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Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
Module8[1]
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Module8[1]
Module8[1]
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Module8[1]

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metabolism

metabolism

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  • 1. Module 8: Food Chemistry, Nutrition, and Traditional FoodsFood: Any substances that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissueTypes: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats & OilsOthers: Vitamins, Minerals, Salts
  • 2. Molecules of Food: Carbohydrates6-C rings, 5-C ringsMono-saccharides (sugar, fructose) Dissacharides (lactose, sucrose) Polysaccharides (starch, fibre, glycogen)Carbohydrates are assimilated in the body as “mono-saccharides” following digestion
  • 3. Glucose: Body’s Primary Fuels Lactic Acid + ATP + H2O Glycogens Glucose (anaerobic) (Branched polymers (monomers)for short-term storage (soluble) in liver) Pyruvic Acid  CO2 + H20 + ATP (aerobic) •Glucose level in blood stream is highly regulated •Aerobic respiration is releasing 90% of the energy stored in glucose
  • 4. Glycogen
  • 5. AnaerobicMetabolism Aerobic Pyruvic Acid  CO2 + H20 + 32ATPMetabolism
  • 6. Molecules of Food: Lipids and FatsFats: Large biological molecules, diverse compositions, insoluble in water (i.e. non-polar in nature)Types: – Fatty acids (assimilable form) – Triglycerides (in blood) – Phospholipids (cell membranes) – Sterols (e.g. cholesterol)Roles: – Source of energy (during sustained activity) – Structure of cell membrane
  • 7. Free Fatty Acids (one chain)• Saturated• Unsaturated (e.g. Omega-3, Omega-6)
  • 8. Fatty Acids• Long-chain fatty acids (12+ carbons) are abundant in meats and fish• Short-chain fatty acids (12 carbons or less) are abundant in dairy products• Cold-water fish are rich in essential omega fatty acids• Unsaturated fatty acids, when cooked, change conformation to a “trans” shape (which tend to accumulate in blood vessels)• Unsaturated fats are more prone to react with oxygen, causing rancidity (common in stored fish)
  • 9. Triglycerides
  • 10. Phospholipids• Phospholipids are “modified” triglycerides where one fatty acid chain is replaced by a phosphate group• Soluble in water• Important in cell membrane
  • 11. Phospholipids
  • 12. Sterols• Multiple rings of carbon• Best-known sterols: cholesterol (the building block for all other sterols)• Bile acids, some hormones, Vitamin C
  • 13. SterolsCholesterol Sitosterol (the most abundant and common plant sterol)
  • 14. Absorption of Lipids• Fat breakdown occurs in intestines• Smaller units: fatty acids, glycerol, and sterols• Cholesterol and triglycerides are non-polar, hence need “lipoproteins” to carry them in the bloodstream
  • 15. Molecules of Food: Proteins• Chains of Amino Acids• Diverse roles: enzymes, hormones, regulators, molecular transports, antibodies, building tissue like muscles, and energy• Made up of C, H, O, N, other ions
  • 16. Amino Acids• Four components around a central carbon (C)• One hydrogen• An amino group (- NH2)• An acid (-COOH) Glycine• A functional group
  • 17. Amino AcidsEssential Amino Non-essential Acid: Leucine Amino Acid: Asparagine
  • 18. Molecules of Food: Vitamins• Essential organic compounds to ensure proper metabolism• Little caloric value• Water-soluble vitamins (enter directly into bloodstream)• Fat-soluble vitamins (must be transported by carrier proteins)• Several diseases are associated with vitamin deficiencies
  • 19. Caloric Contents of Food Molecules Food Type Caloric % Content (Cal/g) Recommended Caloric IntakeFats and Oils 9 30Carbohydrates 4 58 Proteins 4 10 Vitamins Trace Not Applicable
  • 20. Subsistence Food Provisioning• Nutrition for indigenous people in the Arctic is changing rapidly; from 100% to <50% “country food”.• Presence of larger communities, presence of “Co- op” or “Bay” stores, and an increasing cash economy contribute to changes in feeding habits.• Lastly, hunting activities are costly when modern technologies are used  the “pay off” of traditional food provisioning is decreasing.
  • 21. ConceptsSubsistence activities: The hunting, fishing, and gathering of local foods for consumption, sharing, and trade or barter.e.g. caribou, whales, seals, marine birds, waterfowls, eggs, fruits (largely a carnivore diet)Note: Commercial trapping or fishing is generally not viewed as traditional food gathering; although they could be traditional activities.
  • 22. Example of Subsistence Food Economy Inupiat households in Barrow, Alaska
  • 23. Production vs. Sharing• Food provisioning is crucial, but sharing is an intricate part of subsistence• Sharing touches upon all members of a community, and represents a way of establishing and maintaining ties to family and within the community at large (e.g. support of elders, non-hunting members)• Sharing is viewed as part of the “culture” of indigenous society
  • 24. Quality Food: Arctic CharBody Part Meat Skin Head Eggs Excellent Protein, Iron Protein, Iron, Protein, B Protein, Source Calcium, Fat Vitamins Vitamin C, (25% or Fat, Iron, B more of Vitaminsdaily need) Good B Vitamins CalciumSource (15- 24% ofdaily need)Fair Source Vitamin C Vitamin A, Calcium (5-14% of Fat, Irondaily need)
  • 25. Quality Food: Beluga Body Part Meat Blubber Skin Excellent Iron, Protein Fat ProteinSource (25% or more of daily need) Good Source Protein, Omega- (15-24% of 3 fatty acid daily need)Fair Source (5- Fat Iron Fat, Vitamin A 14% of daily need)
  • 26. Quality Food: Caribou Body Part Meat Blood Liver Bone Stomach Fat Marrow Contents Excellent Protein Iron Protein, FatSource (25% Iron, or more of Vitamin daily need) AGood Source Iron, B Protein Iron, Fat Iron, Iron(15-24% of Vitamins Vitamin A daily need)Fair Source Fat, B Fat, Protein, Fat, Protein, Protein (5-14% of Calcium Vitamins Calcium Vitamin A Fat, Bdaily need) Vitamins, Calcium
  • 27. Quality Food: Muskox Body Part Meat Excellent Protein, IronSource (25% or more of daily need) Good Source B Vitamins (15-24% of daily need)Fair Source (5- Vitamin C 14% of daily need)
  • 28. Quality Food: Polar Bear Body Part Meat Blubber Excellent Source Iron, Protein Vitamin A, Fat (25% or more of daily need) Good Source (15- Omega-3 fatty acid24% of daily need)Fair Source (5-14% Fat Iron, Protein of daily need)
  • 29. Quality Food: Ring Seal Body Intestine Liver Blubber Meat Brain Eyes Part Excellent Protein Iron, Fat, Iron, Iron, Vitamin A, Source Protein, Vitamin A, Protein, B Protein Protein, (25% or Vitamin A Omega-3 Vitamins Iron more of fatty aciddaily need) Good Iron Vitamin C Iron, Fat Source Vitamin C(15-24% ofdaily need) Fair Fat Fat Protein FatSource (5- 14% ofdaily need)
  • 30. What is special about asubsistence diet in the North?

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