Issues in the creation of a
trilingual dictionary of
Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Peter K. Austin
Endangered Languages Academi...
© 2013 Peter K. Austin
Creative commons licence
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
CC BY-NC-ND
A new Sasak dictionary
Overall goals:
 to create a comprehensive trilingual Sasak-Indonesian-
English dictionary that wil...
This talk
 Sasak language and people
 Language variation
 Previous dictionaries
 Our current approach
Location
History
• 14th century — Majapahit Javanese kingdom
• 16th century — Islamicisation of eastern Lombok
• 17th century — Kar...
Population and Languages
• Sasak — 90% of Lombok population (2.5m.)
• Sasak spoken by majority of population across
the is...
Languages and Dialects
• Sasak
• Bahasa Indonesia
• Kawi (early Mod. Javanese) exists as literary language
used in texts, ...
Six challenges
• Challenge 1 – dialects
• Challenge 2 – phonological variation
• Challenge 3 – semantic differences
• Chal...
Challenge 1: Dialects
• Sasak speakers recognise five ethno-linguistically
named varieties (based on shibboleth words for ...
Challenge 1: Dialects
• Kutó-Kuté — around Bayan in the north (also called
Ngenó-Mené);
• Meriaq-Meriku— south central are...
Data sources from fieldwork
Challenge 1: Dialects
Speakers characterise the dialect differences by pointing to
lexical divergence and differences in g...
Challenge 2: Phonological variation
• Previous studies and my research shows that
there is phonological variation within a...
Challenge 2: Phonological variation
• Consonants
• variation between final -r and final -h, final glottal
stop -q and fina...
Challenge 3: Semantic differences
• A given form may show differences in referential
or predicational meaning depending on...
Challenge 3: Semantic differences
• But there are also subtle semantic differences in
other lexical fields that we have on...
Challenge 4: Speech Levels
Politeness is encoded lexically in basic vocabulary, both
open class and closed class items, th...
Low Mid High Honorific Humble
eat mangan kelór madaran majengan
see gitaq seréóq sermin cingakin
say uni base manik matur
...
Low Mid High Honorific Humble
body awak perane dèwèk batang rage
head òtak sirah tendes
eye mate penenteng penyerminan
han...
Challenge 5: Contact – Balinese
and Javanese
• Most of the polite vocabulary has been borrowed from
Javanese and Balinese ...
Challenge 5: Contact – Balinese
and Javanese
• Numbers have been borrowed from Balinese and
Javanese resulting in doublets...
Challenge 5: Contact – Kawi
• Kawi (early modern Javanese) is the literary language
but lexical items are still used for h...
Challenge 5: Contact – Arabic
• Sasak is full of vocabulary adopted from Arabic since the
13th century, much of it in the ...
Challenge 6: Sociology and politics
• Traditional Sasak social castes on Lombok:
mènak 1st caste (the highest), cf. radèn
...
Previous Sasak dictionaries
• Goris 1938 – Ngeno-ngene with dialect and other
references (see sample)
• Nazir Thoir – only...
Our approach
• there is no ‘standard’ Sasak and selecting one variety
would lead to political problems, cf. Goris
• users ...
• Example from database: ‘nose’
• Example index of text sentences by
speaker
Future developments
• mobile devices introduce new platforms for potential
dictionary development, eg. Wunderkammer
• GPS-...
References
• Austin, Peter K. 1993. The linguistic ecology of Lombok. PELBBA
16: 165-198.
• Goris, Roelef. 1938. Beknopt S...
Thank you!
Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia

595 views
504 views

Published on

The Sasak language belongs to the Austronesian family and is spoken primarily on the island of Lombok in eastern Indonesia in a complex linguistic ecology that includes massive geographical variation as well as social variation through an elaborate system of speech levels. In addition speakers have access to and borrow from the national language, Bahasa Indonesia, as well as Kawi (17th century Javanese, used as a literary language), and Arabic (the main religious language). In this paper we outline the history of Sasak lexicography and the challenges faced by our current project which aims at creating a Sasak-Indonesian-English trilingual dictionary. We describe some innovative lexicographic and documentary techniques we have adopted to address the different kinds of lexical variation observable within Sasak.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
595
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia

  1. 1. Issues in the creation of a trilingual dictionary of Sasak, eastern Indonesia Peter K. Austin Endangered Languages Academic Programme SOAS, University of London 25th September 2013, Gothenburg University
  2. 2. © 2013 Peter K. Austin Creative commons licence Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC BY-NC-ND
  3. 3. A new Sasak dictionary Overall goals:  to create a comprehensive trilingual Sasak-Indonesian- English dictionary that will be of practical use to speakers on Lombok  in doing so, to develop ways to deal with the complex individual, geographical and social variation in the language in a linguistically and politically acceptable manner
  4. 4. This talk  Sasak language and people  Language variation  Previous dictionaries  Our current approach
  5. 5. Location
  6. 6. History • 14th century — Majapahit Javanese kingdom • 16th century — Islamicisation of eastern Lombok • 17th century — Karangasem Balinese kingdom • 19th century — Dutch colonial war with Balinese • 20th century — 1942-45 Japanese war 1948 Republic of Indonesia
  7. 7. Population and Languages • Sasak — 90% of Lombok population (2.5m.) • Sasak spoken by majority of population across the island in family and village domains but has no formal status, no literacy functions for most speakers • Bahasa Indonesia is language of education, media, government, business, literacy, status (diglossia) • Rural-urban split in language shift
  8. 8. Languages and Dialects • Sasak • Bahasa Indonesia • Kawi (early Mod. Javanese) exists as literary language used in texts, poetry, music and drama • Sasak shows wide regional variation which has been documented since 19th century, including through dialect surveys of Teeuw 1948 and Mahsun 2000. • Sasak has social variation, distinguishing base kasar from base alus (latter heavily influenced by Javanese and Balinese) marked by lexical choice
  9. 9. Six challenges • Challenge 1 – dialects • Challenge 2 – phonological variation • Challenge 3 – semantic differences • Challenge 4 – speech levels • Challenge 5 – contact • Challenge 6 – sociology and politics
  10. 10. Challenge 1: Dialects • Sasak speakers recognise five ethno-linguistically named varieties (based on shibboleth words for ‘like that-like this’) and give rough geographical locations for them: • Ngenó-Ngené — central west coast and central east to north east coast; • Menó-Mené — around the towns of Puyung and Praya, central Lombok; • Nggetó-Nggeté — around Suralaga and Sembalun in the north-east;
  11. 11. Challenge 1: Dialects • Kutó-Kuté — around Bayan in the north (also called Ngenó-Mené); • Meriaq-Meriku— south central area around Bonjeruk and Sengkol (Pujut), and near Selong in east This does not exhaust the actual forms found on the ground: • Menu-Meni – south-east near Ganti
  12. 12. Data sources from fieldwork
  13. 13. Challenge 1: Dialects Speakers characterise the dialect differences by pointing to lexical divergence and differences in grammatical forms, eg. clitic pronouns, aspect/mood markers, prepositions: gin ~ gen ~ éaq ~ iaq ~ jaq ~ aq ‘will’ òjòk ~ jòk ~ aning ~ timpaq ~ ngaró ‘to’ =mèq ~ =bi ~ =de ~ =m ~ =ò ‘you (clitic)’ (cf. ‘you will’: ginmèq vs. aqm) However, dialect surveys by Teeuw in 1948 and Mahsun in 2000 at the village level show that there are no clear geographical distributions to allow isoglosses to be drawn
  14. 14. Challenge 2: Phonological variation • Previous studies and my research shows that there is phonological variation within and across ‘dialects’ even where there are no gross lexical differences: • Vowels • variation between i and é, u and ó, ó and ò, eg. irung ~ érung ~ iróng ~ éróng ‘nose’; uléq ~ óléq ‘to return’; tókól ~ tòkòl ‘to sit’ • variation between a ~ e ~ ǝ ~ ɒ, eg. mata ~ matǝ ~ mǝtǝ ~ mɒtɒ ~ mete ‘eye’; aiq ~ ǝiq ‘water’
  15. 15. Challenge 2: Phonological variation • Consonants • variation between final -r and final -h, final glottal stop -q and final -h, final –l and final -n, eg. dengar ~ dengah ‘to hear’; kókóq ~ kókóh ‘river’, tòkòl ~ tòkòn ‘to sit’ • variation between medial -r- and nothing (-ø), and medial -r- and -d-, eg. daraq ~ daq ‘blood’, irup ~ érup ~ idup ~ édup ‘alive’, irung ~ érung ~ iróng ~ éróng ~ iung ‘nose’ (but not *idung)
  16. 16. Challenge 3: Semantic differences • A given form may show differences in referential or predicational meaning depending on location. This is most extreme for deictics: • Eg. across sources for Sasak we find: • ‘south’ baret ~ bat ~ daya ~ daye ~ lauq ~ bòngkòt • ‘west’ baret ~ bat ~ daye • timuq ‘east’, ‘north’, ‘south’
  17. 17. Challenge 3: Semantic differences • But there are also subtle semantic differences in other lexical fields that we have only just begun to explore
