Goal 11Part 6 Vietnam and American Involvement 1965-1973 (75)
Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam-COMMUNIST / Revolutionary leader of VietnamDuring WWII – Ho Chi Minh revolutionizes Vietnam and formed the VIETMINH =Main Goal – Win independence from foreign rule!Success – Japan lost in WWII – Vietnam is FREE (Ho Chi Minh takes over)
U.S. Involvementin Vietnam Vietnam foreign Policy / Cold War CONTAINMENT (Control Communism) Eisenhower (1952 -1960) issued his idea of the DOMINO THEORY (1953) – countries on the brink of communism were like a row of dominos waiting to fall!
Geneva Accords 1954 – Allies meet in Geneva, Switzerland to comeUp with peace agreementGeneva Accords – a temporarydivision of Vietnam on the17th parallel (containment)North – Ho Chi Minh (Com)South – Ngo Dinh Diem (Dem)*Elections were supposed to be held in 1954*Diem called them off – he knew he would lose to the communist
Vietcong 1957, a Communist group inSouth VietnamHo Chi Minh LOVES this!!!! - Ho Chi Minh TrailHo Chi Minh starts to sendresources to the Vietcong alongpathways via Laos & Cambodia(neighboring countries)Purpose: help spreadCommunism
Problems with Diem(South Vietnam Leader) Persecuted Buddhist*(attack on Religion is Democracy) Repressive Tactics with his people 1961 – American Coupassassinated Diem(Purpose: creates stability for South Vietnam)Coup D’etat: a sudden overthrow of a government in order to replace it
Lyndon B. Johnson Takes Over****Tonkin Gulf Resolution** 1964 – Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson Story: North Vietnamese boat torpedoes American destroyer, U.S.S. Maddox (patrolling the Gulf of Tonkin in North Vietnam) – Torpedo missed and America FIRES BACK causing a lot of damage Days later, a “supposed” attack from North Vietnam on the Maddox again! * President LBJ was prompted to launch an attack on North Vietnam / LBJ asked Congress and its on!
Tonkin Gulf Resolution YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS!!!!!!!!!Congress agrees to support Johnson and the Vietnam WarA declaration of war on North Vietnam /*Gave LBJ “broad” military powers in Vietnam*(these are limited powers!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!)***********Operation Rolling Thunder******************VERY FIRST operation “attack” onNorth VietnamAfter Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Fighting in the Jungle
2 New “CHEMICAL” weapons used inVietnam / Search and Destroy MissionsNapalm – a gasoline-based bomb(set fire to jungle)Agent Orange – leaf-killing toxic chemical(3rd generation children – still affected today)*Search-And-Destroy Missions*Uprooting civilians suspected with tiesto Vietcong“destroying the town, to save it”Most Famous: My Lai Massacre
Great Society Suffers $ from programs were used to pay for Vietnam / high taxes / high inflation Living Room War – nickname for Vietnam*******Credibility Gap – growing between LBJ and American people(LBJ would say one thing, and the American people would see another)
A Divided NationNew Left - growing “YOUTH” movement in the 1960s that demanded “sweeping” changes in America (LIBERAL)Students for a Democratic Society – most famous New Left organization / focused on “proper” democracy in America and greater individual freedom!(1) HAWKS (predator / anger) – support War in Vietnam(2) DOVES (prey / peace) – supports “Withdrawal” from VietnamVIETNAM CAUSED MORE “STUDENT PROTESTS”THAN ANY OTHER WARIN U.S. HISTORY
Tet Offensive(Turning Point in Vietnam)***Tet Offensive - surpriseattacks on American Embassy in S. Vietnam(right when we though it was over)Tet Offensive = changed American “public” opinion more than anything else in the Vietnam War*****American people are fed up with Lyndon B. Johnson
1968 Presidential Election andAmerica Lyndon B. Johnson DOES NOT run (PRESSURE) Popularity plummeted “Vietnam killed the lady I really loved….the Great Society” - LBJ Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray Robert Kennedy Brother of John F. Kennedy A Senator from New York Strong hopeful candidate for the Presidency Assassinated by a Jordanian Immigrant (Sirhan Sirhan)
1968 Presidential Election Richard M. Nixon (Rep.) WINS Remember: LBJ decides NOT to run!!!!!
Nixon and “VIETNAMIZATION” 1969 – Nixon announced “Vietnamization” – the “gradual” withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam WHY? In order to allow South Vietnamese to take amore active role in the war (rebuild their own country) “Peace with Honor” - Nixon and Henry Kissinger (National Security Advisor) - So…just like any politician…he lied!
Silent MajorityAmerican people who DO NOTexpress their opinions publicly America during Vietnam War– 3 Sections (1) Hawks (2) Doves (3) Silent Majority
My Lai Massacre– American troops massacred innocent/ UNARMED civilians in the village of My Lai“Kill anything that breathed”Victims: 504 deathsMOST FAMOUS*Search & DestroyMission
Invasion of Cambodia Nixon announced another invasion Why Cambodia? (Supplied Vietcong) Invasion of CambodiaFirst bombing – Nixon DID NOTtell CongressMajor Domestic reaction: LARGEST STUDENT PROTEST IN AMERICAN HISTORY- 1,200 closed universities
Violence at Kent State(Caused by the invasion of Cambodia) Kent State Massive Student Protest / burnt down the ROTC building National Guard step in National Guard fire live ammunition into the student protesters Killed 4, injured 9
Violence at Kent State
26th Amendment“Voting age is 18” – lowered from 21 to 18 - passed in response to student activism against the Vietnam War(dividing the country)
Pentagon PapersPentagon Papers =7,000 page document,By Robert McNamara,revealed that the Americangovernment NEVERintended to withdraw troops fromVietnam!American Reaction: ANGER toward government (Credibility gap widened)
1972 Presidential Election Nixon is REELECTED!!!!! March 29, 1973*The Vietnam War is OVER(U.S. involvement)Result: North Vietnamese troops STAYED in South VietnamNorth Vietnam was still fighting South Vietnam without American help!
The Fall of Saigon / end of VietnamWar (1975) North Vietnam attacks South Vietnam and S. Vietnam begs America to send troops (we don’t) but we do send resources! New President , Gerald Ford, (Took over after Nixon’s Watergate Scandal) North Vietnamese tanks took Saigon(S. Vietnam) – South Surrenders…Vietnam War in over Containment didn’t work!
Legacy of Vietnam War War Powers Act (1973) - made the president inform Congress within 48 hours of sending forces into hostile areas****LIMITED “PRESIDENTIAL” POWERS(Caused by the first bombings of Cambodia)
Vietnam Poster Create a poster that visually communicates a theme or time period of the Vietnam War Purpose: To better understand a particular aspect of the war on its impact