Knitting basics

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  • 1. Knitting Basics
  • 2. How to Cast On Stitches• The cast-on row is the foundation row of knitting. There are many ways to cast on stitches. One method may be faster or easier for you or may work better for certain techniques, such as buttonholes. Try each of the cast-on methods below, and start with the one that appeals to you most.• Note: The cast-on should be as elastic as the body of your knitting. If needed, the cast-on may be worked using a needle two or three sizes larger than your gauge needle. Knit the stitches onto the smaller needle as you knit the first row.
  • 3. Casting On – Cable Method (Use when you want a firm edge)Step 1: In your left hand, hold the needle with the slipknot and hold the working yarn in your right hand. Insert the right needle through the slipknot from front to back (fig. 2a).Step 2: Wrap the yarn around the right needle from back to front and pull up a loop, creating a new stitch on the right needle. Insert the left needle tip into the new stitch (fig. 2b), and slip it onto the left needle. There are now 2 stitches on the left needle (fig. 2c). Note: To prevent the cast-on edge from becoming too tight, insert the right needle from front to back between the 2 stitches on the left needle before tightening the yarn. Gently pull the working yarn to snug up the stitch.Step 3: With the right needle in position between the 2 stitches on the left needle, wrap the yarn around the right needle as shown (fig. 2c), and pull through a new loop.Step 4: Using the tip of the left needle, slip the new stitch from the right needle as before (fig. 2d), and slip the right needle out of the stitch.Repeat steps 3 and 4 to cast on additional stitches. End with step 4 to complete the last cast-on stitch
  • 4. Casting On – Method Two (Use when you want an elastic edge)1 With the slip loop on your left hand needle, insert your right hand needle through the loop from front to back.2 Bring the yarn under and over your right hand needle.3 Draw up the yarn through the slip loop to make a stitch.4 Place the stitch on your left hand needle. Continue to make stitches drawing the yarn through the last stitch on your left hand needle
  • 5. Knit Stitch• Knitting has two basic stitches: the knit stitch and the purl stitch. After mastering these stitches, youll be able to create many stitch patterns.• The knit stitch is the most common and versatile stitch of all. It is smooth on one side and bumpy on the other. The smooth side is generally used as the right side of the work -- the side that faces out. The working yarn is always held behind the needle when making the knit stitch. In other words, the knit fabric and the needle will always be between you and the working yarn. When working flat, back and forth knitting, knitting every row creates garter stitch.
  • 6. Knit stitch (K)1 With the yarn at the back, insert your right-hand needle from front to back into the first stitch on your left hand needle.2 Bring your working yarn under and over the point of your right hand needle.3 Draw a loop through and slide the first stitch off your left hand needle while the new stitch is retained on your right hand needle. Continue in this way to the end of the row.4 To knit the next row, turn the work around so that the back is facing you and the worked stitches are held on the needle in your left hand. Proceed to make stitches as above, with the initially empty needle held in your right hand.
  • 7. Purl stitch (P)1 With the yarn at the front, insert your right hand needle from back to front into the first stitch on your left hand needle.2 Bring your working yarn over and around the point of your right hand needle.3 Draw a loop through and slide the first stitch off your left hand needle while the new stitch is retained on your right hand needle. Continue in this way to the end of the row.4 To purl the next row, turn the work around so that the back is facing you and the worked stitches are held on the needle in your left hand. Proceed to make stitches as above, with the initially empty needle held in your right hand.
  • 8. Stocking Stitch
  • 9. Stocking (Stockinette) Stitch• Stocking stitch is created by knitting one row of knit stitch, followed by one row of purl stitch. The side that is knit will form a smooth surface (the ‘right’ side) and the side that is purl will be bumpy. Reverse Stockinette Stitch (Purl Side): Figure 11b
  • 10. Ribbing (rib)• Youll recognize ribbing as the stitch found at the cuffs and hems of sweaters. It is a very elastic pattern and knits up narrower than stockinette stitch on the same size needles. You can use any combination of the knit and purl stitches to make rib, but the most common are the single rib and the double rib.• The single rib is made by alternating one knit stitch with one purl stitch (abbreviated as k1,p1). The double rib is more elastic than the single rib and is made by alternating two knit stitches with two purl stitches (abbreviated k2,p2).• The most important thing to remember when making ribbing is that the yarn must be brought between the needles to the back of the work for the knit stitches and brought between the needles to the front of the work for the purl stitches. Sometimes new knitters finish a row and discover extra stitches, or they may find a hole in their ribbing several rows later. Knitting with the yarn in front or purling with the yarn in back is generally the cause. If you create a little mix-up with your stitches, remember that you can easily fix knitting mistakes.• Ribbing is very easy once you have learned to recognize knit and purl stitches. Instead of counting stitches, you simply knit the knits and purl the purls.• Ribbing can be used for whole garments when you want a tighter, more fitted look. It is especially good for arm or leg warmers. However, ribbing does take longer to knit than stocking or garter stitch because you have to bring the wool forward and back between knit stitches and purl.
  • 11. Single Rib (k1, p1)• Single ribbing is made by knit 1, (bring wool forward) purl 1 (take wool back) and repeating for the rest of the row.• On the reverse side you knit the stitches that were purl, and purl the stitches that were knit
  • 12. Double Rib (k2, p2)• Double rib is made by knit 2 (bring wool forward), purl 2 (take wool back) and repeating for the rest of the row.• On the reverse side knit the stitches that were purl and purl the stitches that were rib.
  • 13. Casting Off• When you end a piece of knitting you must secure all the stitches you have finished by "casting off". This should be done on a knit row but you can employ the same technique on a purl row: the stitches, whether knit or purl, should be made loosely (if you make them tight the finished edge will be tighter than the garment and may not fit). When casting off rib, you must use both knit and purl.
