a small Baroque churchfounded by Duchess Annade Croy in the 17th century.In the hamlet of Kluki, onLake Łebsko, is a skansendedicated to the ancient localSlovincian culture. Fishingequipment and agriculturalimplements are exhibited inKasper Gockhaller of Gdańskin 1682. The 14th-centuryChurch of St Mary (KościółMariacki) is also of interest.E Museum of CentralPomeraniaul. Dominikańska 5/9.Tel 059 842 40 81.# 10am–4pm Wed–Sun. & 86 www.muzeum.slupsk.pl
  • 238. P O M E R A N I A 2 5 9Bytów 9Road map C1. * 17,000. £ @n ul. Zamkowa 2 (059 822 55 97).www.bytow.plBytów, with nearby Lębork,was the westernmost outpostof the territory held by theTeutonic Knights. The town,which after its conquest in1466 was established as aPolish fiefdom, was ruled bythe dukes of Pomerania, andlater by Brandenburg andPrussia. It has been part ofPoland since 1945.Few of Bytów’s historicbuildings survive. The mostinteresting is the castle of theTeutonic Knights, which wasbuilt in 1390–1405 and wasone of the first castles inEurope to be adapted for theuse of firearms. It has fourcircular corner towers and aHel Peninsula qRoad map D1. @ £ n Hel,ul. Wiejska 78 (058 675 10 10);Jastarnia, ul. ks. Pawła Stefańskiego 5(058 675 23 40). www.jastarnia.plThe Hel Peninsula is about34 km (22 miles) long and inwidth ranges from just 200 m(650 ft) to 3 km (2 miles). It ismade up of sandbanks formedby sea currents; in the 18thcentury it was no more than achain of islets. The peninsulais now the Nadmorski ParkKrajobrazovy, an area ofoutstanding natural beauty.When the railway line to Helwas completed in 1922, resortsbegan to spring up on thepeninsula. Their main attractionwas the double beach – onepart facing the sea, the otherthe Gulf of Gdańsk. At the baseof the peninsula is the town ofWładysławowo, named afterWładysław IV, who foundeda now-vanished fortress here.Today the town’s boundariesembrace many resorts, such asJastrzębia Góra, Cetniewo andChałupy. Jastarnia is the mostpopular resort, as it still retainsmany of its original fishermen’scottages. The elegant resort ofJurata was established in 1928;modernist hotels dating fromthe 1930s can be seen here. Atthe very end of the peninsulais the fishing port and touristresort of Hel, with its toweringlighthouse and timber-framedfishermen’s cottages. Theformer Protestant church,built in the 1400s, is now theFisheries Museum. From Hel,passenger and tourist boatscross to Gdynia and Gdańsk.E Fisheries MuseumHel, ul. Bulisar Nadmorski 2.Tel 058 675 05 52. # 10am–4pmTue–Sun (Jul–Sep: to 6pm).residential wing was addedin about 1570. It housesthe Museum of WesternKashubia, which contains acollection of artifacts relating tothe ancient Kashubian culture.E Museum of WesternKashubiaul. Zamkowa 2. Tel 059 822 26 23.# 16 Sep–30 Apr: 10am–4pmdaily; 1 May–15 Sep: 10am–6pmdaily (to 4pm Mon). & (free onMon). www.muzeumbytow.plKashubia 0See p262.The narrow Hel Peninsula, separating Puck Bay from the Baltic Seathe farmsteads. An electrictrain runs to the park fromRąbka, near the resort ofŁeba. The town of Nowęcin,also near Łeba, has a Neo-Gothic palace built for theWejher family in1909. It nowhouses a hoteland restaurant.Timber-framed fishermen’s cottages in Jastarnia, on the Hel PeninsulaCorner tower of the Gothic castleof the Teutonic Knights in Bytów
  • 239. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 6 2Wdzydze Kiszewskie 4As well as traditionalpeasant farmsteads, thisskansen has a windmill,an inn, a school and asmall church.Wieżyca 6At 331 m (1,090 ft)above sea level,this is the highestpoint in Kashubia.Its slopes arepopular for skiingin winter.Kartuzy 1The town takes its name from theCarthusians, who founded amonastery here in the 1380s. Thecollegiate church still stands. TheKashubian Museum re-creates thedaily life of the region.Chmielno 2This village has severalworkshops producingtraditional Kashubianpottery. Potters can beseen at work, and theirproducts are for sale.Kashubian Park Krajobrazowy 3The national park in SzwajcariaKaszubska offers somebreathtaking views from thesummit of its moraine hills.Kashubia 0A trip to the part of Kashubia known asSzwajcaria Kaszubska (“Kashubian Switzerland”)is a chance to experience the culture of a peoplewho have inhabited this area for centuries. TheKashubian Museum in Kartuzy has a collectionof original embroidery, toys and snuffboxescarved from horn, in Chmielno are workingpotteries and in Wdzydze Kiszewskie is askansen with traditional Kashubian cottages.Kościerzyna 5Although not in itself a scenic town,Kościerzyna is a good stopping placeon a tour of Kashubia. A monument toJózef Wybicki, author of the Polishnational anthem, stands in the town.TIPS FOR DRIVERSTour length: 120 km (75 miles).Stopping-off points: There arebars and restaurants in Kartuzy,Chmielno and Kościerzyna.Places of interest: KashubianMuseum, Kartuzy. Tel 058 68114 42. # 8am–4pm Mon–Fri,8am–3pm Sat, 10am–2pm Sun.¢ Oct–Apr: Sun. &= Kashubian Pottery Museum,Chmielno. Tel 058 684 22 89.# 9am–6pm daily.Breakwaters along the Baltic CoastKEYTour routeOther roadViewpoint0 km0 miles55
  • 240. P O M E R A N I A 2 6 3Gdynia wRoad map D1. * 250,000.£ @ n 058 721 24 66._ Days of the Sea (Jun); Festivalof Polish Feature Films (Oct).www.gdynia.plGdynia, until 1918 a smallfishing village, is one of themost recently developedtowns in Poland. When,after World War I, Polandregained independencebut did not control the portof Gdańsk, the authoritiesdecided to build a majorport at Gdynia. DuringWorld War II Gdynia andits shipyard were used bythe German Kriegsmarine,and the town was renamedGotenhafen by the Germans.A landmark in Gdynia’spost-war history came inDecember 1970, whenstriking workers were firedon by the militia. In 1980 amonument in their honourwas erected.A walk along the NorthernPier offers an overview ofSopot eRoad map D1. * 43,000.£ @ n ul. Dworcowa 4 (058550 37 83). # 9am–5pm Mon–Fri._ International Festival of Song(Aug). www.sopot.plSopot is the most popularresort on the Baltic coast.It was established as a sea-bathing centre in 1824 byJean Georges Haffner, aphysician in the Napoleonicarmy who chose a spot onthe coast that since the 17thcentury had been favoured bythe wealthy burghers ofGdańsk for their mansions. Itsheyday came in theinterwar years, whenit attracted some ofthe richest people inEurope. The pier isa continuation ofthe main street,Ulica Bohaterów MonteCassino, colloquiallyknown as Monciak.The pier is 512 m(1,680 ft long) and thebench running all theway around it is thelongest in Europe.The pier is filled withbars, restaurants andcake shops as wellas antique shopsand boutiques selling amber.It is a pleasant place toenjoy a beer and the sea air.An alternative is coffee atthe Grand Hotel, built in1924–7, which overlooksthe beach. This splendidNeo-Baroque building oncehoused a casino.The town’s narrow streetshide many delightfulguesthouses. In the woodedhills behind the town is theOpera Leśna (“Opera in theWoods”), built in 1909 andthe venue of the InternationalSong Festival (see p33).the port at work and a sightof the town’s most importantlandmarks. By the quay aretwo floating museums, theships Błyskawica and DarPomorza. The Błyskawicais a destroyer that saw actionin World War II alongsideAllied forces in Narvik,Dunkirk and during theNormandy landings. DarPomorza is a three-mastedtraining vessel, built in 1909and decommissioned in1981. It was replaced bythe Dar Młodzieży, whichcan sometimes also be seenmoored in the port. At theend of the pier is a statueof the writer Joseph Conrad(1857–1924), who wasborn in Poland asTeodor Josef KonradKorzeniowski.Beyond the pierstands the AquariumGdyńskie.You can walkalong Gdynia’sseafrontpromenade allthe way to the isletof Kępa Redłowska.A wander aroundthe city’s shoppingarea, with itsboutiques and bars,is equally enjoyable.E Aquarium Gdyńskieal. Jana Pawła II 1.Tel 058 732 66 01. # Oct–Mar:10am–5pm daily; Apr–Sep: 9am–7pm daily (Jun–Aug: to 8pm).www.akwarium.gdynia.plP ORP Błyskawicaal. Jana Pawła II. Tel 058 626 3727. # May–Oct: 10am–1pm, 2–5pm Tue–Sun. www.mw.mil.plP Dar Pomorzaal. Jana Pawła II. Tel 058 620 2371. # Sep–May: 10am–4pmTue–Sun; Jun–Aug:10am–6pm daily.Fish: streetornament inGdyniaThe three-masted training ship DarMłodzieży moored in GdyniaThe Grand Hotel in Sopot, overlooking the beach and the Gulf of GdańskFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6
  • 241. Malbork rMalbork, the castle of the Teutonic Knights,was begun in the 13th century. In 1309 itwas made capital of an independent stateestablished by the order. The first majorphase of building was the AssemblyCastle, a fortified monastery laterknown as the Upper Castle. TheMiddle Castle was built some time after1310, and the Palace of the GrandMaster was begun in 1382–99 byKonrad Zöllner vonRotenstein. In 1457the castle was takenby Poland and used as a fortress.It was restored in the 19thcentury, and again afterWorld War II.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 6 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6STAR SIGHTS. Palace of the GrandMaster. Golden GateThe well in thecourtyard of theHigh TowerSummer RefectoryIt has double rows ofwindows and late Gothicpalm vaulting supported ona granite central column.The Winter Refectory adjoinsit on its eastern side.CloisteredCourtyardThe inner courtyardof the Upper Castle issurrounded byslender Gothicarches withtriangular vaulting.. Golden GateBuilt in the late 13thcentury, this is enclosed by aporch. The keystone in thevaulting is carved with thefigure of Christ.. Palace of theGrand MasterThe grandeur of thefour-storey palace wasalmost without equal inmedieval Europe.UpperCastleChurch of St Maryis presently beingrestored but isopen to visitors.
