Module 8: Food Chemistry, Nutrition, and Traditional FoodsFood: Any substances that can be metabolized by an organism to g...
Molecules of Food: Carbohydrates6-C rings, 5-C ringsMono-saccharides (sugar, fructose) Dissacharides (lactose, sucrose) ...
Glucose: Body’s Primary Fuels                                           Lactic Acid + ATP + H2O     Glycogens            G...
Glycogen
AnaerobicMetabolism Aerobic             Pyruvic Acid  CO2 + H20 + 32ATPMetabolism
Molecules of Food: Lipids and FatsFats: Large biological molecules, diverse  compositions, insoluble in water (i.e. non-po...
Free Fatty Acids (one chain)• Saturated• Unsaturated (e.g. Omega-3, Omega-6)
Fatty Acids• Long-chain fatty acids (12+ carbons) are abundant  in meats and fish• Short-chain fatty acids (12 carbons or ...
Triglycerides
Phospholipids• Phospholipids are “modified” triglycerides  where one fatty acid chain is replaced by a  phosphate group• S...
Phospholipids
Sterols• Multiple rings of carbon• Best-known sterols: cholesterol (the  building block for all other sterols)• Bile acids...
SterolsCholesterol             Sitosterol (the most                    abundant and common plant                          ...
Absorption of Lipids• Fat breakdown occurs in intestines• Smaller units: fatty acids, glycerol, and  sterols• Cholesterol ...
Molecules of Food: Proteins• Chains of Amino Acids• Diverse roles: enzymes, hormones,  regulators, molecular transports, a...
Amino Acids• Four components  around a central  carbon (C)• One hydrogen• An amino group (-  NH2)• An acid (-COOH)        ...
Amino AcidsEssential Amino     Non-essential Acid: Leucine      Amino Acid:                    Asparagine
Molecules of Food: Vitamins• Essential organic compounds to ensure  proper metabolism• Little caloric value• Water-soluble...
Caloric Contents of Food Molecules Food Type         Caloric              %                Content (Cal/g)   Recommended  ...
Subsistence Food Provisioning• Nutrition for indigenous people in the Arctic is  changing rapidly; from 100% to <50% “coun...
ConceptsSubsistence activities: The hunting, fishing, and  gathering of local foods for consumption, sharing,  and trade o...
Example of Subsistence Food        Economy  Inupiat households in Barrow, Alaska
Production vs. Sharing• Food provisioning is crucial, but sharing is  an intricate part of subsistence• Sharing touches up...
Quality Food: Arctic CharBody Part       Meat            Skin          Head          Eggs Excellent    Protein, Iron Prote...
Quality Food: Beluga Body Part           Meat           Blubber             Skin   Excellent      Iron, Protein         Fa...
Quality Food: Caribou Body Part      Meat       Blood     Liver       Bone          Stomach      Fat                      ...
Quality Food: Muskox Body Part           Meat   Excellent      Protein, IronSource (25% or more of daily    need) Good Sou...
Quality Food: Polar Bear   Body Part            Meat             Blubber Excellent Source    Iron, Protein     Vitamin A, ...
Quality Food: Ring Seal  Body        Intestine    Liver      Blubber       Meat        Brain      Eyes  Part Excellent    ...
What is special about asubsistence diet in the North?
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
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Module8[1]

  1. 1. Module 8: Food Chemistry, Nutrition, and Traditional FoodsFood: Any substances that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissueTypes: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats & OilsOthers: Vitamins, Minerals, Salts
  2. 2. Molecules of Food: Carbohydrates6-C rings, 5-C ringsMono-saccharides (sugar, fructose) Dissacharides (lactose, sucrose) Polysaccharides (starch, fibre, glycogen)Carbohydrates are assimilated in the body as “mono-saccharides” following digestion
  3. 3. Glucose: Body’s Primary Fuels Lactic Acid + ATP + H2O Glycogens Glucose (anaerobic) (Branched polymers (monomers)for short-term storage (soluble) in liver) Pyruvic Acid  CO2 + H20 + ATP (aerobic) •Glucose level in blood stream is highly regulated •Aerobic respiration is releasing 90% of the energy stored in glucose
  4. 4. Glycogen
  5. 5. AnaerobicMetabolism Aerobic Pyruvic Acid  CO2 + H20 + 32ATPMetabolism
  6. 6. Molecules of Food: Lipids and FatsFats: Large biological molecules, diverse compositions, insoluble in water (i.e. non-polar in nature)Types: – Fatty acids (assimilable form) – Triglycerides (in blood) – Phospholipids (cell membranes) – Sterols (e.g. cholesterol)Roles: – Source of energy (during sustained activity) – Structure of cell membrane
  7. 7. Free Fatty Acids (one chain)• Saturated• Unsaturated (e.g. Omega-3, Omega-6)
  8. 8. Fatty Acids• Long-chain fatty acids (12+ carbons) are abundant in meats and fish• Short-chain fatty acids (12 carbons or less) are abundant in dairy products• Cold-water fish are rich in essential omega fatty acids• Unsaturated fatty acids, when cooked, change conformation to a “trans” shape (which tend to accumulate in blood vessels)• Unsaturated fats are more prone to react with oxygen, causing rancidity (common in stored fish)
