Last year at my mLearning presentation I showed Angry Birds, this year, CANDY CRUSH
Poll, then ask, why does it matter to us as trainers? To our learners?
\r\nPoll Title: Are you a digital native, or a digital immigrant?\r\nhttp://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/1ZCe6IO2AkIeroM
M = MobileDEVICE (Hardware)Smartphones, iPads, other tabletsTECHNOLOGY (Software)OS: Apple and DroidDozens of authoring toolsCONNECTIVITYCellular networksInternet/Intranet
Differentiating e-learning from mobile learning E-learning can be real-time or self-paced, also known as "synchronous" or "asynchronous" learning. Additionally, e-learning is considered to be “tethered” (connected to something) and presented in a formal and structured manner.In contrast, mobile learning is often self-paced, un-tethered and informal in its presentation. e-learning m-learninglecture in classroom or internet labs learning anywhere, anytimee-mail-to-e-mail instantaneous messagingprivate location no geographic boundariestravel time to reach to internet site no travel time with wireless internet connectivityBecause mobile devices have the power to make learning even more widely available and accessible, mobile devices are considered by many to be a natural extension of e-learning.
RUN POLLING VIA PHONES… then solicit people who said yes to share what they are doing.
\r\nAre you using mLearning in your organization today?\r\nhttp://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/NAigQxELOsPj71P
M-learning design presents a unique set of challenges. All of these continue to improve, but represent challenges for us as trainers. Device variability. 3 TYPES of mobile phone devices: feature phones with tiny screens and numeric keypads; smartphones that include an A-Z keypad and a mid-sized screen; and touch phones featuring a device-sized screen activated by touch. And we can add tablets, namely,iPads to this mix. Not seeing a ton of uptake of droid and other operating systems in corporate training settings. Apple seems to be continuing to win in the market, and so for most of us, we are designing and pushing training to iPhones and iPads. ASK THE ROOM? MOBILE DEVICES IN USE? ASK: ALLOW CONTENT ON SOMEONE’S PERSONAL DEVICE OR ONLY COMPANY ISSUED? There is no single solution to push richly interactive mobile content onto every possible phone. Studies have shown that learners want to learn on their own mobile devices, but that’s a challenge for us in a regulated industry. Slow download speed and limited Internet access. This gets better all the time, but it’s an issue with mobile learning, we are pushing content out, and that requires connectivity at a decent speed. Small screen sizes present unique challenges, although resolution, color, and contrast has dramatically improved with each generation of smart phone and handheld device. Awkward text input. Regardless of the device being used, inputting text data into small devices also presents challenges for the user. Inputting information into a device using a numeric (0–9) keypad on a feature phone continues to be tedious and time-consuming. Again, the more sophisticated the device, the better its input capabilities. Limited memory. Handheld phones have limited internal information storage capacity or memory. ASK: ARE THERE OTHER CHALLENGES? POLL THE GROUP.
\r\nWhat are some of the challenges you face with mLearning in your organization?\r\nhttp://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/L85AsRaipq64suT
But m-learning design also presents a distinctive set of opportunities: Relatively inexpensive m-learning opportunities, and it can allow you to take your training global. In many parts of the world, mobile phone handsets are quickly becoming the Internet platform and multimedia device of choice. Multimedia content delivery and creation options… audio, text, pictures, video, and cameras are all standard features now, so we can’t forget about it in our designContinuous and situated learning support. Mobile devices allow ongoing learning to occur in multiple locations, including the potential to offer “scaffolded” support (Saye & Brush, 2002) to learners undertaking authentic tasks. Using these devices in a way that maximizes these learning benefits has the potential to offer educational opportunities that are both more inclusive and of higher quality. As Nyíri (2002) has explained:Mobile communication is enhanced everyday communication; and just as our everyday conversation is indifferent towards disciplinary boundaries, so, too, is m-learning. Situation dependent knowledge, the knowledge at which m-learning aims, by its nature transcends disciplines; its organising principles arise from practical tasks; its contents are multisensorial; its elements are linked to each other not just by texts, but also by diagrams, pictures, and maps. (p. 124) ASK: POLL THE GROUP… WHAT OTHER UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES DOES MLEARNING OFFER OTHER DELIVERY METHODOLOGIES?
Just because you can design a cool game-based app that is as addictive as Candy Crush or Angry Birds, doesn’t mean that a game for the iPad, iPhone, or Droid device makes instructional sense. In beginning, and all throughout, it’s about the desired business outcome, and then applying the filter I like to call the 4 cs of training to it.
