THE OLD AND NEW TOWNS 60 THE ROYAL ROUTE 72 THE CITY CENTRE 82 FURTHER AFIELD 92 WARSAW STREET FINDER 98–103 Horsedrawn carriages in Zakopane TRAVELLERS’ ENTERTAINMENT IN NEEDS POLAND 334 WHERE TO SURVIVAL STAY 294 GUIDE WHERE TO PRACTICAL EAT 312 INFORMATION 342 SHOPPING IN TRAVEL INFORMATION POLAND 328 352 Lion from Namiestnikowski INDEX 362 Palace, Warsaw PHRASEBOOK 382POLAND REGION BY REGION ROAD MAP OF POLANDPOLAND AT A GLANCE 106 MAZOVIA AND THE LUBLIN REGION 108 CRACOW 126 MAŁOPOLSKA(LESSER POLAND) 146 SILESIA 174 WIELKOPOLSKA(GREATER POLAND) 206 GDAŃSK 230 POMERANIA 250WARMIA, MAZURIA ANDBIAŁYSTOK REGION 274 Wawel Royal Cathedral, Cracow
INTRODUCING POLAND DISCOVERING POLAND 89PUTTING POLAND ON THE MAP 1011 A PORTRAIT OF POLAND 1231POLAND THROUGH THE YEAR 3235 THE HISTORY OF POLAND 3655
8 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D DISCOVERING POLAND P erched between East and West, Poland has had a varied history which has shaped it into the beguiling, delightful and refreshingly colour-coded regions to reflect the diversity of Poland. Each region has its own special flavour: its own architecture, cuisine, customs and sights. different mix of old and new The following pages aim to that we see today. The give a taste of these regions chapters of this book have Copernicus statue and show you what there is been divided into nine in Warsaw to see and do. p130), which features many fine examples of Gothic and Renaissance architecture. The Old Town is overlooked by the glorious buildings on Wawel Hill (see pp138–43), a symbol of national strength and patriotism. At the annual Festival of Jewish Culture (see p33), you can enjoy music, art, theatre perform- ances and much more. MAŁOPOLSKA The picturesque square at the heart of Warsaw’s Old Town • Poland’s painful past The birthplace of Chopin, • Wieliczka’s salt mine WARSAW Żelazowa Wola (see p114) • Winter sports at Zakopane houses a fascinating museum • Postcard-pretty Old Town dedicated to the great Polish The tragedy of the Polish • A Socialist Realist city composer. In the idyllic Jews can be witnessed at • Exciting nightlife Vistula Valley, affluent Oświęcim (Auschwitz) (see Kazimierz Dolny (see p160) where an estimated Rebuilt to its original 13th- pp118–19) is the unofficial 1.1 million people died at century design after being capital of the area popular the hands of the Nazis. destroyed in World War II, with Poland’s New Rich. This is now a UNESCO Warsaw’s Old Town (see World Heritage Site. The pp62–7) is truly delightful. old underground salt mine The city’s controversial post- CRACOW at Wieliczka (see p162) war Socialist Realist architec- features a chapel, museum ture, embodied by the Palace • Wonderful Old Town and a restaurant. A favourite of Culture and Science (see • Historic Wawel Hill retreat for many artists and p89), reflects the capital’s • Cracow Jewish Festival intellectuals at the turn of more recent history. Be sure the 20th century, Poland’s to visit a few of the city’s Cracow’s Old Town centres winter capital Zakopane (see vibrant bars and clubs for around the beautiful 13th- p164) attracts thousands of a taste of Warsaw’s nightlife. century market square (see skiers every winter. MAZOVIA AND THE LUBLIN REGION • Renaissance Zamość • Chopin and Żelazowa Wola • Picturesque Vistula Valley The finely preserved town of Zamość (see pp124–5) was built in the 16th century according to the Renaissance concept of the ideal city. The ski resort at Zakopane, upgraded for the 2006 Olympics Beskid Żywiecki Mountains
D I S C O V E R I N G P O L A N D 9SILESIA• Historic Wrocław• Gold-digging in Złotoryja• Getting away from it all in the Kłodzko ValleyAs well as a bustling OldTown, Wrocław (see pp188–97) is home to many of thecountry’s more eclecticcontemporary artists. Złotoryja(see p180) sits on the banks The tranquil landscape of Pomerania’s Kashubia regionof the gold-rich KaczawaRiver. Try your luck, then castle at Kórnik (see p211), Kashubia (see p262), knownvisit the Gold Museum or inspired by Neo-Gothic as the Polish Switzerland, iswatch the experts at the English architecture and the a gloriously peaceful area ofInternational Gold Panning Orient, is a splendid day out. lakes and rolling hills. TheChampionships. The majestic Kashubians are a distinctiveKłodzko Valley (see pp200–1) ethnic group with their ownis criss-crossed with hiking GDAŃSK language and culture.trails full of ancient churchesand castles, and is famed for • The cradle of Solidarityits mineral springs. • Westerplatte’s WWII legacy WARMIS, MAZURIA AND THE BIAŁYSTOK REGION In 1980 unemployed worker Lech Wałęsa climbed over • Fun on the Mazurian Lakes a fence at a shipyard in • Copernicus’s Frombork Gdańsk (see pp232–49) • The bison of Białowieża and gave a speech that arguably led to the end of Sail or canoe on Lake Communism. The story of Śniardwy (see pp284–5) and Wałęsa and the Solidarity explore the beautiful scenery movement can be seen in of eastern Poland, full of Gdańsk’s “Roads to peaceful harbours and tiny Freedom” exhibition. On 1 villages. On the Baltic coast September 1939, the opening is sleepy Frombork (see shots of World War II were p278), where the astronomer fired on the tiny Westerplatte Nicolaus Copernicus spent peninsula (see p249), which most of his life in the town’sThe Kłodzko Valley, a natural is now a pilgrimage site beautifully preserved 14th-paradise for hikers with burned-out bunkers, a century Gothic cathedral. memorial and a museum. For a spectacular nature holiday, head to BiałowieżaWIELKOPOLSKA National Park (see p291). POMERANIA A landscape of rivers and• Industrial Łódź canals, where the last bison• Poznań’s beautiful churches • Gothic Toruń in Europe live, it is also a• Kórnik’s castle island • Summer fun in Sopot bird-watching paradise. • Ethnic enclave in KashubiaBuilt in the 1800s by a trioof mill owners, the industrial Founded by the Teutoniccity of Łódź (see pp228–9) Knights, Toruń (see pp270–has many fascinating 73) features the second-museums and a welcoming largest ensemble of Gothicatmosphere, yet it remains architecture in Poland. Thealmost untouched by birthplace of Nicolaus Coper-tourism. The churches in nicus, Toruń is also knownPoznań (see pp214–19) are as the traditional home ofamong the most delightful in gingerbread. The seasidePoland. The Gothic cathedral town of Sopot (see p263)is the country’s oldest, and is the country’s unofficialthe place where, allegedly, summer capital and a non-Poland’s first king was chris- stop party venue for the three The exceptionally well-preservedtened. A visit to the island hottest months of the year. Gothic cathedral at Frombork
10 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D Putting Poland on the Map Poland covers an area of 312,685 sq km (120,696 sq miles) and is located in the centre of Europe. It borders Lithuania, Belarus and the Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west. In the north, Poland’s coastline stretches for 528 km (330 miles) on the Baltic Sea and borders Kaliningrad, an enclave of Russia. Poland has a population of 38.6 million, making it the eighth most highly populated country in Europe. The capital, Warsaw, has over 1.6 million inhabitants.EUROPE Poland in Europe Poland is traversed by road and rail routes linking Western and Eastern Europe. The country’s largest inter- national airport is in Warsaw; other cities also have direct air links to European cities. There are ferry links to Gdynia, Gdańsk and Świnoujście.
P U T T I N G P O L A N D O N T H E M A P 11 0 km 100 0 miles 100 KEY Airport Port Motorway Major road Railway National border
I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D 13 A PORTRAIT OF POLANDG rowing numbers of tourists visit Poland every year. Even so, it is still a relatively unknown country. To travellers crossing the lowlands from Eastern to Western Europe, there may notappear to be the diversity in landscape and buildings seen in otherEuropean countries. The pages that follow show the visitor the varietythat Poland has to offer, in terms of its culture, history and landscape.Although it is situated in the Many areas of great naturalplains of central Europe, beauty are protected asPoland has a varied land- national parks or reserves.scape. Alpine scenery pre- Mountain lovers candominates in the Tatra make use of the well-Mountains along the coun- developed infrastructure oftry’s southern border, while hostels and other shelters,the north is dominated by such as those found in thelakelands, which contrast The Polish eagle Beskid Sądecki or the Tatrawith the landscape of the Mountains; the more adven-Baltic coast. For those who like turous can explore the unfrequentedunspoiled natural scenery, there are and almost inaccessible Beskid Niskiareas of primeval forests in Białowieża or Bieszczady. All areas have clearlyand extensive marshlands along the marked hiking trails and well-banks of the River Biebrza which are equipped shelters (schroniska). Thea haven for many rare bird and plant countless lakes of Warmia andspecies. About 30 per cent of the area Mazuria, areas known as the Land ofof Poland is woodland, including a a Thousand Lakes (Kraina Tysiącanumber of vast forests covering more Jezior) are a haven for watersportsthan 1,000 sq km (390 sq miles). Most enthusiasts, as are the waters ofof these consist of coniferous trees Pomerania and Wielkopolska. Theand mixed woodland, but there are lakes are popular with canoeists andalso many forests of deciduous trees, in summer are dotted with rowingmainly oak and hornbeam, or beech. and sailing boats.The Bzura, one of Poland’s many unspoiled riversA rural chapel in winter
14 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D A summer’s day on a sandy Baltic beach POPULATION AND RELIGION religious denomination does not Poland’s inhabitants, who number necessarily coincide with ethnic iden- almost 39 million, all but constitute a tity, although Belarussians tend to single ethnic group, with minorities be Orthodox while Ukrainians belong accounting for less than 4 per cent of to the Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church. the population. The largest minorities In the Białystok region there are are Belarussians and villages where Catholics, Ukrainians, who inhabit the Orthodox Christians and east of the country, and Muslims – the descendants Germans, who are concen- of Tartar settlers – live side trated mainly around the by side. As in Spain and city of Opole in Silesia. Ireland, the fact that the The vast majority of Poles majority of the population are Catholic, but large is Catholic continues to Lacemaker from regions of the country, exert a major influence on Koniakowo such as Cieszyn Silesia, have the moral values of the a substantial Protestant population, country, as well as on its political and followers of other denominations life. An example of this is the many a r e a l s o w i d e l y d i s p e r s e d . debates in the Sejm (the lower house In the east of the country there are of the Polish parliament) that have many Orthodox Christians; here, alternately limited and liberalized the right to abortion. Religion, however, is not a major fac- tor in the way that Poles vote, as election results show. The political scene is divided between the supporters of the right and the post-communist left. Over the last ten years the Polish electorate has shown itself to be quite unstable, with each elected govern- ment standing in opposition Pump room at the spa of Polanica-Zdrój to the previous one.
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 15Religious belief is outwardly expressedby a deep reverence for religious sym-bols and rituals. Wayside crosses andshrines to the saints or the Virgin Maryadd charm to the Polish countryside.The main religious festivals –Christmas, Easter, Corpus Christi andAssumption, as well as All Saints’ Day,when almost everyone in Poland,regardless of their religious denomi-nation, visits the graves of relatives –are solemnly observed. An unusualcult surrounds the Virgin. For cen-turies, believers from all over Polandand further afield have made the pil-grimage to the image of the BlackMadonna in Częstochowa (seepp156–7). Indeed, throughout Polandthere are shrines to the Virgin, to Corpus Christi processionwhom miraculous powers have beenascribed. Another famous pilgrimage monuments are in Małopolska,is made by Orthodox Christians to the Lubelszczyzna, Wielkopolska andholy mountain of Grabarka (see p291). Lower Silesia. Not all of them, how-Poland is also visited by Jews from all ever, belong to Polish culture, sinceover the world who come in remem- the country’s frontiers have changedbrance of the millions who died there many times over the centuries. A par-during the Holocaust under German ticularly important change came at theoccupation of the country during end of World War II, when the AlliesWorld War II. approved a westward shift of Poland’s borders. As a result, the inhabitants of CULTURAL VARIETY AND SHIFTING the eastern areas, lost to Poland after BORDERS the war, were resettled, and manyMagnificent buildings bearing witness were sent to the western regions,to past splendours can be seen at inhabited by Germans – who were inalmost every step. Most of these turn displaced.Restored market square of the Old Town, Wrocław
16 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D tized, and the drastic reforms that were car- ried through over a number of years accel- erated Poland’s GDP to make it the fastest- growing in Europe. By the end of the 1990s, the Polish economy had become largely resistant to crisis. The country has a A poster by Maria Pałasińska dedicated to Solidarity substantial foreign trade deficit, but this is The legacy of more than 100 years of balanced by the surplus produced by partition rule is still visible in Poland’s an unofficial cross-border trade. There cultural landscape today. Russian, are, however, negative aspects of the Prussian and Austrian administration reforms – among them the budget left their mark not only on rural and deficit and unemployment. The latter urban architecture but also on continues to be high. The problem the customs and mentality of of unemployment is somewhat the Polish people. mitigated by the illegal employment of workers, DEMOCRATIC CHANGE although this is usually AND ECONOMIC confined to small firms. DEVELOPMENT There is an ambitious pro- The fall of communism in Logo of the Polish gramme of privatization, but stock exchange Poland came about largely it has not yet been fully thanks to the efforts of the completed, and some trade union Solidarity (Solidarność), enterprises are still state-owned. which was founded in 1980 but forced Heavy industry tends to be outdated, to go underground after the imposi- unprofitable and economically ineffi- tion of martial law. When the democratic cient. There is an ongoing systematic opposition won the elections to the programme of coal-mine closure, Sejm and the Senate in 1989, Poland and former mineworkers have been again became a country with a parlia- forced to look for work elsewhere. mentary democracy and a market economy. This was important enough in itself, but it had wider implications too: by tackling its inefficient, crisis-ridden socialist economy, Poland had set the standard for eco- nomic reform in Central and Eastern Europe as a whole. Many Polish industries were priva- Session of the Sejm, the lower house of the Polish parliament
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 17 Political and economic changes have had their impact on Poland’s towns and cities. Old buildings are being renovated, attention is being paid to the environment, new shops have appeared, and large out-of-town supermarkets and modern petrol (gas) stations have sprung up. New buildings – though not always archi- tecturally distinctive – are going up everywhere. Market squares and main streets in many Polish towns have been pedestrianized. In many of the old towns that suffered damage dur- ing World War II – including Szczecin, Kołobrzeg, Głogów and Elbląg – build- ings are now being reconstructed. Smaller towns, too – swelled by sprawling apartment housing after the war – are now acquiring more tradi- tional buildings. Nonetheless, the vastThe Pazim, the tallest building in Szczecin concrete housing developments typi- cal of the communist era still dominateNot surprisingly, this has brought many Polish townscapes.considerable social and economic Many new public buildings – mainlyproblems in its wake. office blocks – are springing up, too. The archaic farming system is Much of the new development is cen-another candidate for restructuring. tred on the capital, Warsaw, althoughPolish farming is still based on tradi- commercial investment is now slowlytional family smallholdings consisting beginning to filter through to otherof no more than a few acres of land. cities, among them Cracow, Katowice,It is seriously under-mechanized and the Baltic conurbation of Gdańsk,requires a disproportionate amount Sopot and Gdynia, and Wrocław,of manpower. Poznań and Łódź as well. A fundamental part ofthe reform process wasPoland’s drive to joinWester n military andeconomic structures. In1999, Poland became amember of NATO, andthen in 2004, it joined theEuropean Union. Thisrequired harmonizationof the Polish legal andeconomic systems withthose of the EU countries,providing a further pow-erful incentive to change. The privatized Zakłady Metali Lekkich Kęty SA metalworks
18 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The Landscape of Poland FAUNA OF POLAND Poland’s landscape is very varied. The south of The most typical the country is bounded by mountain Polish wildlife – ranges which, the further north you including wild boar, deer and travel, gradually turn into areas hare – is to be punctuated by hills and low-lying found in mixed ancient forests. Northern Poland, an Roman and deciduous A cabbage area of great natural beauty, has been snail forests. Some white on a shaped by a succession of glaciers that species, such as meadow flower moved southwards from Scandinavia. bison and capercaillie, are National parks and reserves have been found almost nowhere else in established in many areas. The central regions of Europe. In the Carpathian and Sudety mountains, bears and the country, consisting of lowlands, merge into lynxes may be seen. picturesque lakelands and coastal plains. MOUNTAINS LAKELAND SCENERY The Tatra Mountains (see The lakelands that cover pp164–5) are the highest in much of northern Poland Central Europe. Though covering a consist of picturesque moraine small area, they provide breathtaking woodland and thousands of alpine scenery. The High Tatras (Tatry lakes. Largest and most scenic are Wysokie) are mainly granite, with the Great Mazurian Lakes, in a jagged, rocky peaks. At 2,499 district known as the Land of a Nutcracker m (8,200 ft) above sea level, Thousand Lakes (Kraina Tysiąca Rysy is the highest peak in Jezior). Abounding in forests, marshes Poland. The Western Tatras (Tatry Zachodnie), and peat bogs, they are a haven consisting of sedimentary rock and crystalline for many bird species: the largest shale, are inhabited by such rare animals as Crane concentration brown bears, marmots and chamois. of storks in Europe, swans, grebes, cranes and cormorants. The crocus (Crocus satinus) blooms in early spring Bog arum (Calla palustra) in mountain valleys is a poisonous perennial and alpine meadows, plant with a characteristic mainly in the Tatras white leaf below a globular and Babia Góra ranges. flower. It grows in peat bogs. The silver thistle (Carlina acaulis) is a protected plant. Its The great sundew leaves form a rosette (Drosera anglica), an containing a basket-like insect-eating plant found flower with a covering of in peat bogs, is a pro- dry, silvery leaves. tected species in Poland.
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 19 Deer, which live in Marmots, rodents of the herds, are a relatively beaver family, live in common sight in Poland’s the Tatra Mountains. deciduous and mixed They ‘whistle’ when forests. They are hunted disturbed. as game animals. Moose live in largeWild boar, forests, marshes andwidespread in peat bogs, even nearPoland, are large cities. Largethe ancestors populations of themof the domestic pig. can be seen inDeciduous and mixed Kampinoski Nationalforests are their Park and in theprincipal habitat. Białystok region.THE LOWLANDS THE COAST The apparent monotony of The sandy beaches of Poland’s Baltic the lowlands is broken by coast are among the finest in elevations, meandering rivers, Europe. They are situated by marshes and peat bogs. Most of sand dunes or cliffs, and the land is under cultivation, but were it not for river there are also extensive forests. estuaries, it would be Białowieża Forest (see p291) Seagull possible to walk along them shelters bison. Moose can be for the entire length of the seen in the marshes and coast. Narrow sandy spits formed by the Hoopoe storks in the lakes. coastal currents and known as mierzeje are a characteristic feature of the shoreline. Lyme grass (Elymus arenarius) grows on the The corn poppy sand dunes. (Papaver rhoeas) It has pointed is becoming leaves and its increasingly rare roots bind the as it is weeded out sandy subsoil. from cereal crops. Toadflax Marram grass (Linaria vulgaris) (Ammophila arenarea) has narrow leaves has narrow grey-green and yellow-orange leaves, and flowers flowers with a between June and characteristic spur. August. Like lyme grass, It grows in ditches it helps to bind the sand and on wasteland. dunes where it grows.
20 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D Early Polish Architecture Over the centuries, and particularly during World War II, Poland lost a great deal of its architectural heritage. However, major efforts on the part of both private individuals and the government have meant A Romanesque that many important buildings have been capital restored, and in some cases completely rebuilt. Royal and aristocratic palaces, churches, castles and entire streets of old towns can thus be admired today. Traditional wooden buildings are Renaissance courtyard at another interesting feature of Polish architecture. Wawel Royal Castle ROMANESQUE Semicircular Triforium with decorative ARCHITECTURE presbytery columns The Romanesque style of architecture seen in Narrow windows that also Polish cathedrals, palace served defensive purposes chapels and monasteries flourished largely as a result of the country’s conversion to Christianity in the 10th century. Unfortunately, few Romanesque buildings have survived intact. Among those that have are the collegiate church at Tum near Łęczyca (see p229) and the monastery at Czerwińsk (see p114), both of which are decorated with stone carvings. The Roman- The collegiate church at Tum near This 12th-century esque style reached Łęczyca, dating from the mid-12th Romanesque doorway is its apogee during the century, is Poland’s largest surviving from the Cathedral of St 12th century. Romanesque religious building. Mary Magdalene (see p190). GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Gothic elements began to appear in late Romanesque architecture in the early 13th century; this transitional style can be seen in the abbeys at Wąchock, Sulejów and Koprzywnica. By the end of the century, the Gothic style was prevalent throughout Polish architecture. Many fortified castles were built at this time, more than 80 being founded by Kazimierz the Great. Notable examples are those at Będzin, Ogrodzieniec and Bobolice (see pp158–9). Gothic churches and monasteries were also built throughout the country, fine examples surviving in Cracow and Wrocław. The oldest surviving wooden churches, such as that at Dębno, date from the same period. In Polish provincial The 15th-century church at The doorway of the early architecture, the Gothic Dębno (see p165) is one of the 15th-century Church of St style persisted until the oldest surviving wooden churches Catherine in Cracow has an early 17th century. in Poland. ornamental stepped frame.
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 21THE RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISMRenaissance architecture was introduced to Polandin the early 16th century by the Italian architectBartolomeo Berrecci, who designed Wawel RoyalCastle and the Zygmunt Chapel in Cracow. Many ofthe churches in Mazovia (as at Pułtusk and Płock)were influenced by the Italian Renaissance, as werethe town halls in Poznań and Sandomierz. From themid-16th century onwards, buildings in Pomeraniawere designed in the northern Mannerist style.Decorative ceilings such as those in the churches of The Zygmunt Chapel (see p143) is one ofLubelszczyzna and Kalisz illustrate provincial the finest examples of Renaissanceinterpretations of Renaissance and Mannerist forms. architecture in Poland. Richly ornamented attic concealing sunken roofsLeszczyński Castle in Baranów Sandomierski Central gateways leading to Corner(see p153) is one of the few surviving late a courtyard surrounded lookoutRenaissance buildings in Poland. by cloisters turret Upper lookout ARCHITECTURE OF THE AGE OFBas-relief depicting gallery THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS St Florian The Teutonic Knights, who ruled Eastern Pomerania and Prussia in the 13th and 14th Wooden centuries, left impressive brick-built Gothic defence buildings. The knights built defensive castles galleries (such as those at Malbork, Gniew and reconstructed Bytów) and city walls (as at Chełmno and after World Toruń), and founded numerous churches.Machicolation War II GateThe Florian Gate in Cracow(see p134), a surviving city watchtower with The imposing bulk of the Upper Castle, part ofGothic fortifications, dates from the 13th the Malbork Castle complexto 15th centuries.
22 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D Later Polish Architecture Buildings dating from the Baroque era are quite a common sight in Polish towns and cities. Many distinctive 19th-century residences and architectural ensembles are also noteworthy, as in Łódź;. Around 1900, at a period coinciding with that of Art Nouveau, attempts to build in a Polish national style produced particularly felicitous results. Folk architecture is another area of great interest. The best way to explore it is to visit the skansens (open-air museums) which exist in each region of the country. Baroque cartouche with the emblem of Poland BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE High gable framed In the first half of the 17th by volutes century, architects of Italian descent started to introduce the early Baroque style to Poland. Pediment decorated with Nobles built imposing residences, coat of arms chief among them Krzyżtopór Castle in Ujazd (see pp44–5 and p152), in the Mannerist style, and the fortified early Baroque palace in Łańcut (see pp172–3). Italian architects were also commissioned to design the Royal Palace in Warsaw, the country’s new capital. The destruction wrought during the Polish-Swedish war was followed by a period of building in the late Baroque style. In Warsaw, the renowned Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren designed a large number of buildings, alongside Italian architects. During the rule of the Saxon kings in Poland, architects from Dresden designed many new buildings in Warsaw, as well as palaces like the one at Edena House in Gdańsk Kodeń Church, with its broken Białystok (see p290). is a fine example of the façade, is typical of the late Mannerist style. Baroque period. Steep broken Bay window with a roof decorative gable This country house in Koszuty (see p211) is a Porch in front of Corner typical example of an aristocrat’s country seat main entrance turrets in the Baroque style.
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 23NEO-CLASSICISM Dome set Neo-ClassicalNeo-Classicism appeared in Poland after the on a tambour porticorule of Stanisław August Poniatowski, the in the exactcountry’s last king. The Royal Palace and centre ofŁazienki Palace in Warsaw were built in the the buildingNeo-Classical style, as were many othersincluding those at Lubostroń and Śmiełów.Features included landscaped gardens inthe English manner. Lubostroń Palace (see p221) is a fine example of Palladianism, a refined Neo-Classical styleThe town hall in Łowicz is an example of small- imitating the work of the Italian Renaissancetown public buildings in the Neo-Classical style architect Andrea Palladio – in this case, hisof the early 19th century. Villa Rotonda at Vicenza.HISTORICISM ANDMODERNISMThe second half of the 19thcentury saw a proliferation ofNeo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissanceand Neo-Baroque buildings.In the 1880s there was amovement towards creatingan architecture in the Polishnational style, which gaverise to some very picturesquestructures. Art Nouveau wasshort-lived in Poland, The wooden chapel at The Warsaw School ofalthough it did leave a Jaszczurówka is an example Economics combinesnumber of attractive of a building in the Polish modern features andbuildings, primarily in Łódź. national style. traditional elements. TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE Fine examples of wooden architecture can be found today at most skansens. Log cabins, often with thatched roofs, can still be seen in many villages in Poland. Painted interior of a peasant dwelling Beehive in Windmill at the skansen (open-air in Zalipie human form museum) in Wdzydze Kiszewskie
24 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The Literature of Poland regarded as the father of Polish literature. The most Polish literature has always been inextricably prominent poet of the time linked to the historical development of was Jan Kochanowski the country, as the political situation, (1530–84), who wrote the particularly over the last two centuries, has first Polish tragedy, entitled The Dismissal of the Greek not always favoured freedom of speech. Envoys (Odprawa posłów Stanisław Many writers were forced to emigrate, greckich). He was also the Wyspiański while those who remained were often author of the humorous obliged to publish their works in other Trifles (Fraszki) and the countries. Poland boasts four winners of the Nobel sorrowful Laments (Treny), Prize for Literature: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław a lament in the form of a S. Reymont, Czesław Miłosz and Wisława Szymborska. cycle of 19 poems. Other notable figures among Poland’s early poets are Mikołaj Sęp Szarzyński THE MIDDLE AGES (1550–81) and Szymon Szymonowic (1558–1629). Polish writing originates in The ancient Sarmatian the 11th century. The earliest culture had a great influence works were in Latin, often on Polish Baroque literature. written by people from The greatest works of the other regions who copied period are by Jan hagiographies and holy Chryzostom Pasek chronicles. The oldest Polish (1636–1701), who wrote chronicle, by the Benedictine highly colourful accounts monk Gall Anonim, dates both of great historical from the beginning of the events and of the everyday 12th century. Native Polish life of the Polish nobility in writers soon appeared, and the reign of Jan III Sobieski. Polish literature expanded into all the literary forms known in Europe at the time. The first Jan Kochanowski writing Treny, a work in the Polish language lament for his daughter’s death was written in the second half of the 13th century. The earliest religious song RENAISSANCE AND in Polish, The Mother of God BAROQUE (Bogurodzica), was probably written at the end of the The Renaissance is regarded 13th century, although it is as the Golden Age of Polish not found in manuscript literature, when both prose until the 15th century. The and poetry flourished. Polish Holy Cross Sermons Mikołaj Rej (1505–69), the (Kazania świętokrzyskie) first significant writer in the Romantic poet Adam Mickiewicz date from around 1450. Polish language, is generally by Walenty Wańkowicz POLISH CINEMA THE ENLIGHTENMENT The first Polish feature film was made as early as 1902, but AND THE 19TH CENTURY it was not until after World War II that Polish film-makers achieved international renown. The best-known Polish film The Enlightenment, and directors include Andrzej Wajda, whose Man of Iron won particularly the reign the Palme d’Or at the 1981 Cannes Film Festival, Krzysztof of the last king of Poland, Zanussi, Krzysztof Kieślowski (Decalogue, Three Colours Stanisław August Poniatowski, – Blue/White/Red) was an important period in and Roman Polański the development of Polish (Chinatown), who literature. The first Polish has spent many years novel, The Adventures of making films in the Mikołaj Doświadczyński USA and France. (Mikołaja Doświadczyńskiego przypadki), was written by Scene from J. Hoffman’s Bishop Ignacy Krasicki film Colonel Michael (1735–1801), a moralist and satirical poet.
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 25Polish Romantic poetry associated with theplayed an important role in artistic communitykeeping nationalist sentiment of Cracow, beganalive. The outstanding writers to emerge. A keyof that time, Adam role in this wasMickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki played by Stanisławand Zygmunt Krasiński, Wyspiańskiwrote outside Poland. To this (1869–1907), authorday, their work forms the of the Symbolistcanon of patriotic literature, play The Weddingwhose jewel in the crown is (Wesele), which wasMickiewicz’s Pan Tadeusz, made into a filmwhich is both a nostalgic by Andrzej Wajdaevocation of the vanishing 70 years later.traditions of the nobility and Also influentiala vision of the emergence of in Young Polandmore modern social attitudes. was a BohemianAlso notable at this time was group surroundingthe comedy writer StanisławAleksander Fredro, whose Przybyszewski, aworks include Revenge friend of Henrik Wisława Szymborska receiving the Nobel(Zemsta) and Husband Ibsen and Edvard Prize for Literatureand Wife (Mąż i Żona). Munch.Another writer who holds Another Nobel laureate Polish literature after Worlda prominent place in was Władysław Reymont War II spawned many famousthe history of Polish (1865–1925), who wrote writers, several of whomRomantic literature society novels. He wrote from abroad for politi-is Cyprian Kamil was awarded the cal reasons. Stanisław LemNorwid, regarded Nobel Prize in 1924 (1921–2006) wrote philoso-as the precursor of for The Peasants phical science fiction, whichmodernism. Eliza (Chłopi), which has been translated into manyOrzeszkowa describes the lives languages. His Solaris was(1840–1910) and of the inhabitants made into a film twice – inBolesław Prus of a village near 1972 by Andrei Tarkovsky(1847–1912) are Łowicz. Between and in 2002 by Steven Soder-the principal the wars, avant- bergh. Tadeusz Różewicz, alsofigures in the garde writers well known as a poet, andnext phase of the such as Sławomir Mrożek are promi-development of Monument to Aleksander Stanisław Ignacy nent playwrights. Hannathe Polish novel. Fredro in Wrocław Witkiewicz Krall and Ryszard KapuścińskiAnother major (called Witkacy, (1932–2007) are known forwriter of this time was 1885–1939), Bruno Schulz their documentary-writing.Henryk Sienkiewicz (1893–1942) and Witold Andrzej Szczypiorski, who(1846–1916), best known Gombrowicz (1904–69) wrote A Mass for Arras (Mszain Poland for his trilogy of came to prominence. za miasto Arras) and Thehistorical novels describing Beginning (Początek),events in 17th-century Poland has also achieved inter-and The Teutonic Knights national recognition.(Krzyżacy), which is devoted Contemporary poetryto the late 14th and early 15th has a special placecenturies. Outside Poland, in Polish literature.Sienkiewicz is better known Apart from Tadeuszfor Quo Vadis?, which deals Różewicz, its mainwith the beginnings of exponents are Zbig-Christianity and for which niew Herbert, Ryszardhe was awarded the Nobel Krynicki and StanisławPrize for Literature in 1905. Barańczak. The best illustration of the achievements of con-20TH-CENTURY temporary Polish writ-LITERATURE ers is the award of two Nobel Prizes: inFrom 1900 onwards Young 1980 to CzesławPoland (Młoda Polska), a Miłosz and in 1996 tomodern trend in Polish the Cracow poetessliterature particularly Nobel Prize winner Czesław Miłosz Wisława Szymborska.
26 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The Music of Poland Poland has made a major contribution to the international music scene, as much through the works of great composers as through its renowned jazz musicians and colourful folk music. Polish classical composers such as Fryderyk Chopin (1810–49), Stanisław Moniuszko (1819–72), Karol Szymanowski (1882–1937) and Wojciech Kilar (born 1932) have often been inspired by folk music, as have modern jazz and rock musicians. Poland has also given the world such outstanding musical performers as the tenor Jan Kiepura and the pianists Artur Rubinstein and Witold Małcużyński. Fryderyk Chopin in a portrait by mainstream. The first Polish Eugène Delacroix EARLY MUSIC opera stage was set up in the 17th century at the court of regarded as the father of the Although they are not Władysław IV. Court and Polish national opera. His widely known, there is religious music flourished at most famous operas are much of interest in the works that time, and the works of Halka, inspired by highland of early Polish composers. such composers as Adam folklore, and The Haunted Mikołaj z Radomia, a com- Jarzębski, Stanisław S. House (Straszny dwór), poser of the first half of the Szarzyński and Marcin which evokes the traditions 15th century, produced both Mielczewski are still widely of the Polish nobility. religious and secular works. performed by Polish In the second half of the In the Renaissance, musicians today. 19th century, the violinist composers such as Wacław Henryk Wieniawski and the of Szamotuły and Mikołaj pianist Ignacy Paderewski Gomółka brought Polish THE 19TH AND 20TH achieved world renown. The music into the European CENTURIES latter was also prominent in politics, serving for a time as The most prominent Polish Prime Minister of Poland. JAN KIEPURA composer of the Romantic era Before World War I, the (1902–1966) was undoubtedly Fryderyk town of Zakopane was a Chopin (1810–49), who major centre of Polish composed almost exclusively culture. It drew not only for the piano. Chopin artists but also composers contributed to the who sought inspiration from establishment of a Polish the landscape of the Tatra national style in music, and Mountains and the colourful exerted a great influence folklore of the highland on the development of dwellers. Among European piano music. composers associated During his short life with Zakopane is he composed a large Mieczysław number of preludes, Karłowicz mazurkas, (1876–1909), noted polonaises, waltzes, especially for his Jan Kiepura achieved études and other symphonies. international renown pieces. Many of Karłowicz perished as an opera singer. Chopin’s works tragically in an He performed on the contain elements avalanche in the world’s greatest stages, of folk music. The Tatras at the and from 1938 was Chopin Piano young age of with the Metropolitan Competition, held in 33. Another Opera of New York. Warsaw, has been a frequent visitor He gained popularity regular event since to Zakopane through his appearances 1927, and award- was Karol in operettas and winners have gone Szymanowski, musicals, where he on to become world- whose fascination performed together with famous pianists. with the folk music his wife, Marta Eggerth. Stanisław of the region Moniuszko is Stanisław Moniuszko inspired him to
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 27compose a number of works,including the ballet Harnasie. One of the best-knownmodern composers isKrzysztof Penderecki(b. 1933), whose oeuvreincludes epic symphonies,oratorios and operas. Hisopera The Devils of Loudun(Diabły z Loudun) has beenperformed all over the world.Other prominent composersof international standing areAndrzej Panufnik (1914–91),Witold Lutosławski (1913–94)and Henryk Górecki Folk band outside the Cloth Hall (Sukiennica) in Cracow(b. 1933), whose worksinclude the outstanding prominence, including Adam instruments, the mainSymphony No. 3, which has Makowicz, Tomasz Stańko one being the fiddle,topped the classical music and Michał Urbaniak. Jazz and sometimes bagpipescharts for years. Other major clubs opened throughout the or drums and basses.composers of symphonic country, and the Warsaw Depending on the regionmusic are Wojciech Kilar (b. Jazz Jamboree, first held in these instruments are1932) and Zbigniew Preisner 1958, became the world’s supplemented by clarinets,(b. 1955), most widely biggest jazz festival. Another horns, accordions andknown for their film music. renowned festival is Jazz on occasionally dulcimers. the Oder, held in Wrocław. The best way of getting to Many jazz musicians came know and enjoy Polish folk to public recognition in the music is to attend some of 1970s and 1980s, among the concerts traditionally held them the pianist and during the summer months, saxophonist Włodzimierz such as the Kazimierz or Nahorny, the saxophonists Zakopane festivals. Here Zbigniew Namysłowski and there is a chance to listen to Janusz Muniak, and the live music being played and pianist Sławomir Kulpowicz. to watch the dance groups that perform in colourful folk costumes. FOLK MUSIC Polish vocal and dance groups have brought Polish folk music is worldwide popularity to unusually colourful. Every Polish folk music. The region has its own specific Mazowsze group, forThe composer and conductor tradition, and the music of example, gives stageKrzysztof Penderecki the Tatra Mountains is performances that are unique. Folk bands play inspired by the folk quite a basic range of traditions of various regions.JAZZJazz traditions in Poland goback to the time of theSecond Republic. After WorldWar II, jazz was deemed bythe authorities to be “alien tothe working class”, and itwas not until 1956 that jazzcould be performed inpublic. An important jazzmusician of that time was thepianist and composerKrzysztof Komeda (1931–69),who wrote the popularlullaby for Roman Polański’sfilm, Rosemary’s Baby. During the 1960s, otherjazz musicians came to The Warsaw Jazz Jamboree
28 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The Traditional Nobility The tradition of the Polish nobility was dominated by the idea of Sarmatism, which was based on the myth that the Polish aristocracy were descended from a warrior people called the Sarmatians. Sarmatism was influential in shaping the ideology of the ruling class, as well as its customs and lifestyle. A Sarmatian embraced the old order, was patriotic and Catholic, and at the same time valued freedom and privilege, lived life A kulawka was a as a landowner and upheld family traditions. special toasting goblet Aristocratic Sarmatism played an important part in art for drinking “bottoms figurine in up”, as it could only be porcelain and literature, particularly memoirs. set down on its rim. Turban Headpiece with heron feathers Noblemen’s houses were typically single-storey buildings fronted by an imposing colonnade. Rooms flanked the central entrance hall. A TRADITIONAL BEVERAGE Mead was a favourite drink of the Kontusz Polish aristocracy. It is in the style made by fermenting worn by ladies wort, a solution of honey and water that has been flavoured with herbs. The most popular type of mead is trójniak, in which Wyloty – slit honey makes up sleeves rolled back and over one-third of the the shoulder total wort. The rarest is póltorak, with two parts honey and one part water. Although mead is no longer widely drunk, it is Stolnik still produced today. mead
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 29 COATS OF ARMS The coats of arms of aristocratic families in Poland number no more than about 200. They were held in common by members of clans with different names. Aristocratic titles were not used at the time of the Republic (with the exception of the titles of Lithuanian princes), while magnate families looked to foreign rulers for titles. Polish heraldic symbols usually had theirAn election gathering, at which the nobility elected the origins in individual symbols;king, is portrayed here. This was one of the greatest they were therefore relativelyprivileges exercised by the gentry. simple and differed from those of Western Europe. Kołpak Żupan POLISH NATIONAL DRESS Required attire of the nobility in the Baroque era, its main elements were the żupan (a kind of shirt) and the kontusz (an outer garment tied with a waist- Cielątkowa band). Headgear took the form of either a kołpak (fur hat) or a square- bottomed rogatywka. Men wore their hair short and sported a moustache, and sometimes a beard. Łodzia Szreniawa Wyloty Coffin portraits of the deceased were Kontusz sash painted in oils on The kontusz was metal plates cut to an outer garment the shape of the with cutout sleeves, cross-section of a which were thrown coffin, to which they over the shoulders. were attached during funerals. Silk sashes known as kontusze were The karabela was a an indispensable part of a nobleman’s traditional sword that had a single-sided blade attire. Several yards in length, they were and a highly ornamented worn wrapped around the waist and handle, often with inlaid tied in a decorative knot, allowing the precious stones. tassels to hang downwards.
30 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The Different Religions of Poland Although the majority of the Polish population today is Roman Catholic, in the course of the country’s history its inhabitants have adhered to a variety of faiths. Besides Roman Catholics, there have been Orthodox Christians, Uniates and Jews (most of whom lost their lives in World War II), and, since the 16th century, Lutheran and Calvinist The Convent of the Old Protestants. When the Polish borders were Believers at Wojnowo is one Roadside redrawn after World War II, a large section of the few places where this reli- shrine of the Eastern Orthodox population found gious group can still be found. itself in Belarus or the Ukraine. At the same time, the western border moved further westwards, incorporating many German Protestant churches. The wide variety of Poland’s ecclesiastical architecture bears witness to the many cultures and religions that have existed there. Orthodox Christians today are found mainly in the eastern parts of the country, where many of their historic churches still stand. The Evangelical Reform Church in Warsaw was built after the Reformation and used by the small group of Calvinist believers in Poland. The Basilica of the Holy Cross and the Birth of the Holy Mother (Bazylika Krzyża Świętego i Narodzenia Matki Boskiej) has the tallest church tower in Poland. The cemetery at Kruszyniany, one of the few Muslim burial grounds in Poland, is used by people of Tartar descent.