  • 242. P O M E R A N I A 2 6 5VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map D1. * 40,000. @£ n ul. Piastowska 15 (055 27349 90) (open only in summer).Castle Museum ul. Starościńska1. Tel 055 647 08 02. # 10am–5pm Tue–Sun (15 Apr–15 Sep:9am–7pm). Courtyard # 1 hrlonger. & 8 0 = m Sonet Lumière show 1 May–15Sep. www.zamek.malbork.plChapel of St AnneBuilt in 1331–44 beneath thechoir of the Church of StMary, this contains the tombsof eleven Grand Masters.BattlementsA good view of the towersand walls surroundingthe castle can be hadfrom the east side.Lower CastleThese partly reconstructed farm buildings, abuttingthe former Chapel of St Lawrence, have beenconverted into a hotel.Teutonic KnightThe Teutonic Knights, orthe Knights of theTeutonic Order of theHospital of St Mary inJerusalem, had a strictmonastic code. Inbattle they weredistinguished by theblack crosses on theirwhite cloaks.
  • 243. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 6 6For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6Gniew seen from the River Vistula, framed by the Church of St Nicholas and the Castle of the Teutonic KnightsPelplin tRoad map D2. * 8,500. £ @www.pelplin.plThe beautiful Cistercianabbey at Pelplin is one of thefinest examples of Gothicarchitecture in Poland. Workon the monastery began in1276, when the Cistercianscame to Pelplin.The brick-built church, nowa cathedral, dates largely fromthe 14th century, although itslate Gothic vaulting was notcompleted until the late 15thand early 16th centuries. Theimposing triple-naved basilicahas no tower, and the west andeast fronts are almost identical.The interior contains anoutstanding collectionof finely craftedfurnishings,includingGothic stalls witha rare carving ofthe Holy Trinity inwhich the HolyGhost is depictednot as thecustomary dovebut as a man.Other fine piecesinclude the 17th-century Manneristand Baroque altarand a pulpitsupported on afigure of Samsonin combat with alion. There areseveral paintingsby HermannHahn, including alarge Coronationof the Virgin onthe high altar. Themonastery wasdissolved in 1823,and in 1824 thechurch became theCathedral of the VirginMary (Katedra NMP).The monasterybuildings nowaccommodate theDiocesan Museum,whose carved gallerycontains a hand-some collection ofecclesiastical art aswell as illuminatedmanuscripts. The mosthighly prized exhibitsare a Madonna cabinetfrom Kolonówka, arare originalGutenberg Bible of1435–55 and a 17th-century musicalmanuscript, thePelplin Tabulature forOrgan. A range of goldworkand liturgical objects arealso displayed in thecathedral treasury.Gniew yRoad map D2. * 6,700. £ @_ Gniewniki (Jun); InternationalTournament for the Sword ofSobieski (Aug). www.gniew.plThis pretty little town onthe River Vistula retainsa medieval atmosphere.Founded by the TeutonicKnights in 1276, it was laterthe seat of a commander ofthe order and in 1466became part of Poland.The town’s narrowalleys lead intothe MarketSquare, whichis lined witharcaded build-ings. While mostdate from the 18thcentury, some, likethe town hall, haveGothic elements.Traces of the 14th to15th-century fortifica-tions that once protectedGniew from invaders stillremain. The GothicChurch of StNicholas (Kościółśw Mikołaja) towersover the town.Probably built in the first halfof the 14th century, it retainsits magnificent interior,R Cathedral of the VirginMarypl. Mariacki. Tel 058 536 16 64.# 9am–4pm Mon–Sat (to 5pm insummer). 8E Diocesan Museumul. ks. Biskupa Dominika 11.Tel 058 536 12 21. # 10am–4pmTue–Fri, 10am–5pm Sat, 11am–5pmSun. ¢ on religious feast days.Samson fighting alion, PelplinCathedralThe Altar of St Mary in the south aisle at Pelplin
  • 244. P O M E R A N I A 2 6 7which includes Gothic vault-ing and Mannerist, Baroqueand Neo-Gothic altars.The town’s most distinctivefeature is the castle of theTeutonic Knights. Thisimposing fortress was begunin 1283 and completed in themid-14th century. The castlehas a regular plan, with fourcorner turrets and the remainsof a mighty keep in thenortheastern corner.In summer the castle hostsfestivals, jousting tournamentsand reconstructions ofmedieval banquets.E Castle Museumul. Zamkowa 3. Tel 058 535 35 29.# May–Oct: 9am–5pm Tue–Sun.8 www.zamek-gniew.plR Church of St Nicholasul. Okrzei 4. Tel 058 535 22 16.nave by a screen) remains. Theporch dates from 1264–84.In 1862–4 the cathedral wasremodelled in the Neo-Gothicstyle by Friedrich AugustStüler. The interior of this vastpseudo-basilica has Gothicmurals, which unfortunatelywere excessively repainted inthe 19th century. Many of theearlier furnishings are still inplace, including a late Gothicbishop’s throne of about 1510and Baroque altars and tombs.The presbytery gives accessto the tiny cell of the BlessedDorothy of Mątowy, whoordered that she be immuredthere in 1393. By the northnave is the Baroque chapel ofOtto Frederick von Groeben,which contains a tomb depict-ing the deceased accompaniedin death by his three wives.The castle resembles aknights’ fortress, although itwas in fact the seat of achapter. It was built in 1322–47 and partially demolishedin the 18th century. Amongthe interesting features of thecastle are the well tower andthe exceptionally tall latrinetower, which is connectedto the castle by a gallerysupported on large arches.Kwidzyn uRoad map D2. * 37,000. £ @www.kwidzyn.plFrom 1243 until 1525, thesmall town of Kwidzyn wasthe capital of the Pomezaniabishopric, one of four to beestablished in the territoryruled by the TeutonicKnights. After the order wasdissolved, the town passedin turn to Prussia, Germanyand Poland.The cathedral standing ona high escarpment and thecastle attached to it are fineexamples of Gothic architec-ture. The cathedral was builtin the 14th century on the siteof an earlier church, of whichonly the narthex (a portico orporch separated from theGrudziądz iRoad map D2. * 101,000.£ @ n 056 461 23 18.www.grudziadz.plGrudziądz, situated on anescarpment overlooking theRiver Vistula, was once amajor port. It was foundedby the Teutonic Knights andbecame part of Poland in 1466.As a result of the Partitions ofPoland, it became part ofPrussia from 1772 and in 1918was returned to Poland.Despite the damage it sufferedduring World War II, the townhas some fine buildings. TheGothic Church of St Nicholas(Kościoł sw Mikołaja) wasbegun in the late 13th centuryand completed in the secondhalf of the 15th. It contains alate Romanesque font fromthe 14th century. The formerBenedictine abbey, includingthe Palace of the Abbesses of1749–51, is also of interest.Part of the abbey now housesa museum and art gallery.The huge complex ofharbour granaries, 26 brickbuildings built side by sidealong the waterfront, fulfilleda defensive function as wellas being used for storage –seen from the river, thegranaries appear to surroundthe entire hillside. They werebuilt mostly in the 17th and18th centuries, but some aresignificantly older.E Grudziądz Museumul. Wodna 3/5. Tel 056 46590 63. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sat,10am–2pm Sun. & (free on Sun).The granaries in GrudziądzE Castle Museumul. Katedralna 1.Tel 055 646 37 80 or 646 37 97.# 9am–5pm Tue–Sun. &Kwidzyn Cathedral, seat of the bishops of Pomerania in the 13th century
  • 245. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 6 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6passed to the Catholic sisterswho run a hospital heretoday. The entrance on UlicaDominikańska leads to aninternal courtyard, whichin turn gives access to theChurch of St John the Baptist(Kościół św Jana Chrzciciela),built in 1290–1340. It has twostoreys, the lower one havingExploring ChełmnoChełmno’s medieval streetplan and 13th to 15th-centuryfortifications survive virtuallyintact. The town walls are setwith 23 towers and a fortifiedgate, the Grudziądz Gate,which was converted into aMannerist chapel in 1620.The town’s finest buildingis the town hall, a lateRenaissance building of1567–72 with traces ofearlier Gothic elements.It houses the ChełmnoMuseum. At the rear ofthe town hall is aniron measuringstick equalling4.35 m (just over14 ft) and knownas the ChełmnoMeasure, or pręt.The Baroquebuilding on UlicaFranciszkańska,dating from theturn of the 18thcentury, once housed theChełmno Academy, whichwas founded in 1692.Six Gothic churches havebeen preserved in Chełmno.The largest is the Church ofthe Assumption (KościółWniebowzięcia NMP) of 1280–1320, a fine aisled buildingcontaining early Gothic fres-coes and stone carvings. Twomonastery churches, theChurch of St James (Kościółśw Jakuba) and the Churchof Saints Peter and Paul(Kościół św Piotra i Pawła),date from thesame period. TheAbbey of theCistercian Nuns,established in thelate 13th century,is an exceptionalgroup of build-ings. It was latertransferred toBenedictinemonks and thenChełmno oThe lands of Chełmno that Konrad, Duke of Mazovia,presented to the Teutonic Knights in 1226 were thebeginning of the vast state established by the order.The knights’ first city, Chełmno, was founded in 1233and was initially intended to be the capital of their statebut this honour went to Malbork (see p264). The civiclaws of Chełmno became a model for other cities.CHEŁMNO TOWN CENTREChełmno Academy 5Church of St James 6Church of St John the Baptist 7Church of Saints Peterand Paul 2Church of the Assumption 4Grudziądz Gate 1Town Hall 3The late Renaissance townhall in the Market SquareBaroque high altar in the Church ofthe Assumption, ChełmnoKey to Symbols see back flap0 m0 yds300300VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad Map D2. * 21,200.@ ul. Dworcowa. Tel 056 68621 56. n Rynek 28 (056 68621 04). www.chelmno.pl