  • 14. How to Cast off – In a Knit Row1 Knit the first two stitches and insert the tip of your left hand needle through the first stitch.2 Lift the first stitch over the second stitch and discard it. Knit the next stitch and continue to lift the first stitch over the second stitch to the end of the row. Be careful not to knit too tightly. For the last stitch, cut your yarn, slip the end through the stitch and pull the yarn tight to fasten off securely.
  • 15. Casting Off - In a purl row1 Purl the first two stitches and insert the tip of your left hand needle through the first stitch.2 Lift the first stitch over the second stitch and discard it. Purl the next stitch and continue to lift the first stitch over the second stitch to the end of the row. Be careful not to knit too tightly. For the last stitch, cut your yarn, slip the end through the stitch and pull the yarn tight to fasten off securely.
  • 16. Dropped Stitches• Occasionally, a stitch may fall off your needle, in which case correct it by following one of the techniques described below. Dropped stitches are often the result of leaving work in the middle of a row, so if you have to put down your knitting it’s best to try and finish the row..
  • 17. Picking up a dropped knit stitch1 Pick up both the stitch and strand on your right hand needle, inserting the needle from front to back.2 Insert your left hand needle through the stitch only, from back to front. With your right hand needle only, pull the strand through the stitch to make the extra stitch. (Drop the stitch from your left hand needle).3 Transfer the re-formed stitch back to your left hand needle, so that it untwists and faces the correct way. It is now ready for knitting again.
  • 18. Picking up a dropped purl stitch1. Pick up both the stitch and strand on your right hand needle, inserting the needle from back to front.2. Insert you left hand needle through the stitch only, from front to back. With your right hand needle only, pull the strand through the stitch to make the extra stitch. (Drop the stitch from your left hand needle).3. Transfer the re-formed stitch back to your left hand needle, so that it untwists and faces the correct way. It is now ready for purling again.
  • 19. Increasing Stitches• When shaping garments it is usually necessary to add additional stitches. If they are made "invisibly", there will be no hole or gap left in the fabric. The most common way to increase stitches is the one shown below, where you make two stitches from one (written in patterns as Increase 1 "Inc 1“), and is usually used for shaping your side edges (such as sleeves).
  • 20. Increase 1 (Inc 1)• In a knit row Knit into the front of the stitch in the usual way. Without discarding the stitch on your left hand needle, knit into the back of it, making two stitches.• In a purl row Purl into the front of the stitch in the usual way. Without discarding the stitch on your left hand needle, purl into the back of it, making two stitches.
  • 21. Decrease 1 (Dec 1)• To lose stitches for shaping or making decorative patterns you can knit or purl two stitches (k2 tog, p2 tog) together at the beginning, end or any given point in a row. This is the simpler method and forms a slant to the right if the stitches are knitted together through the front and a slant to the left if the stitches are knitted together through the back of the work.• Slip stitch decrease produces a more decorative effect. A knit row decrease - abbreviated as s1, k1, psso - forms a slant to the left on the front of the knitting; on a purl row - s1, p1, psso - slant to the right is formed.
  • 22. Knitting two stitches together• In a knit row (K2tog) Insert your right hand needle through the front of the first two stitches on your left hand needle. Knit them together as a single stitch.• In a purl row (P2tog) Insert your right hand needle through the front of the first two stitches on your left hand needle. Purl them together as a single stitch.
  • 23. Slip stitch decreases – Knit Row1 Insert your right hand needle "knitwise" and lift off the first stitch from your left hand needle2 Leave the stitch on the needle and knit the next stitch on your left hand needle in the usual way.3 Using the point of your left hand needle bring the slipped stitch off your right hand needle over the knitted stitch.
  • 24. Slip stitch decreases – Purl Row1 Insert your right hand needle "purlwise" and lift off the first stitch from your left hand needle.2 Leave the stitch on the needle and purl into the next stitch on your left hand needle in the usual way.3 Using the point of your left hand needle bring the slipped stitch off your right hand needle, over the purled stitch.
  • 25. Knitting Abbreviations 1• [ ] Work instructions within brackets as many times as directed• ( ) Work instructions within parentheses in the place directed• * Repeat instructions following the asterisk as directed• * to ** Repeat instructions between the * and ** as directed• alt alternate• approx approximate• beg beginning/begin• bet between• BO bind off• CO cast on• cont continue• dec decrease/decreases/decreasing• dpn double-pointed needles• foll follow/follows/following• g st garter stitch• inc increase/increases/increasing• k or K knit
  • 26. Knitting Abbreviations 2• k1,p1 knit 1, purl 1• k2tog knit 2 together• kwise knitwise• LH left-hand• m1 make 1 stitch• m1 p-st make 1 purl stitch• p or P purl• P2tog purl 2 stitches together• pm place marker• prev previous• psso pass slipped stitch over• pwise purlwise• rem remain/remaining• rep repeat(s)• rev St st reverse stockinette stitch• RH right-hand• rnd(s) round(s)• RS right side• sk skip• skp slip, knit, pass slipped stitch over-1 stitch decreased
  • 27. Knitting Abbreviations 3• sk2p slip 1, knit 2 together, pass slipped stitch over the knit 2 together -- 2 stitches decreased• sl slip• sl1k slip 1 knitwise• sl1p slip 1 purlwise• sl st slip stitch• ssk slip, slip, knit these 2 stitches together -- a decrease• sssk slip, slip, slip, knit these 3 stitches together -- a 2-stitch decrease• st(s) stitch(es)• St st stockinette stitch• tbl through back loop• tog together• WS wrong side• wyib with yarn in back• wyif with yarn in front• yfwd yarn forward• yo yarn over• yon yarn over needle