A P O R T R A I T O F P O L A N D 31 The ‘Church of OTHER Peace’ (Kościół Pokoju) at DENOMINATIONS Świdnica was Some of Poland’s historic churches one of three have changed denomination over churches to be the years – for instance, when built specifically Polish Catholics took over disused for Silesian Protestant churches. Although the Protestants after original interiors have generally the Thirty Years’ not survived, the exteriors have War, which often been carefully conserved. ended in 1648. Some religious denominations no longer have followers in Poland, although their places of worship remain. An example is Open-air the Mennonite chapel in Gdańsk. altar Old Mennonite chapel in Gdańsk Pauline monastery Judaic artifacts in museums are poignant vestiges of the synagogues that were once so numerous in Poland. As a result of the Holocaust and the ensuing communist era, there are few Jews in Poland today.CZĘSTOCHOWA PILGRIMAGEThe Monastery of Jasna Góra in Częstochowa isthe most important Catholic shrine in Poland –and one of the greatest in the Christian world.The image of Our Lady of Częstochowa, also The picturesque wooden churches of theknown as the Black Madonna, draws pilgrims all Ukrainian Uniates, or Greek Catholics, builtyear round. The main pilgrimage, which attracts for the Lemk and the Boyk minorities,hundreds of thousands of believers from Poland survive in the Carpathian Mountains. Theirand beyond, is held in the meadows at the foot congregations were resettled in other areasof the monastery on 15 August each year. during Operation Vistula after World War II.
32 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D POLAND THROUGH THE YEAR T ourists tend to visit Poland in the summer, between June and Sep- tember. During that period, the most popular tourist spots are autumn. The best way of spending winter in Poland is skiing in the mountains. As the majority of Poles are Catholics, traditional Catholic crowded, and a variety of open-air feast days are the most important events, from street theatre festi- holidays. The celebrations that Ginger- vals to re-enactments of medieval bread heart take place at Christmas, Easter, tournaments, take place through- and Corpus Christi as well as out the country. The main music and other local church festivals are drama festivals are held in spring and interesting spectacles for tourists. APRIL SPRING Palm Sunday (the Sunday The official beginning of before Easter) is the day when spring, 21 March, is an “palms” are blessed in the unofficial day of truancy churches. The most colourful among young people in celebrations take place in Poland. The tourist season villages in Kurpie and begins with the first warm Małopolska – in particular days of spring. Rabka, Lipnica Murowana and Tokarnia. During Holy Week MARCH (the week leading up to Easter), mystery plays are Topienie Marzanny performed in churches around (23 Mar) is the day when, in the country. The oldest and many areas, children throw best-known spectacle is Performance at the Cracow small dolls – symbolizing Chwalebne Misterium Pańskie, Festival of Student Song winter – into rivers. a passion play which has The International Poster been performed in Kalwaria Festival of Biennial (even-numbered Zebrzydowska (see p161) Theatre Schools, Łódź years), Warsaw. since the 17th century. On Festival of Stage Songs, Holy Saturday, Easter food is MAY Wrocław. Polish and inter- taken to church in baskets national performers take part. and blessed. Visits are also International Labour Day International Dance Group made to symbolic sepulchres (1 May). Presentation, Kalisz. in churches. 3 May The most important International Festival Easter Sunday is the public holiday, marking the of Alternative Theatre, most important Catholic adoption of the first Polish Cracow. holiday, when the grandest constitution of 1791. mass is held to Festival of Student Song, mark the Cracow. Performances by the Resurrection. best student vocalists and Easter Monday accompanists. (Śmigus-dyngus) is Chamber Music Days marked by the (first 2 weeks in May), custom of people Łańcut. This is an throwing water over international event. one another. International Book Fair Gdańsk (last 2 weeks in May), International Warsaw. One of the largest Guitar Festival events of its kind in Europe. (every other year), Kontakt Theatre Festival Gdańsk. (last 2 weeks in May), International Toruń. Festival of Films Jazz on the Oder, Wrocław. for Children Renowned jazz festival. and Youth, Poznań Jazz Fair, Poznań. Poznań. Short Film Festival, Paka Cabaret Cracow. The oldest film Passion play in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Review, Cracow. festival in the country.
P O L A N D T H R O U G H T H E Y E A R 33 AVERAGE HOURS OF SUNSHINE PER DAY Hours 12 9 Sunny days 6 The period from May to September has the greatest number of 3 days of sunshine. April and September 0 are often also sunny, Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec while December has the least sunshine. Summer Film FestivalSUMMER (late Jun), Łagów. Festival of Folk Bands andFrom the end of June to the Singers (late Jun),beginning of September, Kazimierz Dolny.open-air events are held all Jewish Culture Festivalover the country. Theatrical (Jun/Jul), Cracow.life in the towns and cities,by contrast, tends to slow JULYdown. Most open-air eventsare held in tourist areas. Festival of Film Stars, Międzyzdroje. Street performers at the Viking Festival, Wolin. Dominican Fair in Gdańsk Viking battles. Most of the boats arrive from Scandinavia. AUGUST International Street Theatre Festival (mid-Jul), Beskid Culture Week Jelenia Góra. There is also (early Aug), Beskid region. street theatre in Jedlnia Dominican Fair (first Zdrój, Szczawno Zdrój and 2 weeks in Aug), Gdańsk. Wałbrzych in Lower Silesia, Chopin Festival and in the cities of Gdańsk, (second week in Aug), Toruń, Cracow and Warsaw. Duszniki Zdrój. International Organ Złota Tarka Traditional Festival (mid-Jul), Kamień Jazz Festival (mid-Aug), Pomorski. Iława. Singing Poetry Festival Feast of the Assumption (mid-Jul), Olsztyn Castle. (15 Aug). This is a religious Summer Jazz Days, Gdynia. holiday, but it is also the dayCorpus Christi procession FAMA (mid-Jul), Świnoujście. on which Poles com-in Spicimierz Student arts festival. memorate their victory over Piknik Country (end of Jul), the Bolsheviks in 1920.JUNE Mrągowo. International International Song country music festival. Festival (late Aug), Sopot.Corpus Christi (variable).Solemn processions are heldthroughout the country.Midsummer’s Night(23 Jun).Fishermen’s Sea Pilgrim-age (29 Jun). Decoratedfishing boats sail into theport of Puck across the bay.Festival of Polish Song(late Jun), Opole.Mozart Festival (lateJun–early Jul), Warsaw.Malta – InternationalTheatre Festival(late Jun), Poznań. Fishermen’s sea pilgrimage in the bay of Puck
34 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM Inches 80 3 60 2½ 40 1½ Rainfall and snow Although autumn ¾ showers are the most 20 unpleasant, the heaviest rainfall 0 0 occurs in summer. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Heavy snow is usual in winter. Warsaw, Cracow and other AUTUMN cities. Polish Feature Film Fine weather continues in Festival (end Oct). Gdynia. Poland to the end of Lithuanian All Saints’ Day, October. Autumn comes Puńsk. Poetry and music in soonest in Pomerania, memory of the dead. Warmia and Mazuria, as well as Suwalszczyna. The NOVEMBER transition from September to October – when fallen leaves All Saints’ Day (1 Nov). create a riot of colour – is People visit the graves known as the “golden Polish of their relatives and autumn”. It is also a time light candles there. when major cultural events All Saints’ Day Jazz take place, as well as the Festival, Cracow. The beginning of the new first jazz festival in post- academic year. Programme for the Polish communist Europe. Feature Film Festival “Etiuda” International SEPTEMBER Film Festival (early Nov), Festival of Science Cracow. Festival of Polish Piano (last 2 weeks in Sep), Independence Day Music (early Sep), Słupsk. Warsaw. (11 Nov). The biggest Warsaw Autumn (mid-Sep), Days of Julian Tuwim, ceremonies in honour of Warsaw. Contemporary music. Łódź. Various events, Polish independence in Wratislavia Cantans including poetry readings. 1918 take place in Warsaw. (early Sep), Wrocław. Archaeology gala, St Martin’s Day Oratorio and cantata festival. Biskupin. (11 Nov). In Wielkopolska Laser and firework and Eastern Pomerania displays OCTOBER people traditionally cook (around 10 Sep), Olsztyn a goose and bake pretzels near Częstochowa. Borderlands Theatre and croissants on St Martin’s Festival (first week Day. The holiday is marked in Oct), Cieszyn. by major ceremonies in Konfrontacje Theatre Poznań, where St Martin Festival, Lublin. is the patron saint. Lemk Cultural Głogów Jazz Meeting, Festival, Gorzów Głogów. Wielkopolski. Warsaw Film Festival, Warsaw. Jazz Jamboree (third week in Oct), Warsaw. The Jazz Jamboree is one of Europe’s major jazz festivals. Festival of Early Music (late Oct). An international festival Candles lit at a cemetery on Inauguration of the academic year with venues in All Saints’ Day
P O L A N D T H R O U G H T H E Y E A R 35 AVERAGE TEMPERATURES °C °F 30 86 20 68 Temperatures 10 50 Temperatures are highest in the 0 32 summer, when they can exceed 30° C -10 24 (86° F). In winter, temperatures can fall -20 14 below zero (32° F), Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec although this is usually short-lived.WINTERThe first snow can fall inNovember, althoughsnowless winters are becom-ing increasingly common.Subzero temperatures andhard frosts are not unusual.The coldest part of thecountry is Suwalszczyna, inthe northeast corner.DECEMBERChristmas CribCompetitions (first week Cribs being brought to Cracow’s Christmas Crib Competitionsin Dec), held in Cracowmarket square. JANUARY End of Carnival The lastChristmas Eve (24 Dec). Thursday before Lent isThe beginning of Christmas New Year (1 Jan). Public marked by eating doughnutsis marked with a celebratory holiday. A carnival begins or other fried delicaciesmeat-free dinner and and the season of balls known as faworki. Splendidmidnight mass. opens. balls, concerts and shows areChristmas (25 and 26 Dec). Orthodox Church Music put on throughout thePublic holidays, with masses Festival (mid-Jan), Cracow. country to mark the lastheld in all churches. Saturday of the carnival.New Year’s Eve (31 Dec). FEBRUARY International Festival ofThroughout Poland, people Sea Shanties, Cracow.see in the New Year at balls Feast of St Maryand parties, and at Gromniczna (2 Feb). Wax PUBLIC HOLIDAYScelebrations in the main candles known as gromnice New Year’s Daysquares of most towns. are lit in churches. (1 January) Easter Monday (variable) May Day (1 May) Constitution Day (3 May) Corpus Christi (variable) Feast of the Assumption (15 August) All Saints’ Day (1 November) Independence Day (11 November) Christmas (25 and 26 December)Winter cityscape, Gdańsk
I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D 37 T H E H I S T O RY O F P O L A N DP oland’s borders have changed almost continuously with the course of history. The origins of the Polish nation go back to the 10th century, when Slav tribes living in the area ofGniezno united together under the Piast dynasty, which then ruledPoland until 1370.Mieszko I, the first historic military weakness led to itsprince of this line, converted partitioning by Russia, Prussiato Christianity in 966, bringing and Austria. In 1795 Polandhis kingdom into Christian was wiped off the map ofEurope. The Piast dynasty ruled Europe for more than 100Poland with variable fortune and years. Attempts to wrest inde-embroiled the nation in domes- pendence by insurrection weretic quarrels for 150 years. After The Polish unsuccessful, and Poland didthis dynasty died out, the great eagle not regain its sovereignty untilLithuanian prince Jagiełło took 1918. The arduous process ofthe Polish throne and founded a new rebuilding and uniting the nation wasdynasty. The treaty with Lithuania still incomplete when, at the outbreaksigned at Krewo in 1385 initiated of World War II, a six-year period ofthe long process of consolidation German and Soviet occupation began.between these nations, culminating The price that Poland paid was veryin 1569 with the signing of the Union high: millions were murdered, includ-of Lublin. In the 15th century the ing virtually its entire Jewish popula-Jagiellonians achieved many military tion. The country suffered devastationsuccesses, forming the powerful and there were huge territorial losses,Republic of Two Nations (Rzeczpos- which were only partly compensatedpolita Obojga Narodów). After the by the Allies’ decision to move theJagiellonian dynasty died out in 1572, border westwards. After the war,the authorities introduced elective Poland was subjugated by the Sovietkings, with the nobility having the Union and did not become a fullyright to vote. Poland’s political and democratic nation until 1989.Map of the Republic of Two Nations (Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów) in the 17th centuryStanisław August Poniatowski, the last king of Poland
38 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N DPoland under the Piast Dynasty During the 6th century AD, Slav tribes began migrating from the east to what is today Polish territory. The Vistulanians (Wiślanie) settled around Cracow, and the Poles (Polanie) around Gniezno. The Polanie united under the Crown of rule of the Piast dynasty in the 10th Kazimierz century, and the conversion of Mieszko I the Great (c. 960–92) to Christianity in 966 led to POLAND IN THE YEARS the formation of the Polish state. After 1090–1127Mieszko, Bolesław the Brave (992–1025) acquired Polish territorysignificant new territories. Later Piast rulers reignedwith variable fortune. On the death of Bolesław theWry-Mouthed (1107–38), the nation was divided into dis-tricts, not to be reunified until the reign of Władysławthe Elbow-High (1306–33). The country flourished underthe rule of his son, Kazimierz the Great (1333–70). Bishop Stanisław of Szczepanów Prayer at the grave of St Wojciech The Czech bishop Wojciech, who was martyred while on a mission to Prussia in 997, was the first Polish saint.Tomb of Henry IVThe Silesian princeHenry IV, the Good(Henryk IV Probus,1288–90) tried tounite Poland butdied, probably by MARTYRDOM OFpoisoning. His ST STANISŁAWtomb is a fine An embroidery of 1504 fromexample of early the chasuble in Kmita depicts14th-century the murder of Bishop Stani-Gothic sculpture. sław of Szczepanów in 1079. TIMELINE 997 Martyrdom of 1000 Congress at Gniezno; convocation 1124–1128 Bolesław the Bishop Wojciech of the Polish church metropolis Wry-Mouthed initiates the while on a conversion of Western mission to Prussia 1025 Coronation of Pomerania to Christianity Bolesław the Brave, first king of Poland950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1079 Martyrdom 1138 Beginning of Bishop of the division 966 Adoption Stanisław of of Poland of Christianity Szczepanów Coin minted in the reign of Bolesław the Brave
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 39 Vistulanian VESTIGES OF THE Plate This PIAST DYNASTY Romanesque The Piast dynasty witnessed floor laid with the development of Roman- plaster c.1170, esque and early Gothic architecture. Romanesque preserved in churches have survived in the collegiate Tum (see p229), Czerwińsk church in (see p114) and Tyniec (see Wiślica, depicts p145). The abbeys in a scene of Sulejów, Wąchock (see p152) adoration. and Koprzywnica date from the 13th century. Some of the Gothic castles of Kazimierz the Great can be seen in the Jura region – for example at Będzin, Olsztyn Bolesław and Bobolice (see pp158–9). the Bold Kazimierz the Great This 14th-century sculpture from the collection in the Collegium Maius in Cracow depicts The Crypt of St Leonard is Kazimierz the Great, a vestige of the Romanesque who “found Poland cathedral at Wawel Royal of wood, and left it Castle in Cracow (see pp138–9). in stone”.Founding Documentof the Cracovian Academy The castle at Będzin is theFounded in 1364, the Cracovian best-preserved of all the GothicAcademy was the second castles built by Kazimierz the Great (see p205).university (after Prague) to beestablished in Central Europe. 1241 Defeat at 1320 Coronation 1340–1366 the Battle of of Władisław Kazimierz the Legnica against the Elbow-High Great conquers the Mongols and the unification western Ruthenia of the Polish state (Ruś Halicko- Wołyńska) 1200 1250 1300 1350 1226 Konrad 1370 Louis of Mazowiecki Hungary (Ludwik invites the Teutonic Węgierski) Order to Masovia seizes the Polish The initials of Kazimierz crown Coronation sword of the Great on the door of Bolesław the Brave Wawel Cathedral
40 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N DPoland under the Jagiellonians The treaty signed in Krewo in 1385 uniting the Polish and the Lithuanian states proved to be a decisive moment in the history of Central Europe. The Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław Jagiełło received Jagiellonian the hand of Jadwiga, the young and beau- coat of arms tiful ruler of Poland, and was crowned king of Poland. Jadwiga died in 1399, butthe relationship between Poland and Lithuania established REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONSby the Union of Krewo was gradually strengthened. IN THE YEARS 1386–1434Jagiełło founded the Jagiellonian dynasty and, by the Poland Lithuaniareign of Kazimierz the Jagiellonian in the mid-15th Feudal territoriescentury, Poland and Lithuania had come to be thegreatest power in central Europe. The Jagielloniankings also ruled the Czech nations and Hungary. Second Treaty of Toruń Signed in 1466, the treaty concluded the Thirteen Years’ War with the Teutonic Knights, who lost nearly half their territory to Poland. Ulryk von Jungingen, Grand Master of the Teutonic OrderChapel at Lublin Castle Plate showingRuthenian paintings in Filippo Buonaccorsithe Catholic Chapel of the This sculpture commemoratingHoly Trinity founded by the Italian humanist andWładysław Jagiełło reflect educator of the young royals, whothe multicultural nature of died in 1496, is by the eminentthe Polish-Lithuanian state. late Medieval sculptor Veit Stoss.TIMELINE 1399 Death of 1411 First Treaty 1440 Formation of the Queen Jadwiga of Toruń, Prussian Union, in establishing peace opposition to the with the Teutonic 1413 Treaty of Horodło, Teutonic Knights Knights strengthening the bond between Poland and Lithuania1385 1400 1415 1430 1385 Union of 1410 Battle 1415 At the Council of Constanz, Krewo joins Poland of Grunwald Paweł Włodkowic proclaims the and Lithuania theory of the sovereignty of all Christian and non-Christian peoples Queen Jadwiga’s sceptre
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 41 Virgin from Krużlowa This statue, of around GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 1400, is a masterpiece of Many late Gothic buildings late Gothic sculpture. have survived in Poland. Among the most important are the Collegium Maius and the Barbican in Cracow (see p133). After the Gothic Pax formation of Royal Prussia, The skill of medieval many parish churches goldsmiths can be were built in the towns seen in this finely lying within its territory, crafted cross. the largest being the Church of St Mary in Gdańsk (see pp238–9). Witold, the Grand Duke of Lithuania The imposing twin-tower façade of the Church of St Mary reflects Cracow’s former status (see p132). BATTLE OF GRUNWALD In one of the greatest medieval battles, on Deposition from 15 July 1410, Poland and Lithuania, with Chomranice their Ruthenian allies, routed the armies of This Deposition of the Teutonic Knights, who never regained Christ (c.1450) is their former might. The scene is depicted held to be the apogee in this painting by Jan Matejko of 1878. of Polish Gothic art. 1454 Act incorpor- 1473 Birth of 1496 Piotrkowski ating Prussia into the Nicolaus Statute restricts Crown of Poland Copernicus the rights of commoners to acquire land 1445 1460 1475 14901444 Władysław of Varna 1466 Second 1492 Death of Kazimierzdies at the Battle of Varna, Treaty of Toruń the Jagiellonian. Firstfought against the Turks general Sejm (parliament) Figure of St John by Veit Stoss, from the altar in the Church of St Mary, Cracow
42 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N DPoland’s Golden Age In the 16th century the Republic of Two Nations (Rzeczpospolita) formed by Poland and Lithuania was one of the largest European powers. In the western territories of the Polish Crown there was peace, relative prosperity and – rare elsewhere – religious tolerance. Under Emblematic cockerel the Jagiellonians, and later under the first elective kings, art, education and REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONS,the economy flourished. In the political sphere EARLY 16TH CENTURYthere was a significant movement to improve the Poland LithuaniaRepublic and institute reforms. Feudal territories The so-called real union between Poland andLithuania was concluded in Lublin in 1569. At thattime, in terms of language, nationality and religion, Representatives Nobleman whothe Republic was the most diverse state in Europe. of the peoples of brought the the East and West news of the Chancellor’s deathNicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543)This Polish astronomer and humanist showedthat the Earth revolves around the Sun. Codex BehemThis illuminated OPATÓW LAMENT manuscript of The Renaissance tomb of Chancellor 1505 by Krzysztof Szydłowiecki in theBaltazar Behem, collegiate church at Opatów features a a writer and bas-relief sculpture depicting the notary of mourning of the deceased, installedCracow, lists the after 1532 (see p152). Around the city’s privileges, table are friends of the Chancellor,statutes, and the humanists attached to the royal guild laws. court and foreigners.TIMELINE 1505 Adoption 1520 Adoption of 1525 Secularization of the defeated 1543 of the constitut- the Statute of Teutonic Order. The elector Albrecht Copernicus’s ional law of Toruń, Hohenzollern, Duke of Prussia, makes famous treatise Nihil Novi introducing an oath of fealty to the Polish king, is published serfdom Zygmunt the Old, in Cracow1500 1520 1540 1521 The Polish army occupies 1518 Bona Sforza Teutonic Prussia in the final war arrives in Poland and with the Teutonic Knights marries Zygmunt the Old (Zygmunt Stary) Renaissance oven tile
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 43 Tomb of Stefan Batory 16TH-CENTURY Despite his short ARCHITECTURE reign, Batory was The first instance of the one of the most Renaissance style in Poland illustrious of the dates from 1502. Oftenelective monarchs. imitated but never equalled, the most splendid early Renaissance building was Union of Lublin the Zygmunt Chapel in The federation of Poland and Wawel Cathedral (see p143), Lithuania established under completed in 1533. the Union of Lublin in 1569 provided for a joint Sejm (parliament), king and foreign policy. However, each country had its own government, army, treasury and judiciary. Zygmunt Vice- the Old chancellor Piotr Tomicki This castle in Książ Wielki, built by Santi Gucci between 1585 and 1589, is the most splendid example of Italian Mannerism in Poland. Jan Tarnowski, Dogs, symbolizing the deceased’s the loyalty of the son-in-law dead man’s friends Tapestry with Satyrs The collection of tapestries at The collegiate church in Wawel Royal Castle (see p140) Pułtusk (see p113), built c.1560 comprises over 160 splendid by the architect Gianbattista of pieces. They were brought to Venice, has barrel vaulting. the castle in the 16th century. 1557 Outbreak 1563 Split of Polish Calvinists and 1587 Zygmunt III of the war isolation of the Polish Brethren, an Vasa is with Russia extreme group of Reformationists elected king over Livonia of Poland Grotesque mask 1564 Jesuits arrive from Baranów in Poland Sandomierski 1560 1580 1600 1561 1596 The capital is Secularization of 1569 Union of 1579 The capture of Połock moved from Cracow the Livonian Lublin marks the start of Stefan to Warsaw Branch of the Batory’s victory in the war Teutonic Order against Russia and incorpor- ation of Livonia
44 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The “Silver” 17th Century The 17th century was dominated by the wars that the Republic of Two Nations waged against the Swedes, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. An uprising in the Ukraine in 1648 marked the beginning of a series of catastrophes. In 1655 the Republic of Two Nations was invaded and largely occupied by the Swedes. Although Statue of it was short-lived, the Swedish REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONS Jan III Sobieski occupation – known as the Deluge IN THE YEARS 1582–1648 (Potop) – wreaked havoc. The final Poland Lithuania triumph of the Republic of Two Nations was the victory Feudal territories against the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, during the reign of Jan III Sobieski. The country eventually A rebus on the main gate emerged from the wars spells out “Krzyżtopór” without major territorial with a cross (Krzyż) and losses, but it was consider- an axe (Topór). ably weakened and its dominance was over. Siege of Jasna Góra, the Luminous Mountain The run of Swedish victories ended in 1655 with the heroic Polish defence of the Pauline Monastery in Częstochowa. Nobleman in a Dance Moat with Death The figure of a common Polish yeoman in traditional dress decorates the Chapel of the Oleśnicki family in Tarłów. KRZYŻTOPOR CASTLE In the first half of the 17th century, dazzling residences were built in the Republic of Two Nations. The most splendid was the eccentric castle in Ujazd. Built at great expense, it stood for barely 11 years. It was demolished in 1655 by the Swedes and remains in ruins to this day (see p152). TIMELINE 1604 First 1606 Zebrzydowski 1629 Truce 1634 Władysław 1655 Moscow Rebellion with Sweden IV’s victory over Beginning ofexpedition of the in Altmark Russia, and peace the Swedish false Demetrius in Polanów Deluge 1600 1620 1640 1601 1620 Battle 1632 Death of 1648 Death of Outbreak of against the Zygmunt III Władysław IV, Northern War Turks and Tatars Vasa start of the with Sweden at Cecora Chmielnicki Uprising in the Ukraine Zygmunt III Vasa
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 45 Baroque Monstrance This monstrance, at Pelplin 17TH-CENTURY Cathedral in Pomerania, ARCHITECTURE dates from 1646. Many magnificent buildings in the late Mannerist and early Baroque styles were erected Shrine of in the first half of the 17th St Stanisław century, during the reign of the Vasa dynasty. After the Relics of the patron destruction wrought by the saint of Poland Swedish Deluge, there was no are preserved in further artistic flowering until a shrine that was the reign of Jan III Sobieski. installed in The early Baroque castles – Wawel for example, the Royal Palace Cathedral in Warsaw (see pp64–5) – as between well as numerous churches, of The cloister walls around which the most impressive are the courtyard are painted 1626 the Jesuit churches in Cracow, with real and legendary and Warsaw and Poznań, are all ancestors of the 1629. Ossoliński family. splendid examples of the architecture of this period. Bastions The Bishops’ Palace in Kielce (see p150) is the best- preserved early Baroque residence. Husaria The Royal Chapel (see p239) in Charges by the famous Hussars, Gdańsk, commissioned by Jan III the best heavy cavalry in Europe, Sobieski, was built by Tylman decided the outcome of many battles. van Gameren and Andreas Their greatest victory was against the Schlüter in the Baroque style. Turks at the Battle of Vienna (1683). 1660 Peace 1667 Turks 1686 Signing of the Pair of treaty signed in invade the Perpetual Peace cherubs Oliwa ends the southeastern with Russia Polish-Swedish borderlands War 1660 1680 1700 1668 1683 Jan III 1699 Peace of Abdication Sobieski’s victory Karłowice 1658 of Jan over the Turks at the with TurkeyPolish Brethren Kazimierz Battle of Vienna exiled from Poland Mannerist window frame
46 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D Poland in the 18th Century In the first half of the 18th century, Poland was ruled by the Wettin dynasty of Saxony. Polish interests were gradually subordinated to those of neighbouring powers, and the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as king, supported by the Tsarina Catherine the Great, sealed the Order of Military nation’s fate. Attempts to counteract Virtue Russian influence came to an end with REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONS the First Partition of Poland in 1772. The BEFORE THE PARTITIONS efforts of the patriotic faction and the achievements of the Poland Lithuania Four-Year Sejm changed little. The Second Partition followed in 1793, and when the uprising led by Tadeusz Kościuszko – Stanisław August the final attempt to save the country – Poniatowski was quashed, Poland lost its statehood for over 100 years. Rococo Statue from Lvov In southeastern Poland, original altar statues by sculptors of the Lvov School can still be admired. Rococo Secretaire This desk incorporates a clock Portrait of Maria Leszczyńska cabinet and is decor- After the Polish king Stanisław ated with painted Leszczyński lost the throne, his panels depicting daughter Maria settled in Nancy mythological scenes. and married Louis XV of France. TIMELINE1697 Coronation of 1717 “Dumb Sejm” 1733 Election 1740August II, the Strong of August III Opening of Collegium 1704 Coronation of Stanisław 1721 End of Nobilium, Leszczyński, supported by Northern War Warsaw the king of Sweden 1700 1720 1740 1709 August II, 1733 Stanisław 1700 the Strong Leszczyński is Outbreak of returns to the re-elected king Northern War throne Casing of a grenadier’s cap
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 47 August III This Saxon king 18TH-CENTURY of the Wettin ARCHITECTURE dynasty was During the 18th century – an ardent lover the era of the late Baroque of porcelain. and Rococo – artists and His likeness architects from Saxony joined those who had was reproduced already come to Poland from in Meissen. Italy. Many palaces, includ- ing Radziwiłł, were built in Warsaw and the provinces, Tadeusz Kościuszko such as Białystok (see p290). This man fought in the Thanks to the patronage of American War of Stanisław August Poniatowski, many Neo-Classical buildings Independence and led were created, among them the insurrection against Łazienki in Warsaw. the Russians in 1794. Hugo Prince Józef Kołłątaj Poniatowski The Palace on the Water (see pp94–5) in Warsaw was the royal summer residence. Stanisław Małachowski, Speaker of the Sejm CONSTITUTION OF 3 MAY The Constitution of 3 May 1791 was a radical experiment in democracy and reform – the first such in Europe. It Hugo Kołłątaj was, however, soon annulled as a result of the Federation A leading intellectual of of Targowica and the Russo-Polish war. Jan Matejko’s the Polish Enlightenment, painting shows members of the Sejm (parliament) Kołłątaj collaborated on marching on Warsaw Cathedral to swear allegiance. the Constitution of 3 May. 1764 Coronation 1773 Convocation 1794 Insurrection 1795 of Stanisław of National Educa- against the Russians Third August tion Commission Partition Poniatowski Coat of arms of of Poland Stanisław August Poniatowski 1760 1780 1800 1793 Second 1772 First 1788–1792 Partition of Partition of Deliberations of the Poland1756 Outbreak of Poland Four-Year Sejmthe Seven-Year War 1791 Adoption of the Constitution of 3 May
48 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N DPoland under the Partitions Deprived of its independence, Poland became a territory for exploitation as though it were a colony. The hopes vested in Napoleon proved illusory. The transitory Grand Duchy of Warsaw lasted only eight years. The failure of the successive Eclectic November and January insurrections detail (1830 and 1863) led to further restrictions by the tsarist rulers: landed property was REPUBLIC OF TWO NATIONSconfiscated and cultural and educational institutions UNDER THE PARTITIONSdissolved. Many Poles tried to help the country from Russian partitionabroad. The collapse of the partitioning empires in World Prussian partitionWar I enabled Poland to regain its independence in 1918. Austrian partitionPatrol of InsurgentsThis painting by Maksymilian Gierymski of around1873 shows a scene from the January Insurrection.Several insurgents are patrolling the land. Beggar Emperor waiting for alms Franz JosefHenryk Sienkiewicz’s House in Oblęgorek enjoying theThe small palace was given to the Nobel laureate loyalty of hisHenryk Sienkiewicz in 1900 to mark the subjects.occasion of 25 years of his work as a writer.TIMELINE 1807 Grand 1830 Outbreak of 1845–1848 1846 Duchy of Warsaw the November Construction of Peasants’ established Insurrection first Warsaw- uprising Vienna railway line1795 1820 1845 1797 Formation 1815 Dissolution 1848 Uprising in of the Polish of Grand Duchy Wielkopolska Legions in Italy of Warsaw at the (Greater Poland) Congress of Vienna Post-uprising mourning jewellery
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 49 Fryderyk Chopin THE GREAT This genius of EMIGRATION a composer In the 30 years following and pianist the November Insurrection, was born in nearly 20,000 Poles left the Żelazowa country, the majority going to France. An important group Wola and left of émigrés gathered around Poland for- Prince Adam Czartoryski in ever in 1830. Paris. Famous Poles in exile included the composer Fryderyk Chopin and poets Stained-glass Window Adam Mickiewicz, Zygmunt The stained-glass windows Krasiński, Juliusz Słowacki designed by Stanisław and Cyprian Kamil Norwid. Wyspiański for the Franciscan Church in Cracow are among the most beautiful works of Secessionist art in Poland. The inhabitants of Cracow greet the emperor Prince Adam Czartoryski, an exile in Paris, was considered the uncrowned king of Poland. Prince Józef Poniatowski Bertel Thorvaldsen designed this monument to Prince Józef EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEF Poniatowski, who ENTERS CRACOW died in 1813. Juliusz Kossak produced a series of Poniatowski was paintings to commemorate the emperor’s considered a Polish visit to Cracow in 1880. The city’s inhabit- national ants received him with great enthusiasm. hero. 1873 Founding of 1903 Marie Curie 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz the Academy of (Maria Skłodowska- receives the Nobel Prize1861 Founding Sciences in Cracow Curie) receives the for Literatureof the National Nobel Prize forSejm in Galicia Physics 1870 1895 1864 Final abolition 1915 Russian of serfdom troops leave Warsaw 1863 Start of the January Secessionist Insurrection wall painting
50 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N DPoland from 1918 to 1945 Poland regained its independence in 1918, but for several years afterwards battles raged over its borders. In 1920, independence was again threatened by the Red Army. Despite domestic conflicts, Poland made considerable economic Eagle – emblem of progress. The territories of the three the reborn Poland areas previously held by Russia, Austria and Prussia were consolidated. The POLAND IN 1938country’s brief period of independence ended in 1939 Polish territorywith the German and Soviet invasions. Poland wasoccupied and its population persecuted, terrorized and Volunteers fightingpartially exterminated. About 6 million Poles were killed, alongside the soldiersincluding 3 million Polish Jews (see p160). Anunderground state operated, with the HomeArmy answering to the government in exile.Polish soldiers fought the Germans on all fronts.GdyniaAlthough Poland gained access to the sea, ithad no port. Work on the construction of anew port at Gdynia began in 1922. Interior of the Silesian SejmThe industrialized MIRACLE ON THE VISTULA region of Silesia This was the name given to Marshal had its own Józef Piłsudski’s victory at the Battle of parliament in Warsaw on 13–16 August 1920, which the interwar halted the Soviet march westwards and years, a sign of shattered the Bolshevik hope of a pro- its importance. letarian revolution throughout Europe.TIMELINE 1918 Uprising against 1920 Miracle on the Vistula. 1925 Start of the German- the Germans in Second Silesian uprising Polish trade war Greater Poland. Warsaw is liberated 1921 Germano-Polish from German plebiscite in Upper Silesia. 1926 May Coup occupation Third Silesian uprising1915 1920 1925 1930 1922 Murder of 1924 Złoty intro- 1929 Start of the president, duced to replace the Great Gabriel German Mark Depression 1919 Start of Narutowicz the first Silesian uprising Magazine cover featuring the National Universal Exhibition in Poznań
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 51 Józef Piłsudski Józef Piłsudski led the WARSAW UPRISING legions which were On 1 August 1944 the set up in the Austrian underground Home Army (Armia Krajowa) launched an sector then dispersed. uprising in Warsaw against In 1918 he became the occupying Germans. Its the first leader of an aim was to liberate the independent Poland. capital before the arrival of the Red Army. The Russians were waiting on the left bank of the river, allowing the Germans to suppress the outburst. The uprising lasted over two months and led to the complete destruction of the city as well as the loss of tens of thousands of lives. Plaque to the Victims of Execution One of many plaques in Warsaw In his film Kanał, the director marking places of Andrzej Wajda showed the execution during insurgents struggling through World War II. sewers beneath German- occupied districts of Warsaw. Father Ignacy Skorupka leads soldiers into attack Bolshevik soldiers flee Monument to Those Fallen the battlefield and Murdered in the East This monument honours all the Poles who were Hanka Ordonówna killed or deported after the She was one of the most popular Soviet invasion in 1939. actresses between the wars.1935 Death 1936 Start of 1938 Poland annexes territory Occupyingof Marshal the construction to the west of the River Olza forces demo- Piłsudski of the Central 1943 Ghetto lish the stat- Industrial 1942 Home Army Uprising, ue of Adam Region formed. Anders’ army Warsaw Mickiewicz evacuated from USSR 1935 1940 1945 1939 Outbreak of World War II. 1944 Polish soldiers take the German troops enter Poland, 1940 The Russians monastery at Monte Cassino, Italy. followed by Soviet forces. The murder Polish officers Warsaw Uprising. Formation of a Polish army is defeated and the who were taken prisoner pro-Soviet, Communist government country occupied in Katyń in Lublin
52 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D Modern Poland In 1945 the allies agreed that Poland should be included in the Soviet zone of influence. The Big Three (Britain, the USA and the Soviet Union) also decided to alter Poland’s borders. After rigged elections in 1947, the Communists took complete control. Despite successes in rebuilding the country, the socialist economy proved ineffective. The formation of Solidarity (Solidarność) in 1980 accelerated the pace of change, which was completed when Poland regained its freedom after the 1989 elections. 1968 In March, conflicts occur between students and security 1966 forces. The Celebrations authorities marking the provoke incidents millennium of of an anti-Semitic Christianity in and anti- Poland, intellectual nature organized separately by 1945 After the terrible devastation Church and of the war, the country is hauled State out of the ruins by the effort of 1955 the whole nation 30,000 delegates from 114 countries take part in the World Festival 1947 of Youth in Warsaw. Communists falsify the This is the first time results of elections to the that the Iron Curtain Sejm (parliament) has been briefly lifted 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1953 Height of the 1958 persecution of the First International Catholic Church, Jazz Jamboree trial of priests of in Warsaw 1968 the metropolitan Polish forces take curia of Cracow; part in the armed Cardinal Stefan intervention in Wyszyński, Primate Czechoslovakia of Poland, is arrested 1956 1957 In June, a workers’ Premiere 1946 revolt in Poznań is of Kanał, Rigged bloodily suppressed. directed referendum In October, by Andrzej on abolishing after more Wajda, one the Senate, demonstrations by of the first introducing students and films of agricultural workers, Soviet the Polish reforms, intervention is School nationalizing threatened. industry and Władysław Gomułka the western becomes First border Secretary of the 1976 Central Committee Demonstrations 1945 of the Polish United against price rises, End of Workers’ Party by workers in World Radom and Ursus, War II are quashed. The opposition forms the Workers’ Defence 1970 Bloody suppression of a strike Committee. At the and workers’ demonstrations on the 21st Olympics in coast. Edward Gierek becomes First Montreal, Irena Secretary of the Central Committee Kirszenstein- of the Polish United Workers’ Party Szewińska wins gold for track and field sports for the third time
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 53 1979 First visit of John Paul II, the “Polish Pope”, to his homeland. Both a religious and a political event, it rekindles Polish hopes of regaining freedom1980 Agreements signed inGdańsk on 31 August end thestrikes and allow the formation ofthe first Independent AutonomousTrades Unions. Lech Wałęsa 2012 Poland andbecomes their leader 1990 Lech Wałęsa elected president of Poland Ukraine set to host the UEFA Football Championship – Euro 2012 1981 Under the leader- 1997 1999 2002 ship of General The worst flood Poland Poland formally invited Wojciech Jaruzelski, the in a century joins to join EU in 2004 Communist authorities devastates large NATO introduce martial law. areas of 2005 Death of Solidarity goes southern Poland John Paul II, the underground “Polish Pope”1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 20151980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 1990 Official end of the Polish People’s Republic, adoption of 2007 Poland joins Leszek Balcerowicz’s 2004 the Schengen Area radical market reforms Poland joins 1989 At round-table the EU 2005 Lech talks, the opposition negotiates with the Kaczyński 2000 elected authorities about Cracow is legalizing Solidarity president European of Poland and calling an election, City of in which the “civic Culture society” then wins a landslide victory 1984 Assassination of Father Jerzy 1997 On a visit to Warsaw, US president Popiełuszko, Bill Clinton announces that Poland is to Solidarity’s join NATO pastor
54 I N T R O D U C I N G P O L A N D The Rulers of Poland At the time of its formation in 966, the Polish nation was ruled by the Piast dynasty. Bolesław the Brave, son of Mieszko I, was the first king of Poland. During the Period of Disunity from 1138, rulers bore only the title of prince. The first prince to be crowned king of Poland was Przemysław II. After the death of Kazimierz the Great, the Polish crown passed to Louis of Hungary of the Angevin dynasty. The marriage of his daughter Jadwiga to the Lithuanian duke Jagiełło in 1384 established the Jagiellonian dynasty. From 1572 the Republic of Two Nations was ruled by elective kings with no hereditary 1386–1434 Władysław II rights. The last king was Stanisław August Poniatowski. Jagiełło 1279–1288 1288–1290 Henry IV, Leszek the Black the Good 1290–1291 Przemysław II 1291–1305 Wacław II of Boh- emia (from 1300) 1305–1306 Wacław III 1079–1102 Władysław Herman 1229–1232 and 1241–1243 of Bohemia Konrad I Mazowiecki 1058–1079 Bolesław II 1333–1370 1202 and 1228–1229 Kazimierz III, Władysław III, the Great 1025–1034 Mieszko II Spindleshanks 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 PIAST DYNASTY PERIOD OF DISUNITY JAGIELLONIAN 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1031 Duke 1102–1107 Bezprym Zbigniew and 1306–1333 Bolesław III Władysław I, the 1107–1138 Elbow-High Bolesław III 1370–1382 Louis of Hungary 1138–1146 1384–1399 Władysław II, the Exile Jadwiga 1434–1444 Władysław III 1146–1173 of Varna Bolesław IV, the Curly 1447–1492 Kazimierz IV, the Jagiellonian 1173–1177 and 1194–1202 1492–1501 Jan I Olbracht Mieszko III, the Elder 1177–1194 Kazimierz c.960–992 II, the Just Mieszko I 992–1025 Bolesław 1194–1210 the Brave and 1211–1227 (Bolesław Leszek the White Chrobry), crowned 1025 1210–1211 Mieszko the Stumbler 1232–1238 Henry the Bearded 1238–1241 Henry the Pious 1034–1058 1243–1279 Kazimierz Bolesław V, the the Restorer Bashful
T H E H I S T O R Y O F P O L A N D 55 9–16 December 1922 Gabriel Narutowicz 1548–1572 Zygmunt II August 1926–1939 Ignacy Mościcki 1648–1668 Jan II Kazimierz Vasa 1918–1922 Józef Piłsudski, 1674–1696 Jan head of state III Sobieski 1704–1709 and 1632–1648 1733–1736 Stanisław Władysław IV Leszczyński Vasa 2005– 1733–1763 Lech Kaczyński August III1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 DYNASTY ELECTIVE KINGS INVASIONS PRESIDENTS1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 1697–1706 1669–1673 and 1709– Michał 1733 August Korybut II, the Strong 1922–1926 Wiśniowiecki Stanisław Wojciechowski 1947–1956 Bolesław Bierut 1587–1632 Zygmunt III 1989–1990 Vasa Wojciech Jaruzelski 1995–2005 Aleksander Kwaśniewski 1576–1586 Stefan Batory 1573–1575 Henry de Valois 1764–1795 Stanisław August Poniatowski 1506–1548 Zygmunt I, the Elder 1501–1506 Alexander the Jagiellonian 1990–1995 Lech Wałęsa
WARSAW AREA BY AREA WARSAW AT A GLANCE 5859THE OLD AND NEW TOWNS 6071 THE ROYAL ROUTE 7281 THE CITY CENTRE 8291 FURTHER AFIELD 9297WARSAW STREET FINDER 98103
58 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A Warsaw at a Glance Most places of interest are located in the centre of Warsaw. This area not only forms the geographical heart of the city, but is also Warsaw’s largest municipality. It is made up of seven smaller districts, Śródmieście being the central one. In the pages that follow, however, Warsaw is divided into three parts: the Old and New Towns, the Royal Route and the City Centre. The most interesting historical features of Warsaw are located along the Royal Route (Trakt Królewski), a series of roads linking the Old Town (Stare Miasto) and the Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski) with the Water Palace (Łazienki) and Wilanów, the palace of Jan III Sobieski, which stands just outside the city. The Old Town Square, surrounded by town houses rebuilt after wartime destruction, is one of the most beautiful features of Warsaw. It teems with tourists and local people throughout the year. A statue of the Mermaid, symbol of Warsaw, is a prominent feature in the centre of the square. The Palace of Culture is still the tallest building in Warsaw, despite the ongoing construction of skyscrapers in the city. The 30th floor has a viewing terrace as well as a multimedia tourist centre. The buildings on the north side of Theatre Square now house banks and luxury shops, as well as the 0m 500 little church of St Albert and St Andrzej, which contains important works of art. 0 yds 500 Royal Castle Square with Zygmunt’s Column
WA R S AW A T A G L A N C E 59 WARSAW Siedlce Lublin LOCATOR MAP The urn containing the heart of Fryderyk Chopin, the eminent Polish composer who died in France in 1849, is built into one of the Baroque pillars of the Church of the Holy Cross. The University of Warsaw is the largest and most prestigious centre of higher education in Poland. Its oldest buildings are located on Krakowskie Przedmieście. The National Museum contains large collections of Polish art. Among its treasures is Strange Garden (Dziwny Ogród) by Józef Mehoffer. KEY Place of interest Church Synagogue Parking Tourist information Metro Railway station Other building
WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A 61 THE OLD AND NEW TOWNST he Old Town (Stare Miasto), partially surrounded by medieval walls, is theoldest district in Warsaw. Itwas founded at the turn of Town is the more recent New Town (Nowe Miasto), which became a separate urban entity in 1408. The reconstruction of the Old Town and Newthe 13th and 14th centuries, Town, almost completelygrowing up around the castle destroyed during the war,of the Mazovian princes. Its was an undertaking on a Traditionalmedieval urban layout sur- house decoration scale unprecedented in thevives to this day. The pride of whole of Europe. Today, thesethe Old Town is the market square with two districts are the most popular touristcolourful town houses. Also of major attractions in Warsaw. The Old Towninterest are the Cathedral of St John and pulsates with life until late evening.the Royal Castle, which was destroyed There are many interesting little streetsby German forces in 1944 and rebuilt and an abundance of cafés, goodbetween 1971 and 1984. Next to the Old restaurants and antique shops.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEChurches Historic Buildings andCathedral of St John p66 3 MonumentsChurch of the Holy Spirit 8 The Barbican and City Walls 7Church of the Visitation of the Monument to the 1944 Virgin Mary t Warsaw Uprising 0Church of St Jacek q Raczyński Palace 9Church of St Kazimierz r Royal Castle pp64–5 2Church of St Martin 5 Zygmunt’s Column 1Jesuit Church 4Historic Streets and SquaresNew Town Square eOld Town Square 6Ulica Freta wGETTING THEREBoth Old and New Towns arepedestrianized. The nearestbus stops to the Old Town areon Plac Zamkowy for buses100, 116, 175, 178, 180, 195,222 and 503, or at thebeginning of the W-Z Routetunnel for trams 13, 23, 26and 32 or bus 190. It is bestto walk from the Old to theNew Town. Alternatively,you can take buses 116, 175,180 and 195 and get offat Plac Krasińskiego orUlica Bonifraterska.KEY Street-by-Street map pp62–3 Street-by-Street map pp68–9 0m 250 Tourist information 0 yds 250The tower of the Church of St Martin overlooking the passage between Ulica Piwna and Ulica Świętojańska
62 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E AThe Old TownThe Old Town Square (Rynek Starego Miasta) is surroundedon all sides by town houses, rebuilt after World War IIwith great devotion. Today it is one of the most attractiveplaces in Warsaw. From spring to autumn it is filled withcafé tables, and also becomes an open-air gallery ofcontemporary art. On the square and in neighbouringstreets, especially Piwna and Jezuicka, there are numerousrestaurants and bars that are reputed to be the best inWarsaw. The whole of the Old Town is not only a touristattraction but also a favourite place for local people, whogo to walk there, and for lovers to meet. Church of St Martin This striking modern crucifix . Cathedral of St John incorporates a fragment of a After suffering damage figure of Christ that was during World War II, the burned during the cathedral was rebuilt in 1944 Warsaw the Gothic style 3 Uprising 5 Jesuit Church The Baroque- LE Mannerist sanctuary A P W IE of Our Lady of Mercy, K D A PO patron saint of R S K Warsaw, was rebuilt A after World War II 4 ZA PI EC Zygmunt’s Column EK This is the oldest secular monument in Warsaw 1 A N A IW K P S Ń PL A C JA O ZA M K O W Y T IĘ W Ś. Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski)This former royal residence, rebuiltin the 1970s, is today the symbol ofPolish independence 2The Palace Under the Tin Roof was the firsthouse in the city of Warsaw to have a tin,rather than tiled, roof.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 63 OLD AND NEW TOWNS Vistula CITY CENTRE LOCATOR MAP Barbican and City Walls See Street Finder, map 2 This brick building once protected the northern The Historical approach to the city 7 Museum of Warsaw occupies the north side of the market square. J NAW DU ĄS Statue of Zygmunt III Vasa at the KI KI RO top of Zygmunt’s Column DU E SZ NA J K A Zygmunt’s S IE J Column 1 M O W K Plac Zamkowy. Map 2 D3. @ 100, O O N ł 116, 175, 178, 180, 190, 195, 222, O E 503. v 13, 23, 26, 32. W Y Z K R Zygmunt’s Column, in the RYN EK STA RE G O centre of Plac Zamkowy, is MIA ST A the oldest secular statue inK Warsaw. It was erected in 1644 by Zygmunt III’s son Władysław IV. The monument, which stands 22 m (72 ft) high, consists of a Corinthian granite column supported on a tall plinth and topped with a bronze statue of the ruler, who is depicted with a cross in his left hand and a sword in his right. The figure is the work of Clemente Molli, and the whole monument was designed by Augustyn Locci the Elder and Constantino Tencalla, two Italian architects working for the king. This monument, unusual in . Old Town Square European terms, glorifies the secular ruler in a manner The square pulsates with life which had until then been until late in the evening 6 reserved for saints and other religious subjects. Despite repeated damage and repairs, Statue of the Mermaid the statue retains its original appearance. The column STAR SIGHTS on which it stands, however, 0m 100 . Royal Castle has already been replaced 0 yds 100 twice. An older, fractured . Cathedral of St John shaft can be seen on the KEY terrace near the south . Old Town Square façade of the Palace Under Suggested route the Tin Roof.
