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THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER
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THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER

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THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER AND TYPE OF COMPUTER

THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER AND TYPE OF COMPUTER

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  • 1. Ages Of Computers The history of computing is mainly divides into three ages which are: 1. The Dark Age (5000 B.C to 1890 A.D) 2. The Middle Age (1890 A.D to 1944 A.D) 3. The Modern Age (Since 1944 A.D)
  • 2. The Dark Age: (5000 B.C to 1890 A.D) • Abacus: • Napier’s bones: • Slide Rule: • Pascaline: (Pascal’s calculator) • Leibniz’s Calculator: • Arithometer: • Babbage’s Difference Engine: • Babbage’s Analytically Engine:
  • 3. Abacus: About 5000 years ago, Chinese developed the first calculating device named “ABACUS”. It consists of a rectangular wooden frame with horizontal wires containing a number of beads. Napier’s bones: In 1612, John Napier made the first printed device called “Napier’s Bones”. This device can perform multiplication and division with the help of logarithms. Slide Rule: In 1622, William Oughtred created the slide rule base don Napier’s logarithms. A slide rule consists of two moveable rulers marked with logarithmic scale, one sliding inside the other. Pascaline: (Pascal’s calculator) Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and philosopher invented first mechanical calculating machine in 1640 known as Pascal line. It consists of 8 movable dials to add number up to 8 figures long.
  • 4. Leibniz’s Calculator: In 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfried William Leibniz improved the Pascaline to make it capable of performing multiplication. Arithometer: A French man Charles Xavier Thomas De-Colmar invented a machine in 1820 that could perform the four basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Babbage’s Difference Engine: In 1822, Charles Babbage proposed a machine to perform differential equations called “Difference Engine”. It was to be controlled by a stored program and was to be printing the results automatically. Babbage’s Analytically Engine: In 1833, after working on difference engine for 10 years, Babbage gave an idea of a more general purpose programmable computer called analytically engine. It consists of the following five parts, which are also the basic blocks of modern computer. Storage, Mill, Central Unit (CU), Input &Output
  • 5. The Middle Age: (1890 A.D to 1944 A.D) • Tabulating Machine: • Mechanical Calculator: • Atanasoff Berry Computer: (ABC Computer)
  • 6. Tabulating Machine: In 1889, Herman Hollerith developed a tabulating machine to speed counting the process of the U.S census. He used the Jacquard Loom concept to computing. His machine sensed the holes in punched card, triggering a wire to pass through the hole closing an electrical circuit. Mechanical Calculator: In 1913, Vannevar Bush developed a huge mechanical calculator for solving complex differential equations. Atanasoff Berry Computer: (ABC Computer) In 1940, Astanasoff and Berry had developed the first all electronic computer by applying the Boolean algebra to computer circuitry.
  • 7. THE MODERN AGE (SINCE 1944 A.D )
  • 8. THE GENERATION OF COMPUTER • The characteristics of modern age computers are based on this generation. Each generations of computer is characterized by a major technological development that improves the speed, power and efficiency of a computer. The computers in modern age are categorized in five generations.
  • 9. GENERATION OF COMPUTER 1ST GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1951-1958) 2ND GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1959-1963) 3RD GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1964-1979) 4TH GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1979) 5TH GENERATION OF COMPUTER
  • 10. 1ST GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1951-1958) • First generation computers were used vacuum tubes as electronic component. • These magnetic drums were used for memory. • These computers relied on machine language to perform operations. • The input was based on punched card, and output was printed on paper. • These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time. • The size of computers was very large i.e. non portable computers. • The speed of these computers was very slow. • Vacuum tubes required great amounts of energy • They generated much heat i.e. unreliable. • They required air conditioning.