  • 246. P O M E R A N I A 2 6 9The castle built by the Teutonic Knights in Golub-DobrzyńBydgoszcz pRoad Map C2. * 363,000. £ @n ul. Grodzka 7 (052 585 87 02)._ Bydgoszcz Music Festival (Sep);Musica Antiqua Europae Orientalis(every 3 years, Sep).www.bydgoszcz.plBydgoszcz lies at the conflu-ence of the River Brda and theBydgoszcz Canal, which thenflow into the Vistula. The citywas only briefly part of thestate of the Teutonic Knights,after which its fate was linkedwith that of the rest of Poland.It was the scene of dramaticevents on 3 September 1939,when the town’s Germanminority attempted to stage acoup. The Nazis entered thetown and massacred thou-sands of the Polish population.The old town of Bydgoszczis set on a bend of the Brda. Ithas several monumental townhouses, the late Gothic churchof Saints Nicholas and Martin(Kościół św Mikołaja i Marcina)and two monasteries: aBernadine monastery with achurch of 1545–52, and theChurch and Convent of theToruń aSee pp270–73.Ciechocinek dRoad Map D3. * 11,000. £ @n ul. Zdrojowa 2 (054 416 01 60)._ Festival of Kujawy and DobrzyńFolklore (Jul); International Festivalof Gypsy Song and Culture (Jul).www.ciechocinek.plCiechocinek is one ofPoland’s best-known spatowns, which grew and pros-pered thanks to its iodine-richsalt springs. It is not strictlypart of Pomerania but ofKujawy, and has always beena Polish town. The town cameinto being in 1824, whenStanisław Staszic started tobuild saltworks and the first ofthree salt graduation towers.The “towers” are huge woodenframes filled with thornybrushwood which, washedwith brine, accumulates saltcrystals. Each “tower” is morethan 1.7 km (1 mile) wide.Other features of Ciecho-cinek are the group of bathsbuilt in a variety of stylesbetween 1845 and 1913, afine park with a flower clock,a pump room designed byEdward Cichocki, a band-stand and open-air theatre,and numerous elegantboarding houses, sanatoriaand hotels dating from thestart of the 20th century.two naves, and the upper asingle nave that was reservedfor the choir of the Order ofTeutonic Knights.E Chełmno MuseumRynek. Tel 056 686 16 41.# 8am–4pm Tue–Fri, 8am–3pmSat, 11am–2pm Sun. &EnvironsIn Chełmża, 23 km (14 miles)north of Chełmno, standsthe Gothic Cathedral of theHoly Trinity, which was builtoriginally in 1251–1359 andrebuilt after 1422.Poor Clares (Kościół Klarysek),which today houses a RegionalMuseum. The half-timberedgranaries on the banks of theBrda, built in the 18th and 19thcenturies, were used for thesalt and wheat that the towntraded and to store the beerfor which it was renowned.E Regional Museumul. Gdańska 4. Tel 052 585 98 16 or585 98 14. # 9am–5pm Tue–Fri,11am–4pm Sat & Sun. & (free onSat). www.muzeum.bydgoszcz.plGolub-Dobrzyń sRoad Map D2. * 12,800. £ @n 056 683 54 10. _ InternationalJousting Tournament (Jun).www.golub-dobrzyn.plThis picturesque town wasoriginally two separatesettlements, one on either sideof the River Drwęca. Duringthe Partitions, Golub was partof Prussia and Dobrzyń part ofRussia. Golub’s main featureis the large castle built by theTeutonic Knights in 1293–1310. From 1466 Golub waspart of Poland, and in the 17thcentury the castle became theresidence of Queen AnnaVasa of Sweden, sister ofZygmunt III Vasa. The castlewas rebuilt for her in 1616–23in the Renaissance style.Highly educated and with aninterest in botany and naturalmedicine, Anna Vasa was anunusual woman for her time.She remained a spinster, reput-edly because of herugly appearance.Today the castle hosts suchevents as jousting tournamentsand oratory competitions,as well as New Year’s balls,at which revellers say thatthe ghost of Queen Annaappears. By ironic coinci-dence, the Miss Poland beautycontests are also held here.E Castle Museumul. Zamkowa. Tel 056 683 24 55.# Jun–Sep: 9am–7pm daily;Oct–May: 9am–3pm daily.Graduation tower for theproduction of salt in Ciechocinek
  • 247. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 7 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6R Church of theVirgin Maryul. Marii Panny. Tel 056 622 31 39.The Gothic Church of theVirgin Mary (Kościół NMP)was built for Franciscanmonks in 1270–1300. It hasan unusually richly ornamen-ted east gable. Late 14th-century wall paintings can beseen in the south aisle, whilein the north aisle is a 16th-century Mannerist organ loft,the oldest in Poland. By thepresbytery is the mausoleumof Anna Vasa (see p269),sister of Zygmunt III, made in1636. She was of royal bloodbut could not be buried atWawel Castle because shewas of the Protestant faith.P Old Market SquareThe Old Market Square isthe city’s finest open spaceand still the vibrant heartof its historic district. Thecentrepiece is the town hall,but on all four sides of thesquare there are finebuildings. On the south side,at No. 7, is the MeissnerPalace, built in 1739 for JakobMeissner, mayor of Toruń,and given a Neo-Classicalfaçade in 1798. Many of thetown houses retain theirF Wilam Horzyca Theatrepl. Teatralny 1. Tel 056 622 52 22.The delightful theatre, in theArt Nouveau style with Neo-Baroque elements, was builtin 1904 by the Viennesearchitects Ferdinand Fellnerand Hermann Helmer. TheKontakt Theatre Festival isheld here each year in earlysummer, bringing togethertheatre performers from allover Europe and drawinglarge and enthusiasticaudiences to its performances.Toruń aToruń’s principal claim to fame is as thebirthplace of the astronomer NicolausCopernicus (see p273), but it is alsorenowned for its architecture. The citywas founded by the Teutonic Knightsin 1233 and quickly became a majorcentre of trade; in 1454, when its citizensrebelled against the knights’ rule, itpassed to the kings of Poland. The old town ofToruń, picturesquely situated on the banks of the RiverVistula, retains its medieval street plan, and has a rarecalm, since most of the streets are closed to traffic.Stained glassThe Wilam Horzyca TheatreStar House, an early Baroque townhouse in the Old Market SquareThe elaborate east end of theChurch of the Virgin Mary
  • 248. T O R U Ń 2 7 1The Church of the Virgin Mary seen from the top of the town hall towerTORUŃ CITY CENTRECastle of the Teutonic Knights 0Cathedral of SS John the Baptistand John the Evangelist 9Church of St James wChurch of the Virgin Mary 2Church of the Holy Spirit 5Copernicus House 6Crooked Tower 7New Market Square qOld Market Square 3Palace of the Bishopsof Kujawy 8Town Hall 4Wilam Horzyca Theatre 1P Town HallRynek Staromiejski 1.Regional Museum Tel 056 62270 38. # 10am–6pm (to 4pmOct–Apr) Tue–Sun. & (groundfloor free on Wed).Tower # May–Oct: 10am–8pm. &The town hall, an imposingbuilding with an internalcourtyard, was erected in1391–9 as a two-storeyedifice. In 1602–5 theGdańsk architect Antonisvan Opbergen added thethird floor and gave thebuilding its currentMannerist appearance.The lower parts of the towerdate from the 13th century.Standing 42 m (138 ft) high,it commands a fine viewover the city of Toruń.The town hall now housesa museum featuring Gothicart, 19th-century paintingsand local crafts. Thebuilding’s original interiorsare also noteworthy,especially the vaulting ofthe former bakery and woolstalls on the ground floorsof the east and west wings.The town hall also featuresa restaurant and a popularpub, Pod Aniołem, in thebasement.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad Map D2. * 207,000. £Toruń Główny, ul. Kujawska 1(056 94 36). £ Toruń Miasto,pl. 18 Stycznia 4. @ n RynekStaromiejski 25 (056 621 0931 or 657 08 12). _ TheatreFestival (May/Jun); ProbalticaBaltic Arts and Music Festival(mid-May). www.torun.pl0 m0 yds100100The town hall in the OldMarket SquareKey to Symbols see back flaporiginal details, such as thatat No. 17, with a portal madein 1630. The most attractivehouse in the square is StarHouse, at No. 35 on the eastside, built in 1697. It has arichly ornamented façade,with stuccowork motifs offruit and flowers. In thesquare stands a monument toNicolaus Copernicus made byFriedrich Tiecek in 1853, anda fountain with the figure ofa raftsman who, accordingto legend, rid the citizens ofToruń of a plague of frogsby playing his fiddle.