64 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E ARoyal Castle 2 The decision to build the Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski) was made when Zygmunt III Vasa moved the capital from Cracow to Warsaw in 1596. It was built in the early Baroque style byTabletop the Italian architects Giovannifrom 1777 Trevano, Giacomo Rodondo and Matteo Castelli between 1598 and1619, incorporating the earlier castle of theMazovian princes. Successive rulers remodelled . Ballroomthe castle many times. The late Baroque façade Decorated with 17 pairs of goldenoverlooking the River Vistula dates from columns, the ballroom is one of thethe time of August III, and the splendid castle’s most elaborate interiors.interiors from that of Stanisław August.Completely destroyed by theGermans during World War II,the castle was reconstructedfrom 1971 to 1988. Royal Princes’ Rooms Historical paintings by Jan Matejko are displayed here. Senators’ Room In this room, the Constitution of 3 May Main was formally adopted entrance in 1791. The coats of arms of all the admin- istrative regions and territories of the Republic are depicted on the walls. A reconstructed royal throne is also on show. Zygmunt Tower STAR FEATURES This tower, 60 m (197 ft) high, was built in 1619. It . Ballroom is crowned by a cupola with a spire. It is also . Marble Room known as the Clock Tower . Canaletto Room (Zegarowa), since a clock was installed in 1622.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 65 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST Plac Zamkowy 4. Map 2 D3. Tel 022 355 51 70. Reservations 9am–2pm Tue–Fri (institutions only). Fax 022 355 51 27. @ 100, 116, 175, 178, 180, 190, 195, 222, 503. v 13, 23, 26, 32. # 10am– 4pm Tue–Sat, 11am–4pm Sun. Royal and Grand Apartments # 10am–6pm daily (from 11am Mon & Sun). ¢ Oct–Apr: after 4pm & Mon, 1 Jan, Easter Sat . Marble Room & Sun, 1 May, Corpus Christi, The interior dates from the time of 1 Nov, 24, 25, 31 Dec. & (free Władysław IV. The magnificent portraits of on Sun except Royal andPolish rulers by Marcello Bacciarelli are the Grand Apartments). only later additions. 0 m 8 except Sun. 6 no flash. = d The Lanckoroński Gallery on the www.zamek-krolewski.com.pl second floor contains two paintings by Rembrandt: Portrait of a Young Woman and Scholar at his Desk. Knights’ Hall The finest piece in this beautiful interior is the Neo-Classical sculpture of Chronos by le Brun and Monaldi. Apartment of Prince Stanisław . Canaletto Room Poniatowski The walls of this room are decorated The Rococo panelling, thought to be with scenes of Warsaw by Canaletto, by the French cabinet-maker Juste- the famous Venetian painter who was Aurèle Meissonier, was taken from one of the most commercially the former Tarnowski Palace. successful artists of his day.
66 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E ACathedral of St John 3 VISITORS’ CHECKLISTThe Cathedral of St John started life as a parish church ul. Świętojańska 8. Map 2 D3. Tel 022 831 02 89. @ 116,at the beginning of the 15th century, only acquiring 175, 178, 180, 195, 222, 503.cathedral status in 1798. Over the years, successive rulers v 13, 23, 26, 32. # 10am–endowed it with new chapels and other elements. 1pm, 3–5:30pm Mon–Fri, 10am–Important ceremonies have taken place here, including 1pm Sat, 2–5:30pm Sun. Cryptthe coronation of Stanisław August Poniatowski in 1764 # as above but 3–5:30pm Sun.and the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of 3 May in & 6 www.katedra.mkw.pl1791. Many famous Poles are buried in the cathedral,among them the Polish primate, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński. Having been seriously damaged in World War II, the cathedral was rebuilt; its new façade was designed by Jan Zachwatowicz in the spirit of Mazovian Gothic architecture. Choir StallsNarutowicz Crypt The choir stalls areGabriel Narutowicz, a copy of thosefirst president of the donated as aPolish Republic, is votive offeringinterred in the after Poland’scathedral with victory in 1683other disting- at the Battleuished Poles. of Vienna. Mainentrance Małachowski Family Tomb This monument, carved in white Baryczkowski Crucifix marble, is based This crucifix, famed for its on a design by miraculous powers, dates the Danish from the start of the 16th Neo-Classical century and contains sculptor Bertel natural human hair. Thorvaldsen.
T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 67Jesuit Church 4 designed the undulating the 18th century. All the façade. The late Baroque houses are interconnectedul. Świętojańska 10. Map 2 D3. decoration of the interior and now host the HistoricalTel 022 831 16 75. @ v same as was destroyed in 1944. Only Museum of Warsaw, whichCathedral (p66). a partially burned crucifix displays typical interiors of survived. After the war, the townspeople’s homes andThis Mannerist-Baroque interior was minutely restored craftsmen’s studios.church was built for the to a design by Sister AlmaJesuit order between 1609 and Skrzydlewska and the crucifix1629, at the same time as the incorporated into a modernmonastery. Although it had a design. In the 1980s, thesomewhat chequered history, church was a meeting placeit survived without major for the political opposition tochanges until 1944, when the Communist government.it was almost completelydestroyed. When it was rebuiltafter World War II, the church’s Old Townsomewhat unusual architecture Square 6 The Barbican, standing on the sitewas restored on the basis of of the former outer city gatethe original plans, which had Map 2 D3. @ v same as Cathedralsurvived. Located in a narrow (p66). Historical Museum of Warsaw The Barbican andspace, it has a unique layout; Tel 022 635 16 25. # 11am–6pm City Walls 7especially original is the way Tue & Thu, 10am–3:30pm Wed & Fri,in which the chancel is 10:30am–4:30pm Sat & Sun. A 20- ul. Nowomiejska. Map 2 D2.flooded by light falling from min English-language film aboutthe lantern in the elliptical Warsaw is screened at noon daily. Warsaw is one of the fewdome over the apse. The ¢ Mon, pub hols & one weekend European capitals wherecrypt, which contains a stone- a month. & (free Sun). = www. a large portion of the old citycutter’s workshop, is in the mhw.pl Museum of Literature Tel wall survives. Constructionspace once occupied by the 022 831 40 61. # 10am–3pm of the wall began in the firstbasements of the Gothic town Mon–Wed & Fri, 11am–6pm Thu, half of the 14th century andhouses that stood on the site. 11am–5pm Sun. ¢ Sat & pub hols. continued in phases up to the & www.muzeumliteratury.pl mid-16th century. A double circumvallation, reinforced Until the end of the 18th with fortresses and towers, century, this rectangular market encircled the town. The square was the most important earliest part of the fortifications place in Warsaw. The houses is the Barbican, erected around around the square were built 1548 by Gianbattista of Venice. by the most affluent members It was built on the site of an of the community. Most of earlier outer gate and was them date from the 1600s, and intended to defend the it is these that give the square Nowomiejska Gate (Brama its period character. In the Nowomiejska). The northern centre there was once a town part of this defensive building, hall, a weigh house and stalls, in the form of a dungeon all demolished in 1817. In their reinforced by four semicircular place now stands a statue of towers, survived as the the Mermaid (Syrenka). external wall of a town house.Jesuit church, dedicated to the Each row of houses bears After World War II, parts ofMerciful Mother of God the name of one of the people the wall were rebuilt and the involved in the Four-Year Barbican, which had ceased Sejm. On the north side is to exist for a longChurch of Dekerta – named after Jan period, was restoredSt Martin 5 Dekert, mayor of Warsaw in to its full scale.ul. Piwna 9/11. Map 2 D3. Tel 022 83102 21. @ v same as Cathedral (p66).The existing post-AugustanChurch is the result of twomajor reconstructions in theBaroque style, carried out in1631–6 and in the first halfof the 18th century. The latterphase of rebuilding tookplace under the direction ofarchitect KaÏrol Bay, who Old Town Square, a favourite place both for local people and tourists For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
68 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E ANew TownThe New Town took shape at the beginningof the 15th century along the route leadingfrom Old Warsaw to Zakroczym. Of interesthere are the Pauline, Franciscan, Dominicanand Redemptorist churches and the Churchof the Holy Sacrament, which were all rebuiltafter World War II, and the colourfulreconstructed town houses. Ulica Mostowa,the steepest street in Warsaw, leads up tothe fortress that defended one of the longestbridges in 16th-century Europe. . New Town Square A town hall once stood in the centre of this irregularly shaped square e FRA NCI SZK AŃ S KA Ulica Freta This is the main thoroughfare in New Town. Freta means an uncultivated field or suburb w ŚW AChurch of the Holy Spirit ET FR IĘTEvery year, pilgrims gather OJat this Baroque church ERbefore setting off to Jasna SK AGóra, in Częstochowa 8 DŁ A UG ET A FR PO DW AL M E O S T O W A A R. Church of St Jacek ST AA feature of the unusuallyelongated interior is the17th-century mausoleumof the Kotowski family q . Church of St Kazimierz This beautiful church is connected to the Con- vent of the Order of the The Old Powder Magazine Holy Sacrament r was once the bridge gate.
T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 69 Church of the Holy Spirit 8 ul. Nowomiejska 23. Map 2 D2. Tel 022 831 45 75. @ 116, 175, 178, OLD AND 180, 195, 222. # 6–8am, 4–6pm NEW TOWNS Mon–Sat, 6:30am–2pm, 4–7:30pm CITY CENTRE Sun. At other times, on request. The little wooden Church of LOCATOR MAP the Holy Spirit (Kościół św. See Street Finder, map 2 Ducha) already existed in the 14th century. Repeatedly Façade of Raczyński Palace, which 0m 100 extended, it was burned down today is the Old Records Archive during the Swedish invasion 0 yds 100 in 1655. As the townspeople could not afford to rebuild the Raczyński Palace 9 Church of the church, King Jan Kazimierz Visitation of the donated the site to the Pauline ul. Długa 7. Map 2 D2. fathers from Częstochowa, who Tel 022 635 45 32. @ 116, 175, Virgin Mary were renowned for defending 178, 180, 195, 222. The oldest surviving their monastery at Jasna Góra church in New (see pp156–7). In return, and at Raczynski Palace (Pałac Town, Princess their own expense, the monks Raczyńskich), rebuilt in Anna of Mazovia built a wall that enclosed the 1786 to a design by the royal A MSK funded its church and the monastery architect Jan Chrystian OCZYZAKR construction in within Warsaw’s defences. Kamsetzer, houses the Old the early 15th The present church was built Records Archive. The most century t in 1707–17, based on a design beautiful feature of this by the architect Józef Piola. former residence is the early The work was directed by Neo-Classical ballroom – Józef Szymon Bellotti and damaged in the war but later Karol Ceroni. The interior restored afterwards – which is KOŚ was completed in 1725. decorated with stuccowork CIE Rebuilt after war damage, and allegorical paintings on LNA the church is known today – the theme of Justice. as it has been since 1711 – as The subject of the paintings the main starting point for was manifestly at odds with pilgrimages to the shrine of the sentiments of the resid- the Virgin Mary at Jasna Góra. ence’s owner, Kazimierz In Ulica Długa, a small Raczyński, who held high Neo-Classical house abuts the office in the royal court and church. It was built at the was considered a traitor to his beginning of the 19th century country by his contempor- ZA P IE S on the smallest plot in aries. In the 19th century, Warsaw; it occupies only a the palace was the seat few square metres and has of the Government Justice its own registry number. Commission, and in the interwar period, of the Ministry of Justice. Particularly tragic events occurred here during World War II. Bullet marks in the wall of the building are evi- STAR SIGHTS dence of the street execution of 50 local inhabitants who . Church of St Jacek were arrested at random on 24 January 1944. But the . Church of worst crimes were committed St Kazimierz here during the Warsaw Uprising. On 13 August 1944 . New Town Square a tank-trap exploded, killing some 80 insurgents, and on 2 September the Nazi SS killed KEY several hundred injured Church of the Holy Spirit, facing people in the building, which Suggested route was being used as a hospital. down Ulica Mostowa For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
70 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A was completed in 1639. Next to it was erected the largest monastery in Warsaw. Interesting features inside the church, rebuilt after World War II, include the beautiful vaulting above the aisles, the Gothic chancel, decorated with stuccowork of the Lublin type, and the 17th-century tomb- stones shattered in 1944. The Baroque tomb of Adam and Małgorzata Kotowski, by theMonument to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren, is also noteworthy.Monument to the style partly because of the The domed chapel in which conservatism of Mazovian it stands is decorated with1944 Warsaw buildings and partly in an portraits, painted on tin plate,Uprising 0 attempt to endow the church of the donors, who became with the appearance of age, prosperous and were ennobledpl. Krasińskich. Map 1 C2. so as to create an illusion of despite their humble origins.@ 116, 178, 180, 222, 503. the age-old traditions of the order – which had in factThis monument, unveiled only been set up in Warsaw Ulica Freta win 1989, commemorates the in 1603. When work washeroes of the historic Warsaw interrupted by a plague that Map 2 D2. @ 116, 127, 178, 180,Uprising. It consists of sculp- raged in Warsaw in 1625, the 222, 503, 506. Maria Skłodowska-tures by Wincenty Kućma few remaining monks listened Curie Museum Tel 022 831 80 92.placed in an architectural to confessions and gave # 8:30am–4pm Tue, 9:30am–4pmsetting by Jacek Budyń. The communion through openings Wed–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat, 10am–3pmsculptures represent soldiers – drilled in the doors. The work Sun. & 8one group defending the bar-ricades, the other going down The main road in the Newinto the sewers. (The insur- Town, Ulica Freta developedgents used the sewer system to along a section of the oldmove around Warsaw during route leading from Oldthe uprising.) The entrance to Warsaw to Zakroczym. At theone such sewer is still to be end of the 1300s, buildingsfound near the monument. began to appear along it, and It was in front of this in the 15th century it camemonument, during the within the precincts of Newcelebrations marking the 50th Warsaw (Nowa Warszawa).anniversary of the uprising, Several good antique shopsthat the President of the and cafés are on this street.Federal Republic of Germany, The house at No. 15, whereRichard Herzog, apologized Marie Curie was born, is nowto the Polish nation for the a museum dedicated to her.unleashing of World War II Films about her life and theby the Third Reich and the history of chemistry are pre-bloody suppression of the Church of St Jacek from sented to groups on requestWarsaw Uprising. Ulica Freta at an extra charge.Church of MARIA SKŁODOWSKA-CURIESt Jacek q (1867–1934) Maria Skłodowska (Marie Curie) was 24ul. Freta 8/10. Map 2 D2. Tel 022 years old when she left Warsaw to study635 47 00. @ 116, 127, 178, 180, in Paris. Within a decade she had become222, 503, 506. famous as the co-discoverer of radioactivity. Together with her husband, Pierre Curie,At the beginning of the 17th she discovered the elements radium andcentury, while the Jesuits were polonium. She was awarded the Nobelbuilding a Baroque church in Prize twice: the first time in 1903,Old Town, the Dominicans when she won the prize for physicsstarted work on a Gothic jointly with her husband – becomingchancel for the Church of the first woman Nobel laureate – andSt Jacek (Kościół św Jacka). the second in 1911 for chemistry.They returned to the GothicFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E O L D A N D N E W T O W N S 71 Church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary t ul. Przyrynek 2. Map 2 D1. Tel 022 831 24 73. @ 116, 127, 178, 180, 222, 503, 506. The brick tower of the Church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary (Kościół Nawiedzenia NMP) rises over the roofs of the houses on the bank of the River Vistula. This church is the oldest inThe triangular-shaped New Town Square the New Town. It was built at the beginning of the 15thNew Town proportions. The interior, century by the Mazovian which was damaged in he princess, Anna, wife of JanuszSquare e war, has since been I, the Elder, and is reputed toMap 2 D2. @ 116, 127, 178, 180, renovated. Previously stand on the site of a pagan222, 503, 506. polychrome, it is now white. sacred spot. The most beautiful Restoration carried out in reconstructed feature is the the 19th century changed theThe heart of the New Town tomb of Maria Karolina, building’s appearanceis the market square (Rynek Princesse de several times.Nowego Miasta). Once Bouillon, grand- Damaged duringrectangular, it acquired its daughter of Jan III World War II, it wasodd triangular shape after Sobieski. It was subsequently rebuiltreconstruction. When the installed in 1746 by in the 15th-centurytown hall, which stood in Bishop Andrzej Gothic style. Thethe centre of the square, Załuski and Prince vaulting above thewas demolished in 1818, a Michał Kazimierz chancel wassplendid view of the Baroque Radziwiłł, a well- completed bydome which crowns the known reveller who medieval methods:Church of St Kazimierz was once, unsuccess- that is, it was filledopened up. Destroyed in fully, sought her by hand, without1944, the church was rebuilt hand in marriage. the use of pre-in a manner reminiscent of The tomb features fabricated moulds.the 18th century, though a fractured shield In the cemeterynot exactly replicating the and a crown falling Tomb of Maria next to the churchoriginal. The façades of many into an abyss – ref- Karolina, Princesse there stands abuildings around the square erences to the de Bouillon modern statueare covered with Socialist Sobieski coat of of WalerianRealist murals. A charming arms and the death of the last Łukasiński (1786–1868),19th-century well is to be member of the royal line. At founder of the Nationalfound near Ulica Freta. the rear of the convent a Patriotic Society. garden, unchanged since the From the terrace next to theChurch of 17th century, descends in tiers church, there is a magnificent to the River Vistula below. view of the Vistula valley.St Kazimierz rRynek Nowego Miasta 2. Map 2D2. Tel 022 635 71 13. @ 116, 127,178, 180, 222, 503, 506. Convent¢ Church open to visitors.The Church and Conventof the Order of the HolySacrament, designed byTylman van Gameren, wasbuilt in 1688–92 by King JanIII Sobieski and Queen MariaKazimiera. The remarkabledomed building is distin-guished by its clear Baroquearchitecture of classic Church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary
WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A 73 THE ROYAL ROUTET h e R o y a l R o u t e ( Tr a k t Królewski) is so named because of the former royalresidences that line it. It stretchesfrom Belvedere Palace (Belweder), Świat, its wide pavements decorated in summer with baskets of flowers, is lined with cafés and elegant shops. The most impressive buildings are on Krakowskie Przedmieście. Thisup to the Old Town, along Aleje splendid location on the edge ofUjazdowskie, through Nowy the escarpment inspired power-Świat and on to Krakowskie ful citizens to build large housesPrzedmieście. This part of with gardens. Many churchesWarsaw has been largely Cardinal and monasteries were alsor e b u i l t a f t e r d e s t r u c t i o n Stefan Wyszyński located here, as well as the pres-suffered in World War II. On ident’s residence and universityAleje Ujazdowskie there are beautiful buildings. In the street itself, there areparks and little palaces surrounded by statues of distinguished Poles. Ingardens, most of which now house summer, fêtes and bazaars are oftenembassies. The Neo-Classical Nowy organized along the Royal Route.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEChurchesCarmelite Church 3Church of the Holy Cross 7Church of St Anne 1Church of the Visitation 5Historic Buildingsand MonumentsGniński-Ostrogski Palace 9Namiestnikowski Palace 4Parliament tStaszic Palace 8Statue of Adam Mickiewicz 2University of Warsaw 6Streets and SquaresNowy Świat 0Plac Trzech Krzyży eAleje Ujazdowskie rMuseumsNational Museum pp80–81 qPolish Military Museum wGETTING THEREYou can get to theRoyal Route by busesE-2, 100, 102, 111, 116,118, 160, 174, 175, 178,180, 195, 503, and ontrams travelling alongAleje Jerozolimskieand the W-Z route.KEY Street-by-Street map pp74–5 0m 500 Railway station 0 yds 500Mermaid (Syrena), a statue by Ludwik Nitsche, on the Kościuszko Embankment
74 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A Krakowskie Przedmieście Krakowskie Przedmieście is undoubtedly Church of the one of the most beautiful streets in Warsaw. Visitation Rebuilt after the war, the magnificent Also known as the palaces that lie along it now generally Church of St Joseph, house government departments. There this is one of the few are also pleasant restaurants, bars and churches in Warsaw cafés. The street is lined with trees, green that was not squares and little palaces with courtyards. destroyed during On weekdays, Krakowskie Przedmieście World War II. Its is one of the liveliest streets in Warsaw, interior features as two great institutions of higher education are intact 5 are situated here: the University of Warsaw and the Academy of Fine Arts. Carmelite Church Namiestnikowski Palace The Church of Our Lady This former palace, rebuilt in the of the Assumption and Neo-Classical style for the tsar’s St Joseph the Bridegroom governor in the Kingdom of has a splendid early Poland, is now the president’s Neo-Classical façade residence 4 crowned with a green globe representing the earth 3 KA RO W A BE DN TOK AR ARZ IE SK OSS SK OW AK EW A KR OLI SKI ŃS TRE EGO KIC MB H AC KA A DOW A ZI KO MIO . Church of St Anne The Neo-Classical façade of the church is reminis- cent of the style of the 16th- century Italian architect Andrea Palladio 1 Statue of Adam Mickiewicz The Hotel Bristol, which overlooks the The unveiling of the statue Namiestnikowski Palace, is the most in 1898 was a great mani- luxurious, as well as the most festation of patriotism 2 expensive, hotel in Warsaw.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E R O YA L R O U T E 75 CITY CENTRE Church of St Anne 1 ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 68. ROYAL Map 2 D3. Tel 022 826 89 91. ROUTE @ 116, 175, 178, 180, 195, 222, 503. v 13, 23, 26, 32. This Gothic church was built for the Bernardine LOCATOR MAP order by Anna, widow See Street Finder, map 2 of the Mazovian prince Bolesław III, in the second Staszic Palace half of the 15th century. This Neo-Classical palace It was extended between now houses the Polish 1518 and 1533. Destroyed The statue of Nicolaus Copernicus Academy of Sciences 8 during the Swedish invasion is situated at the southern in 1655–60, it was rebuilt KOPERNIKA end of Krakowskie in a Baroque style to a Przedmieście. design by Józef Szymon OB Bellotti. The Gothic chancel OŹ and the external walls were NA retained. The Neo-Classical façade, by Chrystian Piotr Aigner and Stanisław Kostka Potocki, is a later addition. When the monastery was closed in 1864, the church became a religious IE academic institution, a role ŚC IE that it maintains to the DM present day. The relics of ZE PR St Ładysław of Gielniów, one of the patron saintsKRÓ of Warsaw, are preserved in a side chapel. The LEW magnificent interior of the church has polychrome SKA paintings by Walenty Żebrowski and a series of Rococo altars. In the . Church of the monastery, part of which Holy Cross dates from the 16th century, Inside this church the crystalline vaulting in are urns contain- the cloisters has survived. ing the hearts of Fryderyk Chopin and Władysław Reymont, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature 7 . University of Warsaw The University of Warsaw KEY is the largest educational Suggested route institution in Poland. Only some of the faculties are situated at its main STAR SIGHTS site on Krakowskie Przedmieście 6 . Church of St Anne . Church of Holy Cross 0m 100 . University of Warsaw Crystalline vaulting in the cloister 0 yds 100 of the Bernadine monastery
76 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E AStatue of Adam NamiestnikowskiMickiewicz 2 Palace 4ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście. ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 46/48.Map 2 D4. Map 2 D4. @ 100, 116, 175, 180, 195, 222, 503. ¢ to the public.This statue of Poland’s mostdistinguished Romantic poetwas unveiled in 1898, on the The palace owes its elegantcentenary of his birth. Erect- Neo-Classical form toing the statue during the refurbishment carried out byperiod of intense Russification Chrystian Piotr Aigner inthat followed the January 1918–19. However, this workInsurrection of 1863 was a conceals much older walls, asgreat achievement on the part a palace stood on this site asof the committee in charge of The early Neo-Classical façade of early as the mid-17th century.the project, led by Michał the Carmelite Church Namiestnikowski PalaceRadziwiłł and Henryk Sienkie- was home to several prom-wicz. The statue was designed consisting of a nave with inent familes, among themby Cyprian Godebski, and interconnecting side chapels the Koniecpolskis, thethe plinth by Józef Pius and a transept, has many Lubomirskis and, from 1685,Dziekoński and Władysław of its original features. the Radziwiłłs. From them theMarconi. It was set up in The main altar, with government of the Kingdoma square off Krakowskie sculptures by Jan Jerzy of Poland bought the palacePrzedmieście that was Plersch, is beautiful. in 1818 as the residence ofonce lined with houses Plersch also carved the the governor-general of theflanked by side streets. sculptural group of the tsarist government. AmongThe houses were later Visitation of the Virgin, the people who lived heredemolished and the road a very sophisticated and were General Józef Zajączek,widened. Only the statue Romantic piece which viceroy of Tsar Alexander,of the Mother of God was transferred from an and the much-hated Generalof Passau, dating from earlier Dominican church Iwan Paskiewicz. The wife of1683, on the edge of the and can now be seen General Zajączek was a verysquare, survives. It was on the altar near the colourful figure; she was amade in the workshop rood arch. Also prima ballerina and shockedof Szymon Belloti noteworthy are the town with her love affairsto a commission the Baroque late into old age.from Jan III Sobie- paintings, espe- The palace escaped seriousski as an offering cially the two damage during World War II.in thanks for a small works in After refurbishment, it wasPolish victory at Statue of Adam Mickiewicz the side altars designated the seat of thethe Battle of near the chancel, Council of Ministers andVienna and for the protection by Szymon Czechowicz. witnessed many importantof the royal family. During the Northern War of political events: the signing of 1705, Stanisław Leszczyński the Warsaw Pact in 1955, the held peace negotiations treaty normalizing relationsCarmelite with Charles XII in the with Germany in 1970, andChurch 3 church. From 1864, after the the Round Table Talks in 1989. closure of the monastery, Since 1994 the palace has beenul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 52/54. the monastic buildings the residence of the presidentMap 2 D4. @ 100, 116, 175, 180, housed a seminary. of the Republic of Poland.195, 222, 503.The Baroque Church of OurLady of the Assumption(Kościół WniebowzięciaNMP) was built for the orderof Discalced Carmelites in1661–82, probably to adesign by Józef SzymonBelloti, although the Neo-Classical façade is considera-bly later. Designed by EfraimSchroeger, it dates from 1782and is one of the earliestexamples of Neo-Classicismin Poland. Despite sufferingwar damage, the church, Namiestnikowski Palace with a statue of Józef PoniatowskiFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E R O YA L R O U T E 77 authorities – a library was added (Stefan Szyller and Antoni Jabłoński, 1891–4). The Auditorium Maximum was built when the university passed back into Polish hands after the country regained its independence. Today, the University of Warsaw is Poland’s largest educational establishment. The complex around Kazimierz Palace (Pałac Kazimierzowski), which houses several build- ings, is now mainly used as its administrative centre. Church of the Holy Cross 7 ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 3. Map 2 D5. Tel 022 556 88 20. @ 100, 116, 175, 180, 195, 222, 503.Baroque ebony tabernacle in the Church of the Visitation The original Church of the Holy Cross (Kościół śwChurch of the University of Krzyża, 1626) was destroyed during the Swedish DelugeVisitation 5 Warsaw 6 of the 1650s. The currentul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 34. ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28. Baroque missionaries’ churchMap 2 D4. @ 100, 116, 175, 180, Map 2 D5. Tel 022 552 00 00. @ was designed by Giuseppe195, 222, 503. 100, 116, 175, 180, 195, 222, 503. Simone Bellotti and built between 1679 and 1696. TheThe Order of the Visitation The nucleus of the University façade was completed in 1760.was brought to Poland by of Warsaw (Uniwersytet The church is a splendidMaria Gonzaga, wife of Jan Warszawski) grew from a example of VarsovianKazimierz. Work on the summer palace known as church architecture of theChurch of the Visitation the Villa Regia. In the first late 17th century. During(Kościół Wizytek) began half of the 17th century, the World War II, it sufferedin the same year but was palace belonged to the Vasa major damage and most ofinterrupted, and not resumed dynasty. From then on it its interior was destroyed.until the 18th century, when underwent many phases of The most interesting survivingthe architect Karol Bay took refurbishment, and in 1816 feature is the altar in thecontrol of the project. The was chosen to house what south wing of the transept,façade, by Efraim Schroeger, was then the new university. designed by Tylman vanwas completed in 1763. The After further alteration, the Gameren. Many importantchurch suffered no war dam- former palace acquired the ceremonies have takenage, so its interior features late Neo-Classical appearance place in the church,have survived intact. The most that it has today – as including the funeralssplendid of these are the did the outbuildings of political thinkerRococo pulpit in the form of a to each side (designed Stanisław Staszicship and the sculptures on the by Jakub Kubicki in (1755–1826),high altar. Many fine paintings 1814–16), the main school composer Karolhave also survived, including (Corrazzi, commenced SzymanowskiThe Visitation by Tadeusz 1841), and the lecture (1882–1937)Kuntze-Konicz, St Luis Gonza- hall and the former and painter Leonga by Daniel Szulc and St Fine Arts Department WyczółkowskiFrancis of Sales by Szymon (both by Michał (1852–1936). UrnsCzechowicz. The ebony taber- Kado, 1818–22). containing the heartsnacle, decorated with silver After the of composer Fryderykplaques by Herman Pothoff, January Chopin (1810–49)was commissioned by Ludwi- Insurrection – and novelistka Maria and completed in when the Władysław Rey-1654. Next to the church, the university mont (1867–Baroque convent building and was run 1925) are builtgarden are still used by the by the into a pillarNuns of the Visitation today. Russian Statue of Christ, Church of the Holy Cross of the nave.