  18. 18. Challenge 4: Speech Levels Politeness is encoded lexically in basic vocabulary, both open class and closed class items, through suppletion in sets of biase, madie, alus items plus a system of honorifics: biase — low eg. mate ‘eye’ madie — middle penenteng alus — high penyerminan honorifics: honour and humble eg. atur ‘to give’ ican 'to receive'
  19. 19. Low Mid High Honorific Humble eat mangan kelór madaran majengan see gitaq seréóq sermin cingakin say uni base manik matur go laló lumbar margi lampaq give bèng ican atur
  20. 20. Low Mid High Honorific Humble body awak perane dèwèk batang rage head òtak sirah tendes eye mate penenteng penyerminan hand ime gading what ape napi
  21. 21. Challenge 5: Contact – Balinese and Javanese • Most of the polite vocabulary has been borrowed from Javanese and Balinese but the correspondences are very complex • E.g.1: polite vocabulary borrowed from Old Javanese/Balinese or New Javanese • E.g.2: vocabulary borrowed but level changed, eg.  NEUTRAL > HIGH  NEUTRAL > HONORIFIC  LOW > MID  HIGH > MID  HIGH > HONORIFIC  HIGH > HUMBLE  HONORIFIC > HUMBLE  HONORIFIC > HIGH  HUMBLE > HIGH
  22. 22. Challenge 5: Contact – Balinese and Javanese • Numbers have been borrowed from Balinese and Javanese resulting in doublets and suppletion: • ‘twenty’: due pulu & lékur ~ likur • ‘twenty five’: lime lékur & selaè • ‘thirty’: telung dase • ‘fifty’: sèket • ‘sixty’: nem dase or nem pulu • ‘one hundred’: satus • ‘one hundred fifty’: karóbelah • ‘two hundred’: satak • ‘four hundred’: mpat ratus & samas
  23. 23. Challenge 5: Contact – Kawi • Kawi (early modern Javanese) is the literary language but lexical items are still used for hyper-politeness, eg. nurge (alus) > ampure (kawi) ‘apology’ maté (biase) > ninggal (alus) > mangket (kawi)‘to die’ awak (biase) > rage (alus) > pragayan (kawi) ‘body’ Any account of modern Sasak has to include Kawi lexicon
  24. 24. Challenge 5: Contact – Arabic • Sasak is full of vocabulary adopted from Arabic since the 13th century, much of it in the religious domain but including common lexicon: • people’s names • days of the week • In Ngeno-ngene the second person masculine pronoun ante is a loan from Arabic • All this material must be included in the dictionary
  25. 25. Challenge 6: Sociology and politics • Traditional Sasak social castes on Lombok: mènak 1st caste (the highest), cf. radèn prewangse 2nd caste jajarkarang 3rd caste - commoners sepangan lowest caste, servants of mènak • Dominant religious role for Islam • Contemporary society built on modernism and ethos of education and attainment, but adat remains a strong influence and mènak have important role
  26. 26. Previous Sasak dictionaries • Goris 1938 – Ngeno-ngene with dialect and other references (see sample) • Nazir Thoir – only Nggeto-nggete data • Nell Staff – the midden approach (see sample) • SIL dictionary – only Ampenan data, no speech levels data
  27. 27. Our approach • there is no ‘standard’ Sasak and selecting one variety would lead to political problems, cf. Goris • users want to include as much variation as possible with lots of cross-referencing of several types (social, geographical, stylistic, loans) • provide metadata about where lexical items come from – in database identity of speaker and recorder is included for every lexical entry and sentence (can be aggregated to village level as desired) • in Toolbox files metadata for speakers and recorders is also included with every sentence
  28. 28. • Example from database: ‘nose’ • Example index of text sentences by speaker
  29. 29. Future developments • mobile devices introduce new platforms for potential dictionary development, eg. Wunderkammer • GPS-aware smart phones and tablet computers exist or are on the horizon in Indonesia • since the lexicon is comprehensively tagged for sources, by adding GPS co-ordinates to the database we could create apps that generate individual dictionaries for device locations on the fly • could have applications in education and teaching of Sasak in schools, cf. Azhar 2000
  30. 30. References • Austin, Peter K. 1993. The linguistic ecology of Lombok. PELBBA 16: 165-198. • Goris, Roelef. 1938. Beknopt Sasaksch-Nederlansch woordenboek. Singaraja: Publicatie Kirtya Liefrinck. • Mahsun. 1999. Kajian dialek geografis bahasa Sasak. Mataram: University of Mataram. • Nothofer, Bernd. 2000. A preliminary analysis of the history of Sasak language levels. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Working Papers in Sasak, Vol. 2, 57-84. Melbourne: University of Melbourne. • Syahdan. 2000. Code-switching in the speech of elite Sasaks. In Peter K. Austin (ed.) Working Papers in Sasak, Vol. 2, 99-109. Melbourne: University of Melbourne. • Teeuw, Andries. 1951. Atlas dialek pulau Lombok [Dialect atlas of the island of Lombok]. Jakarta: Biro Reproduksi Djawatan Topografi. • Teeuw, Andries. 1958. Lombok: een dialect-geographische studie [Lombok: a dialect geographical study].
  31. 31. Thank you!

×