Vietnam notes


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  • Congress wanted France to grant independence in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Also wanted Britain to send troops to Vietnam.
  • Vietnam notes

    1. 1. Vietnam America’s Longest War
    2. 5. Timeline for Vietnam <ul><li>1946 </li></ul>
    3. 6. Independence for Vietnam in 1946? <ul><li>Read the handout. </li></ul><ul><li>Set your goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what you will do with regard to Vietnam and France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Be prepared to share your answers with the class. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 7. Truman’s Decision on Vietnam <ul><li>U.S. supported Vietnamese and Ho Chi Minh (their leader) during World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They look for independence following the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. supported independence for colonies following the war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. needs France to help containment policy </li></ul>
    5. 8. France and Vietnam <ul><li>France claimed it needed Vietnam as a colony to recover from World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked American support to recolonize France’s willingness to help America stop the spread of communism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truman stayed neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France reclaimed Vietnam as a colony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unintended Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided France internally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed Ho Chi Minh away from U.S. to China and U.S.S.R. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 9. Aid to the French <ul><li>U.S. sent large-scale aid to the French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1953- U.S. provides 33% of funds for war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1954- grows to 78% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of fall of China, Korean War and Red Scare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French lost war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. aid to colonial power hurt reputation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 10. Dien Bien Phu 1954 <ul><li>President Eisenhower went to Congress to get approval for bombing Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress placed conditions on involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made it impossible for U.S. to get involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eisenhower decided to do nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probably avoided a huge mistake </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 11. Domino Effect <ul><li>Feeling that if one country in Southeast Asia fell to communism, all would fall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stated by President Eisenhower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to U.S. undermining the Geneva Accords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace between France and Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French withdraw from Vietnam within 1 year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary division of Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elections scheduled for 1956 </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. U.S. Actions Against the Geneva Accord <ul><li>U.S. supports South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in New Jersey before taking over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed as a puppet of U.S. government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only given limited support by Eisenhower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diem felt U.S. needed him and didn’t respond to U.S. requests for reform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam made part of an alliance with the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEATO </li></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Diem’s Actions Unpopular <ul><li>He declared South Vietnam a separate country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancelled the election of 1956 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An opposition group called the Vietcong rebelled against him. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were imprisoned in concentration camps without trials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He supported the Catholic, wealthy minority over the Buddhist landless majority </li></ul><ul><li>As time goes by, Diem is becoming more repressive </li></ul>
    11. 15. Diem Overthrown <ul><li>By Vietnamese generals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. does not intervene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unintended consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instability in South Vietnamese government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous other coups took place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy said he would reduce the commitment to South Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. troop withdrawal after 1964 election </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If done before he would lose election </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 16. Johnson Expands the Conflict <ul><li>Diem’s death brings more chaos to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Incident in the North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnamese patrol boat fires on the USS Maddox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place in the Gulf of Tonkin off North Vietnamese coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maddox returns fire and damages patrol boat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two days later, enemy torpedoes spotted in the water under poor weather conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maddox fire with no return fire seen or heard </li></ul></ul>
    13. 17. Tonkin Gulf Resolution <ul><li>Johnson used alleged attack to ask Congress for broad military power in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technically not a declaration of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson used questionable information to achieve his goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johnson uses the new powers to escalate the war </li></ul>
    14. 18. Comic Book Industry <ul><li>Shapes and reflects the public mood of the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Industry started in the 1930s and peaked during World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed patriotic themes during the war </li></ul></ul>