78 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A number of Neo-Classical palaces; by the beginning of the 19th century they had been joined by late Neo-Classical town houses. At the end of the 19th century, Nowy Świat was an elegant street of restaurants, cafés, summer theatres, hotels and shops. After serious dam- age in World War II, only the Neo-Classical buildings were reconstructed, although later buildings were given pseudo- Neo-Classical features to preserve a uniformity of style.Monument to Nicolaus Copernicus in front of Staszic Palace Today, Nowy Świat is one of the most attractive streets inStaszic Palace 8 Today the palace is home to Warsaw, with wide pedestrian the Fryderyk Chopin Museum areas and cafés with pavementul. Nowy Świat 72. Map 2 D5. (Muzeum Fryderyka Chopina), gardens. Blikle, the café at No.@ E-6, 100, 116, 125, 150, 174, which houses portraits, letters 33, boasts a 130-year tradition175, 180, 195, 222, 503, 506. and autograph manuscripts, and the best doughnuts as well as the grand piano (pączki) in town. KossakowskiContrary to what its name at which Chopin composed Palace, at No. 19, was remodel-suggests, Staszic Palace during the last two years of led by Henryk Marconi in(Pałac Staszica) never his life. It is also the home of 1849–51. Strolling along Nowybelonged to Stanisław the Chopin Society, and regu- Świat it is worth turning downStaszic, nor did he ever live lar performances of Chopin’s Ulica Foksal, where there are ahere – although he did fund music take place here. number of 19th-century housesit. The palace was built by and small palaces. The mostAntonio Corazzi between beautiful, at Nos. 1/2/4, was1820 and 1823 in the late Nowy Świat 0 built for the Zamoyski familyNeo-Classical style, as the by Leandro Marconi in 1878–9.headquarters of the Royal Map 3 C1, 3 C2, 4 D1. @ E-2, E-5, Today, it houses an up-marketSociety of Friends of Science. 111, 116, 150, 174, 175, 180, 195, art gallery and the AssociationSince World War II it has 222, 503, 506. v 7, 8, 9, 12, 22, of Architects of the Polishhoused the Polish Academy 24, 25, 44. Republic. At the roundaboutof Science and the Warsaw on the intersection of NowyScientific Society. The monu- The street known as Nowy Świat and Aleje Jerozolimskiement to astronomer Nicolaus Świat (New World) is a stands the huge building of theCopernicus that stands in stretch of the medieval route former Polish United Workers’front of the building is by leading from the castle to Party Central Committee.Bertel Thorvaldsen. It was Czersk and on to Cracow, and Transformed after the fall ofunveiled in 1830. thus forms part of the Royal communism into a “den of Route. Buildings started to capitalism”, it now houses appear along a section of the banks, the Polish stockGniński-Ostrogski road at the end of the 18th exchange and the officesPalace 9 century. First came a small of various companies.ul. Okólnik 1. Map 4 D1. Tel 022826 59 35. @ 102, 111, 116, 150,174, 175, 178, 180, 195, 506.# 1 May–30 Sep: 10am–5pm Mon,Wed, Fri, noon–6pm Thu, 10am–2pmSat, Sun; 1 Oct–30 Apr: 10am–2pmMon–Wed, Fri, Sat, noon–6pm Thu.9 d & Concerts.Built after 1681, Gniński-Ostrogski Palace (PałacGnińskich-Ostrogskich) is oneof Tylman van Gameren’sgrand masterpieces. Thepavilion was erected on anelevated terrace above acellar. According to legend, agolden duck lived under thepalace, guarding its treasures. Nowy Świat, a street of elegant shops and cafésFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E R O YA L R O U T E 79National Museum q of Calvary). The third cross and No. 19, by architect is held by St John Nepomuk, Stanisław Grochowicz,See pp80–81. whose statue was erected are especially splendid. in 1752 by Grand Crown No. 17, built in 1903–4,Polish Military Marshal Franciszek Bieliński has an eclectic façade. to mark the completion of No. 1, formerly a barracks,Museum w the project to pave the houses the offices of the streets of Warsaw. A fourth Council of Ministers.Aleje Jerozolimskie 3. Map 4 D2 and cross crowns the dome of6 E1. Tel 022 629 52 71/2. @ E-5, the 19th-century Church of111, 117, 158, 507, 517, 521. v 7,8, 9, 21, 22, 24, 25. # 10am–5pm St Alexander (Kościół Parliament t św. Aleksandra).Wed, 10am–4pm Thu–Sun. & The oldest buildings ul. Wiejska 2/4/6. Map 4 D3, 4 D4.(free on Sat). 8 Outdoor around the square Tel 022 694 25 00. @ E-2, 107, 108,exhibition # until dusk, are two 18th-century 116, 118, 151, 155, 159, 166, 171,free admission. - = town houses: No. 1 180, 195, 222, 503. # by priorwww.muzeumwp.pl Nowy Świat, with arrangement. an early Neo-The Polish Military Classical façade, The parliamentary traditionMuseum (Muzeum and No. 2 Plac in Poland dates from 1453,Wojska Polskiego), Trzech Krzyży, but it was interrupted by theestablished in 1920, part of the complex loss of Polish sovereignty incontains a collection of of the Institute the late 1700s. Only after thePolish arms and armour of the Deaf and restoration of Poland’s indep-spanning more than Blind, established endence in 1918 was its two-1,000 years. The most in 1817. New chamber parliament – compris-interesting aspect of the buildings recently ing the Sejm and the Senate –permanent exhibition erected round reconvened. Lacking a suitableis the collection of the square have building, representatives andarmour from the Early restored some- senators gathered for a timeMiddle Ages to the end Statue of St John thing of its in the former Institute for theof the 18th century. It Nepomuk urban character. Education of Young Ladies.includes a rare gilded In 1925–8, a lofty semi-helmet that belonged to a circular hall was built, with aPolish chieftain of the Early Aleje debating chamber for the Sejm.Christian era and numerous Ujazdowskie r It was designed by Kazimierzpieces relating to the greatest Skórewicz and decorated withmedieval battles fought on Map 3 C3, 3 C4, 3 C5. @ 116, 138, Art Deco bas-reliefs by JanPolish territory. 151, 166, 180, 182, 187, 188, 195, Szczepkowski. After damage Among the more unusual 502, 503, 514, 515, 520, 523, 525. suffered in World War II, theexhibits are medieval jousting parliamentary buildings werearmour and an impressive Aleje Ujazdowskie is one significantly extended in thecollection of 17th-century of the most beautiful streets spirit of the comparativelyarmour of the Husaria, the in Warsaw – a good place refined Socialist Realist style, tofamous Polish cavalry, with for a stroll in the summer. a design by Bohdan Pniewski.eagle wings, leopardskins While the east side is bor- In 1989, after the first freeand a mounted cavalryman in dered by parks, the west is elections since World War II,full regalia. Heavy weapons lined with elegant houses the upper parliamentaryfrom the two World Wars are originally built for Warsaw’s chamber, abolished underdisplayed in the park outside. ruling classes but now communist rule, was restored. largely occupied by embas- In 1999, a monument in sies. There are also palatial honour of the HomePlac Trzech houses; Army was unveiled inKrzyży e No. 17 front of the Sejm.Map 3 C2, 3 C3. @ E-2, 100, 101,108, 116, 118, 151, 166, 171, 180,195, 222, 503.Plac Trzech Krzyży (ThreeCrosses Square) is somethingof a misnomer. Mounted ontop of Baroque columns, twogilded crosses, commissionedby August II and made byJoachim Daniel Jauch in1731, mark the beginningof Droga Kalwaryjską (Road The semicircular parliament (Sejm) building, with Art Deco bas-reliefs
80 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E ANational Museum q The National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe) was originally the Museum of Fine Arts, acquiring its present status in 1916. Despite wartime losses, today it has a large collection of works of art covering all periods from antiquity to modern times.W. Szymanowski, Due to lack of space, not all the The Kiss exhibits are on permanent display. . Virgin and Child. St Anne Fresco This important This fresco of St painting by Sandro Anne is one of the Botticelli is the only 10th-century wall work by the artist in paintings dis- Polish collections. covered by Polish archaeologists in Faras, Sudan. Battle of Grunwald, a painting by Jan Matejko (see pp40–41), Greek Vase is the most famous in Some of the Greek vases the Gallery of displayed in the Gallery of Polish Art. Ancient Art are partly from a private collection. Ground floorKEY Ancient Art Faras Collection Medieval Art Polish Paintings 20th-century Polish Art Foreign Art Polish Decorative Art European Decorative Art L. Kronenberg Virgin from Wrocław Silver Room This “Beautiful Madonna” Temporary exhibitions is an early 15th-century sculpture that exemplifies the Non-exhibition areas International Gothic style.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E R O YA L R O U T E 81 The Raising of Lazarus VISITORS’ CHECKLISTThis painting by Rembrandt pupil Carel Fabritius is al. Jerozolimskie 3. Map 4 D2. Tel 022 629 30 93. @ E-5, one of his finest, and 111, 117, 158, 517, 521. v 7, the most important 8, 9, 21, 22, 24, 25. # 10am– exhibit in the 4pm Tue–Fri, 10am–6pm Sat & Foreign Art Sun. ¢ Mon, 1 Jan, Easter Sun, Gallery. 1 and 3 May, Corpus Christi, 15 Aug, 1 Nov, 24–26 Dec. & free Sat. = m ^ - 9 7 8 e Films. www.mnw.art.pl Furniture This bedroom designed by Karol Tichy in 1909 reflects the utilitarian aspect of 20th- Second floor century design. It is on display in the Decorative Arts Gallery. Banquet First floor The painter and mathematician Leon Chwistek developed a theory of “zonism”, according to which various areas of a painting are dominated by certain shapes and colours, as in this scene. . Polish Hamlet This portrait of the aristo- crat and politician Aleksander Wielopolski painted by Jacek Malczewski in 1903, is in the style of the Polish Symbolist school. STAR PAINTINGS . Virgin and Child GALLERY GUIDE The collections are arranged on three floors. On the . Polish Hamlet ground floor are the Galleries of Ancient Art, the Faras Collection and the Gallery of Medieval Art. On the first . St Anne Fresco floor is the collection of Polish art. Foreign paintings can be seen on the first and second floors.
WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A 83 THE CITY CENTREF rom the late 18th to the mid- 19th century, the area around Ulica Senatorskaand Plac Teatralny was thecommercial and cultural centre century, the city’s commercial centre moved to the area around Ulica Marszałkowska, prompted by the opening in 1845 of Warsaw’s first railway station at the junctionof Warsaw. Imposing Neo- with Aleje Jerozolimskie. The cityClassical buildings with impressive centre was completely trans-colonnades are still to be seen formed after the damagethere. The Grand Theatre Nike Monument inflicted during World War II.(Teatr Wielki) on Plac Teatralny Today, its principal landmark isis one of the largest buildings of its the Palace of Culture and Science (Pałactype in Europe. The Saxon Gardens Kultury i Nauki). The western part of(Ogród Saski), stretching through the the city centre is dominated by towercentre of the district, are what remains blocks. For tourists, the eastern side isof a former royal park that adjoined of most interest. Here, several historicthe residence of the Saxon king buildings have survived, dating fromAugust II. In the second half of the 19th the 18th up to the early 20th century.SIGHTS AT A GLANCEPlaces of WorshipCapuchin Church 3Evangelical Church of theAugsburg Confession wNożyk Synagogue tBuildings and HistoricMonumentsArsenal 6Branicki Palace 2Krasiński Palace 5 0m 500Pac Palace 4Palace of Culture and Science r 0 yds 500Primate’s Palace 1Przebendowski-Radziwiłłów Palace 7Monuments andCommemorative SitesMonument to the Heroes of the Ghetto iMonument to those Fallen and Murdered in the East oUmschlagplatz Monument uStreets and SquaresPlac Bankowy 8Plac Teatralny 9 GETTING THEREParks The major trans-Saxon Gardens 0 port routes cross inMuseums and Galleries the city centre. TheEthnographical Museum e best way to get aroundPawiak Prison y the main streets there is by tram along UlicaZachęta q Marszałkowska, Ulica Jana Pawła II, Aleje SolidarnościKEY and Aleje Jerozolimskie. From Ursynów and Street-by-Street map pp84–5 Mokotów you can also travel by metro. Buses go Metro almost everywhere.The Palace of Culture and Science by night, seen from Ulica Złota
84 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A Ulica Miodowa Ulica Miodowa lies just outside the much-visited Old Town. Tourists rarely venture here, but it holds many attractions nonetheless. The street has three Baroque churches and several palaces – including the Neo-Classical Primate’s Palace and the Rococo Branicki Palace – set behind spacious courtyards. The former Collegium Nobilium, the most famous Polish school for the children of the nobility in the 18th century, now houses the The Basilian church is hidden Academy of Dramatic Arts. behind the palace façade. Byzantine-Ukrainian masses are celebrated here. SC H IL LE R A . Pac Palace The 19th-century interiors are decorated in the Gothic, Renaissance, Greek and Nike Moorish styles 4 Monument A L . S O L I D A W A R N O O D IO ś C I M K A P IT U LN A . Capuchin Church In accordance with the rule of poverty of the Capuchin order, the altars in this church have no gilt or S E polychrome decoration 3 A N A W T DO O R S IO K A M Branicki Palace Rebuilt after World War II, the palace was crowned with sculptures derived from paintings by Canaletto 2For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 85 OLD & NEW TOWNS CITY CENTRE ROYAL ROUTE LOCATOR MAP See Street Finder, maps 1 & 2 The Primate’s Palace, a building in the Neo-Classical style D ŁU G A Primate’s Palace 1 Following almost complete destruction during World War ul. Senatorska 13/15. Map 2 D3. II, this Rococo palace was Tel 022 829 69 99. @ 100, 111, rebuilt in 1947–53. The 116, 175, 180, 195. ¢ to the public. reconstruction was based on detailed historical research The present-day appearance and 18th-century paintings. of the Primate’s Palace (Pałac Prymasowski) reflects the refurbishments carried Capuchin Church 3 out by Efraim Schroeger in 1777–84 for the Primate of ul. Miodowa 13. Map 1 C3. Poland, Antoni Ostrowski. @ 100, 116, 174, 175, 180, 195. Schroeger’s work was then continued by Szymon Zug The Capuchin Church for the next primate, Michał (kościół Kapucynów), or Poniatowski. The unusual Church of the Transfiguration, arrangement of the building, was built by Jan III Sobieski with its semicircular wings, is in gratitude for the Polish reminiscent of the designs of victory over the Turks at the the most celebrated architect Battle of Vienna in 1683. of the Italian Renaissance, Building began in the same Andrea Palladio (1508–80). year under the direction of The Primate’s Palace is Izydor Affaita – probably to generally considered to be designs by Tylman van the first Neo-Classical palace Gameren and Agostino Locci built in Poland. It was the Younger – and was com- destroyed during World pleted by Carlo Ceroni in War II, then was rebuilt in 1692. The modest façade 1949–52. Today it is used recalls the Capuchin church as an office building. in Rome. The church houses The superb Great Hall (Sala urns containing the heart of Wielka) is decorated with Jan III and the ashes of the Ionic columns and delicate Saxon king, August II. In the Neo-Classical stuccowork. crypt, there is a nativity scene The Field Cathedral of the with emotive figures. Polish Armed Forces was built in the 17th century as a church for the Piarist order. Branicki Palace 2 ul. Miodowa 6. Map 2 D3. @ 100,KEY 116, 180, 195. ¢ to the public. Suggested route Branicki Palace (Pałac0m 50 Branickich) was built for Jan Klemens Branicki, adviser to0 yds 50 August III. This powerful magnate was known both as a distinguished soldier STAR SIGHTS and a connoisseur of fine art. Work began on the . Capuchin Church palace in 1740, to a design by Jan Zygmunt Deybel, . Pac Palace and was completed by Sarcophagus with the heart of Jan III Giacopo Fontana. Sobieski in the Capuchin church
86 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E APac Palace 4ul. Miodowa 15. Map 1 C3.Tel 022 634 96 00. @ 100, 116,175, 180, 195. # occasionally.The Baroque Pac Palace(Pałac Paca), formerly theresidence of the Radziwiłłfamily, was designed andbuilt by Tylman van Gamerenin 1681–97. One of thepalace’s 19th-century owners,Ludwik Pac, commissionedthe architect Henryk Marconi Krasiński Palace seen from the palace gardensto redesign it; work was com-pleted in 1828. The interiors ancestor of Jan Dobrogost Przebendowski-were decorated in the Gothic, Krasiński. The reliefs are theRenaissance, Greek and work of Andreas Schlüter, RadziwiłłówMoorish styles, and the an outstandingly gifted Palace 7façade remodelled in the sculptor and architect whoPalladian manner. The later designed the Arsenal al. Solidarności 62. Map 1 C3.palace gate was modelled and Royal Castle in Berlin. Tel 022 826 90 91. @ E-2, E-3, 100,on a triumphal arch and Rebuilt after war damage, 107, 111, 127, 171, 175, 180, 195,decorated with Classical bas- the palace now houses a 409, 410, 503, 520, 522. v 4, 13,relief sculptures – the work of collection of antique prints 18, 23, 26, 32, 35, 36, 46. QLudwik Kaufman, a pupil of and manuscripts from the Ratusz. Independence Museumthe celebrated Neo-Classical National Library. (Muzeum Niepodległości) # 10am–sculptor Antonio Canova. 5pm Tue–Fri, 10am–4pm Sat & Sun.Today the palace houses & (free on Sun). 8 www.muzeumthe Ministry of Health. Arsenal 6 niepodleglosci.art.pl ul. Długa 52. Map 1 B3. Tel 022 831 Before World War II, this 15 37. @ E-2, 100, 107, 111, 127, Baroque palace was in a 171, 180, 195, 410, 503, 520, 522. narrow shopping street. When v 4, 13, 18, 23, 26, 32, 35, 36, 46. the East-West (W-Z) route was Q Ratusz. www.pma.pl constructed (1948–9), it was Archaeological Museum # suddenly surrounded by a 9am–4pm Mon–Fri, 10am–4pm Sun. major traffic artery. The palace, ¢ 3rd Sun in the month. & (free which has the most beautiful on Sun). 8 mansard roofs in Warsaw and an oval bow-fronted façade, The arsenal was built in was built in 1728 to a design Neo-Classical medallion on the façade of Pac Palace 1638–47, in the Baroque by Jan Zygmunt Deybel. Since style, by Władysław IV Vasa. 1990 it has housed the Inde- There, during World War II, pendence Museum (MuzeumKrasiński Palace 5 boy scout soldiers of the Niepodległości), which features Grey Ranks (the Szare a collection of documentspl. Krasińskich 5. Map 1 C2. Szeregi, who were actively relating Poland’s history.Tel 022 635 62 09. @ 116, 178, involved in the resistance180, 222. # during exhibitions. movement) released 21 pris- oners from the hands of theKrasiński Palace (Pałac Gestapo; this brave action isKrasińskich), in the Baroque commemorated by a plaque.style, is regarded as one of The Arsenal now housesthe most beautiful late 17th- the Archaeological Museum,century buildings in Warsaw. with exhibits from excava-It was designed by Tylman tions carried out within bothvan Gameren and built the country’s pre-war andbetween 1687 and 1700 for present day borders. Also onthe mayor of Warsaw, display are objects from otherJan Dobrogost Krasiński. European countries, Asia, the A triangular pediment Americas and Africa. The ex-features ornamental reliefs hibition on prehistoric Polanddepicting the heroic deeds is highly recommended. Byof the Roman patrician prior arrangement, youngerMarcus Valerius (known visitors may make clay pots The Baroque Przebendowski-as Corvinus), a legendary using prehistoric methods. Radziwiłłów PalaceFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 87Plac Bankowy 8Map 1 B3 and 1 B4. @ E-2, E-3,100, 107, 111, 127, 171, 180, 195,410, 503, 520, 522. v 4, 13, 18,23, 26, 32, 35, 36, 46. Q Ratusz.John Paul II Collection pl. Bankowy 1.Tel 022 620 27 25. # 10am–5pm(4pm in winter) Tue–Sun. &Today Plac Bankowy (Bank Neo-Classical frieze on the façade of the Grand TheatreSquare) is one of the busiestplaces in Warsaw. Once a Plac Teatralny 9 Opposite the theatre, on thequiet little square, it was north side of the square, stoodradically altered after the Map 1 C4. @ 111. the small Church of St Andrewconstruction of the East–West and the enormous, repeatedlyroute and Ulica Marszałkowska. Before 1944, Plac Teatralny extended Jabłonowski Palace,A statue of Feliks Dzierżyński, (Theatre Square) was the which was refashioned as thethe founder of the Soviet heart of Warsaw. The town hall in 1817–19. Closesecurity service, was erected enormous Neo-Classical by was Blank’s Palace, a latehere, and the square was Grand Theatre (Teatr Baroque building, whichrenamed in his honour. In Wielki) on the south side was owned by Piotr Blank,1989, to the joy of local inhab- was designed by a banker at the time ofitants, the statue was removed Antonio Corazzi and Stanisław Augustand the square’s original name Ludwik Kozubowski Poniatowskirestored. Plac Bankowy was and completed in (1764–95). At theonce the site of the largest 1833. The façade is beginning of thesynagogue in Warsaw. It was decorated with a Nazi occupation ofdemolished after the collapse Neo-Classical frieze Poland, the Germansof the Ghetto Uprising of by Paweł Maliński arrested Stefan1943. A tower block now depicting Oedipus Starzyński, thestands on the site. The most and his companions heroic mayor ofinteresting buildings are on returning from the Warsaw, in thisthe west side of the square. Olympian Games. building. DuringThe group of Neo-Classical The theatre was the Warsawbuildings zealously rebuilt rebuilt and greatly Uprising, the poetafter World War II were enlarged after Krzysztof Kamildesigned by Antonio Corazzi. suffering war damage. Baczyński died amidThe most impressive is the Two statues stand in its ruins. In the yearsthree-winged palace of the front of the building: after World War II,Commission for Revenues and one depicts only Blank’sTreasury, which today serves Stanisław Bogusławski Monument Palace wasas a town hall. From the junc- Moniuszko, the rebuilt; Jabłon-tion with Ulica Elektoralna, father of Polish opera (see owski Palace and the church –the fine building of the former p26), and the other Wojciech now the Church of St BrotherBank of Poland (Bank Polski) Bogusławski, who instigated Albert and St Andrew – wereand Stock Exchange (Giełda) the theatre’s construction. rebuilt only recently. The Nikecan be admired. The building Today it is the home of the Monument, which once stoodnow houses the John Paul II National Opera and the in Plac Teatralny in memoryCollection, donated by Janina National Theatre. of Warsaw’s resistance againstand Zbigniew Porczyński. In 1848, the Russian the Nazis, was moved to aIt consists of over 450 works composer Mikhail Glinka new site near the East-West by famous artists and (1803–57) lived and worked route, where it stands on a is arranged in the house at No. 2 Ulica high plinth. thematically. Niecała, just off Plac Teatralny.Municipal government buildings on Plac Bankowy
88 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A 20th-century architectural movement. It was conceived as a monumental building in the Neo-Renaissance style, with four wings (only completed in 1995) and a glass-roofed inner courtyard. In order to promote the work of contemporary Polish artists, the Society organized exhibitions and competitions, and purchased works of art. The Zachęta’s permanent collections were transferred to the National Museum, and theTomb of the Unknown Soldier in the Saxon Gardens building, as before, now serves as a venue for temporarySaxon Gardens 0 the uprising led by Tadeusz exhibitions of modern art. Kościuszko in 1794. It was here in 1922 thatMap 1 C4, 1 C5. @ 107, 119, 127, Saski Palace was destroyed Gabriel Narutowicz, the first128, 160, 171. v 15, 18, 35, 36. at the end of 1944. All that president of the newly remains today is the Tomb of independent Polish Republic,The Saxon Gardens (Ogród the Unknown Soldier, where was assassinated by EligiuszSaski) were laid out between the body of a soldier who Niewiadomski, a Polish1713 and 1733 by August fell in the defence of Lvov painter, critic and fanatic.II, the Strong, to a design (1918–19) was interred on 2by Jan Krzysztof November 1925. Plans areNaumann and Mateus afoot to restore the palace Evangelical ChurchDaniel Pöppelmann. to its former glory.Originally the royal of the Augsburggardens adjoining Confession wMorsztyn Palace, Zachęta qthey became the pl. Małachowskiego 1. Map 1 C5. Telbasis for a Baroque pl. Małachowskiego 3. 022 556 46 60. @ 106, 160, 310.town planning Map 1 C5. Tel 022project in Warsaw 827 58 54. @ E-2, The Evangelical Church ofknown as the Saxon 160, 410. # noon–8pm the Augsburg ConfessionAxis (Osią Saską). Tue–Sun. & (free on Thu). (Kościół św Trójcy) wasIn 1727 the Saxon www.zacheta.art.pl designed by Szymon BogumiłGardens became Zug and built in 1777–81. Thethe first public The Zachęta Neo-Classical building ispark in Poland, and building – now the crowned by a dome 58 mfor two centuries National Gallery of (189 ft) high. For a long timethey served as an Contemporary Art – the church was the highestalfresco “summer Baroque sculpture was built in 1899–1903 building in Warsaw, and boresalon” for Varso- from the Saxon for the Society for the witness to the religiousvians. At the time Gardens Promotion of Fine Arts. tolerance of the Polish nationof August III, Karol It was designed by and of Stanisław AugustFryderyk Pöppelmann built a Stefan Szyller, the leading Poniatowski (1764–95), theBaroque summer theatre here; architect of Warsaw’s Revival last king of Poland. Thethis stood until 1772. Between period, a 19th- and early church is reminiscent of the1816 and 1827, James Savagerefashioned the gardens inthe English style. In 1870 theywere graced by an enormouswooden summer theatre,which was destroyed inSeptember 1939, at the startof World War II. The gardensare now adorned with 21Baroque sandstone statuesmade by sculptors includingJan Jerzy Plersch in the 1730s.There were once many morestatues here; some wereremoved to St Petersburgby Marshal Suvorov, whorecaptured Warsaw during Façade of the Zachęta building (National Gallery of Contemporary Art)For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 89 Palace of Culture and Science r pl. Defilad 1. Map 3 A1, 3 B1. Tel 022 656 76 00. @ E-5, 100, 102, 105, 107, 117, 118, 119, 125, 127, 130, 131, 150, 151, 158, 160, 171, 174, 175, 178, 501, 502, 504, 505, 506, 507, 510, 512, 514, 517, 519, 520, 521, 522, 525, 700. v 4, 7, 8, 9, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 35, 36. Q Centre (Centrum). Viewing platform # 10am–6pm daily. & e m www.pkin.pl Queen Juliana of theThe interior of the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Netherlands is reputed to have described the PalacePantheon in Rome; however, tains permanent displays of of Culture and Science (Pałacthis ancient model was Polish folk costumes, folklore Kultury i Nauki) as “modestmerely a starting point from and arts and crafts, and collec- but tasteful”. This enormouswhich Zug developed a tions of ethnic and tribal art building – a gift for theunique design. The interior from around the world, includ- people of Warsaw from theof the church features ing Africa, Australia, the nations of the USSR – wasa vast barrel-vaulted Pacific and Latin America. built in 1952–5 to the designnave with rectangular It also mounts occasional of a Russian architect, Levtransepts. The west temporary exhibitions. Rudniev. At the time, thisfront features a In a neighbouring monument to “the spirit ofmassive Doric portico building on Ulica invention and social progress”which emphasizes the Mazowiecka, behind a was the second tallest build-severity of the façade, gate with bullet marks, ing in Europe. It resemblesregarded as one of the is the glass-fronted Moscow’s Socialist Realistoutstanding examples Artist’s House (Dom tower blocks, and althoughof Neo-Classical Artysty), which it has only 30 storeys, witharchitecture in contains a modern art its spire it is 230 m 68 cmPoland. The interior, gallery. Also on Ulica (750 ft) high. Its volumewith its double tier of Mazowiecka are is over 800,000 cubic mgalleries supported several bookshops, (28 million cubic ft) andby columns, has the best of which it contains 40 millionexcellent acoustics Sacred figure, are at the bricks. It is said toand is used for choral Ethnographical intersection with incorporate manyand other concerts. Museum Ulica Święto- architectural and krzyska. Up decorative elementsEthnographical until the beginning taken from stately of World War II, homes after WorldMuseum e Ziemiańska, a very War II. Despite the famous café, was to passage of time,ul. Kredytowa 1. Map 1 C5. Tel 022 be found at No. 22 this symbol of827 76 41/5. @ 125, 150, 160, 506. Ulica Mazowiecka. Soviet domination# 10am–6pm Tue–Thu, 10am–4pm This was where the still provokesFri, 10am–5pm Sat, noon–5pm Sun. cream of society extreme reactions,¢ public hols. & (free on Sat). e and the artistic from admiration todm8=6 community demands met to for itsThe Ethnographical Museum exchange demo-(Muzeum Etnograficzne) is ideas and lition.housed in a Neo-Renaissance gossip overbuilding on the south side of coffee.Plac Małachowski. The formerhead office of the Land CreditAssociation, it was built in1854–8, to a design by HenrykMarconi, an Italian architectwho settled in Warsaw. Itrecalls the Libreria Sansovini-ana in Venice, and is one ofthe city’s finest 19th-centurybuildings. The museum con- Palace of Culture and Science, reminiscent of a Socialist Realist tower block
90 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A Pawiak Prison y ul. Dzielna 24/26. Map 1 A2. Tel 022 831 13 17. @ 107, 500, 510. v 16, 17, 19, 33. # 9am– 5pm Wed, 9am–4pm Thu & Sat, 10am–5pm Fri, 10am–4pm Sun. 687=m Pawiak Prison was built in the 1830s by Henryk Marconi. It became notorious during the Nazi occupation, when it was used to imprison Poles and Jews arrested by the Germans. Now in ruins, Pawiak serves as a museum.Interior of Nożyk Synagogue In front of the ruin stands a long-dead tree, coveredNożyk Synagogue t synagogue was closed for with obituary notices for worship and the German prisoners who died there.ul. Twarda 6. Map 1 A5. Tel 022 forces used it as a warehouse.620 43 24. @ 100, 151, 160. Reopened in 1945, it wasJewish Historical Institute ul. eventually (1977–83) restoredTłomackie 3/5. Tel 022 827 92 21. to its original condition. Of a total population ofNożyk Synagogue was no more than 1,300,000,founded by Zelman and there were about 400,000Ryfka Nożyk. In 1893 they Jews in Warsaw beforedonated the land on which World War II; the city hadit was to be built. Later they the second largest Jewishleft half of their estate to the population after that of NewOrthodox Jewish community. York. The northern part ofThe synagogue was built Warsaw, which was inhabitedbetween 1898 and 1902. The predominantly by Jews, wasinterior has an impressive densely built up, with manyportico, crowned by a metal tenement blocks. Thedome bearing the Star of languages spoken in the areaDavid, which contains the Ark were Yiddish, Hebrew andof the Covenant. In the centre also Russian, spoken by Jewsof the nave is a raised pulpit who had fled Russia. Tree with obituary notices inknown as a bema. The nave Those interested in Jewish front of Pawiak Prisonis surrounded by galleries that history and culture shouldwere originally intended for also visit the historic – thoughfemale worshippers. somewhat overgrown – Umschlagplatz Today, this is the only cemetery on Ulica Okopowa.active synagogue in Warsaw. The museum of the Jewish Monument uWhen it was built, it was Historical Institute (Żydowski ul. Stawki. Map 1 A1.hidden away in the heart of a Instytut Historyczny), with a @ 100, 157, 303, 307.housing estate, surrounded by library, archives and Judaic v 16, 17, 19, 33, 35, 36, 41.high-rise tenement buildings. museum, is also worth a visit.After the war, few of thesewere still standing. During The Umschlagplatz Monument,the Nazi occupation, the unveiled in 1988, marks the site of a former railway sidingUmschlagplatz Monument on the Path of RemembranceFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
T H E C I T Y C E N T R E 91on Ulica Dzika. It was from Monumenthere that some 300,000 Jews to thefrom the Warsaw Ghetto andelsewhere were loaded onto Heroes ofcattle trucks and dispatched the Ghetto ito almost certain death in theextermination camps. Among ul. Zamenhofa. Map 1them was Janusz Korczak and B2. @ 100, 111, 180.his group of Jewish orphans.Living conditions in the Ghetto The Monumentwere inhuman, and by 1942 to the Heroes ofover 100,000 of the inhabit- the Ghetto (Pomnikants had died. The monu- Bohaterów Getta)ment, on which the architect was erected inHanna Szmalenberg and the 1948, when the citysculptor Władysław Klamerus of Warsaw still laycollaborated, is made of in ruins. Created byblocks of black and white the sculptor Natanmarble bearing the names of Rapaport and thehundreds of Warsaw’s Jews. architect Marek Between the Monument to Suzin, it symbolizesthe Heroes of the Ghetto and the heroic defiancethe Umschlagplatz Monument of the Ghettoruns the Trail of Jewish Uprising of 1943,Martyrdom and Struggle, which was plannedunveiled in 1988. It is marked not as a bid forby 16 blocks of granite liberty but as anbearing inscriptions in Polish, honourable wayHebrew and Yiddish and the to die. It lasteddate 1940–43. The site of a one month.bunker, in which the Reliefs on the Monument to the Heroes of the Ghetto (detail)uprising’s commanders blew monument depictthemselves up has been men, women and children Germany, knelt in homage tospecially marked. Each block struggling to flee the burning the murdered victims. Today,is dedicated to the memory of ghetto, together with a people come here from allthe 450,000 Jews procession of Jews over the world to remembermurdered in the being driven to the heroes of the Uprising.Warsaw Ghetto in death camps under A new museum dedicatedthe years 1940–43, the threat of Nazi to the history of Polish Jewsto the heroes of bayonets. is in the process of beingthe Ghetto In front of this built near to the monument,Uprising in 1943 monument, on 7 within the former ghetto areaand to certain key December 1970, of the city.individuals from Stone on the Path of Willy Brandt,that time. Jewish Remembrance Chancellor of West Monument to GHETTO UPRISING those Fallen and The Nazis created the Jewish ghetto on 16 November 1940. Murdered in the The area was carefully isolated with barbed wire fencing, East o which was later replaced with brick walls. Over 450,000 people were crowded into the ghetto: Jews from Warsaw ul. Muranowska. Map 1 C1. and other parts of Poland as well as gypsies. In March 1942 @ 100, 116, 127, 157, 178, 222, the Germans began to liquidate the ghetto, deporting over 503. v 4, 18, 35, 36, 41. 300,000 people to the death camp in This emotionally stirring Treblinka. The Ghetto monument, designed by Uprising, which began Mirosław Biskupski, has the on 19 April 1943 and form of a typical railway lasted one month, was wagon in which Poles were organized by the secret deported from the country Jewish Fighting into the depths of the Soviet Organization. Follow- Union. It is filled with a pile ing the suppression of of crosses symbolising the the Uprising, the Nazis hundreds of thousands of razed the whole area Poles carted off to the East to the ground. in cattle vans and murdered in Soviet prison camps.
92 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E AFurther AfieldThere are many places of interest outside thecentre of Warsaw. The most important lie alongthe Royal Route stretching from the Royal Castlein the north to Wilanów in the south, and also onthe edges of the escarpment that runs down to theleft bank of the River Vistula; here there are severalcountry mansions with extensive parks. Most can be Grave of Father Jerzy Popiełuszko,reached by tram or by bus. Church of St Stanisław Kostka SIGHTS AT A GLANCE Belvedere Palace 4 Centre for Contemporary Art 2 Church of St Anthony 6 Church of St Stanisław Kostka 1 Królikarnia Palace 5 Łazienki Palace 3 Warsaw Rising Museum 7 Wilanów 8 KEY City centre Main road Other road River AirportChurch of St Centre for Con- is housed in Ujazdowski Castle, an early BaroqueStanisław Kostka 1 temporary Art 2 fortification built at the beginning of the 17thul. Hozjusza 2. Tel 022 839 45 72. Jazdów 2. Map 3 C5. Tel 022 628 12 century for Zygmunt III@ 103, 114, 116, 121, 122, 148, 71. @ E-2, 116, 138, 151, 166, 180, Vasa and his son Władysław157, 181, 185, 195, 510. 182, 187, 188, 195, 408, 411, 502, IV. The castle’s layout wasv 17, 27, 36. 503, 514, 515, 520, 523, 525. # spacious – it had an internal noon–7pm Tue–Sun (to 9pm Fri). &The Modernist Church of cloistered courtyard and four (free on Thu). 8 6 = m d 0St Stanisław Kostka (Kościół towers – but its splendourśw. Stanisława Kostki), set was destined to be short-among the villas of Żoliborz, The Centre for Contemporary lived; the Swedish armyis the burial place of Father Art (Centrum Sztuki sacked it in 1655 and it laterJerzy Popiełuszko, the pastor Współczesnej) organizes changed hands repeatedly,of the Solidarity movement, exhibitions of the work of being rebuilt many times.and because of this it is a artists from all over the world During World War II,place of pilgrimage for Poles. on a scale unequalled else- Ujazdowski Castle wasPopiełuszko was a national where in Europe. The centre destroyed by fire. Thehero, renowned for his ruins were completelycourageous sermons in removed in 1953 anddefence of Poland’s freedom. rebuilding of the castleHe was eventually murdered only began in the 1970s.in 1984 by communist Refreshments are availablesecurity agents. His grave is in a room called the Qchniain the church cemetery; it is Artystyczna, which iscovered with a stone cross decorated in an original – ifand surrounded by linked perhaps mad – manner androcks arranged in the manner which commands exquisiteof a rosary. The church views from the escarpment.itself is distinguished byits openwork twin towers.Inside, there are Baroque Łazienki Palace 3paintings by the Silesian Ujazdowski Castle, the home ofartist Michael Willmann. the Centre for Contemporary Art See pp94–95.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
F U R T H E R A F I E L D 93Belvedere Palace 4 Królikarniaul. Belwederska 52. Palace 5@ 116, 166, 180, 195, 503. ul. Puławska 113a. Tel 022 843 15# weekends Jun–Aug. 86. @ 505. v 4, 18, 19, 33, 36. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (6pm Thu & Sat).The history of Belvedere & (free on Thu). 8 d 6 no flash.Palace (Belweder) goes m www.krolikarnia.mnw.art.plback to the 17th century. Itspresent appearance, however, Królikarnia Palace (Palacykdates from 1818, when it was Królikarnia) owes its namerefashioned by Jakub Kubicki (“rabbit hutch”) to the factfor the Russian governor that it stands on the site of ageneral Prince Constantine rabbit farm that belonged to(the much hated brother of August II in the 1700s. It is aTsar Alexander I) and his square building covered withPolish aristocrat wife. On the a dome, recalling Andrea Pal-night of 29 November 1830, a ladio’s masterpiece, the Villadetachment of cadet officers, Rotonda, near Baroque Church of St Anthonytogether with a number of Vicenza. This at Czerniakówstudents, attacked the exquisite littlepalace, starting Neo-Classical The Baroque Church ofthe November palace is set in St Anthony (Kościół śwInsurrection. a garden on Antoniego), built between After 1918, the slope of 1687 and 1693 by the monksBelvedere Palace the escarpment of the Bernardine order, wasbecame the official in the district designed by Tylman vanresidence of the of Mokotów. It Gameren. The church standspresidents of Poland, was designed by on the site of the formerincluding Marshal Dominik Merlini for village of Czerniaków, whichJózef Piłsudski Karol de Valery Thom- belonged to Stanisław(1867–1935), to whom atis, the director of Herakliusz Lubomirski, thean exhibition situated Stanisław August Poni- Grand Crown Marshal.in the palace atowski’s royal theatres. The relatively plainis devoted. Today the palace façade of this church belies To the south houses the Xawery its ornate interior, whichof the palace, Dunikowski includes trompe l’oeilon the former Museum, paintings, stuccoworksite of the dedicated to and altars by the painterUjazdowski Fatum, a sculpture by Xawery this contem- Francesco Antonio GiorgioloChurch, a Dunikowski in Królikarnia Park porary Polish and the renowned sculptorterrace was sculptor. Andreas Schlüter, amongbuilt with a others. The main theme oflandscaped park at the foot the paintings is the life ofof the escarpment. It was Church of St Anthony of Padua.adorned with canals, a St Anthony 6pool and several romantic Warsaw Risingpavilions in Greek, Egyptian ul. Czerniakowska 2/4. Tel 022 842and Gothic styles. These 03 71. @ 131, 159, 162, 180, 185, Museum 7grounds are now part of 187. # by appt only, or during ul. Grzybowska 79. Tel 022 539 79Łazienki Park. ceremonies. 05. @ 100, 106, 155. v 20, 22, 24, 32, 45. # 8am–6pm Mon, Wed–Fri (to 8pm Thu), 10am–6pm Sat & Sun. & (free on Sun). One of the most popular museums in Warsaw opened in 2004 to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Warsaw Rising in 1944. A tribute to those who fought and died for Poland’s inde- pendence, the museum re- creates the atmosphere during those 63 days of military struggle, but it also conveys what everyday life was likeFaçade of the Neo-Classical Belvedere Palace, looking onto the gardens under Nazi occupation.
94 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E AŁazienki Palace 3Łazienki Park is part of a great complex of heritagegardens. In the 17th century there was a royalmenagerie along the foot of the escarpment. In 1674,Grand Crown Marshal Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirskiacquired the park and, engaging the services of Tylmanvan Gameren, he altered the southern part of themenagerie, building a hermitage and a bathing pavilionon an island. The pavilion gave the park its name(Łazienki meaning “baths”). In the second half of the Peacock18th century, the park was owned by Stanisław August Just as in Stanisław AugustPoniatowski, who commissioned Karol Ludwik Agricola, Poniatowski’s time, visitorsKarol Schultz and later Jan Christian Schuch to lay it out to Łazienki Park canas a formal garden. Lubomirski’s baths were refashioned admire the peacocks andinto a royal residence, Łazienki Palace, or Palace on the take a boat ride on the lake,Water, which is now a museum. which is full of carp.Old OrangeryIn 1774–8, Dominik Merlini created theStanisławowski Theatre in the OldOrangery. It is one of the few remaining18th-century court theatres in the world. Monument to Chopin This Secessionist monument was sculpted in 1908 by Wacław Szymanowski but not unveiled until 1926. Positioned at the side of a lake, it depicts Poland’s most celebrated composer sitting under a willow tree, seeking inspiration from nature.0m 1000 yds 100 Temple of the Sibyl This Neo-Classical building, based STAR SIGHTS on an ancient . Palace on the Water Greek temple, dates from the . Theatre on the Island 1820s. It is made of wood.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
F U R T H E R A F I E L D 95 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST Łazienki Królewskie, ul. Agrykola 1. Map 3 C5. Tel 022 506 01 01. @ 108, 116, 138, 166, 180, 187, 195, 503. Park # daily until dusk. Palace on the Water # 9am–4pm Tue–Sun. & (free on Thu). Myślewicki Palace # by appt (022 621 82 12). & Old Orangery # by appt. & (free on Thu). 8 www.lazienki-krolewskie.com. Palace on the WaterStanisław Lubomirski’s 17th-centurybaths were converted (1772–93) intothe Palace on the Water, StanisławAugust Poniatowski’s summer home. Myślewicki Palace Dominik Merlini designed the early Neo-Classical Myślewicki Palace in 1775–84 for Stanisław August Poniatowski’s nephew, Prince Józef Poniatowski. . Theatre on the Island The stage of the Theatre on the Island has a permanent backdrop imitating the ruins of a temple in the ancient city of Baalbek, Lebanon. New Orangery This building in cast iron and glass was designed by Józef Orłowski and Adam Loewe in 1860–61.