Particularly true for mLearning! It’s all about situational dependent knowledge… providing learners with the knowledge, skills, and information they need, at the precise moment when they need it. That’s what mLearning can be particularly good at. Examples, two built in Jquery and one using Adobe (PDF).
Knowledge: Recall data or information.Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences.Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.
Outcome = what are you looking to achieve with an mLearning training component, or program? I call this the Outcome Objective. Examples: My sales force needs to be able to follow certain steps when they deliver an inservice to nurses in the rheumatology clinic, and they need to be able to quickly access that information ondemand in the field, right before they deliver that inservice. Dual outcome: training and support. We often lump all objectives under learning objectives, but I also like to split these out… knowledge-based learning objectives and skills-based performance objectives. In the example of the inservice, the learner needs to know the steps in demonstrating a product during an inservice and be able to perform them. mLearning works best when we can isolate one or two clear objectives, design the training to meet those objectives, and then serve it up ondemand.
ASK: What would be an example of a type of mLearning intervention that would be better on a tablet? High density of content, graphics you want learners to be able zoom in and out, knowledge-based programs, etc. What is an example of a type of mLearning intervention that would be better on a smartphone?
Use media where appropriateAudioVideoAnimationsBut don’t forget to draw the learner in… limit passive “push down” of contentLink mLearning with live interaction : example: coaching guide on the iPad with checklists; worksheet-based activities that the learner completes and brings to an LILT or VILT event. mLearning does not have to be an island that is only visited by each individual learner.
Many of the rules of good eLearning design apply to mLearning.
Chunk contentMore images and media, less textLess than 100 words per screen is a good rule of thumbGo full-screen with graphicsUse large, easy to read fontsAvoid “porting” existing text/elearning content—design and develop from the ground up for mobile devicesDesign according to the aspect ratio of the device (not your computer monitor)Aspect ratio: ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter dimension of the screen. The iPhone screen is 9 cm (3.5 in) across. The pixel size is 480 x 320 which gives it an aspect ratio of 3:2. If you want to take advantage of this whole screen then you need to create content sizes of this ratio when using PowerPoint, Word, mp4 video or any other format. When using PowerPoint or Word a page size of 11” x 7.3” will provide this aspect ratio and will ensure that when the content is viewed on the iPhone it fits snugly to the whole screen.
Cell phones = global population ½ the US population has smartphonesSurvey: 4 out of 5 people 18-44 check their phone within 15 minutes of waking84% time spent on email, texting, social media, only 16% on voice calls
M nolin pkerfoot spbt13_m_learning knowledge retention
11STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TOENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTIONIN MLEARNING PROGRAMSMichelle Nolin, CPLPSr. Director, Product Strategy & SolutionsInforma Training PartnersDr. B. Price KerfootAssociate ProfessorHarvard Medical School
2STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSLEARNING OBJECTIVESIdentify pedagogically sound strategies for mLearningdesignAppreciate findings from the latest instructional designresearch for mLearningIdentify techniques for mLearning that ensure knowledgeand skills are gained, retained, and transferredApply 10 Tips for Knowledge Retention with mLearning
3STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSWhat your learners really wanton their tablets and phones…
4STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSWhat your learners don’twant…TAPPINCH-ZOOMAnd then…READ,SCROLL,READ, SCROLL,READ, SCROLL, READ, SCROLL, READ, SCROLL, READSCROLL
5STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSAre you (and your learners) a…Digital native OR digital immigrant?
7STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSWhat is mlearning?M = MobileDEVICE(Hardware)Smartphones, iPads, other tabletsTECHNOLOGY(Software)OS: Apple and DroidDozens of authoring toolsCONNECTIVITYCellular networksInternet/Intranet
8STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSeLearnng OR mLearning?eLearning• Real-time or self-paced• Synchronous orasynchronous• Tethered (viaWeb, Internet)• Structured, formal(GUI, architecture, etc.)mLearning• Self-paced• Un-tethered• Informal• Unstructured, just-in-time, field-based• Anywhere, anytime
9STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSPolling QuestionAre you using mLearning in yourorganization today?YESNot yet, but actively working on mLearninginitiativeMaybe next yearNo plans to use mLearning
11STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSChallenges of mLearningDevice variabilityConnectivityScreen size and readabilityText entryLimited memoryIt’s MOBILE (and we work in a regulatedindustry)
12STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSPollWhat are some of the challenges you face withmLearning in your organization?
14STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSUnique opportunitiesMobile devices are inexpensive and pervasiveHandle media wellContinuous, just-in-time• In-the-field training and support• ―Situational dependent knowledge‖Rapid and urgent
15STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSBest uses of mlearningDesigned correctly, mLearning IS a knowledgeretention tool.• LCOs: think “topics” NOT “courses”• Job aids/support tools (quick “look ups”)• Just-in-time training• Rapid deployment of timely content• Continuous touch points with your learners• Evaluations, assessments, and remediation
16STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSDrive Retention with themLearning NINEStart (so you can endwith) your desiredoutcomeBring it close to taskConsider Bloom’staxonomySet clear objectives—and meet themMatch the objective tothe deviceEngage learnersEstablish logicalarchitecture andnavigation—and stickto itEstablish and followgood design standardsMeet the learnerwhere they live
17STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSStart with the desired outcome.Instructional technology is great, BUT… it’s notabout the tool, or the platform. What outcome doyou need to achieve?Content CalendarCulture Cost4Cs ofTraining
18STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSBring it close to task.Examples
19STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSConsider Bloom’s taxonomy.EvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeLower order thinking skillsHigher order thinking skills
20STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSSet clear objectives(and meet them).OutcomePerformanceLearning
21STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSMatch the objective tothe platform.Not all objectives can be achieved on a mobiledeviceSome learning/performance objectives are bettersuited for a tablet, others on a smartphone
22STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSEngage learners.Draw the learner in… limit passive ―push down‖of contentUse media where appropriate• Audio• Video• AnimationsLink mLearning with live interaction andcollaborationRethink assessments: gamify it
23STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSEstablish logical architectureand navigation (and stick to it).Design an intuitive GUI with multiple navigationpaths through the content• Let the learner drive and control accessDesign for cross-platform, cross-device use• Use responsive design• Optimize for touch screen environments
24STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSEstablish and follow gooddesign standards.Micro chunk the contentMore images and media, less textUse large, easy to read fontsAvoid ―porting‖ existing text/elearning content—design and develop from the ground up formobile devicesDesign according to the aspect ratio of thedevice (not your computer monitor)
25STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSMeet the learner where theylive.mLearning allows us to meet learners wherethey live – on their PHONE and TABLETS.• Cell phones = global population• ½ the US population has smartphones• Survey: 4 out of 5 people 18-44 check theirphone within 15 minutes of waking• 84% time spent on email, texting, socialmedia, only 16% on voice calls
Sticky mLearning:How to Ensure Knowledge Retentionin mLearning ProgramsB. Price Kerfoot, MD EdMVA Boston Healthcare SystemHarvard Medical School
Conflict of Interest Disclosure• Harvard submitted patent on spaced educationmethodology.• Harvard has launched a start-up companyQstream which hosts this methodology outside ofthe Harvard firewalls.• As the ―inventor‖, I am an equity owner anddirector of this company.
Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of 351 medicalstudents at 4 northeastern medical schoolsAcad Med. 2006;81(3):224-30.
Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of 351 medicalstudents at 4 northeastern medical schoolsAcad Med. 2006;81(3):224-30.
Retention of BLS and ACLS Training Among NursesResusc 2008; 78: 59-65n=133
Lammers (Michigan State Univ) Acad Emerg Med 2008; 15: 1181-89
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)In 1885, he published "On Memory‖Forgetting curvesLearning curvesSpacing effect
Spaced Education: the basics• Spacing Effect– spaced– repeated– repeated at increasing intervals- Increased efficiency of learning- Reduction in the slope of the forgetting curve
It Works!• Increases knowledge & retention- Medical Education 2007: 41:23-31 --- UGME- Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008; 23(7):973-8 --- UGME- Academic Medicine 2011 (in press) --- UGME- Journal of Urology 2007; 177, 1481-1487 --- GME– Journal of Urology 2009; 181, 2671-2673 --- GME– Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2010; 211: 331-72673 --- GME– Annals of Surgery 2009; 249: 744–749 --- CME• Improves self-assessment of knowledge– American Journal of Surgery 2009; 197(1):89-95• Changes behavior– American Journal of Surgery 2009: 197(2), 252-257– American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010; 39: 472-8• Is well-accepted by learners- Demonstrated in all trials to date