  • 249. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 7 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp308–10 and pp325–6Cathedral of Saints John theBaptist and John the EvangelistP Copernicus Houseul. Kopernika 15/17. Tel 056 622 6748. # Tue–Sun. Sep–mid-Apr:10am–4pm; mid-Apr–Jun: 10am–6pm; Jul & Aug: 10am–7pm.& www.muzeum.torun.plThese two Gothic town housesfrom the 15th century are out-standing examples of Hanseaticmerchants’ houses. The paintedfaçades and fine carving of thearched gables bear witness tothe city’s former wealth. Thehouse at No. 17 was that ofMikołaj Kopernik, a merchantand the father of the boy whowas to become the famousastronomer. The house,although it may not be the onein which the younger Mikołajwas born, is now a museum.P Crooked Towerul. Pod Krzywą Wieżą.The Crooked Tower is oneof Toruń’s greatest attractions.It is part of the town’s oldfortifications system, andwas probably built in the firsthalf of the 14th century.Although it leans significantlyfrom the perpendicular, thefloors that were added laterare perfectly level – so thatbeer glasses in the pub that itnow houses can be set downR Cathedral of SaintsJohn the Baptist andJohn the Evangelistul. Żeglarska 16. Tel 056 657 14 80.The origins of the Cathedralof Saints John the Baptist andJohn the Evangelist (Kościołśś Janów) go back to 1250.The oldest surviving part of thecathedral is the presbytery. Thenave, with its numerous sidechapels, was completed byHans Gotland in about 1500,long after the tower had beenfinished in 1433. The interioris a treasury of art. TheR Church of the Holy Spiritul. Piekary 24. Tel 056 655 48 62.The Baroque Church of theHoly Spirit (Kościoł śwDucha) in the Old MarketSquare was built in the mid-18th century for the Protestantcommunity of Toruń. It wasbegun by Andreas AdamBähr, and completed byEphraim Schroeger.Toruń survived World War II relativelyunscathed. It has well-preserved city wallsand a series of gates that once opened ontothe quayside. Granaries dating from the 15thto the 19th centuries still line the streetsleading down to the river. The Cathedral ofSaints John the Baptist and John Evangelistand the richly ornamented Palace of theBishops of Kujawy are two of Toruń’sfinest buildings and the Copernicus Museum standsas a memorial to the city’s most famous son.Exploring ToruńToruńgingerbreadon the tables without dangerof sliding off.P Gothic Granaryul. Piekary 4.The most remarkable ofthe many Gothic granariesstill standing in Toruń isthat on the corner of UlicaPiekary and Ulica Rabiańska.Although the granary wasrebuilt in the 19th century,it retains its toweringornamental gable withfine pointed arches.+ Palace of the Bishopsof Kujawyul. Żeglarska 8.The palace was built by theBishop Stanisław Dąmbskiin 1693. In the 19th centuryit was converted into a hoteland then into a mess formilitary officers. Subsequentrestoration work undid thedamage inflicted by theseconversions and returnedthe building to its formerelegance. It is now theAcademy of Fine Arts.The Crooked Tower, part of thefortifications on the River VistulaA room in the Copernicus House
  • 250. T O R U Ń 2 7 3Latrine tower, the surviving part of the Castle of the Teutonic Knightspresbytery contains some fine16th-century mural paintings.There are also altars,chandeliers, stained-glasswindows, sculpture and manypaintings. In one of the sidechapels in the south aisle is theGothic font where NicolausCopernicus was baptized and amemorial to him of about 1580.He was buried in FromborkCathedral (see p278).+ Castle of the TeutonicKnightsul. Przedzamcze.Little more than ruins remainof the castle that the TeutonicKnights built in Toruń. Beforethe castle at Malbork (seepp264–5) was built, Toruńwas the knights’ capital.The castle was built in the13th century and extendedin the 14th. However, it wasdestroyed in 1454 when thepeople of Toruń rose up inrebellion against the knights.Only the latrine tower – atower overhanging a streamthat acted as a sewer – wereleft standing, although partof the cellars and cloisterssurvive. The late Gothichouse that was built on thesite in 1489, probably withmaterials scavenged fromthe castle, was the meetinghouse of the Brotherhoodof St George.Gothic tower of the Church of StJames in the new townNICOLAUS COPERNICUSNicolaus Copernicus (MikołajKopernik; 1473–1543), astronomer,mathematician, economist, doctor andclergyman, was born in Toruń. Formost of his life he lived in Warmia.He wrote treatises on economics,but gained the greatest renown forhis astronomical observations. Hisheliocentric theory of the universe,which he expounded in DeRevolutionibus Orbium Celestium(1543), posited the fact that theplanets rotate around the Sun.P New Market SquareThe new town emerged asa separate civic entity in1264. Although it doesnot have as many historicbuildings as the old town,there is a good deal ofinterest here. In summerthe square is filled with fruitand vegetable stalls.In the centre, where thetown hall once stood, is aformer Protestant church,built in 1824, probably bythe German architect KarlFriedrich Schinkel. It hasbeen converted into a galleryof contemporary art. Finehouses, some with ornatefaçades like that of theBaroque house at No. 17,surround the square.On the corner of UlicaKrólowej Jadwigi and thesquare is the Golden Lionpharmacy, a brick-builthouse originating in the15th century.R Church of St Jamesul. Rynek Nowomiejski 6.Tel 056 622 29 24.The Gothic Church of StJames (Kościoł św Jakuba)was built in the first half ofthe 14th century as the newtown’s parish church. It wasfirst used by Cistercian monks,and then by Benedictines.It contains wall paintings ofthe second half of the 14thcentury. In the south aisleis a late 14th-century GothicCrucifix in the form of theTree of Life, in which thefigure of Christ is nailedto the branches of a treecontaining the figures of theprophets. Above the roodbeam is a rare depiction ofthe Passion of about 1480–90,consisting of 22 scenes of theStations of the Cross.E Ethnographical Museumul. Wały gen. Sikorskiego 19. Tel 056622 80 91. # mid-Apr–Jun: 9am–5pm Tue–Fri (to 4pm Wed & Fri),10am–6pm Sat & Sun; Jul–Sep: 10am–6pm Tue, Thu, Sat & Sun, 9am–4pmWed & Fri; Oct–mid-Apr: 9am–4pmTue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat & Sun. &The museum contains fishingtools and folk art. There is alsoa skansen, in which woodenhouses from the region ofKujawy, Pomerania and ZiemiaDobrzyńska are displayed.Renaissance epitaph toCopernicus in Toruń
  • 251. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 2 7 5Sunset over the lakelands of northeast PolandWarmia, the western partof the region, was onceinhabited by the earlyPrussians, and in the 13thcentury was taken over bythe Teutonic Knights, whoestablished a bishopric here.Warmia became part of Poland in1466. Under the Partitions it wastransferred to Prussia, and was notreturned to Poland until 1945.Warmia has many historic churches.Mazuria and the Iława Lake Districtat its southern and eastern fringes werealso once controlled by the TeutonicKnights. When the order was secular-ized in 1525, the region becameknown as ducal Prussia and was ruledby the Hohenzollern family, althoughuntil 1657 it was a Polish fiefdom. Thearea’s subsequent history is linked tothat of Germany, and it did notbecome part of Poland again until1945. Many castles werebuilt by the Knights andsome Prussian mansionscan be seen here today.The Suwałki andAugustów lakelands andBiałostocczyzna form theregion’s eastern part, whichonce belonged to the grandduchy of Lithuania. The area wascovered in primeval forests, and three– the Augustów, Knyszyńska andBiałowieża forests – remain today.The Biebrza valley contains Poland’slargest stretches of marshland andpeat swamps and offers plenty for nat-uralists. Those interested in religiousculture are also well served: theOrthodox church in Grabarka, the oldmonastery of the Orthodox order ofSt Basil in Supraśl, the mosque inKruszyniany and the synagogue inTykocin represent a panoply of faiths.WARMIA, MAZURIA ANDBIAŁYSTOK REGIONKnown as the land of a thousand lakes, northeastern Poland isblessed with vast forests and undulating moraine hills as wellas a large number of lakes and rivers. There are no majorindustrial areas. Its three regions, Warmia, Mazuria and Białostoc-czyzna, are ethnically diverse and have had very different histories.View from the belfry of Frombork Cathedral