96 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A ChineseWilanów 8 Pavilion Wilanów Palace was This small building built at the end of the stands in the English- 17th century as the style garden on the summer residence of Jan north side of the III Sobieski. This illus- palace. trious monarch, whoDetail from Glory valued family life as much as materialsplendour, commissioned AugustynLocci to build a modest country house.Later the palace was extended and adornedby renowned architects and artists includingAndreas Schlüter and Michelangelo Palloni. Great Crimson Room Originally a three- room apartment, the Great Crimson Room was reconstructed in 1900 to house the museum’s array of foreign paintings. Main GatewayDating from the time of Jan III Sobieski, the Main Gateway is crowned withallegorical figures of War and Peace. . Poster Museum A former riding school rebuilt in the 1960s now houses the Poster Museum, the first of its kind in Europe.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp298–9 and pp316–17
F U R T H E R A F I E L D 97 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST ul. SK Potockiego 10/16. Tel 022 842 25 09. @ E-2, 116, 117, 130, 139, 164, 180, 519, 522, 700, 710, 724. Palace # 9:30am–6:30pm Mon–Sat (4:30pm Tue, Thu, Fri & Oct–Apr), 10:30am–6:30pm Sun (4:30pm Oct–Apr). ¢ Jan, Tue (Oct–Apr). & (free Sun). Park # 9am–dusk. & 8 m = - ^ d www.wilanow-palac.art.pl . Rose GardenThis section of Wilanów’s garden was createdin the 19th century to the south of the palace. 0m 50 0 yds 50 . Queen’s Antechamber The walls are covered with original Baroque fabric while the ceiling has alle- gorical paintings. Rear Façade of the Palace Open perspectives allow the rear façade of the palace to be seen from across the park, and even from the adjoining fields of Morysin. King’s Bedchamber The bed canopy STAR FEATURES is made of fabric brought back by . Queen’s Antechamber Jan III Sobieski from his victory . Poster Museum against the Turks . Rose Garden at the Battle of Vienna in 1683.
98 WA R S AW A R E A B Y A R E A WA RSAW S T R EET FI N D E R T he coordinates given along- side the names of buildings and attractions in Warsaw refer to the street plan on pages 100–3. Map coordinates are the letter and following number are grid references. On the plan opposite, Warsaw is divided into four sectors corresponding to the four maps on pages 100– also given alongside informa- 103. The symbols that appear on tion about Warsaw hotels (see the maps are explained in the key pp298–9) and restaurants (see below. The plan of the city iden- pp316–17). The first digit indi- Tourists in Warsaw tifies the most important monu- cates the relevant page number; ments and places of interest. KEY Important monument Place of interest Other building Railway station Metro Parking Tourist information Hospital or first aid station Police station Summer café garden in the Old Town Church Synagogue Post office Taxi rank Railway line One-way street Pedestrianized street Marathon runners on Krakowskie Przedmieście Façade of the Neo- Classical Grand Theatre designed by Antonio Corazzi, on Plac Teatralny 0m 500 Church of the Holy Spirit from Ulica Freta 0 yds 500
WA R S AW S T R E E T F I N D E R 99 OLD & NEW TOWNS THE CITY CENTRE THE ROYAL ROUTE SCALE OF MAPS 1–4 0m 250 0 yds 250 Statue of The Mermaid in the Old TownFountain in Saxon Gardens
POLAND REGION BY REGION POLAND AT A GLANCE 106107MAZOVIA AND THE LUBLIN REGION 108125 CRACOW 126145 MAŁOPOLSKA LESSER POLAND 146173 SILESIA 174205WIELKOPOLSKA GREATER POLAND 206229 GDAŃSK 230249 POMERANIA 250273 WARMIA, MAZURIA AND BIAŁYSTOK REGION 274291
106 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Poland at a Glance The Gdańsk Crane (see p237) While southern Poland consists of a band of is one of the largest mountains and uplands, Central Poland is a European cranes land of endless plains. In the north, a post- dating from the glacial landscape dominates, and the Baltic Middle Ages. Restored after war coast, though fairly cool, has beautiful sandy damage, it stands beaches. Its provinces also offer unblemished as a symbol of the natural landscapes. The Tatra Mountains, the city’s former highest in Poland, are traversed by well- commercial might. marked footpaths, from which fine views and a pure alpine environment can be enjoyed. For admirers of manmade structures, many historic buildings have survived in regional Poland, despite the country’s stormy history. GDAŃSK (See pp230–49) POMERANIA (See pp250–73) W Many of the attractive sandy beaches (see p259) on the Baltic Sea are backed by cliffs, which are vulnerable to storm damage. WIELKOPOLSKA (GREATER POLAND) (See pp206–29) SILESIA (See pp174–205) Raczyński Palace (see pp212–13) at Rogalin is one of the most splendid residences in Greater Poland. CRACOW The late Baroque palace now (See pp126–45) houses a museum of interiors and a valuable collection of paintings. It is surrounded by a beautiful park with The town hall in ancient oaks. Wrocław (see p191) is one of the most interesting late Medieval buildings in Central Europe. It is crowned with 0 km 75 unusual finials and fine stone sculptures. 0 miles 75 Panorama over the Vistula from Kazimierz Dolny
P O L A N D A T A G L A N C E 107 The Mazurian Lake District (see pp284–5), known as “The Land of a Thousand Lakes”, is a wilderness, with great forests, extensive woods and marshlands, and brick-built houses, Gothic churches and castles. Its pure character, unspoilt by civilization, is appreciated by storks: more nest here than anywhere else in Europe.WARMIA, MAZURIA AND In Kazimierz Dolny (see p119), under BIAŁYSTOK REGION the Renaissance colonnades of the town (See pp274–91) houses in the market square, paintings are on display and wicker baskets offered for sale. Fortune-telling gypsies mingle among the tourists. WARSAW (See pp56–103) MAZOVIA AND THE LUBLIN REGION MAŁOPOLSKA (See pp108–25) The Cloth Hall in Cracow (see p131), an(LESSER POLAND) unusual building in the centre of Main (See pp146–73) Market Square, once contained market stalls. Today it is filled with shops selling souvenirs and local folk art, and popular cafés. On the first floor there is a splendid gallery of 19th-century Polish art. Krasiczyn Castle (see p170), dating from the early 17th century, is defended by sturdy towers. The walls have elaborate parapets.
P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 109MAZOVIA AND THE LUBLIN REGIONI n the nostalgic lowland landscape of Mazovia, sandy roads wind through the fields, lines of windswept willows stand in isolation, and meadows stretch to the edge of valleys where swift rivers flow. Forcenturies, Podlasie was the borderland between the Poles and the easternSlavonic peoples. The hilly Lublin region has many excellent examples ofRenaissance and Baroque architecture.For centuries, Mazovia of a politically activewas, both culturally and yet conservative pettyeconomically, one of the yeoman-gentry. Evenleast developed areas of today, in the east of thethe ethnically Polish lands region and in Podlasie,of the Commonwealth of farmsteads, with humbleTwo Nations. In the early cottages built in the styleMiddle Ages it was the home- of mansions, can be seen.land of the Mazowie tribe. It was Apart from Warsaw, theunited with the state of the Polanie towns of Mazovia have always beenunder Prince Mieszko I (963–92). The modest, and this is evident evenPrincipality of Mazovia came into exis- today in more recent buildings andtence in 1138, during the division of modern urban planning.Poland, and it preserved its indepen- After the Congress of Vienna (1815),dence for nearly 400 years. Mazovia was Mazovia and the Lublin region formedincorporated into the Kingdom of part of the Congress Kingdom, underPoland in 1526 after the death of the Russian rule. In 1918, the whole arealast Mazovian princes, and in 1596, was returned to the reborn Poland.Sigismund III Vasa moved the capital The Lublin area differs considerablyof the Commonwealth of Two Nations from Mazovia, in both landscape andfrom Cracow to Warsaw, in Mazovia. culture. Its architectural jewel is the Mazovia’s cultural distinctiveness delightful town of Kazimierz Dolny,has been influenced by the presence on the banks of the Vistula.Mazovia – a region famous for its orchardsNeo-Gothic mansion of Zygmunt Krasiński in Opinogóra
110 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Exploring Mazovia and the Lublin Region The Kampinoska Forest (Puszcza Kampinoska), a national park, extends out from the suburbs of Warsaw. There are also large tracts of woodland, with wild animals, in the north and south of Mazovia. The Lublin region has a more diverse landscape. The gorge of the Vistula, around the town of Kazimierz Dolny, is one of the region’s most beautiful sights. Roztocze and Zamość, widely described as the “pearl of the Renaissance”, are also very picturesque. In Mazovia, the ruins of brick-built castles can be seen, and in both regions there are many country mansions. Żelazowa Wola is Frédéric Chopin’s birthplace and nearby Łowicz is a well- known centre of folklore. The house of the novelist Stefan Żeromski (1864–1925) in Nałęczów SIGHTS AT A GLANCE Arkadia 8 Chełm a Ciechanów 2 Czersk w Czerwińsk on the Vistula 5 Iłża t SEE ALSO Kazimierz Dolny u Kozłówka o • Where to Stay p300. Łowicz 7 • Restaurants and Bars pp317–18. Lublin pp120–121 i Nieborów 9 Opinogóra 3 Płock 1 Pułtusk 4 Radom e Radzyń Podlaski p Szydłowiec r Treblinka 0 Węgrów q Zamość pp124–125 s Żelazowa Wola 6 Tours A Tour around Kazimierz Dolny y Landscape of Roztocze, in the Lublin uplandsFor additional map symbols see back flap
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 111KEY Main road Minor road Main railway Minor railway International border Regional border Detail of the Romanesque portal of the church in Czerwińsk on the Vistula GETTING AROUND Warsaw, the chief city of Mazovia, has regular air links to major cities worldwide and to principal towns in Poland. All the larger towns in both regions have rail links. Travelling by express from Warsaw to Lublin takes a little over two hours. All places recommended in this guidebook are accessible by bus. However, many of the smaller ones are more easily reached by car. Highway E 30 crosses Mazovia from east to west. From Warsaw, take highway E 77 for Radom and highway 17 for Lublin. 0 km 25 0 miles 25
112 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N R Cathedral of Our Lady of Mazovia ul. Tumska 3. Tel 024 262 34 35. # 10am–5pm Mon–Sat, 11am–2pm Sun (use the side entrance). The most interesting part of Płock is Tum Hill (Wzgórze Tumskie), with its Renaissance Cathedral of Our Lady of Mazovia and castle remains. The cathedral, built in 1531–5 was the first large Renaissance church in Poland. It was raised by Andrzej Krzycki, Bishop of Płock, later Primate of Poland and a noted scholar and poet.The nave of the Renaissance Giovanni Cini and Bernadinocathedral in Płock Zanobi de Gianotisa were the architects, with later rebuildingPłock 1 by Gianbattista of Venice. The interior of the cathedral is full The Neo-Classical town hall in theRoad map D3. * 126,000. of Renaissance and Baroque Old Market Square in Płock£ @ n ul. Stary Rynek 8 tombstones. A marble sarcoph-(024 367 19 44). www.ump.pl agus in the Royal Chapel hosts woven sashes from the old the remains of Władysław I court dress of the nobilityThis city, beautifully situated and his son Bołesław III. The (see pp28–9). Sashes wereon the high Vistula Bluff, is grand Neo-Renaissance façade often made into vestments.best known today for its of the cathedral, with its twinlarge petrochemical plants. Its towers, was built at the start E Museum of Mazoviahistory, however, goes back of the 20th century to a ul. Tumska 8. Tel 024 364 70 71.many centuries. From 1075, controversial design by Stefan # 1 May–14 Oct: 10am–5pmPłock was the seat of the Szyller, who was in charge of Tue–Sun; 15 Oct–30 Apr: 10am–3pmbishopric of Mazovia. Under the restoration work. Tue, 10am–4pm Wed–Fri, 10:30am–Władysław I (1079–1102) 4:30pm Sat & Sun. & (free on Thu).and his heir Bołesław III E Diocesan Museum The Museum of MazoviaWrymouth (1102– 1138), Płock ul. Tumska 3a. Tel 024 262 26 23. (Muzeum Mazowieckie) iswas the capital of Poland and # May–Sep: 10am–3pm Tue–Sat, located in a former monasterythe favoured royal seat. From 11am–4pm Sun & public hols; Oct– and houses one of the largest1138 to the end of the 15th Apr: 10am–1pm Wed–Sat, 11am– collections of Art Nouveau incentury, Płock was the place 2pm Sun & public hols. & 8 the world. Exhibits includeof residence of the Mazovian www.muzeumdiecezjalneplock.pl reconstructions of domesticand Płock princes. In the The Diocesan Museum interiors, with works of art,12th century, it was an (Muzeum Diecezjalne) contains furniture, textiles, andimportant centre of political a rich collection of cathedral everyday objects of the period.and cultural life in Poland. treasures. Especially note- The buildings of old Płock worthy are the gold vessels Environsare relatively modest, and liturgical textiles, particu- There are sports facilities onalthough the small Neo- larly the chasubles, the oldest Lake Włocławek, a reservoir onClassical houses, now of which date from the 1400s. the Vistula, and a stud farm atrestored, make a picturesque The museum also possesses Łąck, 9 km (5 miles) from Płock.ensemble. Particularlynoteworthy is the Neo-Classical town hall, builtin 1824–7 to a design byJakub Kubicki. Here, on 23September 1831 during theuprising against Russian rule,the final session of theinsurgent Sejm of theKingdom of Poland was held. Another notable buildingis the large Neo-Gothiccathedral (1911–19) of theMariavite Church of Poland.Also worth seeing are theBaroque church, the Classicaltoll-gates and the remains ofthe Gothic city walls. Tum Hill from the Vistula, with the cathedral and Benedictine abbeyFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300 and pp317–18
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 113 Regional Museum. Of equal interest is the Gothic- Renaissance collegiate church, with barrel vaulting over the nave executed by Gianbattista of Venice in 1551 and 1556. To the south of the market square rise the walls of the castle of the bishops of Płock. Destroyed and rebuilt a number of times, it incorpor- ates Renaissance, BaroqueRuins of the Gothic Castle of the Mazovian princes in Ciechanów and Neo-Classical elements. After restoration work in theCiechanów 2 Opinogóra 3 1980s the House of the Polish Diaspora (Dom Polonii) wasRoad map E3. * 47,000. £ @ Road map E3. * 580. £ @ set up here. Visitors can stayn ul. Warszawska 34. in the hotel and enjoy tennis, Opinogóra is closely canoeing, rowing, horse ridingOn the edge of the town associated with Count and winter sledging parties.stand the Gothic ruins of Zygmunt Krasiński (1812–59), The old-time Polish kitchen,the red-brick Castle of the a leading poet of the Romantic which serves home-made fruitMazovian princes, built movement. The tiny Neo- and berry liqueurs and home-around 1420–30. After Gothic mansion, situated in baked sourdough bread, isMazovia was incorporated an extensive landscaped park, recommended. Also worthinto the Kingdom of Poland, was built as a wedding present seeing in the old town is thethe widowed Queen Bona for him. According to the 18th-century Jesuit Churchoften stayed here. Today, locals, it was designed by of Saints Peter and Paul.the castle accommodates the French architect Eugèneone of the exhibitions of the Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, E Regional Museum Rynek 1. Tel 023 692 51 32.Museum of the Mazovian although art historians attribute # 10am–4pm Tue–Sun & publicNobility (Muzeum Szlachty it to Henryk Marconi. Today, hols. & (free on Thu).Mazowieckiej). the mansion houses the In the town itself is the Museum of RomanticismGothic Church of the (Muzeum Romantyzmu). EnvironsAnnunciation, founded in the The romantic park in which Near the town, on the rightfirst half of the 16th century the mansion is set also bank of the Narwa are waterand rebuilt in the 17th, the contains the parish church, meadows and the Whiteparish Church of the Nativity with the mausoleum of the Forest (Puszcza Biała), whichof the Blessed Virgin Mary, Krasiński family where the has a rich variety of plantsdating from the 16th century, poet is buried. Noteworthy and wildlife, including overand the modest Neo-Gothic too is the marble tomb of 200 species of birds.town hall, designed by Count Zygmunt’s mother,Henryk Marconi in the mid- Maria Krasińska, by Luigi19th century. The low-rise Pampaloni, dating from 1841.apartment blocks with gable E Museum of Romanticismroofs near the railway station ul. Krasińskiego 9. Tel 023 671 70were built during the Nazi 25. # 10am–6pm Tue–Sun (Oct–occupation. After the fall Apr: 8am–4pm).of Poland in September1939 and the annexation ofnorthern Mazovia to the ThirdReich, the Nazis planned to Pułtusk 4settle German colonists inmany towns here. Except for Road map E3. * 18,600. @the castle and parish church, n Wieża Ratuszowa 11 (023 692they intended to demolish the 51 32).whole of Ciechanów andbuild it anew. Of all the small towns in Mazovia, Pułtusk has the mostE Museum of the beautiful setting. Its historicMazovian Nobility centre, located on an islandul. Warszawska 61a. Tel 023 672 formed by an arm of the River53 46. # 8am–4pm Tue–Sun Narwa, has one of the longest(Jul–Aug: 10am–6pm). & (freeone day a week, usually Sat). market squares in Europe.www.muzeumciechanow.pl The town hall, with its Gothic The town hall at Pułtusk, in one of brick tower, houses the small Europe’s longest market squares
114 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Żelazowa Wola 6 E Chopin Museum Tel 046 863 33 00. # May–Sep: Road map E3. * 60. @ 9:30am–5:30pm Tue–Sun; Oct–Apr: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun. The romantic manor set in Concerts May–Sep: noon Tue–Sun a verdant, well-tended park (Sun also 3pm). & is the birthplace of the composer Fryderyk Chopin (1810–49). At the time of his birth, however, it was no more than a thatched outbuilding in which Chopin’s parents, Mikołaj and Justyna Tekla, rented a few rooms. In 1930–31, the building wasThe twin-towered basilica in converted into the ChopinCzerwińsk on the Vistula Museum (Muzeum – Dom Urodzenia Fryderyka Chopina)Czerwińsk on and the park around it planted with trees and shrubs donatedthe Vistula 5 by horticulturalists from allRoad map E3. * 1,200. @ over Poland. Inside were assembled all kinds of objectsThe church and monastery associated with the composer.in Czerwińsk on the During the German occup-Vistula, formerly owned by ation, many of these were Woman from Łowicz dressed inthe Canons Regular and now looted by the Nazis, the music regional costumeby the Salesian order, are of Chopin was banned and allamong the oldest buildings in pictures and busts of the Łowicz 7Mazovia. The monastery was composer were destroyed.in existence by 1155 and the After World War II, the manor Road map D3. * 31,000. £ @Romanesque basilica was was rebuilt, and in 1948 the n Stary Rynek 3 (046 830 91 49).probably built in the time of museum was finally reopened www.um.lowicz.plBishop Aleksander of Płock once more to the public.in the mid-12th century. In Concerts of Chopin’s music The relatively small townspite of later Gothic and are given in the house and of Łowicz, established in themodern alterations, the main garden, providing visitors with 13th century, was the seat ofbody of the building largely a unique opportunity to hear one of the oldest castellaniesretains its original appear- the music of the most inspired in Poland. For severalance. The basilica’s nave and composer of the Romantic centuries, its castle (which isaisles each end in an apse – period in the atmosphere of an no longer standing) was thea characteristic feature of early 19th-century mansion. residence of the bishops ofRomanesque churches. In Near Żelazowa Wola lies Gniezno, primates of Poland.1410, the massed armies of the village of Brochów, on The collegiate church, whichMałopolska, Lithuania and the edge of the Kampinoska was founded in the MiddleRuthenia gathered around the Forest (Puszcza Kampinoska). Ages and rebuilt in the 17thGothic bell tower on their Fryderyk Chopin was century, contains many notablemarch to war against the christened in the fortified works of art. It also houses aTeutonic Knights. Renaissance church here. number of tombs, the mostEnvironsA few miles west of Czerwińskis the poor but nonethelesscharming little town ofWyszogród, overlooking theVistula. In the Middle Ages ithad a castle (demolished at theend of the 18th century) andwas the seat of a castellany.Evidence of the town’s pastglory survives in the churchand partially preserved formerFranciscan friary, foundedin 1406 and rebuilt severaltimes in the 17th and 18thcenturies. There is also aBaroque parish churchdating from 1779–89. The manor in Żelazowa Wola, birthplace of Frédéric ChopinFor hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 115illustrious occupant of which Nieborów 9was Primate Jakub Uchański(d. 1581). His tomb’s most Road map E3. * 950. @noteworthy features are a 16th-century alabaster carving by The Baroque palace inJan Michałowicz of Urzędów Nieborów was built byand an early Neo-Classical Tylman van Gamerenframe by Ephraim Schroeger, between 1690 and 1696dating from 1782–3. for Primate Michał S. The magnificent late Radziejowski, ArchbishopBaroque high altar was made of Gniezno. Radziejowskibetween 1761 and 1764 by was a noted connoisseur ofJan Jerzy Plersch to a design literature, music, art andby Schroeger. It is considered architecture, and as such wasby many to be one of the a client worthy of Tylman.most original altars in Poland. A symmetric garden wasThe altar painting, crowned also laid out. Around 1766,by an aureole and enclosed Temple of Diana in Arkadia, the at the wish of a later owner,between the pilasters of a landscaped park near Łowicz Prince Michal K. Ogiński,narrow frame, makes a great the building’s façade wasimpression on churchgoers Arkadia 8 adorned with a Rococoand tourists alike. figure portraying a dancing Near the collegiate church Road map D3. * 250. @ Bacchus, with a bunch ofis the old Piarist church grapes and a garland on(kościół Pijarów) – the Not far from Łowicz, on his head. Ogiński is alsoPiarists were a Catholic order. the road to Nieborów, famous for the constructionIts late Baroque undulating lies Arkadia, a sentimentally of a canal, which, via thefaçade, which dates from romantic landscaped park. river system, linked thearound 1729, is extremely Laid out in 1778 by Princess Black Sea to the Baltic.eye-catching. The interior of Helena Radziwiłłowa, Between 1774 and 1945,the building has Baroque Arkadia’s attractions include Nieborów Palace was thealtars by Jan Jerzy Plersch. a lake with two islands and a property of the aristocratic On the other side of Old number of romantic pavilions Radziwiłł family. It is famousMarket Square, in the build- fancifully designed on for its fine furnishings, whichings of a former monastery historical or mythological include Antoine Pesne’sand seminary for missionaries, themes by Szymon Bogumił portrait of the famous beautyis the Łowicz Regional Zug and Henryk Ittar. Anna Orzelska, who was theMuseum (Muzeum Ziemi Among ancient trees stand natural daughter of AugustŁowickiej) devoted to the the Temple of Diana, the II (1697–1733), and thefolklore of the Łowicz area. High Priest’s House, the antique head of Niobe,Its exhibits include character- Margrave’s Cottage with praised in the poetry ofistic Łowicz costumes of the Greek arch, the Gothic Konstanty Ildefons19th and early 20th centuries, Cottage, the Grotto of the Gałczyński (1905–53).decorative paper cutouts and Sybil and the Aqueduct. This Roman head, whichfolk embroidery. On some of the pavilion was carved in white marble In the former chapel, built walls, fragments of decorative after a Greek original ofin 1689–1701 to designs by carving and stonework the 4th century BC, wasTylman van Gameren and salvaged from the destroyed presented to Princessdecorated with frescoes by Renaissance bishops’ castle Helena RadziwiłłowaMichelangelo Palloni, objects in Łowicz are mounted. by Catherine the Great.from the prehistoric Sarmatianculture are on display. Łowicz comes alive atCorpus Christi, when inhonour of this celebrationlocal people dress incolourful traditional costumesto take part in a splendidprocession that winds its waythrough the centre of town.E Łowicz Regional MuseumStary Rynek 5/7. Tel 046 837 39 28.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun. ¢ Mon& pub hols. & (free on Sat).www.muzeum.low.plR Collegiate ChurchStary Rynek 27. Tel 046 837 67 08. A grand interior at Nieborów Palace
116 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N depicting Chronos and a female figure pointing to the spot where Krasiński is buried. Environs At Liw, 6 km (4 miles) west of Węgrów, are the remains of a Gothic castle erected in the 15th century. The castle was surrounded by marshes, and the gates could be reached only by a causeway. It was twice stormed by Swedes in the 17th century. In 1782, a small house was erected onMonument to the victims of the death camps at Treblinka the rubble for the county chancellery. Today it houses aTreblinka 0 Węgrów q Museum of Arms (Muzeum Zbrojownia), which besides aRoad map F3. * 270. £ @ Road map F3. * 12,900. @ display of weaponry contains portraits by the 18th-centuryIn 1941, the Nazis established Węgrów is a small town Sarmatian School.a labour camp, Treblinka I, situated on the historical In Stara Wieś to the northand in 1942 a death camp, boundary between Mazovia is the palace of the Krasiński-Treblinka II. Around 800,000 and Podlasie. Its large, rect- Golicyny family, which haspeople, mainly Jews from angular marketplace is the finest examples in Polandliquidated ghettos, were distinguished by the of interiors in the Englishmurdered here. Those Gothic-Baroque parish Gothic style.brought to Treblinka II church, dating fromwere taken off the trains 1703–6. Its interior E Museum of Armsand herded, without is decorated with Liw, ul. Batorego 2. Tel 025 792 57even being registered, paintings by 17. # 10am–4pm Tue–Sat, 11am– 4pm Sun & public hols (May–Sep:to the gas chambers. Michelangelo 11am–6pm Sat & Sun). & 8Up until March 1943, Palloni and finethe victims were buried Baroque images.in mass graves. After March The sacristry1943, the graves were dug contains a mirror with Czersk wup and the bodies burned. a Latin inscriptionThereafter all bodies were indicating that the Road map E4. * 400. @burned. In November legendary Pan Today, Czersk is no more1943, Treblinka II was Armour, Museum Twardowski – the than a small village; in theclosed and the ground of Arms, Liw Polish Faust, who distant past it was the capitalploughed over and reputedly flew to the of Mazovia. By 1413 – mostseeded. Today, the Treblinka Moon on the back of a probably due to a change inMuseum of Struggle and cockerel – used it in his the course of the Vistula,Martyrdom stands as a practice of the black arts. which had suddenly movedreminder of the past. Nearby stands a somewhat away from Czersk – that role In 1964, two monuments neglected post-Reformation had passed to Warsaw. Thewere erected on the site of church, dating spectacular ruins of thethe camp. The monument at from 1693– princely castle tower overTreblinka II is large, spread- 1706. Inside is the Vistula. The road to theing over 13 ha (30 acres). an impressive fortress crosses a bridge overIt gives an impression of Baroque the moat. Here, three high“hundreds of thousands monument towers still stand. In the 12thof human beings, coming to the century, Prince Konradfrom nowhere, in a spectral founder, Jan Mazowiecki used one of itspilgrimage, going to their Bonawentura dungeons to imprison thedeaths”. It is the work of Krasiński, small boy who later becamethe architect Adam Haupt Prince Bolesław the Shy ofand the sculptors FranciszekDuszenko and FranciszekStrynkiewicz.E Treblinka Museum ofStruggle and MartyrdomKosów Lacki 76. Tel 025 78116 58. # 9am–6:30pm daily(Nov–Mar: to 4pm). & 8 Ruins of the castle at Czersk For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300 and pp317–18
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 117Cracow and Prince Henryk which contain 30 tombs and Instruments, the onlythe Bearded of Wrocław. memorial plaques, the oldest museum of its kind in Poland. of which dates from the 1500s.Environs Wooden cottages, windmills E Museum of Folk MusicalGóra Kalwaria, 3 km and two 18th-century manors Instruments(2 miles) north of Czersk, are displayed in the skansen ul. Sowińskiego 2. Tel 048 617 17 89. # 7am–3:30pm Tue–Fri,was once an important place at Radom Rural Museum. 9:30am–5:30pm Sat, 9am–5pm Sunof pilgrimage. Interesting (Nov–Apr: 8:30am–3:30pm Tue–Sun).features include the market E Radom Rural Museum ul. Szydłowiecka 30. Tel 048 332 ¢ public hols. & (free on Sat).square, with the Church of 92 81. # 8am–6pm Tue–Fri,the Exaltation of the Holy 10am–6pm Sat & Sun (winter:Cross and the small Neo- Environs to 3pm). ¢ public hols.Classical trade halls. The www.muzeum-radom.pl In Chlewiska, 11 km (7 miles)present parish church once west of Szydłowiec, are thebelonged to the Bernardines. remains of an early 19th-Before World War II, Environs century ironworks. A palacemany Jews lived in Góra In parkland at Orońsk, 17 km stands nearby.Kalwaria. Today, the Jewish (11 miles) from Radom, is thecemetery serves as a mansion of Józef Brandtmemorial to that time. (1841–1915), the noted painter of battle scenes. It is open to visitors, for whom a display of objects relating to the artist’s life and work has been laid out. Another attraction is the Centre for Polish Sculpture, housed in a modern building within the park. International exhibitions and a sculpture biennale are held here.An exhibit at the Centre for Polish Centre for Polish SculptureSculpture in Orońsk ul. Topolowa 1, Orońsk. Tel 048 618 45 16. # Apr–Oct: 8am–4pmRadom e Tue–Fri, 10am–6pm Sat & Sun; Nov– Tower of the castle of the bishopsRoad map E4. * 225,000. £ @ Mar: 7am–3pm Tue–Fri, 8am–4pm of Cracow in Iłżan ul. Traugutta 3 (048 360 06 10). Sat & Sun. www.rzezba-oronsko.plwww.radom.pl Iłża t Szydłowiec rThis comparatively large Road map E4. * 5,600. @town was at one time best Road map E4. * 12,800. @known for its arms industry, www.szydlowiec.pl Although the castle of thebut today it is more readily bishops of Cracow hasassociated with the workers’ The most significant features been in ruins since theprotests of 1976, which took of this small town are the late beginning of the 19thplace four years before the Renaissance town hall and the century, its tower stillfounding of Solidarity. Gothic-Renaissance castle, dominates the town. It wasAlthough Radom was rebuilt set on an island. The castle built in the 14th centuryin the 19th century, several was built in 1510–16 and by Bishop Jan Grot. Laterof its older buildings can remodelled in the 17th owners transformed itstill be viewed. Nothing, century. Of its rich into an elegant Renaiss-however, remains of the old interior decoration, ance residence. In 1637,town itself, which until 1819 only traces remain. Of Władysław IV camewas surrounded by a wall. greater interest is the here in disguise. The most interesting feature Museum of Hiding in the crowd,of Radom is the Gothic Folk Musical he wanted to get aparish church in Ulica secret look at theRwańska, which was built in bride he had married1360–70 and later remodelled. by proxy, CeciliaTwo Baroque buildings – Renata, daughter ofEsterka and Gàska – at Nos. Leopold II of Austria.4 and 5 Rynek – house the Dazzled by herGallery of Contemporary beauty, he quicklyArt; beside them stands the made his presencearcaded town hall, by known. Unfortun-Henryk Marconi. Also worth ately, the marriagevisiting are the Bernardine did not prove amonastery and church, Late Renaissance town hall in Szydłowiec happy one.
118 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N A Tour around Kazimierz Dolny The environs of Kazimierz Dolny are renowned for their picturesque landscapes and rich heritage of historic buildings. Here the Vistula valley is cut by deep ravines, while from the gentle hills magnificent views unfold. It is tempting to linger in Nałęczów, with its popular spa, and in Puławy, where Czartoryski Palace stands in a landscaped park. The journey from Kazimierz Dolny to Janowiec can Gołąb 6 only be made by ferry; this provides an excellent The Mannerist-Baroque opportunity for photographing both banks of the Vistula. church, which dates from 1628–36, has brick walls and fantastic decoration; Sieciechów 7 beside it stands the The late Baroque Lorentine Chapel. Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin towers over the buildings of the former Benedict- ine abbey. It was built between 1739 and 1769, though the walls contain Romanesque remains. The interior is adorned with paintings by Szymon Mankowski in the Rococo-Neo- Classical style. Czarnolas 8 This was the home of Jan Kochanowski (1530–84), the greatest poet of the Polish Renaissance. Little is left of his wooden manor, and the museum devoted to the poet’s life and work is housed in the 19th-century mansion. Janowiec 1 The extensive ruins of the castle that was built for the Firlej family in the 16th century now house a museum. It 0 km 5 includes a small skansen where several wooden buildings, including an 18th-century manor and 0 miles 5 storehouse, have been re-erected.For additional map symbols see back flap
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 119 TIPS FOR DRIVERS Tour length: 150 km (94 miles). Stopping-off points: Good cafés and restaurants are in Kazimierz Dolny, Nałęczów and Puławy. The ferry from Kazimierz to Janowiec runs from Apr to Nov, every 30 mins. Bochotnica 4 In this hamlet stand thePuławy 5 ruins of a 14th-centuryThe former residence of the castle that, according toCzartoryski family is set in a large legend, Kazimierz thelandscaped park, now sadly neg- Great (1333–70) built forlected. Many small ornamental Esterka, the beautifulbuildings, such as the Temple of Jewish girl who becamethe Sybil and the Gothic House, his mistress. St Christopher, House of Krzysztofare to be seen here. Przybyła, Kazimierz Dolny Nałęczów 3 This health resort also Kazimierz Dolny u has a spa park, with a Road map F4. * 2,300. @pump room, baths and n Rynek 27 (081 881 00 46). Baroque palace. The _ Festival of Folk Bands and Singers wooden cottage (Jun); Film Summer (Aug). housing the museum www.kazimierzdolny.pl of the novelist Stefan Żeromski (1864–1925) This delightful little town, the is open to visitors. favourite holiday resort of poets and painters, was prob- Kazimierz Dolny 2 ably founded by Kazimierz the During the summer, Kazimierz Great. In the 16th and 17th Dolny swarms with tourists. It is centuries, it grew rich from a popular weekend destination the grain trade. The ruins of for Varsovians. The town is well a Gothic castle with a high provided with guesthouses, good tower dominate the town. restaurants and cafés. There are also At its foot can be seen the handicraft stalls and young artists Renaissance Parish Church offering their work for sale. of Saints John the Baptist and Bartholomew built in 1610–13, which incorporates KEY the walls of an earlier Gothic church. The interior has Tour route provincial stuccowork Other road decoration in the vaulting and early Baroque chapels. Viewpoint The most attractive part of town is the market square, flanked by several Mannerist houses, with rich ornamental CZARTORYSKI PALACE AT coverings. Particularly attractive PUŁAWY are the House of Mikołaj After the fall of the Commonwealth Przybyła and House of at the end of the 18th century, the Krzysztof Przybyła, at Puławy residence of Princess Izabella Nos. 12 and 13, dating from and her husband became an important around 1615. There are also centre of artistic and political life. In the some 16th-century houses in garden pavilions, the princess Izabella Ulica Senatorska, which leads established the first Polish national Czartoryska down to the Vistula, including museum, called the Shrine of Memory. the Celej House, which dates After the November Insurrection of 1831 failed, Puławy from around 1635. While strol- was deserted. The Czartoryskis went into exile abroad ling through the town, note and their property was confiscated by the Russians. the former synagogue, dating from the 18th century, the granaries on the banks of the Vistula, and the pre-war villas. For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18
120 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NLublin i mason Jan Wolff. The main street in Lublin, Krakowskie Lublin, the largest city in southeastern Przedmieście, is now a Poland, is well-endowed with historic pedestrian precinct lined with buildings. It is also an important centre of elegant shops. In Plac Unii academic life; its best-known seat of learn- Lubelskiej are the Capuchin church (kościół Kapucynów) ing is the Catholic University of Lublin. and the Church of Our Lady Mannerist Before World War II, the only Jewish Victorious (Kościół Matki window college of higher education in Poland Boskiej Zwycięskiej), founded frame was located here. In 1944, after Lublin had by Władysław Jagiełło been liberated from the Nazis, Poland’s (1386–1434) to commemoratefirst communist government, convened at Stalin’s his victory over the Teutonicbehest, arrived here on the tanks of the Red Army. Knights at the Battle of Grun- wald in 1410 (see pp40–41). The Jewish cemetery adjoin- ing Ulica Kalinowszczyna, established in 1555, is evidence of the Jewish community that existed in Lublin for many centuries, celebrated in the novels of Nobel laureate Isaac Bashevis Singer (1904–91). E Museum of the History of the Town Hall and Crown Tribunal of the Kingdom of Poland Rynek 1. Tel 081 532 68 66. # 9am–4pm Wed & Sat, 9am–5pm Sun. &Historic houses round the Market Square in LublinExploring Lublin At the centre of the Old TownThe most attractive district of is the Market Square, withLublin is the Old Town (Stare Lublin’s town hall. Here, theMiasto), situated on the edge of Crown Tribunal of thethe escarpment. It is reached Kingdom of Poland once hadthrough Cracow Gate (Brama its seat. In the 18th century,Krakowska), which has the town hall was rebuilt bybecome a symbol of the city. Dominik Merlini in theThis old part of Lublin is Neo-Classical style. Todaya maze of romantic lanes it houses the Museumand alleys. The façades of the History of theof the houses are Town Hall anddecorated with Crown Tribunal ofMannerist and the Kingdom ofBaroque Poland. The mostornamentation magnificent placeand have splendid of worship in the Interior of the dome of the Firlejattics. Many of the Old Town is the Chapel in the Dominican churchbuildings have Dominican churchSocialist Realist (kościół Domini- R Cathedral of Saintspaintings dating kanów), founded in John the Baptist andfrom 1954, 1342 and rebuilt John the Evangelistwhen the whole in the 17th and ul. Królewska 10. Tel 081 532 11 96.town was 18th centuries. The interior of this formerrenovated to The finest of its Jesuit church is a triumph ofcelebrate the 11 chapels is the Baroque art. Trompe l’oeiltenth anniv- mid-17th-century frescoes painted by Josephersary of the Mannerist- Mayer in 1756–7 depict scenesestablishment Baroque Firlej set against a background ofof the Chapel. Its illusory architecture. Thecommunist ribbed dome is most beautiful frescoes areLublin an ambitious those in the cathedral treas-Committee Cracow Gate, one of confection ury, depicting Heliodorus(see p51). Lublin’s symbols ascribed to the Expelled from the Temple.For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 121 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST Road map F4. * 350,000. £ for information call 081 94 36. @ n ul. Jezuicka 1–3 (081 532 44 12). _ Festival of Music, Antiques, Fine Arts (Mar–Apr); Lublin Folklore Meetings (Jul). www.lublin.plNeo-Gothic façade of Lublin Castle E Majdanek State Museum+ Lublin Castle at this time of the Roman Droga Męczenników Majdanka 67.pl. Zamkowy 1. Muzeum Lubelskie Catholic and Orthodox faiths. Tel 081 744 26 47. # 9am–5pmTel 081 532 50 01. # 9am–4pm In the museum laid out daily (Nov–Mar: to 4pm). ¢ publicTue, Thu–Sat, 9am–5pm Wed & Sun in the rest of the castle are hols. www.majdanek.pl(Jun–Aug: 10am–5pm Tue–Sat, exhibitions of Polish and In 1941, the Nazis established10am–6pm Sun). 8 d = foreign paintings, folk art a camp at Majdanek for Sovietwww.zamek-lublin.pl and weaponry. prisoners of war; it laterLublin’s most important historic became a death camp. Ofbuilding is the Chapel of the the half million people whoHoly Trinity (Kaplica Świetej passed through Majdanek,Trójcy). It forms part of Lublin 360,000 were murdered. TheCastle, which was built in the camp has been preserved as14th century and remodelled in a museum and memorial tothe Gothic style in 1823–6 for the victims of extermination.use as a prison. The interior ofthis Catholic chapel (see p40) E Lublin Rural Museumis covered with Byzantine Aleja Warszawska 96. Tel 081 533frescoes painted in 1418 by 31 37. # Apr, Oct: 9am–5pm daily;Orthodox artists. Among the May–Sep: 10am–6pm daily; Nov,saints and angels is a portrait Dec: 9am–3pm Fri–Sun; Jan–Mar:of Władysław Jagiełło, the by appt (call 081 533 85 13). & 8chapel’s founder. The chapel Rural buildings from villages,is evidence of the cultural small towns and manorialdiversity of the Kingdom of Frescoes in the Chapel of the estates, together with their fur-Poland and the coexistence Holy Trinity nishings, are to be seen here. 0m 200 CENTRAL LUBLIN Capuchin Church 1 Cracow Gate 3 0 yds 200 Lublin Castle 8 Dominican Church 7 Lublin Cathedral 4 Market Square 5 Church of Our Lady Town hall 6 Victorious 2 Key to Symbols see back flap
122 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NKozłówka oRoad map F4. * 800. @The magnificent palace atKozłówka is one of thebest-preserved aristocraticresidences in Poland. Builtbetween 1735 and 1742 in theBaroque style by GiuseppeFontana, its first owner wasMichał Bieliński, Palatine ofChełm, who at the wish ofAugust II was married –albeit briefly – to one AuroraRutkowska, who happenedto be the king’s illegitimatedaughter by a Turkish ladynamed Fatima. Kozłówka Palace laterpassed to the famousZamoyski family, and wasrebuilt in the Empire style andrenamed Zamoyski Palace. In1903, Konstanty Zamoyskiestablished what in propertylaw is called an “entail”, inorder to ensure that thepalace would remain theundivided inheritance ofthe Zamoyski family. Picture gallery and White Staircase, Kozłówka Palace Zamoyski was regarded bycontemporaries as a “hand- marble, huge chandeliers, most elegantly equipped,some man, outstanding for lambrequins, curtains, and or the palace kitchens.)his good companionship and furniture decorated with Most impressive of all thesense of humour”. He was a inlays and bronze – mainly exhibits is the collection ofgreat collector, a lover of excellent copies in Louis XV some 1,000 paintings, whichmusic and a connoisseur of and Louis XVI style from the almost completely cover thepainting. He was educated best French workshops. walls. These are not originalin the France of Louis- Today, the palace is works but high-quality copiesNapoleon, and the style of a museum. Its entire contents of the masterpieces ofthe Second Empire is clearly have been preserved, making European painting – the largestvisible in the rich décor of it Poland’s finest collection collection in Poland of its kind.the palace interior, with its not only of 19th-century art The palace chapel – whichNeo-Rococo stuccowork, but also of everyday objects. was modelled on the Royalenormous ceramic stoves, (Do not miss the early 20th- Chapel at Versailles – waschimneypieces in coloured century bathroom, which is built between 1904 and 1909 by Jan Heurich junior, the pioneer of modern architec- SOCIALIST REALIST ART, KOZŁÓWKA ture in Poland. It contains a Socialist Realism was a doctrinal art style that was developed copy by Lorenzo Bartolini of in the Soviet Union in the Stalinist era. In Poland, it was the tomb of Zofia Zamoyska current after World War II, from about 1949 to 1955. Its in the Church of Santa Croce theoretical principles were unclear, and in practice what in Florence. counted were the instructions given to the artists. The heroes An annexe of Kozłówka of Socialist Realist works were Palace is occupied by a party apparatchiks, buxom unique gallery housing peasant women and muscular Socialist Realist art. The workers. A great number of building is surrounded by such works, which were a park that extends over often to be seen on the roofs 190,000 sq m (47 acres). of public buildings and museum storehouses, can E Zamoyski Palace and be seen in Kozłówka, where Museum the largest collection in Tel 081 852 83 00. # 15 Mar–30 Nov: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (to 5pm Poland of Socialist Realist in summer). & www.muzeum Exhibition at Kozłówka art has been assembled. zamoyskich.lublin.plFor hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and p317–18
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 123Radzyń Podlaski p Today, the palace houses various institutions.Road map F4. * 16,800. In Radzyń Podlaski itself£ station 8 km (5 miles) from is the Church of the Holythe town. @ n ul. Jana Pawła II 4 Trinity (Kościół Świętej(083 352 73 14). Trójcy), built in 1641 by Jan Wolff, the illustrious masonIn its splendour, Potocki of the Zamoyski family. ThePalace rivals Branicki church contains the imposingPalace in Białystok, the red marble Renaissance tomb“Versailles of Podlasie” (see of Mikołaj Mniszech and hisp290). It was built for the wife Zofia, possibly the workambitious Eustachy Potocki, of Santi Gucci.who later became a generalin the Lithuanian artillery. Thepalace was to be dazzling. It Chełm awas reconstructed in 1750–58, Interior of the Piarist churchin the Rococo style, by Road map G4. * 69,000. £ 0 in ChełmGiacopo Fontana and his n ul. Lubelska 63 (082 565 36 67).talented team of artists. The _ International Choral Meetings The best view of Chełmpainted decoration is by Jan (Apr). www.chelm.pl is from Castle Hill (GóraBogumił Plersch and the Zamkowa), where remains ofcarving by Michał Dollinger The most interesting aspect a 13th-century princely castleand Chrystian Redler. The of Chełm is its network of can be seen. From here, theappearance of the palace, like underground tunnels, the towers of Roman Catholicthe career of its owner, was remains of chalk mines churches, the onion domescalculated to have a great (Podziemia). The tunnels are of a Greek Catholic and aneffect. With its elongated on three levels and descend Orthodox church, and a finewings, it was different not to a depth of 30 m (100 ft); Baroque synagogue can beonly in form but also in visitors may walk along them, made out. A Jewish commun-character. Viewed from the candle in hand. In the 17th ity, one of the earliest incourtyard, the unusual century, as many as 80 houses Poland, settled here in themonumental wing, with its had an entrance to the work- 12th century.imposing gate-tower (visible ings. Mining ended in theeven from the town), looks 1800s. Above ground, the E Chalk Minesalmost like a single-storey town’s most impressive build- ul. Lubelska 55a. Tel 082 565 25 30.outbuilding. Similarly, the ing is the Piarist church. It # visits at 11am, 1pm and 4pmmain block of the palace, was built by Paolo Fontana in daily. ¢ public hols. &which looks modest from 1753–63 and has an undulantthe courtyard, overwhelms façade, elliptic nave andwith its richness when imposing dome. The Baroque Environsviewed from the garden. interior is decorated with The Polesian National Park Dynamic Rococo carvings paintings by Joseph Mayer. (Poleski Park Narodowy) liesdecorate the palace and 40 km (25 miles) northwestadjacent orangery. The most of Chełm. It forms part ofinteresting are the four the Łęczyńsko-Włodarskiegroups of Hercules and Lake District and has manythe Lion, the Hydra, the swamps, peatMinotaur, and the bogs andDragon. small lakes.Rococo carvings on the orangery at Potocki Palace, Radzyń Podlaski
124 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NZamość s Zamość is one of the best- preserved Renaissance towns in Europe. It was one of the first to be planned and built from scratch according to Italian con- cepts of the ideal town. The moving force behind this projectDetail from building, Zamość was Jan Zamoyski (1541–1605), chancellor and commander-in-chief of the Crown, one of the most powerful andenlightened magnates of Poland’s Golden Age, and the . Town Hallowner of Zamość. Bernardo Mornando was the architect With its fine ornamentaland work began in 1581, continuing for more than ten tower and imposing fanyears. A programme of restoration was carried out in the staircase, the Town Hall is1970s, and in 1992 UNESCO declared the town a World the focal point ofHeritage Site. Today, theatrical performances and many Zamość.other cultural events take place in the Main Square. . Cathedral The cathedral, designed by Bernardo Morandi in 1587, was completed in the 1630s. It was rebuilt in 1824–6. It has an unusual Mannerist façade and distinctively decorated vaulting.ArsenalThe Arsenal, closely connected withthe town’s formidable fortifications,is today the Polish Army Museum.For hotels and restaurants in this region see p300 and pp317–18
M A Z O V I A A N D T H E L U B L I N R E G I O N 125 Franciscan VISITORS’ CHECKLIST Church In the 19th Road map G5. * 67,000. £ @ n Rynek Wielki 13 (084 639 century, this 22 92). Regional Museum ul. large church Ormiańska 30. Tel 084 638 64 94. was turned into # 9am–4pm Tue–Sun. & d a barracks and _ Jazz on the Borderlands (May); its Baroque International Meeting of Jazz Vocal- gables pulled ists (Aug). www.zamosc.pl down. Bastion Fortifications The fortificationsFormer around ZamośćChurch and allowed the townMonastery of to resist athe Order of St Cossack siegeJohn of God as well as the Swedish Deluge of the 1650s. . Main Market Square The Main Market Square (Rynek Wielki) is surrounded on all four sides by arcaded houses two storeys high. They were built to a unified design, but many of their façades have unusual and elaborate decorations with an Oriental flavour. Church of St Nicholas This church, built for the Greek Catholic Basilian order, is now Roman Catholic, demonstrating the multi-ethnic character of old Zamość. STAR SIGHTS Doorway of the Old Rectory . Main Market This magnificent Square rectory, adjoining the cathedral, . Town Hall is one of the . Cathedral oldest houses in Zamość.