  9. 9. Triglycerides
  10. 10. Phospholipids• Phospholipids are “modified” triglycerides where one fatty acid chain is replaced by a phosphate group• Soluble in water• Important in cell membrane
  11. 11. Phospholipids
  12. 12. Sterols• Multiple rings of carbon• Best-known sterols: cholesterol (the building block for all other sterols)• Bile acids, some hormones, Vitamin C
  13. 13. SterolsCholesterol Sitosterol (the most abundant and common plant sterol)
  14. 14. Absorption of Lipids• Fat breakdown occurs in intestines• Smaller units: fatty acids, glycerol, and sterols• Cholesterol and triglycerides are non-polar, hence need “lipoproteins” to carry them in the bloodstream
  15. 15. Molecules of Food: Proteins• Chains of Amino Acids• Diverse roles: enzymes, hormones, regulators, molecular transports, antibodies, building tissue like muscles, and energy• Made up of C, H, O, N, other ions
  16. 16. Amino Acids• Four components around a central carbon (C)• One hydrogen• An amino group (- NH2)• An acid (-COOH) Glycine• A functional group
  17. 17. Amino AcidsEssential Amino Non-essential Acid: Leucine Amino Acid: Asparagine
  18. 18. Molecules of Food: Vitamins• Essential organic compounds to ensure proper metabolism• Little caloric value• Water-soluble vitamins (enter directly into bloodstream)• Fat-soluble vitamins (must be transported by carrier proteins)• Several diseases are associated with vitamin deficiencies
  19. 19. Caloric Contents of Food Molecules Food Type Caloric % Content (Cal/g) Recommended Caloric IntakeFats and Oils 9 30Carbohydrates 4 58 Proteins 4 10 Vitamins Trace Not Applicable
  20. 20. Subsistence Food Provisioning• Nutrition for indigenous people in the Arctic is changing rapidly; from 100% to <50% “country food”.• Presence of larger communities, presence of “Co- op” or “Bay” stores, and an increasing cash economy contribute to changes in feeding habits.• Lastly, hunting activities are costly when modern technologies are used  the “pay off” of traditional food provisioning is decreasing.
  21. 21. ConceptsSubsistence activities: The hunting, fishing, and gathering of local foods for consumption, sharing, and trade or barter.e.g. caribou, whales, seals, marine birds, waterfowls, eggs, fruits (largely a carnivore diet)Note: Commercial trapping or fishing is generally not viewed as traditional food gathering; although they could be traditional activities.
  22. 22. Example of Subsistence Food Economy Inupiat households in Barrow, Alaska
  23. 23. Production vs. Sharing• Food provisioning is crucial, but sharing is an intricate part of subsistence• Sharing touches upon all members of a community, and represents a way of establishing and maintaining ties to family and within the community at large (e.g. support of elders, non-hunting members)• Sharing is viewed as part of the “culture” of indigenous society
  24. 24. Quality Food: Arctic CharBody Part Meat Skin Head Eggs Excellent Protein, Iron Protein, Iron, Protein, B Protein, Source Calcium, Fat Vitamins Vitamin C, (25% or Fat, Iron, B more of Vitaminsdaily need) Good B Vitamins CalciumSource (15- 24% ofdaily need)Fair Source Vitamin C Vitamin A, Calcium (5-14% of Fat, Irondaily need)
  25. 25. Quality Food: Beluga Body Part Meat Blubber Skin Excellent Iron, Protein Fat ProteinSource (25% or more of daily need) Good Source Protein, Omega- (15-24% of 3 fatty acid daily need)Fair Source (5- Fat Iron Fat, Vitamin A 14% of daily need)
  26. 26. Quality Food: Caribou Body Part Meat Blood Liver Bone Stomach Fat Marrow Contents Excellent Protein Iron Protein, FatSource (25% Iron, or more of Vitamin daily need) AGood Source Iron, B Protein Iron, Fat Iron, Iron(15-24% of Vitamins Vitamin A daily need)Fair Source Fat, B Fat, Protein, Fat, Protein, Protein (5-14% of Calcium Vitamins Calcium Vitamin A Fat, Bdaily need) Vitamins, Calcium
  27. 27. Quality Food: Muskox Body Part Meat Excellent Protein, IronSource (25% or more of daily need) Good Source B Vitamins (15-24% of daily need)Fair Source (5- Vitamin C 14% of daily need)
  28. 28. Quality Food: Polar Bear Body Part Meat Blubber Excellent Source Iron, Protein Vitamin A, Fat (25% or more of daily need) Good Source (15- Omega-3 fatty acid24% of daily need)Fair Source (5-14% Fat Iron, Protein of daily need)
  29. 29. Quality Food: Ring Seal Body Intestine Liver Blubber Meat Brain Eyes Part Excellent Protein Iron, Fat, Iron, Iron, Vitamin A, Source Protein, Vitamin A, Protein, B Protein Protein, (25% or Vitamin A Omega-3 Vitamins Iron more of fatty aciddaily need) Good Iron Vitamin C Iron, Fat Source Vitamin C(15-24% ofdaily need) Fair Fat Fat Protein FatSource (5- 14% ofdaily need)
  30. 30. What is special about asubsistence diet in the North?

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