  • 252. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 7 6Baroque façade of the Jesuitchurch in Święta LipkaExploring Warmia, Mazuriaand Białystok RegionNortheastern Poland is an ideal place for alonger holiday. It is suitable for watersportssuch as sailing trips on the Mazurian Lakes orcanoeing expeditions down the Czarna Hańczaor Krutynia rivers, and there are also plenty ofopportunities for cycling tours. For unspoiledprimeval scenery, the Białowieża Forest NationalPark with its bison reserve and the Biebrzamarshes, with their population of nesting birds,are almost without equal.Białowieża National Park pBiałystok iBiebrza National Park tBraniewo 2Dobre Miasto 5Drohiczyn sElbląg 3Frombork 1Grabarka aThe Great Mazurian Lakespp284–5 eGrunwald 8Kętrzyn wSIGHTS AT A GLANCEKruszyniany oLidzbark Warmiński 6Łomża yMorąg 4Nidzica 9Olsztyn 7Reszel 0Święta Lipka qTykocin uToursCanoeing on the Czarna HańczaRiver and Augustów Canal rSzczurkowo, a village where storksoutnumber peopleFor additional map symbols see back flap
  • 253. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 7 7GETTING AROUNDThe main road is Highway No.16 from Grudziądz via Olsztyn toAugustów. Highway E77 goesfrom the south to Elbląg,highway 51 runs from Olsztyn tothe border with the RussianKaliningrad District, whilehighway 8 links Augustów withBiałystok. Charter flights departfrom Szymany, the region’s onlyairport, near the town ofSzczytno, and there are alsoconnections with some airportsin Germany. There are rail linkswith all major towns, and buseslink other towns in the region.SEE ALSO• Where to Stay pp310–11.• Restaurants and Bars p327.The forests of Suwalszczyzna, carpeted with mushroomsKEYMain roadMinor roadMain railwayMinor railwayInternational borderRegional borderPeak0 km0 miles1010
  • 254. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 7 8For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp310–11 and p327Frombork 1The history of this fortified town goes back to thesecond half of the 13th century, when it became aWarmian chapter (diocesan capital). The Gothiccathedral, which was erected in 1342–88, has anunusual form, with no towers on its west end, giving itthe appearance of a Cistercian monastery, and an eight-bay nave that allowed each member of the chapter tohave a separate altar. There are also several canons’stalls in the chancel. The cathedral is surrounded bydefensive walls set with towers and pierced by a largemain gate in its south side. In the cathedral groundsare a bishop’s palace and chapterhouse.Former High AltarCommissioned by BishopŁukasz Watzenrode,uncle of NicolausCopernicus, the highaltar was made in Toruńin 1504. It is in the formof a polyptych and is nowin the south aisle. Thecentral panel has acarving of the Virgin,depicted as a Maidenof the Apocalypse.Altar of St AnneThe Altar ofSt Anne, inthe northaisle, has asits focal pointthis subtlepainting of1639 bythe GdańskartistBartholomäusStrobel.OrganThe instrument wasmade by DanielNitrowski of Gdańskin 1683–4.MaingateCopernicusTowerThe BelfryAlso known as theCopernicus Tower, ithouses a planetarium.High AltarDesigned by FranciszekPlacidi in 1742–52, the highaltar is almost identical tothat in the collegiate churchat Dobre Miasto (see p280).The central panel is apainting of the Virginby Stefan Torelli.Bishop’s PalaceThe palace nowhouses theCopernicusMuseum.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map D1. Cathedral #9am–4pm Mon–Sat. CopernicusTower # 9:30am–5pm Tue–Sat(summer). Museum Tel 055 24400 75. # 9am–4pm Tue–Sun (to4:30 in summer). PlanetariumTel 055 244 00 83. # 9:30am–5pm daily. & Summer organrecitals noon, 3pm. 8
  • 255. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 7 9Braniewo 2Road map D1. * 17,100.@ £ www.braniewo.plThe fortified townof Braniewo wasfounded by theTeutonic Knights in1250. It was the seatof the bishops ofWarmia and laterbecame the dio-cesan capital ofWarmia. Amember of the HanseaticLeague, the town was a busyport and grew prosperousthrough the linen trade.During the Counter-Reformation it played animportant role as the firstJesuit centre in Poland: theHosianum Jesuit College wasfounded here in 1565, and apapal college set up in 1578.Just 8 km (5 miles) of theRussian border, Braniewo hasbecome an important transitpoint for travellers crossingfrom one country into theother. Although it sufferedsevere damage during WorldWar II, several fine buildingsare still to be seen here.THE ELBLĄG CANALThe Elbląg Canal is one of the most extraordinary feats ofhydraulic engineering in Poland. A network of canals andlocks connecting a number of lakes, it was built in 1848–72by the Dutchman Georg Jacob Steenke. Including itsbranches, its total length is 212 km (133 miles). Ingeniousslipways enable barges to be hauled overland from one laketo another where the difference in the water levels is toohigh for conventional locks to be built: there are fiveslipways along the 10-km (6-mile) section betweenBuczyniec and Całuny,and from the canalsideships can be seen beinghauled along them. Youcan book a boat trip alongthe canal that will take youthrough the Vistula valleyand Iława Lake District.R Church of theVirgin Maryul. Kuśnierska 6. Tel 055 232 53 86.# 10am–6pm Mon–Sat, 10am–5pmSun. www.galeria-el.plThis Gothic church with adouble aisle was built forDominican monks in the 14thcentury. After World War II itbecame the EL art gallery.R Church of St Catherineul. Katedralna. Tel 055 243 24 29.The nave of the GothicChurch of St Catherine(Kościół św Katarzyny) datesfrom 1343–81 and thevaulting and tower from the15th century. War damagereduced the church to littlemore than ruins, but it hasbeen extensively restored.R Church ofSt Anthonyul. Królewiecka.Tel 055 243 23 88.The Neo-Classical Churchof St Anthony (Kościół śwAntoniego) was built in1830–38 by the Germanarchitect Karl FriedrichSchinkel. OriginallyProtestant, it is nowa Catholic church.P Tower of theBishop’s Castleul. Gdańska. ¢ to the public.The tower, built in the 13thcentury as a town gate, ledfrom the Castle of the Bishopsof Warmia to a close linking itto the town walls.Elbląg 3Road map D1. * 127,000. @ £www.elblag.plOnce a large port on a parwith Gdańsk, Elbląg istoday known for its largeABB engineering plant, itsrestored old town and forproducing the beer Specjal,which is popular in thePomerania region. Foundedin 1246 by the TeutonicKnights, the town was partof the Polish Republic from1466 to 1772, when under thePartitions it passed to Prussianrule. After the devastation ofWorld War II, only the mostimportant old buildings ofElbląg were rebuilt. TheBrama Targowa toweris all that remains of theformer Gothic fortificationsthat surrounded the town.In the old town, just afew town houses, on UlicaWigilijna, survive. Today aprogramme of rebuilding isunder way; new houses inthe style of the old Hanseaticmerchants’ houses, withstairways and their typicalgables, are revitalizing theold town. The quarter iswell provided with friendlybars and good restaurants.R Church of St Nicholasul. Mostowa 18.Tel 055 232 69 79 or 232 45 85.The Church of St Nicholas(Kościół św Mikołaja) wasbegun in the 13th centuryand completed in 1510.The interior includes a fontfrom 1387 by Bernhuser,a Crucifixion ascribed toJan van der Matten anda late Gothic altar withthe Adoration of the Magi.Postmodern houses in the oldtown of ElblągThe EL art gallery in the Church ofthe Virgin MaryChurch of St Catherinein Braniewo