P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 127 CRACOWC racow is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Over the cen- turies, many important artists and architects came to work here, among them Veit Stoss from Germany, Bartolomeo Berrecci andGiovanni Maria Padovano from Italy, and Tylman van Gameren fromHolland. Cracow has been spared major destruction, so it preserves thelargest assemblage of historic buildings and monuments in Poland.The earliest mention of Renaissance. The WawelCracow in the historical Royal Castle, the Cloth Hallrecords dates from the in the Main Market Square,middle of the 10th century; and many private housesit had certainly been incor- and mansions in the cityporated into the Kingdom were rebuilt in theof Poland before 992. In 1000 Renaissance style. Cracowit became a see, and around 1038 gradually lost its significance,it assumed the importance of a and in 1596 the capital wascapital. Wawel Hill became the seat of moved to Warsaw, but it was in Wawelgovernment, and from 1257, when Cathedral that successive kings ofBolesław the Chaste gave the city a new Poland were crowned and entombed,municipal charter, it began to spread and the city continued to acquireand flourish at the foot of the hill. In many magnificent buildings. Under the1364 the Cracow Academy was Partition of Poland (see pp46–9),founded, increasing the city’s impor- Cracow came under Austrian rule,tance on the European stage. During which nevertheless permitted a rela-the 14th and 15th centuries, large sums tively large degree of local autonomy.of money were spent on the develop- Hence it began to assume the role of thement of the city, as can be seen from the spiritual capital of all Poles, both in theirnumerous Gothic churches and secular native country and abroad. Cracowbuildings that survive to this day. escaped significant damage during the At the beginning of the 16th century, two World Wars, and in 1978 UNESCOCracow came under the influence of the declared it a World Heritage site.Memorial to Adam Mickiewicz, Poland’s national poet, outside the Cloth Hall in the Main Market SquareWawel Cathedral’s Zygmunt Chapel, “the Pearl of the Renaissance north of the Alps„
128 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Exploring Cracow As most places of interest in Cracow are located in its fairly compact historic centre, the city is best seen on foot. A good place to start is Wawel Hill (Wzgórze Wawelskie), with its imposing Wawel Royal Castle and Gothic cathedral, in the crypt of which many kings of Poland are interred. North of Wawel Hill lies the old city of Cracow with its attractive market, the Church of St Mary, the picturesque Cloth Hall and many interesting old houses. To the south of Wawel Hill is the Kazimierz district, with its preserved Jewish quarter. Outlying parts of the city are served by an extensive bus and tram network. 0m 300 0 yds 300 SIGHTS AT A GLANCE Churches Buildings, Squares and Cloth Hall 1 Benedictine Abbey in Tyniec b Streets Collegium Maius e Camaldolite Monastery in Barbican 7 Czartoryski Museum 9 Bielany v City Hall Tower 2 Józef Mehoffer Museum r The Cathedral pp142–3 h Decjusz Villa c “Lost Wawel” Exhibition f Church of Corpus Christi k Fortifications on the Wawel s National Museum t Church of St Anne w Medical Society Building 5 The Wawel Royal Castle Church of St Mary pp132–3 3 Plac Matejki 6 pp140–41 g Church of Saints Peter Plac Szczepański q Stanisław Wyspiański and Paul o Ulica Floriańska 8 Museum a Cistercian Abbey in Mogiła n Ulica Grodzka i Dominican Church 4 Ulica Kanonicza p Synagogues and Franciscan Church u Ulica Retoryka y Cemeteries Pauline Church on the Rock j Old Synagogue l Piarist Church 0 Museums and Galleries Remuh Cemetery and Premonstratensian Church x Cathedral Museum d Synagogue zFor additional map symbols see back flap
C R A C O W 129 Częstochowa CRACOW Zakopane LOCATOR MAP Cloth Hall, a historic building in the centre of the Main Market Square in CracowSEE ALSO KEY• Where to Stay pp300–1. Street-by-Street map pp130–31• Restaurants and Bars pp318–19. Street-by-Street map pp138–9 Parking Tourist information Railway station Bus station GETTING AROUND Cracow has an international airport and is an important point on the railway network. By car, it can be reached by motorway from Katowice or rapid transit route from Warsaw.
130 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NMain Market SquareThis huge market square (RynekGłówny) was laid out when Cracow . Church ofreceived its new municipal charter in St Mary1257. One of the largest in Europe, it The façade ofseethes with life all year round. In this church hassummer, pedestrians find themselves for centuriesnegotiating the maze of café tables that stood as afill the square, along with a host of shops, symbol of Polishantique dealers, restaurants, bars and architecture 3clubs. There are also many interestingmuseums, galleries and historic sights,including some splendid Renaissanceand Baroque houses and mansions. FLO RIA ŃSK ŚW. A SŁA JAN WK A OW. Cloth HallThis beautiful SKARenaissance buildingreplaced an earlierGothic market hall. KA AŃS ZEPThe upper floor houses SZCpart of the NationalMuseum 1 RYNEK GŁÓWNY A WSK SZE BRA Y ANN CKA ŚW. WIŚ LNACity Hall TowerThe Gothic tower is the onlyremaining part of the form- The Church of Ster City Hall. A café has been Wojciech is a small butopened in the basement 2 splendid Romanesque church. It predates theKEY planning of the vast Main Market Square and Suggested route is all but lost in it.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 131 pulled down in the first half of the 19th. Today the tower contains a branch of the Historical Museum. Aspects of the city’s history are also documented in the Museum of the History of the Market, in the crypt of the neighbour- ing Church of St Wojciech. LOCATOR MAP Church of St Mary 3 See pp128–9. See pp132–3. Frenzy, by Władysław Podkowiński Dominican (1866–95), in the National Museum Church 4 Cloth Hall 1 ul. Stolarska 12. Tel 012 423 16 13. v 1, 3, 6, 8, 18. # 6:30am–8pm daily. Rynek Główny 1/3. @ 103, 124, 152, 502. v 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, 18, The origins of the Dominican 19. Gallery of Polish Painting Tel Church (kościół Dominik- 012 422 11 66. # 10am–3:30pm anów) go back to the second Tue, Thu, Sat & Sun, 10am–6pm Wed half of the 13th century. Rebuilt & Fri. & (free on Thu). ^ 8 d a number of times, by the middle of the 1400s it had The Church of Set in the centre of the Main become the magnificent Gothic St Barbara, dating Market Square, the Cloth building that still stands today. from the late Hall (Sukiennice) replaces A number of mortuary 14th century, an earlier Gothic trade hall chapels were also added; contains many dating from the second half many of them are major treasures, including of the 14th century. Destroyed works of Renaissance and a 15th-century in a fire, then rebuilt by Baroque art in their own right, NN A Gothic pietà. Giovanni Maria Padovano, it with rich decorations andSIE owes something of its present furnishings. Of particular note appearance to Tomasz are the Baroque chapel of the House known as “At the Sign Pryliński’s Romantic-style Zbaraski family, at the west of the Lizards” restoration (1875–9). Today, end of the north aisle, and the the ground floor is filled with Mannerist chapel of the Mysz- cafés and souvenir shops, kowski family, in the first bay while on the upper floor is of the south aisle. The church the Gallery of Polish Painting. was badly damaged by a great Its collection of 19th-century fire that swept through the city works, including art by Jan in 1850, destroying most of its Matejko, Marcello Bacciarelli, wooden furnishings, although and Piotr Michalowski, is it was promptly restored. housed in Niepołomice’s royal castle (see p162) until renova- G tion work on the gallery is R O D Z completed in spring 2010. K A City Hall Tower 2 Rynek Główny 1. @ 103, 124, 152, 502. v 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19. 0m 50 Branch of the Historical Museum of Cracow Tel 012 619 23 18. 0 yds 50 # Apr–Oct: 10:30am–6pm daily. ¢ 1, 3 May & 15 Aug. & e STAR SIGHTS The Gothic tower, crowned by a Baroque cupola, that . Church of St Mary dominates the Main Market Square is the only remaining . Cloth Hall vestige of the City Hall, built Shrine of St Jack in the in the 14th century and Dominican church
132 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NChurch of St Mary 3The imposing Church of St Mary . Crucifix(Kościół Mariacki) was built by The large sandstonethe citizens of Cracow to rival the crucifix byRoyal Cathedral on Wawel Hill. Veit Stoss is a fineBuilding began in 1355, but work example of 15th-on the vaulting and the chapels century sculpture.continued until the mid-15th century,and the lower tower was not com-pleted until the early 16th. At thistime, sermons were preached inGerman. This great basilica, withits rows of side chapels, containsan exceptional number ofimportant works of art. Hejnał Tower The famous trumpet call – the Hejnał – is sounded hourly from the tower. The call is unfinished, in mem- ory of a medieval trumpeter, shot while sounding the alarm. The Hejnał is broad- cast live by Polish radio daily at noon. Main entrance Baroque Porch This pentagonal porch was built in the mid-18th century to a design by Francesco Placidi. Ciborium STAR SIGHTS This large ciborium, . Altar of the Virgin in the form of a Renaissance church, was made by . Crucifix Giovanni Maria Padovano in about 1552.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 133 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST in the early years of the 20th century. The original church pl. Mariacki 5. Tel 012 422 05 on this site was built in the 21. @ 103, 124, 179, 192, 424, early 13th century. At the 502. v 1, 7, 8, 18, 36, 38. # end of the 19th century, 11:30am–6pm daily (from 2pm huge monumental public Sun). Altar of the Blessed Vir- buildings and splendid gin # 11:50am Mon–Sat, 2pm private houses were erected Sun. & ^ www.mariacki.com around the square. The Academy of Fine Arts, at No. 13, designed by Maciej Gothic Moraczewski and built stained-glass between 1879 and 1880, window made around 1370 is particularly impressive. The Grunwald Monument in the centre of the square Stained-glass window, Medical was unveiled in 1910 to mark Society Building the 500th anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald (see p41), Medical Society in which the armies of the Teutonic Knights were Building 5 routed. The huge sculpture of Władysław Jagiełło is by ul. Radziwiłłowska 4. Tel 012 422 Antoni Wiwulski. 75 47. v 1, 3, 9, 10, 13, 19, 22. # 10am–3pm Mon–Fri (stained glass by appointment). www.tlk.krakow.pl Barbican 7 The Medical Society Building ul. Basztowa. @ 124, 152, 502. (Gmach Towarzystwa v 3, 4, 5, 13, 15. # May–Oct: Lekarskiego) was designed by 10:30am–6pm daily. & (free on Sat). Władysław Kaczmarski and Józef Sowiński and built in The Barbican (Barbakan) 1904. It would hardly merit is one of the remaining mention were it not for its elements of Cracow’s interior decor, the creation of medieval fortifications. Stanisław Wyspiański, one of The double ring of walls the most talented artists of the that once surrounded the Young Poland movement. He city was built in stages was responsible for the interior from 1285 to the beginning decoration of individual rooms of the 15th century. Most of and furnishings inspired by the circumvallation was Visitors’ folk art, as in the magnificent pulled down in the 19th entrance stained-glass window Apollo century. The Barbican and The Solar System. was built in 1498–9, when the city’s defences were strengthened in response Plac Matejki 6 to advances in military tactics and equip-ment. It protected @ 105, 129, 130, 179, 502. the Florian Gate, to which v 1, 8, 14, 15, 18. it was con-nected by an underground passage. The This typical Cracovian latter’s route is indicated square was laid out by a change in the colour at the end of the of the paving stones. 19th century. The Church of St Florian (Kościół św. Floriana), on the corner of Ulica Warszawska, is considerably. Altar of the Virgin older. Its present appearance is theThe great Gothic result of frequentpolyptych is 12 m (39 ft) rebuilding – inlong and 11 m (36 ft) particular ahigh. It was carved by Neo-BaroqueVeit Stoss in 1477–89. reconstruction The 15th-century Barbican, based on Arab designs
134 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N later taken to Paris and then to Cracow, where it was put on public view. It includes remarkable examples of handicrafts and carving, but most significant are the paintings – foremost among them Leonardo da Vinci’s Lady with an Ermine (c.1485) and Rembrandt’s Landscape with Good Samaritan (1638). Piarist Church 0 ul. Pijarska 2. Tel 012 422 22 55. @ 124, 152, 502. v 3, 4, 5, 13, 15, 19. # during services only. The exceptionally beautiful Rococo façade of the Piarist church (kościół Pijarów), which stands at the top of Ulica św Jana, was built to the design of Francesco Placidi betweenThe Florian Gate, Ulica Floriańska 1759 and 1761. It conceals the façade of the olderUlica Floriańska 8 Czartoryski Baroque church of 1718–28 designed by Kacper Bażanka.@ 105, 124, 129, 152, 179, 424, Museum 9 The interior has stuccowork502, 512. v 2, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15, by Chrystian Bol and paint- ul. św. Jana 19. Tel 012 422 55 66.24. Matejko’s House Tel 012 422 ings by Franz Eckstein. @ 124, 152, 424, 502, 512.59 26. # 10am–7pm Tue, Wed, Sat; v 2, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 24.10am–4pm Thu, Fri; 10am–3pmSun. & (free on Thu). 8 m # 10am–6pm Tue–Sat, 10am–4pm Plac Szczepański q Sun. & e 8 m @ 124, 179, 424, 502. v 2, 4, 5,This charming street in the 12, 13, 14, 15, 24. Fine Artsold town is full of restaurants, The relatively small Society Building Tel 012 422 66cafés and shops. It leads from Czartoryski Museum has 16. # 8:15am–8pm daily. &the Main Market Square to the one of the most interesting The Bunker Tel 012 422 10 52.Florian Gate and was once art collections in Poland. # 8:15am–6pm daily (from 10ampart of the Royal Route, along Assembled in Puławy at the Sat & Sun). &which rulers would ride on end of the 18th century bytheir way from Warsaw to Izabella Czartoryska (seetheir coronation in Cracow. p119), it was the private Plac Szczepański is always Matejko’s House (Dom collection of the Czartoryski full of cars. Nonetheless,Matejki), at No. 41, is the family. The collection was it contains a number ofbirthplace of the painter Jan interesting buildings thatMatejko (1838–93). He spent house the arts and is wellmost of his life here. On worth exploring.display is a collection of At No. 1, the Old TheatreMatejko’s paintings – also his (Teatr Stary) is the oldeststudio, full of artist’s materials. theatrical building in Poland. A little further on, at No. 45, It opened in 1798 and hasis Jama Michalika, a café since been rebuilt twice –that was extremely fashion- most recently between 1903able in the late 19th to early and 1905, when it was20th centuries. The fine Art remodelled by FranciszekNouveau décor by Karol Mączyński and TadeuszFrycz can still be seen. Stryjeński in the Art Nouveau The Florian Gate at the style. The frieze on theend of the street, is one of the façade is by Józef Gardecki.few surviving remnants of the Exhibitions are regularlycity’s medieval fortifications, held at the Fine Arts Societyalong with a section of the Leonardo da Vinci, Lady with an Building (Pałac Sztuki) atcity wall and three towers. Ermine, Czartoryski Museum No. 4. Built by FranciszekFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 135Mączyński in 1901, this are the Baroque choir Józef Mehoffertoo is in the Art Nouveau stalls, decorated by Szymonstyle. Interesting exhibitions Czechowicz, and the pulpit, Museum rof contemporary art are which was carved by Antoni ul. Krupnicza 26. Tel 012 421 11 43.also on display for viewing Frączkiewicz. v 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 15, 24. # 10am–at The Bunker (Bunkier), In the south transept is the 6pm Tue–Sat, 10am–4pm Sun. &a Brutalist building erected shrine and reliquary of St John (free on Sun). 8in the 1960s, located at of Cantinus, a 15th-centuryNo. 3a. theologian and the patron of St This small museum is Anne’s. The church was built located in the house after the saint’s beatification. where Józef Mehoffer (1854–1946), the leading Art Nouveau stained-glass Collegium Maius e artist, lived. It contains furnishings made by ul. Jagiellońska 15. Tel 012 422 05 Mehoffer, as well as 49. @ 124, 152, 424, 502. v 2, 4, examples of his artistic 8, 13, 14, 15, 18. # 10am–2:20pm output, including the Mon–Fri (Apr–Oct: to 5:20pm Tue & captivating Portrait of the Thu), 10am–1:20pm Sat. & (free on Artist’s Wife. The well- Sat). www.maius.uj.edu.pl known artist and writer Stanisław Wyspiański (1869– The Collegium Maius is the 1907) also lived in the house. oldest surviving college of the Jagiellonian University, which grew from the Cracow National Academy established by Kazimierz the Great in Museum t 1364. Queen Jadwiga, al. 3 Maja 1. Tel 012 633 53 31. @ wife of Władysław Jagiełło, 103, 144, 152, 173, 179, 192, 512. bequeathed her personal v 15, 18. # 10am–6pm Tue–Sat, fortune to the Academy in 10am–4pm Sun. & (free on Sun). 1399. In the second half of the - www.muzeum.krakow.plBaroque shrine of St John of 15th century the CollegiumCantinus in the Church of St Anne Maius acquired new pre- The enormous edifice mises, which incorporated that dominates this the walls of several older part of the city isChurch of buildings. Its present the main building ofSt Anne w appearance is largely due Cracow’s National to a 19th-century restoration Museum. Buildingul. św. Anny 11. Tel 012 422 53 18. in a Romantic style, although began in the 1930s@ 124, 152, 424, 502. v 2, 4, 8, the building’s Gothic structure but was not fin-14, 15, 18. # during services. survives. Copernicus (see ished until 1989. p273) undoubtedly walked The exhibits areIn the narrow Ulica św. in the cloistered courtyard divided into threeAnny, it is impossible to miss when he was a student here. main sections. Thethe imposing Baroque façade In the Jagiellonian University first is devoted toof the twin-towered Church Museum are numerous the applied arts. Theof St Anne (Kościół św exhibits documenting the second comprises anAnny). The architect was rich history of the university. interesting collectionTylman van Gameren. In of militaria anddesigning the façade, he took objects of historicalinto account the fact that any interest, such as Model of theview of it would be acutely the military jacket Monumentforeshortened by virtue of of Józef Piłsudski to Adamthe narrowness of the street. (see p51). The third Mickiewicz in The church building was has an important the Nationalerected between 1689 and collection of 20th- Museum1703, although work on the century painting anddecoration was not com- sculpture. The work of thepleted until much later. artists of the Young Poland The interior has murals movement is particularly wellby Karol and Innocenti represented. The display alsoMonti and a fine high altar features pieces by schoolsby Baldassare Fontana. The that were active in the inter-painting of St Anne that war years, and some fineadorns it is by Jerzy Eleuter Auditorium of the Collegium Maius, examples of the art of theSiemigonowski. Also notable with Renaissance coffered ceiling postwar period.
136 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NUlica Retoryka y centuries, although rebuilding in the 17th and 19th centuries@ 103, 144, 152, 164, 173, 179, has considerably altered its192. v 15, 18. appearance. The church, how- ever, is renowned more for itsTake a walk down Ulica interior decoration than for itsRetoryka and it is impossible architecture and attracts manyto miss the remarkable visitors from all over the world.houses that were designed A number of interestingand built here by Teodor features from different agesTalowski (1857–1910) in have been preserved,the late 19th century. although the most notable areThe architect had an the Art Nouveau murals andexuberant imagination and stained-glass windows bya lively sense of humour; the Stanisław Wyspiański, datinghouses that he designed from around 1900.are in an unusual The chancel andmixture of the Neo- transept areGothic and Neo- decorated with aMannerist styles. vertiginous schemeThey have startling featuring entwined The Church of St Andrew inornamentation, flowers, heraldic motifs Ulica Grodzkasometimes artificially and religious scenes.damaged so as to The stained-glass building. The interior wasbestow a patina of age. windows are monu- radically altered around 1702 At No. 1, for mental compositions of by Baldassare Fontana.example, is the “At the Sign of great expressive power The adjacent Baroquehouse “At the Sign the Singing Frog” and represent one of building is the formerof the Singing the highest achieve- Catholic Church of St MartinFrog”. Close by is the house ments of the Secessionist (Kościół św Marcina). Built“At the Sign of the Donkey”, stained-glass movement. between 1637 and 1640 forwith a motto in Latin that Particularly noteworthy is Let the Discalced Carmelites, ittranslates as “Every man is there be Light (see p49), which is now in the hands of themaster of his own fate”. The shows the figure of God the Evangelical Church of thearchitect gave to his own Father creating the world. Augsburg Confession.house the motto “Festina The cloisters are lined withlente”, or “Make haste slowly”. murals that include the Gallery of Cracovian Bishops, in which Church of SaintsFranciscan the finest portrait is that of Peter and Paul o Bishop Piotr Tomicki, paintedChurch u by Stanisław Samostrzelnik ul. Grodzka 54. Tel 012 422 65 73. some time before 1535. v 1, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 18. # 9am–pl. Wszystkich Świętych. Tel 012 7pm Mon–Fri, 9am–5:30pm Sat,422 53 76. @ 103, 124, 179, 192, 1:30–5:30pm Sun; also during424, 502. v 1, 3, 6, 8, 18. Ulica Grodzka i services. &# 9:45am–4:15pm Mon–Sat,1:15–4:15pm Sun; also during v 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. The Church of Saints Peterservices. www.franciszkanska.pl and Paul (Kościół św Piotra Many interesting buildings i Pawła) is one of the mostThe origins of the Gothic give this picturesque, winding beautiful early BaroqueFranciscan church go street leading from the Main churches in Poland. It wasback to the 13th and 15th Market Square to the Wawel built for the Jesuits soon after a historical atmosphere. At their arrival in Cracow. No. 53 is the cloistered Work began in 1596, but courtyard of the Collegium after a structural disaster in Iuridicum, a law college 1605, the church was almost founded in the 15th century completely rebuilt to the and rebuilt in 1718. design of an architect who A little further along rises remains unknown to this day. the façade of the Church of The church is enclosed Saints Peter and Paul, with by railings topped with the the white stone tower of the twelve figures of the apostles 13th-century Romanesque dating from 1715–22. The Church of St Andrew interior of the building (Kościół św Andrzeja) contains fine stuccowork gleaming behind it. The by Giovanni Battista FalconiStained-glass window in the walls of the latter conceal and rich Baroque furnishings.Franciscan church an earlier, late 11th-century The high altar and theFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 137organ screen, designed diocesan Museum, whichby Kacper Bażanka, are has many valuable religiousparticularly noteworthy. artifacts and a reconstruction Among the many funerary of the room at No. 21 wheremonuments, the most striking the future pontiff lived.is the black and white marble The house at No. 15 alsotomb of Bishop Andrzej dates from the 14th century,Tomicki, dating from 1695–6. although its present form is a result of rebuilding during the Renaissance era. The house is the headquarters of the Ukrainian Art Gallery, and an interesting collection of icons from disused Greek- Catholic and Orthodox Helenka, a pastel portrait by churches in southeastern Stanisław Wyspiański Poland can be seen here. A visit to Cricoteka, at No. 5, is a different kind of artistic Stanisław experience. Cricoteka was the Wyspiański home of the famous avant- garde theatre group Cricot 2, Museum aBaroque façade of the Jesuit founded by Tadeusz Kantor ul. Szczepańska 11.Church of Saints Peter and Paul (1915–90) in 1956. A painter, Tel 012 422 70 21. stage-set designer and v 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 14, 15. producer of “happenings”, # 10am–6pm Tue–Sat, 10am–4pmUlica Kanonicza p Kantor was an extremely Sun. & (free on Sun). 8 versatile artist, and the showsv 1, 6, 8, 10. Archdiocesan he staged at Cricoteka – for Admirers of the splendidMuseum Tel 012 421 89 63. example, Wielopole, Wielopole stained glass in the# 10am–4pm Tue–Fri, 10am–3pm and The Dead Class – brought Franciscan church and theSat, Sun. Ukrainian Art Gallery him universal renown. His Medical Society BuildingTel 012 421 99 96. # 11am–4pm company continued his work should also visit thisThu–Sat. Cricoteka Tel 012 422 after his death. The Gothic museum. Many of Stanisław83 32. # 10am–4pm Mon–Fri house contains no stage – Wyspiański’s works are(also Sat & Sun in Jul & Aug). just archives and documents here; designs for stained-www.cricoteka.com.pl that relate the history of the glass windows, stage sets, theatrical company. textiles and pastels.Ulica Kanonicza is namedafter the canons of theCracow Chapterhouse, whoonce had their houses here.Most of the houses wereestablished in the MiddleAges, but in the course oflater rebuilding they wereembellished with Renaiss-ance, Baroque and Neo-Classical elements. Theyconstitute one of the mostimportant groups of historicalbuildings in Cracow today. The finest of these housesis considered to be theDeanery, at No. 21. Itspresent form dates from the1580s – a rebuilding projectprobably undertaken by theItalian architect Santi Guccithat preserved the arcadedcourtyard and the mysteriousdecoration of the façade. During the 1960s, KarolWojtyła – later Pope JohnPaul II – lived in this house.The adjacent house at No. 19,with a modest Neo-Classicalfaçade, contains the Arch- Monumental portal of the Deanery in Ulica Kanonicza
138 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NThe WawelOn the Wawel, the Vistulanians built acitadel. It was replaced by a series ofbuildings, including the Renaissancecastle and Gothic cathedral that standthere today. Once the site of coronationsand royal burials, the Royal Cathedral is . Wawel Royal Castle (Zamek Królewski)regarded by Poles as a spiritual shrine. The Wawel Royal Castle, once home to theThe Wawel Royal Castle beside it, once Jagiellonian kings, has survived without majorthe hub of cultural and political life in damage. It incorporates the wallsPoland, is a symbol of national identity. of older Gothic buildings g Fortifications on the Wawel The Wawel’s systems of fortification have been demolished and renewed several times since the Middle Ages – right up to the 20th century s. CathedralThe Gothic cathedral, linedwith royal burial chapelsfrom different ages, hassome extraordinarilyvaluable furnishings hCathedral MuseumOn display are importantartifacts from the cathedraltreasury, including themagnificent robe of StanisławAugust Poniatowski(1764–95) dKEY 0m 50 Suggested route 0 yds 50For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 139 Fortifications on the Wawel s Wawel. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. The Wawel was fortified from early times. Of the oldest Gothic fortifications only fragments remain, but three towers raised in the LOCATOR MAP second half of the 15th cent- See pp128–9. ury survive; they are known Embroidered hood of Bishop today as the Senatorial Tower, Trzebicki’s cope, Cathedral Museum the Sandomierz Tower and the Thieves’ Tower. Of the quilted embroidery depicting fortifications dating from the scenes from the life of St 16th to 17th centuries the Stanisław (see pp38–9). The most interesting is the Vasa museum also contains replicas Gate. Since 1921 it has been of funeral regalia, royal swords crowned with a monument to and trophies from battles won. the 18th-century national hero Tadeusz Kościuszko. The Wawel continued to play a “Lost Wawel” defensive role into the 19th Exhibition f century, and a relatively well- preserved system of fortific- Wawel 5. Tel 012 422 51 55. ations dating from the late v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. # Apr–Oct: 18th to mid-19th centuries 9:30am–1pm Mon, 9:30am–5pm can still be seen today. Tue–Fri, 11am–6pm Sat & Sun; Nov– Mar: 10am–4pm Tue–Sun. & (free on Mon Apr–Oct; on Sun Nov–Mar). www.wawel.krakow.pl For anyone who is interested in archaeology, this exhibition is a real delight. The display charts the development of the Wawel over a considerable period of time, and includes a virtual image of the Wawel buildings as they existed in the early Middle Ages, archaeological finds from Wawel hill, and a partially reconstructed early Roman- esque chapel dedicated to Sandomierz Tower, one of three the Blessed Virgin (Saints towers on the Wawel Felix and Adauctus). Built at the turn of the 11th “Lost Cathedral century, the chapel was Wawel” discovered during research Exhibition Museum d work carried out in 1917. On display Wawel 3. Tel 012 422 51 55. v 3, 6, are various 8, 10, 18, 40. # 9am–5pm Mon–Fri finds from (Nov–Mar: to 4pm). ¢ 1 Jan, Easter, archaeological Corpus Christi, 15 Aug, Christmas. & excavations on the Wawel hill f This museum is located in buildings near the cathedral and contains a valuable collection of pieces from theSTAR SIGHTS cathedral treasury. Here visitors can admire liturgical vessels. Wawel Royal Castle and vestments; one of the finest is the chasuble of Bishop. Cathedral Piotr Kmita, which dates from Chapel of the Blessed Virgin, part 1504 and is ornamented with of the “Lost Wawel” exhibition
140 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NThe Wawel Royal Castle g One of the most magnificent Renaissance residences in Central Europe, the Wawel Royal Castle was built for Zygmunt I, the penultimate ruler of the Jagiellonian dynasty. The four-winged palace, built in 1502–36 but incorporating the walls of a 14th-century building that stood on the site, was designed and constructed by the Italian architects Francisco Fiorentino and Bartolomeo Berrecci. Senators’ Hall Head in the After the royal court was transferred from Cracow to Audience Hall Warsaw, the palace fell into neglect, and during the era ofthe Partitions it served as a barracks. At the beginning of the 20thcentury the castle was given to the city of Cracow, which started arestoration programme and turned into a museum. Royal Treasury and Armoury The Royal Armoury has a rich collection of arms and armour. The Royal Treasury has many Senators’ Staircase precious objects, including this chalice from the abbey at Tyniec. 1st floorCASTLE GUIDEThe area open to visitors consists of part of the groundfloor of the Royal Castle, where items from the RoyalTreasury and Royal Armoury are displayed, as wellas the halls on the first and second floors of the eastand north wings. The castle’s Oriental collection fillsthe first floor of the west wing.The Castle CourtyardA mix of architectural styles can be found at thecastle. One of the highlights is the beautifulRenaissance-style courtyard, which wasbuilt in the 16th century.KEY Royal Apartments Royal Treasury Royal Armoury Oriental Entrance to Royal Collection Treasury and Royal Armoury Entrance to Non-exhibition space courtyardFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 141 . Chamber of VISITORS’ CHECKLIST the Birds The chamber is part Wawel Hill. Tel 012 422 16 97. @ 103, 502. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, of a suite furnished in 40. # Nov–Mar: 9:30am–4pmthe early Baroque style Tue–Sat; Apr–Oct: 9:30am–noon for Zygmunt III Vasa. Mon, 9:30am–5pm Tue–Fri, 11am–6pm Sat & Sun. ¢ 1 Jan, Easter Sat & Sun, 1 & 11 Nov, 24, 25 & 31 Dec. & (free on Mon Apr–Oct; on Sun Nov–Mar). 8 2nd floor Audience hall stairs . Hall of Deputies Used for debates by the lower house of Parliament (Sejm), this hall features a coffered ceiling containing realistically carved heads, as well as tapestries and a decorative frieze. Ground floor Bedchamber The bedchamber is adorned with Italian paintings of the 14th and 15th centuries donated by Countess Karolina Lanckorońska. They include the enchanting Angel by Simone Martini. Entrance to apartments Interior of the Hen’s Foot The 14th-century Hen’s Foot tower was rebuilt after fire damage in the 16th and 17th centuries. The rooms here are among the most beautiful in the castle. STAR FEATURES . Hall of Deputies . Chamber of the Birds
142 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NThe Cathedral hThe Cathedral of Saints Stanisław and The top of theWacław, which stands on the Wawel clock tower isin Cracow, is one of the most important decorated withchurches in Poland. Before the present statues of saints.cathedral was erected (1320–64), two earlierchurches stood on the site. The cathedralhas many fine features, including a seriesof chapels founded by rulers and bishops,the most beautiful being the RenaissanceZygmunt Chapel. There are royal tombsin both the cathedral and the Crypt of StLeonard, a remnant of the RomanesqueCathedral of St Wacław begun in 1038. Zygmunt Bell This is the largest bell in Poland. It was made in 1520, weighs almost 11 tonnes and has a diameter of over 2 m (6 ft). Main entrance Shrine of St Stanisław The silver coffin. Tomb of Kazimierz containing the relics ofthe Jagiellonian St Stanisław, the bishopThis royal tomb in the of Cracow to whom theChapel of the Holy Cross, cathedral is dedicated,completed in 1492, is one was made in 1669–71of the last commissions that by Pieter van derthe German sculptor Veit Rennen, a goldsmithStoss fulfilled in Poland. from Gdańsk.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 143 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST Wawel 3. Tel 012 422 51 55 (ext. 291). v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18, 40. # 9am–5:45pm (3pm winter) Mon– Sat, 12:15–3pm Sun. & 7 8 Stalls Crypt of the Pauline Church on the The early Baroque oak Rock, pantheon to Polish creativity stalls in the chancel were made around 1620. Pauline Church on the Rock j ul. Skałeczna 15. Tel 012 421 72 44. High altar @ 103, 124, 128, 144, 164, 169, 173, 179, 184, 194, 502. v 8, 10, 18, 19, 22. # 8am–4pm Mon–Sat. Crypt of Honour # Apr–Oct: 9am–5pm daily; Nov–Mar: by appt. & The impressive Baroque Pauline Church on the Rock (Kościół Paulinów na Skałce), with its adjoining monastery . Zygmunt Chapel complex, was built in 1733–42 The chapel contain- by Gerhard Müntzer in collab- ing the tombs of the oration with Antoni Solari. The two last Jagiellonian present church was preceded kings is the jewel of by two earlier buildings. It was Italian Renaissance at the foot of the altar of the art in Poland. The Romanesque church, the first tomb of Zygmunt the to be built on the site, that St Stanisław, Bishop of Cracow, Old was made after was murdered (see pp38–9). 1530 by Bartolomeo The interior includes Baroque Berrecci. That of stuccowork by Jan Lehnert. The Zygmunt August was crypt was converted by Teofil made in 1574–5 by Żebrawski into a pantheon to Santi Gucci. Polish writers and artists. Among the eminent people who lie here are the painters Jacek Malczewski (1854–1929) and Henryk Siemiradzki, the writers and poets Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Adam Asnyk (1839–97) and Wincenty Pol (1807–72), and the artist and writer Stanisław Wyspiański. Return along Ulica Skałeczna towards Ulica Augustiańska and take a look at the beautiful Gothic Convent and Church of St Catherine (Kościół św Katarzyny), begun in the mid- 14 century. It once belonged Royal tombs to the Augustinian order, but These Baroque sarcophagi was deconsecrated and usedSTAR FEATURES as a warehouse. Of the original were made for members features only the high altar. Tomb of of the royal Vasa dynasty. remains. The 15th-century Kazimierz The cathedral is the final Hungarian Chapel (Kaplica the Jagiellonian resting place of most of Węgierska) next door is the Polish kings, as well connected by a covered bridge. Zygmunt Chapel as national heroes over Ulica Skałeczna to the and revered poets. Baroque Augustinian convent.