  • 11. APPLICATIONS: THESE COMPUTERS WERE USED FOR RECORD KEEPING AND PAYROLL PROCESSING. Computers of First Generation: ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC, IBM etc. EDSAC
  • 12. 2ND GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1959-1963) • This generation computers are used transistors instead of vacuum tube. • The magnetic core technology was used for memory at that time • Assembly language and high level languages were used for programming. • These computers are still relied on punched card for input and print out for output. • These computers smaller, faster, cheaper, and more reliable and energy efficient as compare of their time. • The transistors still generated a great amount of heat. • They required air conditioning. • They required frequent maintenance. • These computers were the fastest calculating devices of their time. • The commercial production was difficult and costly.
  • 13. APPLICATIONS: THESE COMPUTERS WERE USED FOR KEEPING PAYROLL PROCESSING, UPDATING FILES ETC. Computers of Second Generation: IBM-1401, IBM-1600 series, UNIVAC III etc
  • 14. 3RD GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1964-1979) • This generation computers used integrated circuits (ICs) • The main memory increased in the form of PROM and D-ROM and magnetic disc used as storage device. • High level languages were developed including BASIC, PASCAL etc. • These computers used keyboard for input and monitor for output. • These computer smaller, faster, cheaper, more reliable and energy efficient than previous generations. • These computers didn’t generate a great amount of heat. • The hardware, failure was very rare. • The commercial production was easier and cheaper. • They required air conditioning. • Highly sophisticated technology was required for the manufacturing of ICs.
  • 15. APPLICATIONS: THESE COMPUTERS WERE USED FOR RECORD KEEPING, AIRLINE RESERVATIONS, WEATHER FARE CASTING ETC. Computers of Third Generation: IBM 360, IBM 370, INTEL 4004 etc. IBM 360
  • 16. 4TH GENERATION OF COMPUTER (1979) • This generation computers used microprocessor which contains thousands of ICs on a single silicon chip. • These computers are more powerful, which could be linked together to forms networks. • Floppy disk (8 and 5.25 inches) and hard disk were used as storage devices. • The graphics user interfaces (GUIs), the mouse and hand held devices were developed. • These computer smaller, faster, cheaper, more reliable and energy efficient than previous generations. • The first portable computer (Osborne I) was developed. • Heat generation and hardware, failure was negligible. • Much easier high level languages were developed. Example: C language. • Much sophisticated technology was required to fabricate ICs.
  • 17. APPLICATIONS: THESE COMPUTERS ARE USED IN MANY FIELDS SUCH AS BUSINESS, ELECTRONIC FUNDS, TRANSFER, CAD SYSTEM ETC. Computers of Fourth Generations: INTEL-8008, IBM-3033, IBM system 36 etc.
  • 18. 5TH GENERATION OF COMPUTER • This generation computers are based on artificial intelligence which is still in development. • The quantum computation and molecular nano technology will change the face of computer in future. • More improve microprocessor are develop. • Natural languages were developing for programming such as SQL, PROLOG etc. • The main memory is now in the form of EEPROM, SIMM, and DIMM. • CDS,DVDS, and USBS ARE USED as storage devices. • These generation computers are smaller, cheaper, more reliable and faster than previous generations.
  • 19. APPLICATIONS: THESE COMPUTERS ARE USED IN ALL FIELDS OF LIFE SUCH AS HOME, EDUCATION, BUSINESS ETC. Computers of Fifth Generations: INTEL Pentium series, Diary computer, Palmtop etc.