  • 256. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 8 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp310–11 and p327Morąg 4Road map D2. * 14,900. £ @n pl. Jana Pawła II 1 (089 757 3826). www.morag.plLocated in the lakelands ofIławski Morąg, the town ofMorąg was founded by theTeutonic Knights – like allother towns in the region. Itreceived its municipal charterin 1327. Despite joining thePrussian Union, Morągremained part of the stateof the Teutonic Knights,and up until 1945 its historywas linked to that of ducalPrussia. In the town are theremains of a 14th-centuryTeutonic castle, a Gothictown hall that was rebuiltafter World War II, and theChurch of St Joseph (Kościółśw Józefa), built in the 14thcentury and extended in thelate 15th, with Gothicpolychromes from that time.Morąg is the birthplaceof the German philosopherGottfried von Herder (seebelow). A museum dedicatedto him is housed in a Baroquepalace that once belonged tothe Dohn family.E Johann Gottfried vonHerder Museumul. Dąbrowskiego 54. Tel 089 75728 48. # 9am–5pm Tue–Sun. &Dobre Miasto 5Road map E2. * 11,000. £ @www.dobremiasto.com.plFounded in 1329, DobreMiasto owes its historicalimportance to the fact that 18years later, in 1347, it becamethe seat of a college of canonsInterior of the Gothic collegiatechurch in Dobre Miastoof the diocese of Warmia.The vast Gothic collegiatechurch that they establishedwas contructed in the secondhalf of the 14th century.Its impressive interiorincludes two Gothic side altarsas well as a Baroque highaltar almost identical in designto that made by FranciszekPlacidi for Frombork Cathedral(see p278). The church alsopossesses richly decoratedBaroque stalls down eachside, which have remarkableGothic steps carved intothem in the shape of lions.LidzbarkWarmiński 6Road map E1. * 17,200. £ @www.lidzbarkwarminski.plFrom 1350 to 1795 Lidzbarkwas the main residence of thebishops of Warmia, and oneof the region’s major towns.Picturesquely set on a bendof the River Łyna, the town isdominated by the medievalBishops’ Castle. The massiveedifice with corner towerswas built in the second half ofthe 14th century. Of specialinterest are the Palace ofBishop Grabowski and theGreat Refectory in the eastwing, the castle’s Rococochapel and armoury in thesouth wing, the SmallRefectory in the west wingand the bishops’ privateapartments located in the northwing. The cloistered courtyardis decorated with murals. Theastronomer NicolausCopernicus (see p273) livedhere as secretary and physicianto his uncle, Bishop Łukaszvon Wantzenrode, in 1503–10.The castle now houses theWarmia Museum and a barand art gallery in its cellars.On the opposite bank ofthe Łyna, in the historic towncentre, stands the fine GothicChurch of Saints Peter and Paul(Kościół św Piotra i Pawła).There are also remnants ofthe city walls, and the maingate, the Brama Wysoka, stillstands. The former Protestantchurch (now Orthodox)nearby was built in 1821–3by Karl Friedrich Schinkel.E Regional Museumpl. Zamkowy 1. Tel 089 767 21 11.# 9am–4pm Tue–Sun (Jun–Aug: to5pm). www.muzeum.olsztyn.plOn display is a selection ofWarmian art and a uniquecollection of icons from theConvent of the Old Believers’in Wojnowo (see p284).R Church of Saints Peterand Paulul. Kościelna 1. Tel 089 767 40 95.The Gothic cloisters of the Bishop’sCastle in LidzbarkJOHANN GOTTFRIED VON HERDER (1744–1803)The German writer and philosopherJohann Gottfried von Herder, who wasborn in Morąg, was one of the greatfigures of the Enlightenment. Hestudied theology in Königsberg(Kaliningrad) before entering the priest-hood. He saw the importance of nationsin the making of history and the roleof culture and language inpreserving national identity.While living in Riga, herecorded Latvian folk songs.
  • 257. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 8 1Olsztyn 7Road map E2. * 158,000. £ @n ul. Staromiejska 1 (089 535 3565). # 8:30am–4pm Mon–Fri,9am–noon Sat. _ Olsztyn BluesNights; Castle Poetry Readings (Jul).www.um.olsztyn.plOlsztyn is the largest city inWarmia and Mazuria andthe main town of the tworegions. It is a centre of bothacademic and cultural life aswell as a major city. It is alsoassociated with severalsporting heroes, particularly inspeedway and aerobatics. Ithosts the various events thatmake up the Olsztyn SummerArts festival (see p33).The Gothic Castle of theWarmian Chapter, which wasbuilt in the 14th century,formed the beginning of thecity. The castle was built on ahill on the banks of the Łyna.It was a four-sided fortress ofmodest proportions withresidential quarters in thenorth wing and a servicewing to the south. The palacein the east wing was addedin 1756–8. The finest part ofthe building is the refectory,which has intricate crystallinevaulting. On the wall of thecloister is a remarkablediagram of an equinoxprobably drawn by NicolausCopernicus, who combinedhis duties as an administratorof the chapter in Olsztynwith his astronomical obser-vations. The castle nowhouses the Museum ofWarmia andMazuria, whichhas a specialThe High Gate, part of the defences ofOlsztyn old townsection dedicated to NicolausCopernicus. The first floorcontains an ethnographicaland natural history collection.The castle’s fortificationswere linked to the city walls,which were built after 1353on the far side of the moat.The moat today has an open-air theatre that is used forconcerts in summer.In the picturesque old townof Olsztyn, set on a slope, areremnants of the walls and theHigh Gate. The quaint littleMarket Square surrounded byarcaded houses was builtduring the post-warreconstruction of the city,but the houses retain theiroriginal cellars, which todayare given over to bars,restaurants and cafés.Standing in the middle ofthe square is a Baroquetown hall, whose wingswere added in 1927–9.Another important buildingin the Market Square is theGothic Cathedral of St James(Katedra św Jakuba), mostprobably built between1380 and 1445. Thevery fine crystallinevaulting was added inthe early 16th century.E Museum ofWarmia and Mazuriaul. Zamkowa 2. Tel 089527 95 96. # 9am–4pmTue–Sun (1 May–3 Sep:to 5pm).www.muzeum.olsztyn.plR Cathedral ofSt Jamesul. Staszica 12.Tel 089 527 32 80.EnvironsBarczewo, 10 km (6 miles)east of Olsztyn, is the birth-place of Feliks Nowowiejski(1877–1946), composer ofthe Rota, a patriotic Polishanthem. His family homecontains a small museum.Halfway between Olsztynand Nidzica, in the localEthnography Park, lies thecountry’s oldest open airmuseum of folk architecture,including traditional woodenwindmills, arts and crafts.The Castle of the Warmian Chapter in OlsztynE Feliks NowowiejskiMuseumul. Mickiewicza 13. Tel 089 514 8549. # 9–11am Tue, noon–5pmWed, 9am–2pm Fri, 9am–1pm Sat.E Budownictwa LudowegoOpen Air Museumul. Sportowa 21. Tel 089519 21 64. # Apr:9am–3pm Tue–Sun;May–Oct: 9am–6pm daily (Sep:to 4:30pm;Oct: to3:30pm).