144 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NChurch of Corpus The old Synagogue was Ark of the Covenant and the built by Matteo Gucci in the bema, rebuilt as a replica ofChristi k mid-16th century in the the original, have survived.ul. Bożego Ciała 26. Tel 012 656 28 Renaissance style. It replaced Behind the synagogue is63. @ 502. v 3, 6, 8, 10, 18. an earlier Gothic synagogue one of the most important# 9am–noon, 1:30–7pm and that burned down in 1557. Jewish cemeteries in Europe.during services Mon–Sat. In the Hall of Prayer you will Despite the damage that the find a reconstructed bema cemetery suffered duringThe Mighty Gothic Church of and Ark of the Covenant. World War II, many of theCorpus Christi was built as The synagogue houses a tombstones have survived.the parish church of the new branch of the Historical Mus- Many of the oldest, datingtown of Kazimierz, which eum. The displays within from the late 16th century,was founded to the south of consist of some finely crafted have been unearthed fromthe castle by Kazimierz the artifacts that were used in beneath the soil. FragmentsGreat in the 14th century. Jewish rituals, and documents of shattered tombstones haveWork on the church began relating to the history of been built into the cemeteryaround 1340, continuing into Cracovian Jews and their wall abutting Ulica Szeroka.the early 15th century. The martyrdom during the Nazi The town houses of thebasilica-like interior contains occupation in World War II. former Jewish quarter stillsome fine works of art in the stand along this road; amongBaroque style, including the them is the family home ofmagnificent high altar of Helena Rubinstein, founder1634–7 with the painting of the cosmetics business.of The Birth of Christ by This part of town wasTomasso Dolabella, a fine immortalized in Stevenmid-18th-century pulpit, Spielberg’s film Schindler’sand stalls dating from 1632, List. The district now hasoriginally built for the monks shops and kosher restaurants.(although the church has Nearby, on the other sidebeen in the care of canons of the Vistula, is the Museumsince the 15th century). of National Remembrance.The monastery is on the Located in a former pharma-north side of the church. cy, it is dedicated to Jews that lost their lives in World War II.Old Synagogue lul. Szeroka 24. @ 184, 198. Premonstratensianv 3, 9, 13. Museum of Jewish Tomb in Remuh Cemetery from Church xHistory Tel 012 422 09 62. the first half of the 17th century# May–Oct: 10am–2pm Mon, ul. Kościuszki 88. Tel 012 427 13 18.10am–5pm Tue–Sun; Nov–Apr: v 1, 2, 6, 100, 101, 109, 209, 229,10am–2pm Mon, 9am–4pm Wed, Remuh Cemetery 239, 249, 259, 269, 409.Thu, Sat & Sun, 10am–5pm Fri. and Synagogue z¢ Tue (Nov–Apr). & www.mhk.pl This church (Kościół Norber- ul. Szeroka 40. Tel 012 422 12 74. tanek) and convent on the @ 184, 198. v 3, 9, 13. banks of the Vistula at Zwi- # 9am–4pm Mon–Fri. ^ erzyniec was founded in 1162. Museum of National The present appearance of the Remembrance (Muzeum Pamieci small nave church is due to Narodowej) Plac Bohaterów Getta 18. rebuilding in 1595–1604. The Tel 012 656 56 25. # 10am–4pm extensive convent also dates Mon–Fri, 10am–2pm Sat. & from the early 17th century. The Chapel of St Margaret This small and humble (Kaplica św Małgorzaty), an prayer house known as the octagonal building in the Remuh is one of two Jewish early Baroque style, was synagogues in Cracow that erected nearby, on Ulica are still in use. It was built św Bronisława. Behind around 1557 by Izrael ben the chapel is the Church Józef for his son Mojżesz of Our Saviour (Kościół Isserles, a famous scholar, Najświętszego Salwatora). rabbi and reputed miracle Built in the second half of the worker, known as Remuh. 12th century, it was remod- The Renaissance building was elled at the beginning of the later extended, although its 17th, when it was reducedGothic-Renaissance bema in the basic outline remains as it to a small nave church withOld Synagogue was. Inside, the Renaissance a tower at the west end.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp300–1 and pp318–20
C R A C O W 145 inhabitants, are committed was replaced in the 15th to absolute silence and no century by a Gothic church. contact with the outside The present Baroque abbey world. Visits are therefore was built in 1618–22. severely restricted, especially Although in the course of for women. its stormy history the church The monastery was has lost many fine and valu- founded in the early 17th able features, it still retains its century by Valentin von monumental Baroque altars. Säbisch and completed by Some elements of the original Andrea Spezza. It is richly Romanesque building haveDecjusz Villa from the garden, the adorned with Baroque survived in the undergroundarcaded loggia flanked by towers features, and from the parts of the abbey adjacent windows of the chapel it is to the church.Decjusz Villa c possible to glimpse the monks’ dwellings, to whichal. 28 Lipca 1943 r. 17a. Tel 012 42536 38. @ 102, 134, 152, 192. For visitors are not admitted. Cistercian Abbeydetails of the cultural programme, in Mogiła nvisit the website www.villa.org.pl ul. Klasztorna 11. Tel 012 644 23 31. @ 113, 123. # 6am–7pm.In the charming residentialdistrict of Wola Justowskastands the Decjusz Villa, a Behind the fine Baroquemanor house whose origins go façade of the church, whichback to the late Middle Ages. was designed and erected by It was rebuilt around 1530 Franciszek Moser in 1779–80,in the Renaissance style for lies a much older interior.Justus Ludwik Decjusz, and Founded by Bishop Iwoacquired its present shape Odrowąż, the Cistercianaround 1620, when it was abbey was built in theextended for Stanisław 13th century. TheLubomirski, Palatine of consecration of the churchCracow. It was then Removed from the world: the took place in 1266. Theremodelled in the early Camaldolite Monastery at Bielany interior of the early GothicBaroque style. basilica, which contains a Visitors who want to make number of Renaissancesure they get the best view Benedictine Abbey paintings by Stanisławof the Decjusz Villa, an Samostrzelnik, has survivedimpressive three-storey in Tyniec b alongside later, mainlyarcaded loggia that is flanked ul. Benedyktyńska 37. Baroque, features.by towers, should view it Tel 012 688 52 00. @ 112, 203. Other interesting parts offrom the garden. Today the # daily for morning services & the abbey are the Gothicvilla houses the European 1–6:30pm. cloisters and the chapterAcademy. There is a good house, which containsrestaurant in the basement. paintings by the 19th-century This impressive abbey is set artist Michał Stachowicz. on a high chalky outcrop These depict the legendCamaldolite overlooking the River Vistula. of Wanda, whose patriotism The history of the abbey goes led her to throw herself intoMonastery in back to the mid-11th century. the Vistula. Her tomb,Bielany v Originally, a Romanesque situated under a tumulus, basilica stood on the site. It is located nearby.ul. Konarowa 1–16. Tel 012 429 7610. @ 109, 209, 239, 249, 269.# to men: during services; towomen: 2 and 7 Feb, 25 Mar, Easter,Whitsun, 19 Jun, the first Sun after15 Aug, 8 Sep, 25 Dec.Seen from afar, thismonolithic Mannerist-Baroque monastery seton Srebrna Góra (SilverMountain) appears to be atempting tourist attraction.However, the monks, whoare the monastery’s sole Benedictine abbey, Tyniec, perched on a chalky outcrop above the Vistula
P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 147MAŁOPOLSKA (LESSER POLAND)M ałopolska is the country’s most picturesque and varied region. Attractions such as the ski resort of Zakopane, hiking trails in the Tatra Mountains, the magical Black Madonna of Często-chowa and a lively folk tradition make it Poland’s most popular touristdestination. Cracow, not only the regional capital but the spiritual andhistoric capital of the nation, is one of the noblest cities in Europe.In the 9th century, important centres of Polishthe Vistulanian tribe culture, retaining their iden-established a state tity despite a succession ofin Małopolska. Their annexations. Not untilcapital was Cracow, or 1918, when Poland at lastWiślica. In 990, Małopol- regained its indepen-ska became part of the dence, did MałopolskaPolanian duchy of Mieszko I, again become part of theand in 1039, Prince Kazimierz Polish state.the Restorer made Cracow the centre The Małopolska region isof his realm of power. For centuries, dotted with picturesque towns, ruinedMałopolska was the heart of Poland. castles, palaces, country mansions,However, its importance began to great monasteries and pretty woodenwane at the end of the 16th century, churches. The eastern fringes of thewhen the capital of the Republic was region are distinguished by theirmoved to Warsaw. Uniate Orthodox churches. There are After the Partitions of Poland, also many monuments to the JewishMałopolska went into a gradual population that was present indecline. While Galicia, its southern Małopolska before 1945.part, came under Austrian rule, its In many parts of the region, folk cus-northern part was incorporated into toms survive and flourish, nowherethe Russian empire. When Galicia more than in the Podhale region; ingained autonomy within the Austro- Zakopane, the regional capital ofHungarian Empire, Galician towns, Podhale, folklore and folk art are aand especially Cracow, became local industry.The Galician small town of Stary Sącz, at the foot of the Sądecky Beskidy MountainsWooden house in the forest, beneath the towering Tatra Mountains
148 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Exploring Małopolska Małopolska, in the south of Poland, is the country’s main tourist region. Apart from Cracow, the greatest attractions for visitors are the mountain ski resort of Zakopane, which is the winter sports capital, and the picturesque Tatra Mountains. In summer many hikers are drawn to the region, and its mountains are traversed by well-marked hiking trails. There are numerous welcoming hostels for those in need of overnight shelter. Parts of the Beskid Niski Mountains are almost without human habitation, so that it is still possible to walk for several hours without encountering a single living Interior of a cottage in Zalipie, soul. Spiritual relief can be found deep within the with traditional decoration forests, where walkers may be surprised to encounter pretty wooden churches. GETTING AROUND Cracow and Rzeszów can be reached by air. The larger towns all have good rail links with the rest of the country. Some small villages can only be reached by bus or car. The E77 highway goes north and south from Cracow, while the E40 goes eastwards through Tarnów, Rzeszów and Przemyśl. Parallel to it, but further south, major road 28 connects Nowy Sącz with Biecz, Krosno and Sanok. SEE ALSO • Where to Stay pp301–3. • Restaurants and Bars pp319–21. KEY Motorway Main road Minor road Main railway Minor railway International border Regional border Peak A detail of Neo-Classical decorative moulding in the palace at ŁańcutFor additional map symbols see back flap
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 149SIGHTS AT A GLANCEBaranów Sandomierski 8 Krasiczyn . Wąchock 4Biecz n Krosno m Wadowice aBielsko-Biała o Krynica b Wieliczka dBusko Zdrój e Kurozwęki 0 Wiślica rChochołów l Łańcut pp172–3 £ Zakopane zCzęstochowa pp156–7 y Leżajsk @ Zalipie gDębno near Brzeska j Niepołomice f Żywiec pDębno Podhalańskie x Nowy Wiśnicz kGrabki Duże w Oblęgorek 1 ToursHoly Cross Mountains 3 Opatów 5 Bieszczady Mountains Tour ,Jarosław ! Dunajec Raft Ride c Oświęcim (Auschwitz) iKalwaria Zebrzydowska s Pińczów t Eagles’ Nests Trail uKielce 2 Przemyśl / Rytwiany 9 Rzeszów $ Sandomierz 7 Stary Sącz v Szydłów q Tarnów h Ujazd 6 Niedzica Castle overlooking the artificial lake on the Dunajec0 km 500 miles 50
150 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N events are illustrated on the palace ceilings, which were painted in 1641. The period interiors form part of the National Museum in the palace. There is also an excellent gallery of Polish painting here. Next to the palace is the cathedral, built on the site of an earlier church of 1632–5, the time of Bishop Zadzik. Several dozen wooden village buildings from the area around Kielce are laid out over an area of 4.2 sq km (1.6 sq miles) in the Kielce Rural Museum. E National MuseumThe Henryk Sienkiewicz Museum in Oblęgorek pl. Zamkowy 1. Tel 041 344 40 14. # 10am–6pm Tue, 9am–4pmOblęgorek 1 rooms on the first floor. The Wed–Sun. & (free on Sat). marble doorways and beamed www.muzeumkielce.netRoad map E5. * 950. @ ceilings are original. E Kielce Rural Museum The palace was built in Temporary exhibition ul. JanaThe writer Henryk 1637–41, probably by the royal Pawła II 6. Tel 041 344 92 97.Sienkiewicz (see p25) architect Giovanni Trevano, # 10am–3pm Mon–Fri, Sun. &received a small manor house under the direction of Tomas- (free on Sun). www.mwk.com.plin Oblęgorek as a gift from so Poncino, for the Bishop of Skansen in Tokarnia Tel 041the nation in 1900. It is an Cracow, Jakub Zadzik. During 315 41 71. # Apr–Oct: 10am–eclectic building with a tall the reign of Zygmunt III, this 5pm Tue–Sun; Nov–Mar: 9am–circular tower. The interior is exceptional clergyman was 3pm Tue–Sun. &as it was when Sienkiewicz in charge of the Republic’slived and worked here. foreign policy, successfully EnvironsToday it houses the Henryk making peace with Russia and The ruins of a 13th-centurySienkiewicz Museum. establishing a long-standing castle dominate the town of Sienkiewicz is the best- ceasefire with Sweden. His Chęciny, 15 km (9 miles) toknown Polish novelist. He role as a bishop, however, the west of Kielce. Paradisereceived the Nobel Prize for was inglorious. He contributed Cave (Jaskinia Raj), to theLiterature for his historical to the shameful decision to north of Chęciny, containsnovel Quo Vadis? in 1905. condemn the Polish Brethren spectacular stalactites and during the Sejm of 1641. These stalagmites.E Henryk SienkiewiczMuseumTel 041 303 04 26. # Nov–Apr:10am–4pm Wed–Sat; May–Oct:10am–4pm Tue–Sat. &Kielce 2Road map E5. * 205,000.£ @ n pl. Niepodległości 1 (041367 64 36). Tel 041 345 86 81.www.um.kielce.plIn a city whose beauty hasbeen defaced by buildingsthat went up after World WarII, the Bishops’ Palace standsout like a jewel. It is anexceptionally fine example ofa well-preserved aristocratictown house of the first halfof the 17th century (see p45).The early Baroque façadeswith four corner towers havebeen preserved almost intact,as has the decoration of the The Dining Hall in the Bishops’ Palace in KielceFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 151Holy Cross Świętokrzyski National Park. The primeval forest of fir treesMountains 3 that once covered the rangeRoad map E5. £ @ n 041 367 was seriously damaged by acid64 36 or 367 60 11. rain in the 1970s and 1980s, so that only vestiges remainIn geological terms, the Holy today. In ancient times ŁysaCross Mountains (Góry Góra, the second-highest peakŚwiętokrzyskie) – part of the in the Holy Cross Mountains,Małopolska uplands – are was a pagan place of worship.among the oldest in Europe. Its slopes are covered withEroded over many thousands gołoborza, heaps of brokenof years, they are neither high rock. Legend tells of thenor steep, but they are except- witches’ sabbaths that are Ruins of the Baroque Bishops’ionally rich in minerals, which said to have taken place here. Palace at Bodzentynhave been exploited since The Benedictine abbey inancient times. The remains of Święty Krzyż on the summit the chapel is a glass coffinprehistoric mines and furnaces of Łysa Góra was built in the containing the supposedlyhave been found here. The 12th century and extended mummified body of PrinceŁysogóry range, with Mount during the rule of the Jagiell- Jeremi Wiśniowiecki. In hisŁysica at a mere 612 m onian dynasty. The church, novel With Fire and Sword(2,000 ft), the highest peak in which replaces an earlier Henryk Sienkiewicz portrayedthe mountains, lies within the Romanesque church, was built this magnate as a saviour, and in 1782–9 and has predom- hero of the battles against inantly Baroque and Neo- Ukrainian insurgents in 1648. Classical features. The interior History judges him less kindly: is decorated with paintings a seasoned soldier, an unimag- by the 18th-century artist inative politician and a brute, Franciszek Smuglewicz. The who by passing sentences of cloisters and vestry, with late impalement earned himself the Baroque frescoes, date from nickname Palej (The Impaler). the 15th century. The domed Bodzentyn, north of chapel of the Oleśnicki family, Łysogóry, is worth a visit for dating from the 17th century, is its 18th-century Gothic parish the abbey’s most outstanding church. The Renaissance altar feature. Kept in the chapel comes from Wawel Cathedral since 1723, the relic of the in Cracow. The stately ruinsBroken rock on the Łysogóry slopes, Holy Cross attracts crowds of of the Bishops’ Palace canŚwiętokrzyski National Park pilgrims. In the crypt beneath also be seen in the town. ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKI NATIONAL PARK KEY The Łysogóry range constitutes the major part of the Hiking trail park. Natural features of particular interest include gołoborza, created by the fragmentation of quartzite Road sandstone, and vestiges of the primeval fir forest. On Car park Chełmowa Góra, native Polish larch can be seen. Tourist information Viewpoint 0 km 3 0 miles 3
152 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NWąchock 4Road map E4. * 3,300. £ @Wąchock is a neat townwith a well-preservedCistercian abbey. It wasfounded in 1179 by Gedko zGryfitów, Bishop of Cracow.The church, built in the early13th century, has Romanesqueand Gothic features. Thearchitect is unknown, althoughthe inscription “Simon” thatcan be seen on the façade isthought to be his signature.The interior is decorated withmural paintings and containstombstones and altars. Themost important Romanesqueinteriors of the abbey – thoseof the chapter house and the Collegiate Church of St Martin in Opatówrooms off the cloisters – havebeen preserved almost intact royal chancellor who became Krzysztof Ossoliński, probablyto this day. The abbey was the owner of Opatów. The by Agostino Locci the Elder inremodelled between 1636 and tomb dates from 1533–6 and 1627–47. It is one of the most1643, the façade being given bears a relief known as the eccentric residences of itsthe appearance of a palace Opatów Lament (see pp42–3). time in Europe (see pp44–5).with the addition of arcades The marble tombstone of Having been attacked duringand an enormous tower. Anna Szydłowiecka carved the Swedish Deluge (see p44), by Bernardino de Gianoti in the castle fell into neglect. 1536 is also noteworthy. The palace was enormous,Opatów 5 The curious holes and ruts and for 300 years its walls in the walls of the church are provided the surroundingRoad map E5. * 7,100. @ an unusual mark of the past. villages with vast amounts ofThe collegiate church of Noblemen would use the building material. However,St Martin (Kolegiata św. church walls to sharpen their the magnificent ruins areMarcina), built in the first half sabres, which they would often still extremely impressive.of the 12th century, is among do on horseback. This explainsthe best-preserved of the major why the holes are so high. EnvironsRomanesque churches in Ossolin, situated 15 kmPoland. The massive façade (9 miles) to the east of Ujazd,has two quadrilateral towers Ujazd 6 is the town from which theand representations of dragons Ossoliński family came.and plants on its borders. The Road map E5. * 1,600. @ n The historic remains hereinterior contains interesting 077 463 70 37. www.ujazd.pl are much more modest.furnishings and tombs, the It survived an explosion inmost eminent being the tomb The main attraction in Ujazd 1816, inflicted by subsequentwith the bronze effigy of are the ruins of Krzyżtopór owners who sought to blowKrzysztof Szydłowiecki, the Castle, built for the palatine it up in search of the treasure rumoured to be hidden there.The stately ruins of Krzyżtopór Castle in UjazdFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 153The Mannerist and Baroque the recently refurbishedcollegiate church in Gothic and RenaissanceKlimontów, 13 km (8 miles) castle. The museum containseast of Ujazd, and begun in archaeological, ethnographic1643, is something of an and historical displays.architectural curiosity. Theelliptical nave with galleriesis an unusual combination, Baranówand the columns sunk intoniches hollowed out in the Sandomierski 8pillars make a mockery of Road map E5. * 1,500.the principles of tectonics. £ 3 km (2 miles) from the centre. @ www.baranow.com.plSandomierz 7 Leszczyński Castle, built in Baranów Sandomierski for theRoad map F5. * 23,000. £ @ Leszczyński family inn PTTK, Rynek 12 (015 832 26 1591–1606, is one of the finest82). Underground Tourist Route examples of Mannerist archi-ul. Oleśnickich 1. Tel 015 832 30 Opatów Gate, defending the old tecture in Poland. The castle88. # 10am–6pm daily (Apr: to town of Sandomierz consists of four wings arranged5pm, Oct–Mar: to 4pm). around a rectangular arcadedwww.sandomierz.pl E Diocesan Museum courtyard. The grand exterior ul. Długosza 9. Tel 015 833 26 70. staircase and the façades, withThe best view of this small, # Apr–Oct: 9am–4pm Tue–Sat, their elaborate attics giving theancient town is from the 1–4pm Sun; Nov–Mar: 9:30am–3pm impression of a massive (but inRiver Vistula. In 1138, Tue–Sat, 1:30–3pm Sun. & fact delicate) curtained wall,Sandomierz became the The museum is in the Gothic are striking. The square towercapital of an independent house of Jan Długosz (1415– in the central façade serves aduchy, and from the 14th 80), the celebrated chronicler purely decorative purpose. Oncentury until the Partitions of Poland. It features religious account of its architecturalof Poland it was a regional paintings and sculptures from ornamentation, featuringcapital. Part of the network the Middle Ages to the 19th spheres, rosettes and strangeof underground passages century, including Madonna creatures, the castle is thoughtthat runs beneath the town with the Christ Child and to have been designed by Santiis open to tourists. St Catherine by Lucas Gucci. The Sulphur Basin The main entrance to the Cranach the Elder. Museum on the ground floorold town is Opatów Gate. contains furniture, suits ofThe charming, slightly sloping E Regional Museum armour and other interestingMarket Square is surrounded Castle Tel 015 644 57 57/58. # objects from the castle’sby elegant houses. In the 9am–4pm Tue–Fri, 9am–3pm Sat, heyday, as well as exhibitscentre stands the town hall, 10am–3pm Sun (May–Sep: 10am– relating to the history ofwith its splendid Renaissance 5pm Tue–Fri, 10am–6pm Sat & Sun). sulphur exploitation in theparapet. It houses the Town Hall Rynek 10. Tel 015 832 22 huge quarries nearby.Regional Museum. The 65. # 9am–4pm Tue–Fri, 9am–3pmmost important building in Sat, 10am–3pm Sun (May–Sep: 10am– E Sulphur Basin Museumthe town is the cathedral, 5pm Tue–Fri, 9am–5pm Sat & Sun). ul. Zamkowa 20. Tel 015 811 80 39. # 9am–7pm Tue–Sun (Nov–Mar: tobuilt around 1360 on the site The Regional Museum is split 4pm). 8 (compulsory, every hour).of an earlier Romanesque between the town hall andcathedral and later altered.The 15th-century Ruthenian-Byzantine frescoes in thechancel depict scenes fromthe lives of Christand the Virgin. The Church of St James(Kościół św Jakuba) is anexceptionally fine lateRomanesque aisled basilica.Built in brick, it was begun in1226. Its ceramic decorationand beautiful portal areevidence that it was builtby master craftsmen fromLombardy. The remainsof 49 Dominican friarsmurdered by Tartars in 1260lie in the Martyrs’ Chapel. Staircase in the courtyard of Leszczyński Palace in Baranów Sandomierski
154 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N vestiges remain, incorporated the Great, with its Regional in the large Rococo-Neo- Museum, and the 16th- Classical castle that now stands century synagogue, with on the site, surrounded by a Baroque wall paintings. neglected park and with stables nearby. The castle was built E Regional Museum for an influential Poraj family, ul. Szkolna 8. Tel 041 354 51 46. # 7:30am–3:30pm Mon–Fri, who were at the height of their 10am–2pm Sat & Sun. power in the times of Zawisza, ¢ Mon & Wed in summer. Chancellor and Bishop of Cracow (died c.1382), known for his sumptuous lifestyle. Environs In Raków, 12 km (7 miles)The Camaldolite church north of Kurozwęki, is thein Rytwiany Protestant church of the Polish Brethren. It is contemporaryRytwiany 9 with the establishment of Raków Academy in the 1600s.Road map E5. * 950. £ @The main attraction of Szydłów qRytwiany is the early BaroqueCamaldolite church that Road map E5. * 1,100. @stands next to the monastery. It _ Jousting tournament (early Jun).was built in 1624–5 by the www.szydlow.plTęczyński family and isconsidered to be one of the This attractive medieval town Cracow Gate, the Gothic southfinest examples of Camaldolite is reached by crossing a bridge gate into the old town of Szydłówarchitecture in Europe. In over a moat and passingaccordance with the rules of through one of the old town Grabki Duże wthe order, the entrance to the gates. In the 16th century thissanctuary leads through a was a flourishing town, and Road map E5. * 410. @narrow passageway, with the in 1528 it even had its owntiny houses of the monks lying sophisticated water supply. Between 1742 and 1750, thebehind the monastery walls. By the mid-17th century, architect Francisco PlacidiThe clock in the church tower however, it was falling into built a Rococo palace heremarked the times for different decline. Features of interest for the castellan Stanisławactivities in the monastery. are the town walls, 2 m (6 ft) Rupniewski. At the time, theThe modest appearance of thick and 680 m (2,230 ft) unusual shape of the buildingthe façade contrasts with the long, with spiked battlements, aroused suspicions that theexuberant interior: stuccowork and the Market Square, castellan intended it to be foris complemented by colourful dominated by the parish a harem. Rupniewski lovedfrescoes painted by the prior, Church of St Władysław (Fara women, so did nothing toVenante da Subiaco. The św Władysława), initially in contradict the gossip.church is hidden deep in the Gothic style but rebuilt The nucleus of the “harem”the forest in a vast clearing, in the 17th century. is a central hall covered withunfortunately beyond the Also worth a visit are the a fanciful roof. This is sur-reach of most tourists. Gothic castle of Kazimierz rounded by four single-storey For the intrepid traveller,the ruins of the 15th-centuryGothic castle of WojciechJastrzębiec, Archbishop ofGniezno, which stand onthe edge of the village,are also worth visiting.Kurozwęki 0Road map E5. * 840. @The 14th-century Gothic castlethat once stood in the smallvillage of Kurozwęki was oneof the earliest stone fortressesin Małopolska. Today, only The castle in Kurozwęki, with its severe Neo-Classical façadeFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 155 Jan Długosz. During the Renaissance, the castle was remodelled for the Myszkowski family by Santi Gucci. It was dismantled before 1799, the result being that little remains today. Between 1556 and 1586, the humanistic Calvinist college was active in Pińczów – just as the printing house of the Polish Brethren was to be a few decades later. A beautiful Renaissance house decorated with sgraffito is sometimes identified as the PolishThe palace of Stanisław Rupniewski in Grabki Duże, said to be for a harem Brethren’s printing house: it is not, but it still meritswings that once contained within it date from the second the visitor’s attention.small apartments. The design half of the 12th century and The Chapel of St Anneof the palace is not dissimilar may perhaps represent the (Kaplica św Anny), on theto that of a windmill. Piast princes (see p39) who top of the hill, is an unusual founded the church. Mannerist building. It was founded in 1600 by ZygmuntBusko Zdrój e Myszkowski and built, it is Pińczów t thought, by Santi Gucci.Road map E5. * 18,400. @ £ In nearby Mirów, then ul. Waryńskiego 4a (041 378 48 Road map E5. * 12,400. @ Franciscan church and83). _ K. Jamroz Music Festival (Jun, n pl. Wolności 22 (041 351 54 04). the 17th-century Mannerist-Jul). www.busko.com.pl _ Days of Ponidzie (Jun). Baroque parish church, www.pinczow.com.pl which has early BaroqueSprings with healing proper- vaulting and rich furnishings,ties were discovered here In the 16th century, the are both worth a visit. In thein 1776, but it was not until town of Pińczów was an vestibule of the parishthe beginning of the 19th important centre of artistic church, a marble tombstonecentury that they began to and intellectual life. It is of a middle-class woman,be exploited. In 1836 a dominated by the castle Anna Jakubczyńska, whosanatorium was opened built in the 15th century for died in 1618, attracts theand a park laid out. The Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki. visitor’s attention.Neo-Classical bath house Oleśnicki was a politician Also worth seeing is thedates from 1836–8; visitors and confidant of Władysław late Renaissance synagogue,may sample the waters in II and Kazimierz IV, as well which is the last remainingthe pump room. The spa as being a patron of the trace of the Jews who onceitself is valued for its rare medieval Polish chronicler lived in Pińczów.sulphur and salt springs andfor its therapeutic mud.Wiślica rRoad map E5. * 610. @This sleepy village mayhave been the capital of theVistulanians in the 11thcentury. The Market Square,which is planted with trees,is unexpectedly dominatedby the enormous Gothiccollegiate church, foundedby Kazimierz the Great after1350. The chancel is decoratedwith Ruthenian-Byzantinefrescoes dating from1397–1400 which are nowbarely visible. The floor isthat of an earlier Romanesquechurch; the figures engraved The parish and Franciscan church in Mirów, near Pińczów
156 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NCzęstochowa yThe monastery of Jasna Góra in Częstochowa isthe most famous shrine of the Virgin in Poland andthe country’s greatest place of pilgrimage – formany, its spiritual capital. The image of the BlackMadonna of Częstochowa, to which miraculouspowers are attributed, is Jasna Góra’s most precioustreasure. Founded in 1382 by Pauline monks whocame from Hungary at the invitation of Władysław,Duke of Opole (who probably brought the image ofthe Black Madonna to Częstochowa), the monastery Knights’ Hallwithstood several sieges, including the legendary The hall contains a series of late40-day siege by the Swedes in 1655 (see p44). 17th-century paintings depicting major events in the monastery’s history. Refectory The ceiling is decorated with rich frescoes by the 17th-century painter Karl Dankwart. In 1670, a wedding reception was held here for the Polish king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki and his bride, Eleanor. Bastion of St Roch (belonging to Morsztynowie) The 600th Anniversary Museum has an impressive display of artifacts made by concentration camp inmates. ArsenalStations of the Cross STAR FEATURESThe 14 Stations of the Crossstanding on artificial rocks in the . Black Madonnamoat were created by the architectStefan Szyller and the sculptor . Basilica of the HolyPius Weloński in 1900–13. Every Cross and the Nativityday, groups of pilgrims attend a of the Virgin Maryreligious service here.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 157 . Black Madonna VISITORS’ CHECKLIST The most important icon of the Catholic faith in Poland, depict- Road map D5. * 245,000. £ ing the Virgin with the Christ @ n al. Najświętszej Marii Panny 65 (034 368 22 50); Jasna Góra, Child, was probably painted Pauline Monastery ul. Kordec- in 1434 on top of an older kiego 2 (034 377 72 46). Jasna Byzantine icon – the original Góra # 5am–9:30pm. Black Black Madonna, which was Madonna of Częstochowa damaged by robbers in 1430. (unveiling times) 6am–noon daily (to 1pm Sat & Sun), 3–9:30pm (May–Sep: from 2pm). Times may vary. Treasury, Arsenal, 600th Anniversary Museum # 9am– 4pm daily (May–15 Oct: to 6pm). _ “Gaude Mater” International Festival of Religious Music (early May). www.czestochowa.plOutdoor altar,where servicesare held forthe crowdsof pilgrims. Treasury Gold and silver vessels, church vestments, tapestries and votive offerings are among the items on display. Chapel of the Last Supper This chapel was designed by Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz in the 20th century. Confessional Monastery Gates . Basilica of the Holy The Lubomirski Gate, the Cross and the Nativity of Stanisław August Gate, the Virgin Mary the Gate of the Sorrowful The present basilica dates from Virgin Mary and the 1692–1728. The Baroque Bank (or Jagiellonian) decoration of the high altar and Gate all lead to the of the ceiling, the latter by Karl monastery hill. Dankwart, is rich in detail.
158 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Eagles’ Nests Trail u The Cracow-Częstochowa upland is a limestone mountain range formed in the Jurassic period. Perched on rocky outcrops, some of the castles, most of which were built in the Middle Ages and ruined during the Swedish Deluge of the 1650s (see p44), resemble eagles’ nests. Ojców National Park, with Pieskowa Skała Castle, encompasses some of the most beautiful upland areas. This castle was once the stronghold of kings, but at the end of the Middle Ages it passed into the hands of bandits – Piotr Szafraniec and his son Krzysztof – who lured rich merchants to their deaths. Today all is peaceful: tourist trails, rock-climbing and beautiful scenery. Olsztyn 1 Every autumn, thousands of spectators gather to watch as a magnificent firework display and laser show illuminate the stately ruins of the castle. Mirów 2 The castle once belonged to the Myszkowski family. It is perched on a rocky ridge, turning the natural lie of the land to defensive advantage. 0 km 5 0 miles 5 TIPS FOR WALKERS Bobolice 3 Today, jousting Length of trail: 190 k m tournaments and (118 miles). outdoor games take Stopping-off points: Many bars place in the surroundings and restaurants are to be found of the splendid ruins of along the trail. There is a restaurant the castle built by and café in Pieskowa Skała Castle. Kazimierz the Great in the 14th century.For additional map symbols see back flap
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 159 Ogrodzieniec 4 In the 16th century the castle belonged to the Boner family of Cracow. With its gate, towers and Błędowski Desert 5 galleries, it is one This miniature desert is 320 sq km (123 of the most sq miles) of drifting sand and dunes. picturesque castles Unique in Central Europe, it is slowly on the trail. becoming choked with vegetation. Olkusz 6 The town is well endowed with historic buildings.It owes its prosperity to silver and lead mining. Pieskowa Skała 7 The well-preserved castle with its arcaded courtyard and bastions dominates the Prądnik valley. It is situated on an inaccessible rock surrounded by Ojców National Park 8 spectacular scenery. The Prądnik valley has a karst landscape; there are outcrops of limestone, a multitude of gorges and caves with bats. The most famous rock is the pillar known as Hercules’ Club. Grodzisko 9 The obelisk with a stone elephant is an unusual monument. It was made in 1686 and stands next to the Church of the Assumption.KEY Imbramowice 0 This small village has Trail a late Baroque Other road Premonstratensian convent built in the Viewpoint 18th century.