    15. 19. Comic Book Industry <ul><li>During the Korean War some comics were accused of subversion. </li></ul><ul><li>1954 Comic Code created to regulate the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This and television led to the demise of the comic industry </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. Comic Book Industry <ul><li>In the 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic book readers were adolescent males who would soon serve in Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comics patriotic against stereotypical red villains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>younger writers replace older ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>push for more creative freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic book code revised to allow writers to deal with issues like race relations, women’s issues and antiwar sentiment </li></ul></ul>
    17. 21. Operation Rolling Thunder <ul><li>First sustained bombing of North Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Form of retaliation for Feb. 1965 attacks on U.S. bases </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. dropped three times as many bombs as in all of World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 bombs dropped on South Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left the landscape looking like the surface of the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria spread as a result of stagnant water in the craters </li></ul></ul>
    18. 22. Failure of Operation Rolling Thunder <ul><li>Was unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnamese had extensive air defense system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Vietnam had few good targets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1967 report-U.S. bombing cost ten times as much as the property they destroyed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It did little real damage to North Vietnamese effort. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 23. Troops <ul><li>1965- 100,000 Americans in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>General Westmoreland continues to request more troops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t like the fighting ability of Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1967- 500,000 Americans in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Westmoreland’s strategy becomes one of attrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual reduction of the enemy’s forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enemy dead body count becomes important </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. The Draft <ul><li>Known officially as the Selective Service Act </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on men between the ages of 18 and 26 </li></ul><ul><li>People found ways around serving in the military </li></ul><ul><li>80% of those drafted were from poorer families </li></ul>
    21. 25. Hearts and Minds <ul><li>Trying to win support of South Vietnam’s rural population </li></ul><ul><li>America’s tactics don’t help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped napalm-gasoline bombs that set the jungle on fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprayed Agent Orange- a toxic chemical that kills leaves (and allegedly causes cancer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and destroy missions that uproot villagers with suspected ties to Vietcong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burning villages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killing livestock </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 26. Interpret this political cartoon.
    23. 27. Interpret this political cartoon.
    24. 28. Battles in South-east Asia
    25. 29. Troops in Vietnam 1961-1972 Battle Deaths in Vietnam 1961-1972
    26. 30. Vietcong Tunnels
    27. 31. A Nation Divided <ul><li>Credibility gap- People started to believe that what President Johnson was reporting was wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition grows on the New Left and college campuses </li></ul><ul><li>By 1967 war divides the nation into two sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawks- America should unleash more of its military to win the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doves- The U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam </li></ul></ul>
    28. 32. Saigon Police Chief Executing Suspected Vietcong
    29. 33. Tet Offensive <ul><li>Simultaneous attacks on numerous cities by Vietcong and North Vietnamese Army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeat for the communist guerillas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stunned the American public </li></ul><ul><li>Pushes more Americans to criticize the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before Tet- 56% hawks; 28% doves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Tet- 40% hawks; 40% doves </li></ul></ul>
    30. 34. Johnson’s Approval Ratings
    31. 35. Results 1968 Election
    32. 36. Election of 1968 <ul><li>Democratic Primary in turmoil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence erupts outside convention in Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V.P. Hubert Humphrey wins nomination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republican select Richard Nixon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wins promising a return to law and order </li></ul></ul>
    33. 37. Vietnamization <ul><li>Gradual withdraw of U.S. forces </li></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam takes a bigger role in fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Started in 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for “Peace with Honor” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve U.S. dignity during withdraw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep America’s power at negotiation table </li></ul></ul>
    34. 38. Troubles in Vietnam <ul><li>My Lai Massacre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. soldiers massacre over 200 Vietnamese civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Cambodia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. forces attempt to clear out North Vietnamese and Cambodian supply centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes protests on college campuses </li></ul></ul>
    35. 39. Nixon’s Troubles at Home <ul><li>Kent State Massacre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Guard fire live ammo into a crowd of protestors, killing 4 and wounding nine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pentagon Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government documents that reveal the government was not honest about its intentions </li></ul></ul>
    36. 40. End the War in Vietnam <ul><li>Combat troops return home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last one leaves Vietnam March 29,1973 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall of Saigon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 30, 1975 North Vietnamese capture Saigon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes South Vietnam to surrender to the North </li></ul></ul>