  • 20. 1stGeneration 2ndGeneration 3rdGeneration 4thGeneration 5thGeneration Duration 1940-1956 1956-1964 1964-1971 1971-1981 1981-present Internal component Vacuum tubes Transistors Integrated circuit (ICS) Micro-processor Artificial intelligence Size of computer Very huge Smaller than 1stgeneration Much smaller than previous generations Micro- computers Tiny computers Storage devices Magnetic tape Magnetic tape Magnetic tape Hard disk & floppy disk Hard disk, floppy and optical storage Programming languages Machine language Assembly language High level languages such as BASIC, PASCAL Very high level languages C, C++ etc Natural language like SQL, PROLOG etc Famous computers ENIAC, UNIVAC, IBM 705 etc IBM-400, IBM- 1600, UNIVAC III etc IBM 360, IBM 370, UNIVAC 9000 etc IBM 3033, IBM system 36, CRAY- I etc Pentium series, LAPTOP, PALMTOP etc GENERATION TABLE
  • 21. Types Of Computer Based on purpose General purpose computer Special purpose computer Based on capacity Mainframe computers Mini computers Micro computer Handheld Devices Laptop Desktop Super computers Based on data handling Analog computer Digital computer Hybrid computer
  • 22. Based on purpose General purpose computer • These computers are designed to handle a variety of problems in different fields of life. • Examples: Inventory control, Budgeting etc Special purpose computer • These computers are designed to handle a specific problems or specific task. • Examples: Satellite tracking, Air traffic and industrial processing control.Atm.
  • 23. Based on capacity • Mainframe computers • Mini computers • Super computers • Micro computer
  • 24. Mainframe computers • Mainframe computers are the biggest and the most protective general purpose systems that are made to model large dynamic computing needs of a big organization that serves hundreds of terminals all at the same time. A terminal consists of a monitor and keyboard that allow a person to enter information and retrieve it form the computer. • Uses: • These computer are used in large organization banks, airline reservation etc. • Examples: IBMS/390, HP9000 etc.
  • 25. Mini computers • Mini computer are referred to as mid level computers. A mini computer is a multiprocessing system having terminals attached to it and is capable of supporting 4 to 200 users simultaneously. • Uses: • These computers are used in small companies where capacity and speed of operations is not highly critical. • Examples: DEC, VAX and IBM As/400 etc. IBM As/400
  • 26. Super computers • Super computer are very sophisticated machines designed to perform complex calculation at fastest speed BIPS (Billions of Instructions per Second). These computers are based on the principle of parallel processing in which several processors connected in parallel. These computers work on a single problem at a time. • Uses: • These computers are used in satellite tracking, nuclear weapons, weather for casting etc. • Examples: Cray research, Cyber 205, Intel etc. PARAM 8000 • PARAM 8600,PARAM 9900/SS, PARAM Padma, • • •
  • 27. Micro computer • A micro computer consists of a single chip processor as it CPU, memory unit, I/O devices and storage devices. These computers are designed to be used by individual. • Uses: • These computers are widely used in home computing, education, media etc. • Example: Personal computers (PC), Laptop, Palmtop computers etc.
  • 28. Based on data handling • Analog computer • Digital computer • Hybrid computer
  • 29. Analog computer • Analog computers are designed to process continuous data. They produce their results very fast but results are approximately correct. In general, they are measuring devices used to measure continuously variable quantities. • Uses: These computers are used in chemical industries, electric power plants etc • Examples: Thermometer, Speedometer, Voltmeter, Barometer etc.
  • 30. Digital computer • Digital computers are designed to process discontinuous or digital data. They have less speed then analog computers but results are much accurate. It handles values that are in discrete (0 and • Uses: • These computers are used in government offices, educational institutes, and business organization etc. • Examples: Personal computer (PC), Digital diary, Calculator etc
  • 31. Hybrid computer • Hybrid computers are designed by the combination of analog and digital computers. They have speed of analog computers and have the accuracy of digital computers. It uses analog to digital conversation and digital to analog conversion. • Uses: • These components are used in space vehicle simulation, training of astronauts, robotics etc. • Examples: Modern petrol pump, Electronic weight balance, Digital speedometer.
  • 32. Internet Citations 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type ofComputer 2. http://www.slideshare.net/FRKNIAZI/143517- 291150thefivegenerationsofcompute 3. http://www.slideshare.net/looksvivek/the-5-generations-of- computers# 4. http://www.khinotes.net/INTRODUCTION-TO- COMPUTER.html

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