160 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Bielsko-Biała o Road Map D6. * 174,000. £ @ n Plac Ratuszowy 4 (033 819 00 50). www.bielsko.pl The city was created by joining the Silesian town of Bielsko and the Galician town of Biała. It was once an import- ant centre for the production of textiles and wool, as anGate and unloading platform, Birkenau extermination camp interesting early 20th-century complex of buildings testifies.Oświęcim prisoner, who survived. Soviet Many streets contain forces liberated the camp in miniature versions of old(Auschwitz) i January 1945. They found Viennese houses. The CastleRoad Map D5. * 43,000. £ @ 7,650 sick and dying of the Sułkowski princes, prisoners when they arrived. built in the Middle Ages andAlthough the name Above the entrance to altered in the 19th century, isOświęcim means little to Auschwitz are inscribed the also of interest. The unusualforeigners, its German equiva- words “Arbeit macht frei” hilltop Church of St Nicholaslent, Auschwitz, evokes fear (“Work makes you free”). The (Kościół św Mikołaja) began asin almost everyone. It was camp has been preserved as a modest 15th-century Gothichere that the Nazis established a memorial, and the prison church and was extensivelytheir largest concentration and blocks that survive have remodelled in 1907–10.extermination camp. Auschwitz been turned into a museum Bielsko-Biała is a goodis synonynous with death, charting the history of the starting point for excursionscruelty, the annihilation of camp and of persecution into the Beskid Śląski Mount-the Jews and the Holocaust. in wartime Poland. In all, ains. The chair lift from theIt is a massive graveyard. No between 900,000 and 1.5 suburbs takes visitors to thevisitor can leave unmoved. million Jews and others were Szyndzielnia peak, 1,026 m The Auschwitz camp, known murdered in the extermination (3,365 ft) up.as Auschwitz I, opened in June camps here. The camp is a1940 when the first Polish UNESCO World Heritage Site. Żywiec ppolitical prisoners arrived.In March 1941 a much larger E Oświęcim-Brzezinka Road Map D6. * 32,000. @camp at Birkenau (Brzezinka Museum £ n Rynek 12 (033 861 43 10).in Polish), Auschwitz II, was ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20. Tel 033 843 20 22. # Dec–Feb: www.zywiec.plstarted, 3km (2 miles) from 8am–3pm; Mar & Nov: 8am–4pm;Oświeçim. Auschwitz III, The town of Żywiec is Apr & Oct: 8am–5pm; May & Sep:a labour camp, was built 8am–6pm; Jun–Aug: 8am–7pm. 8 associated with one of thenearby in Monowice in 1943. www.auschwitz.org.pl best Polish brands of beer,The Nazis brought in people, which is brewed locally. It isoverwhelmingly Jews, fromall over Europe. The gaschambers, which had thecapacity to kill thousands daily,started working ceaselessly in1942. Trains drew up to theramp where people would beherded out for selection forextermination (the fate of themajority), forced labour ormedical experiments. Thoseselected for exterminationwould be gassed and theirbodies incinerated in one ofthe four crematoria. Apart fromJews, a number of Poles, Sovietprisoners of war, gypsies andhomosexuals died here too. For the Poles, Auschwitz is aparticular symbol of their ownsuffering. It was here that StMaksymilian Kolbe died fromstarvation after volunteeringhis life for that of a fellow Lake Żywiecki, a man-made reservoir on the River SolaFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 161 Wadowice a Road Map D6. * 19,400. £ @ n 033 873 23 65. ww.wadowice.pl Karol Wojtyła, who became Pope John Paul II in 1978, was born in Wadowice on 18 May 1920. His childhood home has been turned into the Museum of the Holy Father John Paul II, with objects relating to his Herod’s Palace, one of the stations early life. He was christened of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska in the late Baroque Church of the Presentation of the the ruler of Cracow and an Virgin Mary (Kościół Ofiaro- ardent Catholic, whose plan wania NMP), near the Market it was to replicate the layout Square. The church, built in of Jerusalem.Arcaded courtyard of the 1791–8, replaces an early The calvary (built 1605–32)Renaissance castle in Żywiec Gothic church, of which only consists of 40 chapels, set on the chancel remains. The the surrounding hills. Thealso a good starting point for tower, with Baroque cupola, most distinctive are the workexcursions into the Beskid was built by Tomasz Pryliński of the Flemish architect andŻywiecki Mountains. Lake in the late 19th century. goldsmith Paul Baudarth.Żywiecki, with its water-sports Some have unusual shapes:facilities, is another tourist E Museum of the Holy the House of the Virgin Maryattraction. This is also a town Father John Paul II takes the form of the Mystic ul. Kościelna 7. Tel 033 823 26 62.of thriving folk traditions; a # 9am–4pm Tue–Sun (summer Rose, and the House ofparticular high point is Corpus to 6pm). Caiaphas that of an ellipsis.Christi, when women dressed Their façades have Dutchin traditional costumes take ornamentation. The largepart in a festive procession. Baroque monastery churchLocal monuments include the Kalwaria dates from 1702; the monasticMarket Square, surrounded Zebrzydowska s buildings were constructedby old houses, the 19th- by Baudarth and Giovannicentury town hall and the Road Map D6. * 4,400. £ @ Maria Bernadoni in 1603–67.Church of the Nativity of www.kalwaria-zebrzydowska.pl For nearly 400 years,the Virgin Mary (Kościół the calvary has attractedNarodzenia Najświętszej Kalwaria Zebrzydowska is the thousands of pilgrims.Marii Panny), built in oldest calvary in Poland and Passion plays are performed1582–3. Not far from the one of the most unusual. It here during Holy Week, andMarket Square is the Gothic was commissioned in 1600 the Feast of Assumption isChurch of the Holy Cross by Mikołaj Zebrzydowski, celebrated in August.(Kościół św Krzyża). The most important build-ings in the town are theRenaissance castle and the19th-century palace, started inthe 16th century for MikołajKomorowski. In the mid-17thcentury, Jan Kazimierz, Kingof Poland, was the owner ofŻywiec. When he abdicatedin 1668, he lived here brieflybefore leaving Poland. In the early 19th century,the town became the prop-erty of the Habsburgs, whobuilt a palace next to thecastle. Marrying into thePolish aristocracy, the last ofthe Habsburgs were stronglyconnected with Poland.E Town Museumul. Zamkowa 5. Tel 033 861 21 24.# 9am–5pm Mon–Fri, 10am–4pmSat & Sun. www.muzeum-zywiec.pl Bernardine church in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska
162 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N park nearby. In 1525 Zygmunt I brought “in a wooden trunk a great bear from Lithuania”. The bear hunt ended unhap- pily. Confronted by the angry animal, the pregnant Queen Bona Sworza turned and fled, falling from her horse and suffering a miscarriage. At the castle in 1551, Queen Bona Sworza’s son, Zygmunt August, sat at the deathbed of his sweetheart wife, Barbara Radziwiłłówna. Their marriage had caused a moral andThe underground Chapel of St Kinga in the salt mine at Wieliczka political scandal, and Queen Bona was unjustly suspected ofWieliczka d Salt Mine poisoning her daughter-in-law. ul. Daniłowicza 10. Tel 012 278 73 Today, the forest is muchRoad map D5. * 19,000. £ @ 02. # Apr–Oct: 7:30am–7:30pm; smaller than it was in the time Nov–Mar: 8am–5pm. ¢ 1 Jan, of the Jagiellonians. It is still,Wieliczka is famous for its Easter, 1 Nov, 24–26 Dec, 31 Dec. however, a sizeable natureancient salt mine, which & 0 = www.kopalnia.pl reserve with plenty of sec-was opened 700 years ago luded areas, and bison areand is still being exploited raised there.today. Unique in the world,it has been listed by UNESCO Niepołomice fas a World Heritage Site. Zalipie g Only 2 km (1½ miles) of Road map E5. * 8,500. £ @the network of underground www.niepolomice.com Road map E5. * 710. @galleries and chambers are £ 6 km (4 miles) from the village.open to the public. They In the 14th century, the royalreach a depth of 135 m castle at Niepołomice was the Zalipie has a unique folk art(442 ft) and have a stable hunting base of Kazimierz tradition: cottages, barns,temperature of 13–14° C the Great. Between 1550 wells and fences are painted(55–57° F). The two-hour and 1571 it was converted with colourful floral, animal,visit takes in ancient under- into a Renaissance palace geometric and other motifs.ground chambers, saline by Zygmunt August. The Domestic interiors andlakes, wooden mining entrance gate, dating from furnishings are alsomachines and underground 1552, was once decorated decorated. The painters arebuildings. The most with a Jagiellonian eagle; the predominantly the womenimpressive of these is the plaque, with the Latin inscrip- of the village. Every year inChapel of St Kinga, with tion “May the King Win and June, a competition calledaltarpieces, chandeliers and Live”, hints at its former the Painted Cottage issculptures made of salt. splendour. The monarchs organized and exhibitionsAdditional figures carved in loved hunting in the game of paintings are held.salt, the oldest dating fromthe 17th century, can beseen in other chambers. TheStaszic Chamber has thehighest ceiling, at 36 m(115 ft). At the end of theGerman occupation, theNazis tried to establish anaircraft factory in the mines.There is also an undergroundsanatorium where respiratorydiseases are treated. The Salt Mine Castle atUlica Zamkowa 8 is alsoworth a visit. From the 13thcentury right up until 1945 itwas a base for the manage-ment of the salt mine.Today it houses a museumwith – among other things –a splendid collection ofantique salt mills. Painted cottage in ZalipieFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 163 living quarters but also the castle’s kitchen, pantry and wine cellar are included in the exhibition. E Museum of Period Interiors Tel 014 665 80 35. # Mar–Dec: 10am–4pm Tue, Thu; 9am–3pm Wed, Fri; 11am–2pm Sat & Sun. ¢ Jan, Feb. & Nowy Wiśnicz k Road map E6. * 1,900. @ The enormous castle and the Monastery of the Discalced Carmelites overlook this townThe Gothic-Renaissance town hall in Tarnów from the hills above. The parish church stands in theTarnów h Starodub. Tarnowski, a friend Market Square below. Each of of the poet Jan Kochanowski, these early Baroque buildingsRoad map E5. * 118,000. was known as a charismatic was raised by Stanisław@ £ n Rynek 2 (014 621 04 and witty commander as well Lubomirski, Palatine of32). www.tarnow.pl as a renowned author of Cracow, in the 17th century. military theory. This rich and wise magnateTarnów received its municipal earned renown in the Battlescharter in 1330; the medieval E Diocesan Museum of Chocim against the Turks,layout of the old town is pl. Katedralny 6. Tel 014 621 99 and grew so strong that heperfectly preserved and many 93. # 10am–3pm Tue–Sat, 9am– “felt more powerful than theancient houses are still 2pm Sun. www.muzeum.diecezja. king”. Twice the emperorstanding. Those around the tarnow.pl bestowed a dukedom on him.arcaded Market Square are The castle, which previouslyamong the finest. The town belonged to the Kmita family,hall, in the centre, dates from was extended by Lubomirskithe 15th century and was after 1615. It has corner towers,remodelled in the second an arcaded courtyard and anhalf of the 16th century by unusual entrance gate, framedGiovanni Maria Padovano. The by enormous volutes. Now aRenaissance attics and elegant prison, the monastery is notportal date from that time. open to visitors. The façade The late Gothic Cathedral of of the parish church is one ofthe Nativity of the Virgin Mary the most unusual pieces of(Katedra Narodzenia NMP) architecture in Poland,was built in 1400 and has combining Baroque elementsbeen extended many times. in a Mannerist way.It is the grandest building The castle in Dębno, which housesin Tarnów, its Gothic portal a Museum of Period Interiorsdecorated with sophisticatediconography. Its DiocesanMuseum is worth a visit. Dębno The monuments, stalls, epi- near Brzeska jtaphs and tombstones withinare mostly those of the Tar- Road map E6. * 1,400. @nowski family, who at one timeowned the town. The large This small, well-proportionedtombs belonging to Grand Het- castle surrounded by a moatman Jan Tarnowski and his son was built in 1470–80 for theJan Krzysztof were fashioned castellan and royal chancellorby Giovanni Maria Padovano Jakub Dębiński. It survives inbetween 1561 and 1570. an excellent state of preserv- The portraits of the ation. The Museum of Perioddeceased are remarkable. Interiors installed in the castleThe marble bas-reliefs depict re-creates the atmosphere ofJan Tarnowski’s victories in noble houses of the 15th to Lubomirski Castle, towering abovebattle at Orsza, Obertyn and 18th centuries. Not only the the town of Nowy Wiśnicz
164 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Zakopane z Road Map D6. * 27,000. £ @ n ul. Kościuszki 17 (018 201 22 11). _ Autumn in the Tatras; Inter- national Festival of Mountain Folklore (end Aug). www.zakopane.pl For more than 100 years, the Polish people have regarded Zakopane as their country’s winter capital, on Zakopane, cable-car line from a par with alpine resorts as Kuźnice to Kasprowy WierchOld cottages along the main street an upmarket winter sportsof Chochołów and leisure centre. of Mt Kasprowy Wierch or Many tourists are also from the funicular railwayChochołów l appreciative of Zakopane ascending Mt Gubałówka. in the summer months. Later in the day, many ofRoad Map D6. * 1,100. @ While some go hiking in the the tourists gather in mountains, most are content Krupówki, the town’sAlong the main street of the to admire the scenery from central pedestrianized16th-century village stand the windows of their cable area, which is linedtraditional wooden cottages, cars gliding to the summit with cafés, restaurants,the best examples of highland exclusive souvenir shopsarchitecture in the whole and art galleries.Podhale region. One of the Walking down Krupówkicottages, at No. 75, is open it is impossible to resist theto the public. It dates from market near the funicular1889 and has “white” and railway station. On sale can“black” rooms, a vestibule be found leather kierpceand a cellar. It also houses (traditional highlandthe Museum of the moccasins), woollen highlandChochołów Insurrection, pullovers, wooden ciupagiwhich took place in 1846 (highlanders’ sticks withagainst Austrian rule. decorative axe-like handles), Chochołów has a curious and also bryndza andlocal custom that involves oscypek (regional cheesescleaning the walls of the made from sheep’s milk).building once a year until Villa Atma, the woodenthey are white. house where the composer Karol Szymanowski (see p26)E Museum of the lived from 1930 to 1936Chochołów InsurrectionChochołów 75. # 10am–2pm now houses a museumWed–Sun. Entrance to the Villa dedicated to this eulogist Koliba Museum of the Tatra Mountains.PANORAMA FROM Mt Jagnięcy Szczyt Mt Lodowy 2,630 m Mt ŚwinicaMOUNT GUBAŁÓWKA 2,231 m (7,319 ft) (8,628 ft) 2,301 m (7,549 ft)The finest panorama of theTatra Mountains from the Mt Kościelecnorthern, Polish side of the 2,155 m (7,070 ft)range is from Mt Gubałówka orGłodówka pod Bukowiną. TheTatras, the highest mountainsin Central Europe, with alpinelandscapes, lie within Polishand Slovak national parks. Themain attractions for touristsinclude the excursion to theLake Morskie Oko (Eye of theSea) and the ascent by cablecar to the summit of MountKasprowy Wierch. In summer,hikers can follow the manydesignated trails. In winter,the mountains offer favoura-ble conditions for skiing.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 165It is worth a visit since it isin typical Zakopane style.P Villa Atmaul. Kasprusie 19. Tel 018 201 34 93.# 10am–4pm Tue–Sun (summer2–6pm Fri).DębnoPodhalańskie xRoad Map E6. * 790. @The picturesque larch timberParish Church of St Michael The Convent of the Order of St Clare in Stary Sączthe Archangel (Kościółparafialny św Michała Dunajec Raft Ride c include the Convent of theArchanioła) is one of the Order of St Clare (Klasztormost highly regarded See pp166–7. Sióstr Klarysek), founded inexamples of wooden Gothic 1208 by the Blessed Kinga. Thearchitecture in Europe. The Gothic church was consecratedceiling, walls and furnishings Stary Sącz v in 1280 and the vaulting datesare covered with colourful from the 16th century. Its altars,geometric, figural and floral Road Map E6. * 8,800. £ @ with stuccowork ornamenta-motifs painted in around n 018 443 55 97. _ Early Music tion made by Baldassare1500. A magnificent domed Festival (Jun–Jul). www.sacz.pl Fontana in 1696–9, and atower rises over the church. pulpit from 1671 showing aThe church is still used for This charming Galician town depiction of the Tree of Jesse,religious services. has a picturesque cobbled complement the modern Market Square decoration of the church. surrounded by small houses that Environs in summer are Nowy Sącz is situated 8 km bedecked with (5 miles) northeast of Stary flowers. Were Sącz. In the large Market it not for the Square stands the Neo- presence of cars, Baroque town hall of 1895–7. tourists and The town’s major buildings modern shops, are the old collegiate church, one might now the parish Church of St imagine that time Marguerite (Kościół parafialny had stood still św Małgorzaty), founded by here. The town’s Zbigniew Oleśnicki in 1466,Wooden Gothic church in Dębno Podhalańskie finest buildings and a fine synagogue.Mt Kasprowy Mt Giewont Little StarorobociarskiWierch 1,894 m (6,214 ft) Giewont Wierch 2,176 m (7,139 ft)1,987 m (6,519 ft) Burbot Mt Małołączniak 2,096 m (6,876 ft) Valley Kominiarski Dolina Mt Sarnia Skała Wierch 1,929 m Białego 1,372 m (4,500 ft) (6,328 ft)
166 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Dunajec Raft Ride c Niedzica Castle 1 The castle was built The pieniny mountains form a small in 1330 for the range famous for its spectacular Hungarian Berzevicy landscapes cut through by the family. It now houses Dunajec valley. The raft ride on the Museum of the the river that flows through the Spisz Region. limestone mountain gorges is one of the best-known tourist attractions in Poland. At first the rafts move with deceptive calm, but as they approach the gorge behind the cloister ruins the water becomes rougher as the river twists and winds. This lasts for about 8 km (5 miles), after which the water once again flows more slowly. The exhilarating ride ends in Szczawnica, a well- known health resort. 0 km 1 0 miles 1 KEY Dunajec Dam 3 Raft ride route Despite protests, the Czorsztyn Castle 2 building of this dam Tour route The castle once guarded the went ahead. On the day Polish border with Hungary. Its Other road of its opening in 1997, it ruins perch on a precipitous saved the Dunajec valley Viewpoint outcrop of rock. from a disastrous flood.Krynica b style, and owned by singer Biecz n Jan Kiepura (1902–66). TheRoad map E6. * 11,000. £ New Sanatorium near the Road map E6. * 4,500. £ @@ n ul. Piłsudskiego 8 (018 471 pedestrian promenade City bus from Gorlice. _ Pogórze56 54). _ Jan Kiepura Festival (Deptak) is also worth a Folklore Days.(Aug–Sep); concerts by spa orchestras visit. Completed in 1939, it(all year round). www.krynica.pl retains its original furnishings In the 16th century this small and décor. The Great Pump town was one of the mostWell-equipped with Room nearby is always very important centres of clothsanatoria and pump rooms, popular with visitors. manufacture in Poland. It isKrynica is one of the largest The town is surrounded dominated by the town hallhealth resorts in Poland. by tree-covered mountains. tower, built in 1569–81, andFashionable and luxurious Mt Jaworzyna, at 1,114 m the Parish Church of Corpuspre-war boarding houses (3,654 ft) the highest peak in Christi (Kościół farny Bożegostand next to old wooden the area, can be reached by Ciała). One of the mostvillas. The best known is cable car, departing from magnificent late Gothic“Patria”, built by Bohdan Czarny Potok. In winter, the churches in all of Małopolska,Pniewski in the Art Nouveau mountain turns into a skier’s it was built at the turn of the paradise. The local ski trails 15th century in a style that are the longest in Poland. seeks to reconcile the Gothic Remote areas of the mount- tradition with the new canons ains are inhabited by lynxes, of the Renaissance. The first wolves and bears, so caution pharmacy in the Carpathian should be exercised away foothills was located in the from the established trails. Renaissance house at Ulica The work of amateur painter Węgierska 2, dating from Nikifor (d. 1968) is displayed 1523; it now houses a division in the “Romanówka” villa, of the Regional Museum. now the Nikifor Museum. E Regional Museum E Nikifor Museum ul. Kromera 3. Tel 013 447 10 93. Bulwary Dietla 19. Tel 018 471 # 8am–5pm Tue–Fri, 8am–4pm 53 03. # 10am–1pm and 2–5pm Sat, 9am–4pm Sun (Oct–Apr: 8am–One of Nikifor’s paintings on view Tue–Sun. 3pm Tue–Sat, 9am–2pm Sun).at the Nikifor MuseumFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 167Szczawnica 8 Ostra Skała 7 TIPS FOR VISITORSThis well-known health After Ostra Skała (Sharp Rock)resort is mainly a centre for the River Dunajec turns Raft ride: 21/4–23/4 hours.the treatment of respiratory sharply as it flows through the Length: 18 km (11 miles) todiseases. It is also the narrowest part of the gorge. Szozwnica; 23 km (14 miles) todisembarkation point for Krósicienko. Tel 018 262 97 21the Dunajec river raft ride. or 262 97 93.Starting point: Sromowce Wyżne – Kąty. Apr–Nov: daily. & www.flisacy.com.pl Trzy Korony 6 Trzy Korony (Three Crowns) is the most beautiful massif in the Pieniny range. In 1287, the Blessed Kinga took refuge from the Tartars in the Castle of the order of St Clare, whose ruins stand on one peak. Cerveny Kláštor 5 Kąty 4 The ruins of the Red Monastery can be Departure point for the raft ride. seen on the Slovak side of the Dunajec. ruins of Kamieniec Castle. Kamieniec was the setting for Revenge (1834), the most popular comedy by the 19th-century writer Count Aleksander Fredro (see p25), the plot of which involves a dispute over the hole in the wall dividing the courtyard of the castle. In the geological park not far from the castle stands a group of sandstone and shale structures known as PrządkiView of the Parish Church of Corpus Christi in Biecz (The Spinners), which have unusual, sometimes quiteEnvirons historical monument is the startling shapes.In the village of Harklowa is Oświęcim Chapel in the Iwonicz Zdrój and Rymanów,a late Gothic wooden church Gothic Franciscan church. 15 km (9 miles) east of Krosno,dating from the turn of the Completed in 1647, the chapel are very popular health resorts.15th century. is decorated with exquisite At Dukla are the Baroque stuccowork by Giovanni Mniszcha Palace, which today Battista Falconi. It contains the houses a historical museum,Krosno m tombs of the half-siblings Anna and the 18th-century Bernardine and Stanisław, whose love church with the charmingRoad map F6. * 49,000. £ @ ended in tragedy. The Market Rococo tomb of Maria Amalian ul. Rynek 5 (013 432 77 07). Square is surrounded by old Brühla Mniszkowa, with its_ Krosno Fair (Jun); Krosno Music arcaded houses, the most peaceful effigy.Autumn (Oct). interesting of which is No. 7, In Bóbrka, 12 km (7 miles) with its Renaissance doorway. south of Krosno, an industrialKrosno was once the centre skansen has been created inof the Polish oil industry, but Environs what is certainly one of thethere is more to the town than In Odrzykoń, 10 km (6 miles) oldest oil wells in the world,its industrial past. The finest north of Krosno, stand the established in 1854.
168 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Bieszczady Mountains Tour , The Bieszczady mountains, together with the neigh- bouring Beskid Niski, are the wildest in Poland. Tourists return with blood-curdling tales of encounters with bears and wolves, or the discovery of a skeleton in the forest undergrowth. Needless to say, these stories are often exaggerated. Before World War II, the region was densely populated by Ukrainians and ethnic groups known as the Boyks and the Lemks. Komańcza 7 After the war, because of fighting and resettlements, it Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, became deserted, and farming largely disappeared Primate of Poland, was sent into from the region by the 1970s. Pastures and burnt-out exile to this village, deserted villages became overgrown as the forest encroached after World War II. He was and wild animals returned to the mountains. interned by the communist authorities in 1955–6. Połonina Wetlińska 6 Known as “połoniny”, these elongated ranges with picturesque alpine meadows above forest level are a characteristic feature of the Bieszczady Mountains. The most interesting, 1,250 m (4,100 ft) up, are Caryńska and Wetlińska. Bieszczady National Park 5 The highest and wildest part of the mountains falls within Bieszczady National Park, which covers an area of 2,700 sq km (1,042 sq miles). In summer, many tourists walk the hiking trails. The main tourist base is in the small village of Ustrzyki Górne. BIESZCZADY MOUNTAIN ANIMALS The lynx, emblem of Bieszczady National Park, is not the only feline to make its home in these mountains. Wildcats also live here. They are rarely seen because they are very shy, concealing themselves in the forest undergrowth. Carpathian deer, with a population of 5,000, are more often encountered. Roe deer are also abundant and relatively tame. Wolves, a protected species numbering about 100 here, are more cautious. Bison, kings of the Polish forest, number up to 120, and brown bear may also be seen. The Bieszczady Mountains are also popular with ornithologists for the many species Zagórz 1 of birds of prey: Zagórz, dominated by the ruins of eagles, including the the 18th-century Baroque fortified golden eagle, falcon Church of Discalced Carmelites, is A wild mountain wolf and hawk. the starting point of hiking trails into the Bieszczady Mountains.For additional map symbols see back flap
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 169 Równia 4 TIPS FOR DRIVERS The most beautiful Orthodox Tour length: 106 km (66 miles). churches in the Stopping-off points: Bieszczady Restaurants, boarding houses Mountains are and inns can be found in vestiges of the Polańczyk, Lesko, Wetlin, Ustrzyki numerous villages Dolne and Ustrzyki Górne. In the of the Boyks and summer season, bars also open. the Lemks. Solina 3 The highest dam in Poland – 82 m (269 ft) high and 664 m (2,178 ft) long – was built at Solina. The reservoir that was created is ideal for sailing. The dam is surrounded by magnificent forests with nature reserves. Lesko 2 This charming town has many fine buildings, including a castle and a 16th-century parish church. The Baroque synagogue houses a museum, and the Jewish cemetery is also of interest.KEY Tour route Other road 0 km 5 Viewpoint 0 miles 5
170 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N was destroyed by fire in 1852, times. In the Middle Ages on the eve of the marriage of it was a regional capital and a later owner, Duke Leon lay on a busy trade route. The Sapieha. The castle is open to object of dispute between visitors; the residential section Poland and Ruthenia, it contains a hotel and restaurant. became part of Poland in 1340, later passing into Environs Austrian control. In Krzywcza, 10 km (6 miles) During World War I, the west of Krasiczyn stand the strongly fortified city success- ruins of the castle of the Kącki fully held out against the family. About 12 km (7 miles) besieging Russian army. The south of Krasiczyn, in Posada fortifications from that time Rybotycka, can be seen survive. From 1939 to 1941 the the only stone fortified River San, which flows through Uniate church in Poland. the city, constituted a border In Kalwaria Pacławicka, between territory held by the the 18th-century Franciscan Soviet Union and Germany. monastery has about a dozen The city’s Catholic andThe Divine Tower, one of four chapels marking the Stations Orthodox churches, togethertowers in Krasiczyn Castle of the Cross. Passion plays with its synagogues, are are performed here on Good evidence of its multiculturalKrasiczyn . Friday and many processions history. Today, a Ukrainian and plays are organized minority lives alongside theRoad map F6. * 440. @ Castle during the year for different city’s Polish population.Tel 016 671 83 21. # summer: church festivities. The cathedral, remodelled10am–4pm Tue–Sun; winter: 9am– in 1718–24, is pre-3pm Tue–Sun, but call ahead. & 8 dominantly in thecompulsory. 0 www.krasiczyn.pl Baroque style; of its earlier Gothic formKrasiczyn Castle is one of the only the chancelmost magnificent castles in remains. Notablethe old Ruthenian territories features of theof the Polish crown. Building interior include thebegan in 1592 on the site of Renaissance tomban earlier castle by Stanislaw of Bishop JanKrasicki, castellan of Przewór. Dziaduski, byIt was continued by his son The funeral of the Virgin enacted in a passion Giovanni MariaMarcin and completed in play in Kalwaria Pacławicka Padovano, and1608. The architect was the late GothicGaleazzo Appiani. Przemyśl / alabaster figure of the Virgin The castle takes the form of from Jacków. Near thean arcaded courtyard, with a Road map F6. * 67,000. £ @ cathedral are the Baroquetall clock tower over the gate n ul. Grodzka 1 (016 675 21 64). Church of the Discalced Carm-and four stout cylindrical tow- _ Canoe rally (Apr, May); Gitariada elites and the former Jesuiters at the corners. The Divine International Festival (Jul). church, now Uniate, datingTower contains a chapel. The www.um.przemysl.pl from 1627–48. The castle,Papal Tower is crowned by a founded by Kazimierz thedome and decorated with a The history of Przemyśl, Great in the 1340s, stands on aparapet symbolizing the papal picturesquely laid out on a hill above the city. The top oftiara. The Royal Tower has a hill and the banks of the River its tower offers a panorama ofcrown-shaped dome, and the San, goes back to prehistoric the city and the San valley.Tower of the Gentry is top-ped with sword pommels. The Baroque sgraffito onthe walls is striking. Myth-ological scenes are depictedon the upper tier; the centraltier is filled with portraits ofthe kings of Poland from the14th-century Jagiellonianmonarchs to Jan III Sobieski,King of Poland at the time,and portraits of nobles. In thelowest tier are medallions withthe busts of Roman patricians.Little of the original decorationof the interior survives, as it Przemyśl, on the banks of the River SanFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 171 Łańcut £ See pp172–3. Rzeszów $ Road map F5. * 165,000. £ @ k n ul. Asnyka 6 (017 852 46 11). www.erzeszow.pl/en The dominant building in this town is the Gothic Church of Saints Stanisław and Adalberg (Kościół św św Stanisława i Wojciecha), dating from the 15th century and with a later BaroqueOrsetti House, a palace in the Renaissance style, in Jarosław interior. The former Piarist Church of the Holy CrossJarosław ! which was built in 1618–28. (Kościół św Krzyża), Its interior decoration and the extended in 1702–07 byRoad map F5. * 41,000. £ @ furnishings, such as the oak Tylman van Gameren, andJarosław Museum in the Orsetti stalls, pulpit and high altar, the Baroque monasteryHouse Tel 016 621 54 37. # are mostly the work of the and Bernardine church of10am–2pm Wed–Sun (Jul & Aug: monks themselves. The 1624–9 are also worth a visit.9am–3pm Wed & Thu). & basilica was established by The latter contains the un-_ Early Music Festival (Aug). Łukasz Opaliński, who earned finished mausoleum of thewww.jaroslaw.pl renown by his defeat of the Ligęz family, with eight lawless magnate Stanisław alabaster statues carved byThe city of Jarosław owes its Stadnicki in mortal combat. Sebastian Sala around 1630.wealth to its location on the The west end of the nave is The remains of the oldRiver San and the trade route filled with the complex organ, castle of the Ligęz family canlinking the east with western completed in 1693 and said to still be seen. It later passedEurope. In the 16th and 17th be the finest in Poland. The into the ownership of thecenturies, the largest fairs in central theme of the elaborate Lubomirskis, who surroundedPoland were held here. When Baroque casing is Hercules’ it with bastions in the 17thWładysław IV attended a fair in fight with the Hydra, the nine- century. The Market Square,Jarosław, he mingled with an headed monster of Greek with an eclectic town hallinternational crowd and con- mythology. Not only is this a remodelled in 1895–8, isversed with merchants from as symbol of the age-old struggle another interesting feature.far away as Italy and Persia. of virtue against vice but also Highlights of the MuzeumThe Orsetti House, built in of Polish victory over the Miasta Rzeszowa include thethe style of an Italian Ren- Turks, who were threatening gallery of 18th- to 20th-centuryaissance palazzo, testifies to Europe at the time. Polish painting and the collect-the wealth of the city’s mer- The Jewish cemetery in ion of glass, china and faïence.chants. Built in the 16th cen- Leżajsk is a place of pilgrimagetury and extended in 1646, it for Jews from all over the E Muzeum Miasta Rzeszowais crowned with a Mannerist world, who come to visit the ul. 3 Maja 19. Tel 017 853 52 78. # 9am–3pm Tue–Thu, Sun;parapet. The town hall, with tomb of Elimelech, the great 10am–5:30pm Fri. & (free on Sun).coats of arms on the corner 18th-century Orthodox rabbi.towers, stands in the centreof the broad Market Square.Leżajsk @Road map F5. * 14,500. £ @n 017 240 18 18. _ Organ recitalsin the basilica (Jun–Sep: 7pm; bookingrequired). www.lezajsk.um.gov.plThe major attractions ofLeżajsk are its Bernardinebasilica and monastery, builtby the architect AntonioPellacini and the organ recitalsthat take place in the basilica, Fair in Leżajsk, a centre of folk pottery
172 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O NŁańcut £The town of Łańcut was purchased by StanisławLubomirski in 1629. Securing the services of thearchitect Maciej Trapola and the stuccoist GiovanniBattista Falconi, this powerful magnate went aboutbuilding a fortified residence in the town. It wascompleted in 1641. After 1775 the palace, by thenowned by Izabella Lubomirska, was extended andthe interiors remodelled. The Neo-Classical Ballroomand the Great Dining Room were created during thisperiod, and the magnificent gardens with their manypavilions laid out. In the 19th century, ownershipof the palace passed to the Potocki family. From . Column Room1889 to 1914, the penultimate owners, Roman and The statue in this room is that ofElżbieta Potocki, modernized the residence. The the young Henryk Lubomirski,palace, now a museum, attracts numerous visitors. carved by Antonio Canova in around 1787.Mirror RoomThe walls are lined withRococo panelling broughtback to Łańcut by IzabellaLubomirska – probably fromone of her visits to France. Library STAR FEATURESCarriage . TheatreThe largest collection of carriages in Poland isdisplayed in the coach house. It comprises 120 . Ballroomdifferent types of coaches, carriages and other . Column Roomhorse-drawn vehicles.For hotels and restaurants in this region see pp301–3 and pp320–21
M A Ł O P O L S K A ( L E S S E R P O L A N D ) 173 VISITORS’ CHECKLIST Road map F5. * 17,000. @ £ Palace Tel 017 225 20 08. # Feb–Nov: noon–3:30pm Mon, 9am–4pm Tue–Sun (to 5pm Sun) (Jun–Sep: extended hours – call ahead for details). ¢ Easter, 3 May, 2 wks in May, Corpus Christi, 1, 6, 11 Nov. & ^ = 0 8 Sculpture Gallery. Theatre Many pieces, mostlyThe small court theatre was built around 1800. 19th-century,Its present appearance is the result of remodelling make up thecarried out by the eminent Viennese workshop of collectionFellner & Helmer. on display; among Corner tower them is this known as the Hen’s Foot statue of Psyche carried by Zephyrs, a copy of a piece by John Gibson. The main entrance Neo-Rococo Clock This typically French . Ballroom Neo-Rococo gilt clock is The Neo-Classical ballroom was mounted in the mirror designed by Christian Piotr that hangs over the Aigner in 1800. The stuccowork fireplace in the is by Fryderyk Baumann. Billiard Room. Façade The palace façades are fundamentally Baroque. The rustication of the lower storey, however, is typical of French Renaissance style – part of the remodelling that the palace underwent at the end of the 19th century.
P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N 175 SILESIAS ilesia’s great wealth of architectural monuments, its eventful history and its beautiful and varied landscape distinguish it from other regions of Poland. The region’s well-preservedhistoric towns and the many hiking trails in the picturesque SudetenMountains make it an area that invites long exploration.The stormy history of the main language wasSilesia (Śląsk) and the German, many areas, espe-great variety of cultural cially the Opole region andinfluences that have flour- Upper Silesia, were inhab-ished here have given this ited by an influential Polishregion a rich heritage. It minority. After World Warbelonged initially to the I, as a result of the SilesianBohemian crown and passed Uprisings of 1919–21, theinto Polish control around 990. eastern part of Upper Silesia,When Poland split into principalities, together with Katowice, wasSilesia began to gain independence. included within Polish borders. AfterDivided into smaller independent 1945, nearly all of historical Silesiaduchies, it returned to Bohemian rule joined Poland, and its German popula-in the 14th century. After 1526, together tion was deported. Poles who hadwith other Bohemian territories, it been resettled from Poland’s easternbecame part of the Habsburg Empire. provinces (which had been annexedDuring the Reformation, many of its by the Soviet Union) took their place.inhabitants were converted to Silesia is an enchanting region, notLutheranism. The Thirty Years’ War only for the breathtaking beauty of its(1618–48) inflicted devastation on mountain landscapes but also for itsSilesia, bringing in its wake the repres- outstanding architecture. Thesion of Protestantism. While Jesuits and medieval castles built to defendCistercians erected magnificent Baroque ancient borderlands, the grandmonasteries at that time, under the terms Renaissance manor houses andof the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, impressive Baroque residences, theProtestants were limited to building the great Gothic churches and statelythree “peace churches„. The Habsburgs monasteries – all these provide amplelost Silesia to Prussia in 1742. Although attractions and a historic atmosphere.A hint of spring: melting snow in the Karkonosze MountainsKsiąż Castle (seat of the Hochberg family) near Wałbrzych
176 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Exploring Silesia The most attractive part of the region is Lower Silesia. A good starting point for exploration is Wrocław, the provincial capital and a city full of historic buildings as well as interesting 20th-century architecture. From here, the area of Kotlina Kłodzka, with the fantastically shaped Table Mountains, is within easy reach. Not far away lies Jelenia Góra, a good base for hiking in the Karkonosze Mountains in summer or for skiing on the nearby slopes in winter. The visitor to Silesia will also ﬁnd beautiful palaces and churches in almost every village. Many ﬁne residences, however, are gradually falling into ruin. KEY Motorway Sheep in the alpine pastures of the Major road Beskid Śląski Mountains Minor road Main railway SEE ALSO Minor railway • Where to Stay pp303–5. International border • Restaurants and Bars pp321–3. Regional border SIGHTS AT A GLANCE Bolków t Krzeszów e Pszczyna b Brzeg f Książ y Świdnica u Cieszyn v Legnica 4 Trzebnica a Czoch Castle 0 Legnickie Pole 5 Wojnowice p Głogów 2 Lubiąż 3 Wrocław pp188–97 d Góra Świętej Anny c Lubomierz q Żagań 1 Upper Silesian Lwówek Śląski 9 Zagórze Śląskie i Industrial Region n Mt Ślęża o Złotoryja 7 Grodziec 8 Nysa z Henryków g Oleśnica s Tours Jawor 6 Opole x The Foothills of the Jelenia Góra r Otmuchów l Karkonosze Mountains w Kamieniec Ząbkowicki h Paczków k Kłodzko Valley jFor additional map symbols see back flap
S I L E S I A 177GETTING AROUNDThere are rail links between all the major Silesiancities, so that is possible to travel by train fromWrocław to Jelenia Góra, Legnica, Głogów, Świdnica,Wałbrzych and Kłodzko. There are also good connec-tions between Katowice, Opole and Wrocław, andtrains also stop in Brzeg. Although smaller towns areaccessible by bus, the service can be very infrequent,so that outside the major cities the best way to travelis by car. Parts of the motorway that will run throughSilesia have already been opened. The Baroque plague column in the Market Square in Świdnica 0 km 25 0 miles 25The house of Gerhard Hauptmann in Jagniątków
178 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N collegiate Church of the Assumption, set on an island in the Odra, and the Church of St Nicholas in the old town, have not been rebuilt. However, the beautiful Jesuit Baroque Church of Corpus Christi (Kościół Bożego Ciała), built in 1694–1724 to a design by Giulio Simonetti, has been reconstructed. Its original twin-tower façade was added in 1711 by Johann Blasius Peintner. The pictur-The Baroque-Neo-Classical palace of the Talleyrand family in Żagań esque town hall with its slender tower owes itsŻagań 1 next to the church contains present form to remodelling works by the 18th-century carried out by Augustus SollerRoad map B4. * 26,000. £ @ painter George Wilhelm in 1831–4. It too has beenwww.um.zagan.pl Neunhertz and items reconstructed. On the bank of connected to the German the Odra stands the castle ofThe origins of Żagań go back astronomer Johannes Kepler, the dukes of Głogów, with anas far as the 13th century. A who worked in Żagań original 14th-century medievalparticularly happy episode in between 1628 and 1630. tower and Gothic cellars, andthe history of this pretty town later Baroque walls. It houses E Cultural Instituteon the River Bóbr was the ul. Szprotawska 4. Tel 068 477 64 the Archaeological andperiod from 1845 to 1862, 75. # 8am–8pm daily. & Historical Museum. Amongthanks to the beautiful the exhibits are a collection R Church ofDorothea Talleyrand-Périgord, of instruments of torture. Saints Peter and Paulthe youngest daughter of ul. Łużycka. E Archaeological andPeter Biron, Duke of Kurland. R Church of the Historical Museum Dorothea was something of a ul. Brama Brzostowska 1.social magnet. She was a friend Assumption pl. Klasztorny 2. Tel 068 377 29 82. Tel 076 834 10 81.of Maurice Charles de Talley- # 10am–5pm Wed–Sun.rand, one of Louis Napoleon’s R Church of Corpus Christiministers, and his nephew’s ul. Powstańców. Tel 076 833 36 01.wife. Her circle attracted the Głogów 2most eminent composers andwriters of the day, among them Road map B4. * 69,000. £ @Franz Liszt and Giuseppe n ul. Poczdamska 1 (076 833 31 Lubiąż 3Verdi. Her residence was the 34). _ Jazz in Głogów (Oct, Nov).palace built for Albrecht von www.glogow.pl Road map B4. * 2,300. £Wallenstein, a commander in Malczyce. @ Abbey. Lubiążthe Thirty Years’ War (1618– This town on the Odra River Foundation Tel 071 389 71 66.48). Dorothea had alterations was established about 1,000 # Apr–Nov: 9am–6pm daily;made, and the palace’s present years ago but fell into ruin Oct–Mar: 10am–3pm daily. &Neo-Classical appearance and during World War II. Twothe layout of the rooms were Gothic churches, the The gigantic Cisterciancommissioned by her in the monastic complex situated onmid-19th century. It now the high bank of the Riverhouses the Cultural Institute. Odra comes into view from Other prominent buildings a great distance. Cistercianin the town are the Franciscan monks first settled in LubiążChurch of Saints Peter and in 1175. They built aPaul (Kościół św Piotra i Romanesque church followedPawła), built in the Gothic by a Gothic basilica, of whichstyle and dating from the the twin-tower façade and14th century. The enormous ducal chapel remain. TheChurch of the Assumption present abbey dates from(Kościół Wniebowzięcia 1681–1715. After WorldNMP), which once belonged War II, it was used as ato the Augustinians, also warehouse for unsold books,merits attention. It was built mostly works by Lenin. Itsin stages from the late 13th restoration began in theto the early 16th century, mid-1990s. An exhibitionalthough the finely furnished of Silesian sculpture as wellinterior dates from the 1830s. Architecture old and new: a street as certain rooms of theThe library of the monastery in the old town in Głogów monastery, including theFor hotels and restaurants in this region see pp303–5 and pp321–3
S I L E S I A 179 E Copper Museum ul. Partyzantów 3. Tel 076 862 49 49. # 11am–5pm Tue–Sat. & (free on Sat and one Wed a month). www.muzeum-miedzi.art.pl R Parish Church of John the Baptist ul. Partyzantów 25. Tel 076 862 29 95. R Church of the Virgin Mary pl. Mariacki 1. Tel 076 854 34 40. ¢ to the public. R Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul pl. Katedralny 6. Tel 076 724 42 71. Legnickie Pole 5 Road map B4. * 1,300. @ It was at Legnickie Pole that a great battle between the Poles, led by Henry II, the Pious, and the Tartars took place on 9 April 1241. Despite the Turks’ defeat of the Poles and the death of their commander, Poland prevented westward Tartar expansion. The Museum of the BattleRefectory of the Cistercian Abbey in Lubiąż of Legnica details this event. The Benedictine abbey,refectory and the Ducal Hall, the Jesuits in 1714–27. The dating from 1727–31 and builtare now open to the public. presbytery of the original by Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer The ceiling of the refectory church was converted into in the Baroque style, is theis decorated with paintings a chapel, the Mausoleum of greatest attraction of this smallby Michael Willmann, whose the Silesian Piasts (1677–8). village. The abbey church,work is also to be seen on In the northern part of dedicated to St Jadwiga,the altars of the parish church the old town stands the has an elliptical nave andin Lubiąż. The great Ducal Dukes’ Castle. It has undulating vaulting coveredHall is a magnificent example medieval origins and was with trompe l’oeil paintingsof the late Baroque style, its remodelled many times. by Cosmas Damian Asam. Itspurpose being to glorify the The fine Renaissance gate furnishings are equally fine.faith and the feats of the was added by George vonHabsburg dynasty. Amberg in 1532–3. From E Museum of the Battle of Legnica here, Ulica Mariacka leads Tel 076 858 23 98. # 11am–5pm to the Gothic Church of the Wed–Sun. & (free on Wed).Legnica 4 Virgin Mary (Kościół NMP), dating from the 14th centuryRoad map B4. * 105,000. £ and remodelled in the firstn Rynek 29 (076 851 22 80). half of the 15th.www.portal.legnica.eu In the Market Square stand the Baroque town hall ofLegnica, after Wrocław 1737–46, which houses aand Opole Silesia’s third- theatre, and the Gothiclargest city, became the Cathedral of Saints Petercapital of the independent and Paul (Katedra św Piotraduchy of Legnica in the 13th i Pawła), built in the 14thcentury. Today it is a large century and preserving aadministrative centre and 13th-century baptismal font.copper-mining town, as In the centre of the Marketevidenced by the displays Square are eight narrowin the Copper Museum. arcaded houses known The Parish Church of John as the Herring Stalls and,the Baptist (Fara św Jana at No. 40, a 16th-centuryChrzciciela) is one of house known as By thethe most beautiful Baroque Quail’s Nest House, with The Baroque façade of the Benedict-shrines in Silesia, built for sgraffito decoration. ine abbey church in Legnickie Pole
180 P O L A N D R E G I O N B Y R E G I O N Church of St Martin (Kościół św Marcina), and the late 15th-century Church of St Mary (Kościół Mariacki). The best place to finish a walk around the town is the Market Square, which is surrounded by arcaded Baroque houses.