  • 258. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 8 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–11 and p327The monument to the Battle ofGrunwald outside the townHindenburg deliberatelychose this site for hisvictorious battle against theRussians in order to negatethe memory of that defeat.The monument to themedieval Battle of Grunwaldthat stands on the site wasdesigned by Jerzy Banduraand Witold Cęckiewicz andunveiled in 1960. Nearbyis a small museum with acollection of documents aboutthe battle and archaeologicalfinds from the site. Forseveral years the battle’sanniversary has been markedby re-enactments of theengagement as it is describedin chronicles.E Museum of the Battleof Grunwald in StębarkStębark 1. Tel 089 647 22 27.# May–Oct: 8am–6pm daily.Nidzica. This large rock,with a circumference of 19 m(63 ft), marks the spot where,according to legend, theleader of the Tartars waskilled in 1656, thussparing Nidzica frominvasion in 1656.Reszel 0Road Map E1. * 5,400. @www.reszel.plThis little town was once amajor Warmian city. It wasgranted a municipal charter in1337 and in the second half ofthe 14th century a GothicCastle for the Bishops ofWarmia was built here. Thecastle’s tower commands asplendid view over the town.The castle is now a hotel andalso houses a gallery ofcontemporary art.There are two churches:the Gothic Church of SaintsPeter and Paul, built inthe 14th century with theaddition oflate 15th-centuryCastle for the Bishops of Warmia,built to repulse Lithuanian attacksThe Gothic Castle of the Teutonic Knights in NidzicaGrunwald 8Road Map E2. * 420. @_ Battle of Grunwald (15 Jul).The fields betweenGrunwald and Stębark(Tannenberg in German)were the scene of one of thegreatest battles of the MiddleAges. On 15 July 1410, theforces of the Teutonic Knights– some 14,000 cavalry plusinfantry commanded byUlrich von Jungingen, theGrand Master of theTeutonic Knights – faced24,000 Polish-Lithuanian andRuthenian cavalry andseveral thousand infantry ledby Władysław II Jagiełło. Theknights suffered a resoundingdefeat, and the Grand Masterhimself was killed. Historiansbelieve that during WorldWar I, in August 1914, theGerman Field MarshalNidzica 9Road Map E2. * 15,200. £ @n pl. Wolności 1 (089 625 07 11)._ Nidzica Festival (May).www.nidzica.plThe main feature of Nidzica isthe Teutonic Castle, whichoverlooks the town from ahill. It was built in the late1300s and altered in the 16thcentury. Reduced to ruins, itwas rebuilt in the 1800sand again after World War II.Part of it is now a hotel.Some of the town’s medievalfortifications also survive.EnvironsThe Tartars’ Stone lies 2 km(just over 1 mile) south of
  • 259. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 8 3vaulting, and the formerChurch of St John the Baptist,now an Orthodox church,built in 1799–1800 in theBaroque style.E Castle Galleryul. Podzamcze 4. Tel 089 755 0759. # 10am–8pm daily.Crystalline vaulting in the Churchof St George in KętrzynTrompe l’oeil paintings in the pilgrimage church in Święta LipkaŚwięta Lipka qRoad Map E2. * 190. @_ Święta Lipka Music Evenings(Jun–Aug). www.swieta-lipka.plŚwięta Lipka has one of themost important shrines of thecult of the Virgin in Poland.The name of the town means“holy lime” (or linden tree),and the legend that grew upconcerns a miraculoussculpture of the Virgin thatwas carved by a prisoner inthe 15th century and hungfrom a roadside lime tree. Achapel containing the statueof the Virgin, destroyed duringthe Reformation, was builtaround it. The land was partof ducal Prussia. In 1619 aKętrzyn wRoad Map E1. * 28,300. £ @www.ketrzyn.plFrom the 14th century,Kętrzyn was the seat of theProsecutor of the TeutonicKnights, who built the castlethat can still be seen today.Kętrzyn then passed to Prussiaand later Germany, butretained a sizeable Polishpopulation. The original namefor the town was Rastembork;in 1946 it was renamed inhonour of the Polish nationalactivist Wojciech Kętrzyński.The old town was almostentirely flattened during WorldWar II: only the town wallsand the Church of St George(Kościół św Jerzego) survived.Its exterior is modest, but theinterior is impressive – itsfinest decoration is the crys-talline vaulting of around 1515.EnvironsTen km (6 miles) east ofKętrzyn is Gierłoż, locationof the “Wolf’s Lair”, AdolfHitler’s headquarters in 1940.It consisted of dozens ofreinforced concrete bunkersbuilt in woodland. There wasalso an airfield, railway linesand a power station. Here,on 20 July 1944, the Germanofficer Claus von Stauffenbergmade an unsuccessful attempton Hitler’s life. The lair wasnever discovered by theAllies, and the bunkers wereblown up by the withdrawingGermans in January 1945.temporary chapel was builthere, followed in 1687–93 bya proper church, which wascared for by the Jesuits. In1694–1708 cloisters andoutside chapels were addedand the façade and belfrywere completed in 1729.During the Counter-Reformation Święta Lipka wasa Catholic stronghold withinProtestant ducal Prussia.Large donations were madefor decorating the church,resulting in one of the finestand most intriguing examplesof Baroque art in Poland.The interior containsfrescoes, including trompel’oeil paintings in the domeby Mathias Mayer, and thehigh altar has an image of theVirgin dating from about1640. The figure organ builtin 1721 by Johann Mosengelof Królewiec (Königsberg) isa great attraction for bothtourists and pilgrims. Insummer, about eight organrecitals are given every day,and during some of them thefigures in the organ loft areset in motion.
  • 260. The Great Mazurian Lakes eThe Great Mazurian Lakes are the largest in Poland anda popular holiday spot in summer. Despite this, thecountryside remains largely unspoiled, and many rare plantsand birds thrive here. The lakes are interlinked by riversand canals, and are suitable for yachting or canoeing trips.Another way to see the region is to take a cruise aboarda ship of the Mazurian Shipping Company or to drivealong the roads that wind among the lakeside trees.The district is a paradise for ramblers and for those whodelight in discovering secret spots. Its woods concealovergrown bunkers built by the Germans in World War II.P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 8 4For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp310–11 and p327The Pranie Forester’sHouse Museum honoursthe poet KonstantyIldefons Gałczynski(1905–53), who spent thelast days of his life here.RynThe castle that towers overthe town was built byKonrad Wallenrod, GrandMaster of the TeutonicKnights, for his brotherFrederick in 1394. It wasrebuilt in the EnglishGothic style in 1853.MikołajkiThe summer capital of the Mazurian Lake District isthe location of its main yachting marina. A varietyof vessels – from sailing dinghies, yachts and canoesto motorboats – are available for hire.WojnowoThe church, cemeteryand convent atWojnowo were built bythe Old Believers, whofled Russia in the 18thand 19th centuries.Sztynort, once the residence ofthe Prussian Lehndorff family,stands on a large peninsula.Some of the oak trees in thepark surrounding the houseare three centuries old.
  • 261. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 8 5The local historymuseum in Piszfeatures a granitecolumn with a humanface known as thePrussian Woman.GiżyckoIn the woods besidethe town, on anisthmus between thelakes, is the grimPrussian BoyenCastle, which wasbuilt in 1844.Lake NiegocinLike most othersin the region, thelake is popularwith watersportsenthusiasts andswimmers. Holidayresorts andcampsites arescattered aroundthe lakes.Water LiliesSeveral varieties ofwater lily can be seenin the region’s lakes.Lake Śniardwy is not verydeep but, covering an areaof 106 sq km (40 sq miles),it is the largest in Poland.WILD SWANSLake Łuknajno, which is listed by UNESCO as aWorld Biosphere Reserve, has become one of Poland’sfinest nature reserves for wild swans. The fact thatthe lake is shallow – its average depth does not exceed1.5 m (4 ft) – makes it easy for the birds to feed on theweed that grows on the lakebed. In 1922 eggs laid bythe swans of Lake Łuknajno were used to regenerateBerlin’s swan population.Lake Łuknajno attractswildlife photographersfrom all over the world,lured by the chance ofan unforgettable shot.To safeguard the naturalhabitat, boats are notallowed on the lake.VISITORS’ CHECKLISTRoad map F1, F2, E2. @ £Giżycko, Pisz, Ruciane Nida.n Mikołajki (087 421 68 50).Mazurian Shipping CompanyGiżycko. Tel 087 428 53 32.Pisz Regional MuseumTel 087 423 22 64. # 1 Oct–30 Apr: 8am–3pm daily; 1 May–30 Sep: 8am–4pm daily.A swan on Lake ŁuknajnoKEYMajor roadMinor roadViewpoint0 km0 miles1010
  • 262. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 8 8CamaldoliteMonastery 2This monasterystands on thepeninsula in LakeWigry. The mon-astery buildings havebeen converted into ahotel. Beyond, theCzarna Hańcza Riverflows from the lake.The Czarna Hańcza River 3The most beautiful stretch ofthe Czarna Hańcza, beyond thevillage of Wysoki Most, takes ameandering route. All aroundis the Augustów Forest.Locks 5The Augustów Canal connects theRiver Niemen with the River Biebrzaand, further on, with the Vistula,passing through several locks on theway. Built in 1823–39, the canal wasa great engineering achievement.Rygol 4Here the river forks,its right arm joining theAugustów Canal.Canoeists may strayoff the route andfollow the canalleading to the borderwith Belarus, but theymust turn back at thelast lock before theborder, which is closed.Lake Wigry 1Lake Wigry, in Wigry NationalPark, is the largest lake in theSuwałki region. Part of the “silentzone”, it has numerous islands.Canoeing on the CzarnaHańcza and Augustów Canal rThis is one of the most beautiful canoeing routes inPoland. In some places the narrow, winding RiverCzarna Hańcza is as swift as a mountain stream; inothers its course slows as its banks widen. The routedownstream passes swamps and lakes and goes throughlocks on the Augustów Canal thathave remained almost unchangedsince the time that they were builtat the beginning of the 19thcentury. Canoe trips may be madeindividually or in organized groups.One of the many clear lakes in northeast Poland