Interactive Spaced Education VersusWeb-based Modules for TeachingHistopathology Diagnostic Skills:a Randomized Controlled TrialB. Price Kerfoot MD EdM, Yineng Fu MD, Michael RitcheyMD, Donna Connelly MS & Elizabeth Genega MDVA Boston Healthcare SystemHarvard Medical SchoolBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterAmerican Urological AssociationJ Am Coll Surg 2010;211:331-7
Spaced Education on GU Pathology *Weeks0 10 20 30 40 50PercentageScores50556065707580InteractiveSpaced EducationCycle 1Cycle 2Cycle 3OC-1OC-4OC-3OC-2 78% preferred SE over WBT 580/583 requested more SEJ Am Coll Surg 2010; 211: 331-7
Spaced Education Progress Testing(SEPT) of Medical Students:a Randomized Controlled TrialB. Price Kerfoot, MD EdM, Kitt Shaffer MD PhD,Graham T. McMahon MD MMSc, Harley Baker EdD,Edward Krupat PhD, Jamil Kirdar, MBChB MRCP,& Elizabeth G. Armstrong EdDHarvard Medical SchoolAcad Med 2011, 86(3): 300-306
SEPT: Study Structure• University of Virginia School of Medicine• University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine• Harvard Medical School• University of Alabama School of MedicineAcad Med 2011, 86(3): 300-306
SEPT: 120-item assessment toolYear of Training0 1 2 3 4 5PercentageofItemsCorrect35404550556065All 120 ItemsAcad Med 2011, 86(3): 300-306
SEPT: 40-item assessment of retentionAcad Med 2011, 86(3): 300-306
74% of participants (181/246) completed the SE program.Of these, 97% (176/181) submitted the behavior change survey.This randomized controlled trial was conducted from March 2009 to April2010, immediately following the PriMed live CME conference inHouston, Texas.J Cont Educ Health Prof, 2011; 31(2):103–8
86% agreed or strongly agreed that the SE programenhanced the impact of the live CME conference. 97% requested to participate in future SE supplements to live CME courses.J Cont Educ Health Prof, 2011; 31(2):103–8
Interactive Spaced Educationto Improve Prostate-SpecificAntigen Screening:a Randomized Controlled TrialB. Price Kerfoot MD EdM, Galina Sokolovskaya MSElizabeth Lawler MPH ScD, David Gagnon MD PhD,& Paul R. Conlin, MDVA Boston Healthcare SystemAm J Prev Med 2010; 39: 472-8
VA PSA Screening Spaced Education TrialAm J Prev Med 2010; 39: 472-8
VA PSA Screening Spaced Education Trial 93% requested to participate in future spaced education programs
Qstream Online Game3N 2NSICURank Team Ave. Score1 3N 4083.72 SICU 3669.43 2N 3581.44 A1-MSDU 3425.85 CCU 3210.96 MICU 3206.07 AG 2906.28 A2 2493.19 PACU-PCU 2153.910 2S 1954.32S AGA2Qstream Online GameGO Team GO!!!Nursescheck your email every,TuesdayandThursdaygot Qstream?Lessons from Harvard:Using Gamification to JuiceYour Sales Training
68STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSCHOPPED ACTIVITYBreak into small groupsIngredients you need are in your ―inbox‖Cook up an mLearning interventionPresent Your DISH to the larger group
69STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMS10 Tips for KnowledgeRetention with mLearning1. Select the right content at the right time for the right reasonin ALL mLearning.2. Don’t let technology be the tail that wags the dog… desiredoutcome should drive your mLearning initiatives.3. Couple engagement through mobile devices with theprinciples of spaced education to boost knowledge retention.
70STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMS10 Tips for KnowledgeRetention with mLearning4. Investigate DIY, easy-to-learn, and cost-effective mLearningtools to create continuous touch points with your learners.5. Think beyond “just-in-time” training and performancesupport for mobile learning… designed well, mLearning boostsknowledge retention.6. Use mLearning to meet learners “where they live,” providingthem with opportunities to access content when they needit, confirm what they know (and don’t know), and retain theirknowledge.
71STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMS10 Tips for KnowledgeRetention with mLearning7. Integrate mLearning tools with virtual instructor-led training(VILT) to make distance learning intimate.8. Integrate mLearning onsite at live meetings for learnerengagement.9. mLearning is not reading on your phone… deliver learninginteractions on mobile devices to engage learners, fosterlearning transfer, and sustain desired outcomes.10. Recognize how digital natives and digital immigrants, like tolearn, and deliver training on mobile devices that balances theneeds of these two learner types.
72STICKY MLEARNING: HOW TO ENSURE KNOWLEDGE RETENTION IN MLEARNING PROGRAMSQuestions?SPEAKER EMAILS:Michelle Nolin: email@example.comDr. Kerfoot: firstname.lastname@example.org