  • 263. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 8 9BiebrzaNational Park tRoad map F2. @ n OsowiecNational Park Management (085738 30 00). & tickets available inthe management office, foresters’lodges and gamekeepers’ cottages.www.biebrza.org.plBiebrza National Park is oneof the wildest places in Europe,untouched by human activity.It stretches for 70 km (50 miles)along the banks of the RiverBiebrza and contains Poland’slargest swamps, which arehome to a wide variety ofwildlife. A close encounter witha moose is a distinct possibility.The greatest attraction of theswamps, however, is their richbird life; over 260 species livehere, and bird-watchers fromafar come to the swamps toobserve them. The mostinteresting swamp for bird lifeis Red Swamp (CzerwoneBagno), part of a strictlyprotected nature reserveaccessible only by means of awooden walkway. Walkwayshave also been installed inother parts of the park. Awalk along the red tourist trailholds a range of attractions –although you may have towade through mud to reachthem. Visitors may hire a guideand tour the swamps in a punt,or descend the River Biebrza ina canoe, for which a ticket andthe permission of the parkmanagement are required.In Osowiec, in the middleof the swamps, there is abeaver reserve. Nearby standthe partly blown-up walls ofa Russian redoubt. Althoughit was impregnable, theRussians, fearful of theGerman offensive,abandoned it in 1915.Łomża yRoad map F2. * 62,000. £ @www.lomza.plŁomża is a large provincialtown with many distinguishedbuildings. Its Gothic cathedral,built in the 16th century bythe last dukes of Mazovia, hasa number of notable features:in particular, the cellular andstar vaulting of its interior,the silver reliefs on the highaltar, and the tombs ofAndrzej Modliszewski, mayorof Łomża, his wife and theirson. The tombs are the workof Santi Gucci. The Capuchinchurch and regional museumare also of interest.EnvironsIn Nowogród, set on a highbank of the River Narew,15 km (9 miles) northwestof Łomża, is a skansen inwhich the houses and otherbuildings of a typical Kurpievillage are displayed. Openedin 1927, it is one of the oldestskansens in Poland.Augustów 6Augustów is a major touristtown with many hotels,guesthouses and restcentres. There is alarge yachting marinaon the canal.Białobrzegi 7Canoeing tripsusually end inAugustów, butcanoeists maycontinue along theAugustów Canalthrough Białobrzegisouthwards to the swampson the River Biebrza.Typical landscape of theAugustów lake districtTIPS FOR CANOEISTSStarting point for canoe trips:Stary Folwark or Wigry.Length: About 100 km (62 miles).Stopping-off places: There arecampsites and bivouacs along theroute. You may also stay by thelocks and PTTK riverside hostels.0 km0 miles55Meadows covered by the floodwaters of the River BiebrzaStar vaulting over the nave ofŁomża CathedralKEYCanoeing routeMain roadOther roadViewpointFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp310–11 and p327
  • 264. P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N2 9 0For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp310–11 and p327Białystok iRoad Map F2. * 295,000. £ @n ul. Malmeda 6 (085 732 68 31)._ Białystok Days (around 20 Jun).www.bialystok.plBiałystok is the largest townin northeast Poland. Itspopulation is both Polish andBelarussian, something thatcan easily be read in thecityscape: the domes of theOrthodox church rise up nextto the towers of the Catholicchurch, and there are manyBelarussian cultural institu-tions. Białystok was onceowned by the Branicki family;indeed, the layout of the townis dominated by theirformer residence,Branicki Palace.The Baroquepalace was built byTylman van Gamerenin the 17th centuryand extended by JanZygmunt Deybel –who gave it theappearance of a royalmansion – between1728 and 1758. It wasmodelled on thePalace of Versailles,and a formal park, withterraces, canals, fountains,summer houses andnumerous sculptures,was laid out around it.Like other members ofthe high aristocracy,Jan Klemens Branicki,royal field commanderand an extremelywealthy man in hisown right, maintained hisown private army. He wasalso a connoisseur of art.In political circles, however,he was unpopular, opposingreform and contributing to theruin of Poland. Parts of thepalace now house the town’smedical academy.Another interesting buildingis the Church of St Roch(Kościół św Rocha), a delicateconstruction in reinforcedconcrete, designed by OskarSosnkowski, and builtbeween 1927 and 1946. TheBaroque town hall in theMarket Square houses aRegional Museum.+ Branicki Palaceul. Kilińskiego 1. Tel 085 742 20 21.R Church of St Rochul. ks. Abramowicza 1. Tel 085 65210 58 or 652 06 33.E Regional MuseumRynek Kościuszki 10. Tel 085 74214 73. # 10am–5pm Tue–Sun.Tykocin uRoad Map F2. * 1,800. @n ul. Złota 2 (085 718 16 13).The town of Tykocinwas granted amunicipal charterin 1425. In 1659 itwas given to StefanCzarnecki, hero ofthe bitter wars withSweden, in recog-nition of his serviceto the king and toPoland. It laterpassed to the royalfield commander JanKlemens Branicki.The town owes itspresent appearanceto renovation –financed byBranicki – thatwas carried outafter a fire in 1741.In the centre of theMarket Square there standsa Baroque monument toStefan Czarnecki that wascarved between 1761 and1763 by the court sculptorPierre Coudray. The parishchurch on the east side ofthe square was built a littleearlier, in 1750. The Baroquesynagogue, which datesfrom 1642, is a relic ofthe town’s former Jewishpopulation. Inside, thewalls are inscribed withreligious quotations inHebrew and Aramaic. Thesynagogue now containsthe Tykocin Museum.E Tykocin Museumul. Kozia 2. Tel 085 718 16 26.# 10am–5pm Tue–Sun. &The synagogue in Tykocin, now aRegional MuseumKruszyniany oRoad Map G2. * 110.Kruszyniany and nearbyBohoniki count among theirinhabitants the descendants ofthe Tartars who settled herein the 17th century. Althoughthey became fully integratedinto the community a longtime ago, their Muslim faithand customs live on.Descendants of the Tartarsalso live in the Podlasievillages of Nietupy, Łużynyand Drahle. Kruszyniany hasa charming wooden mosque,originating in the 18th centuryand rebuilt in 1843. Thetombstones in the Muslimgraveyard face Mecca.Wooden mosque in Kruszyniany, built by the descendants of the TartarsStatue byJ.C. Redler atBranicki Palace inBiałystok
  • 265. W A R M I A , M A Z U R I A A N D B I A Ł Y S T O K R E G I O N 2 9 11944. Only an Orthodoxchurch remains.Białowieża National Parkhas been listed by UNESCO asa World Biosphere Reserve.E Białowieża ForestMuseumPalace Park Botanical Gardens.Tel 085 681 22 75. # 9am–4pmdaily (Apr–Sep: to 4:30pm).Drohiczyn sRoad Map F3. * 21,000. @n ul. Kraszewskiego 13 (085 65570 69). www.drohiczyn.plDrohiczyn, set on a highbank of the Bug River, istoday a small, quiet town.As early as the 13th century,however, it was a majorcentre of trade, and in 1520 itbecame the provincial capitalof Podlasie. In 1795, with theThird Partition of Poland, itwas demoted to the status ofan ordinary village.The oldest surviving churchin the town is the BaroqueFranciscan church, datingfrom 1640–60. The cathedral,originally a Jesuit church,dates from 1696–1709. Nearbystands the former Jesuitmonastery, later taken overby the Piarists. The strikingBenedictine church, begunin 1744, has a typicallyBaroque undulating façadeand elliptical interior. TheOrthodox church, originallyGreek Catholic, dates from1792. To the east of the town,along the winding Bug River,lies a park, the Podlasie BugRiver Gorge.BiałowieżaNational Park pRoad Map G3. @ n Park Pałacowy5 (085 681 23 06 or 681 23 60).www.bpn.com.plThe Białowieża Forest,covering almost 1,500 sqkm (580 sq miles), is the largestnatural forest in Europe. Itlies partly in Poland andpartly in Belarus. The larger –Belarussian – part is virtuallyinaccessible to tourists; thePolish part became a nationalpark in 1932. Many parts ofthe park have preserved theirnatural character – that of aprimeval forest. The areas ofgreatest interest may bevisited only with a guide.Recently, the park’s bordershave been extended on thePolish side.The forest has an impressiveabundance of flora and fauna.There are several thousandspecies of plants and 11,000species of animals, includingmany very rare birds, such asthe capercaillie, black stork andgolden eagle. Larger mammalsinclude elk, deer, roe deer,wild boar, wolf, lynx and, mostfamously, the European bison.On the road running throughthe forest there is a bison-breeding centre and enclosureswhere bison, deer, wild boarand Polish ponies can be seen.The park also has a forestmuseum, whose exhibits wereonce housed in a brick huntinglodge used by the tsars. It wastorched by German forces inGrabarka aRoad Map F3. * 50. £ Nurzec.@ Orthodox convent Tel 085 65500 10. www.grabarka.plFor Poland’s OrthodoxChristians, there is no moreimportant place of pilgrimagein the country than the HolyMountain outside Grabarka.The story goes that in 1770,when the plague wasravaging the town, theinhabitants of Grabarka weredirected by a heavenly sign toerect a cross on the hill. TheEUROPEAN BISONThe European bison (Bison bonasus) is the largest mammalnative to Europe. The weight of an adult bull may reach 1,000kg (2,200 lb). The largest population of bison ever recorded– 1,500 animals – was in Białowieża in 1860. Hunting theseanimals has always been restricted, but by World War I(1914–18) the species faced extinction. In 1929, several bisonwere brought to Poland fromzoos in Sweden andGermany to be bredin their naturalhabitat. The firstwere set free inBiałowieża NationalPark in 1952. Today bison canalso be seen in the other greatforests of Poland, includingBorecka, Knyszyńska andNiepołomice (see p162).Baroque façade of the Benedictinechurch in Drohiczynplague passed and the hillbecame a hallowed site.To this day its slopes arecovered with hundreds ofvotive crosses. The originalwooden church, destroyedby an arsonist in 1990, wasreplaced by a brick-builtchurch. The Orthodoxconvent next to it is theonly one in Poland.Part of the forest of crosses on theHoly Mountain outside GrabarkaThe European bison
  • 267. T R A V E L L E R S ’ N E E D S2 9 4Only a few years ago the stand-ard of Polish hotels wasmuch lower than that oftheir Western European counter-parts. Since 1989, however, manynew luxury hot