Immigration Podcast Outline

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This outline is based on the series of Immigration podcasts conducted during class.

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Immigration Podcast Outline

  1. 1. The Great Migration The Largest Mass Movement in Human History <ul><li>1880 to 1921 23 million immigrants arrived on America’s shores </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 46 million people around the world left their homelands </li></ul><ul><li>Over 56 percent- came to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States had no quotas, or limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nor did it require immigrants to have a passport or special entrance papers. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. The Great Migration Demographics of Immigrants After 1880 <ul><li>The demographic makeup of immigrants changed in the period after 1880 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Old immigrants” who came primarily from northwestern Europe before 1880 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ New immigrants” who came after 1880. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1880 and 1921, approximately 70 percent of all immigrants came from southern an eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the typical immigrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young, male, and either Catholic or Jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most spoke little or no English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority were unskilled agricultural laborers with little money or education </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Push Pull Factor Economic Decline in Europe <ul><li>Majority of immigrants came for economic reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1800s, the agriculturally based economies declined as a result of the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers who had not mechanized their operations found themselves unable to compete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>local craftspeople often could not compete with city factories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease was rampant…infant mortality was very high </li></ul><ul><li>southern Italy-a series of natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Rising populations put an additional strain on European economies. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Push Pull Factor Political and Religious Persecution in Eastern Europe <ul><li>Eastern European Jews left their homes to escape political and religious persecution. </li></ul><ul><li>After 1881, the Russian government supported violent mob attacks against Jews known as pogroms. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1880 to 1921, over 2 million Jews-one third of Europe’s Jewish population-came to the United States, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3/4 came from Russia. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Push Pull Factor The Lure of Life in America <ul><li>Newspaper articles and letters from family members in America often painted the United States as a “magic land” of unlimited opportunities and riches. </li></ul><ul><li>American businesses and factories sent representatives overseas in search of cheap labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads and steamship lines solicited immigrants’ business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often the information was inaccurate or outdated </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Push Pull Factor Leaving the Homeland <ul><li>Many families used all their savings to pay from the trip </li></ul><ul><li>Others spent large sums of money bribing local officials to issue them exit papers or passports </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants had to travel hundreds of miles by train or foot to reach the coastal regions </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants traditionally had emotional farewells with the people they were leaving behind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were uncertain that they would ever see their loved ones again </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Journey Across the Atlantic Steamship Accommodations <ul><li>To travel to the United States, most immigrants boarded steel steamships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was their home from 8 to 14 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most immigrants traveled in the ship’s steerage compartments, located under the ship’s deck at the front and back of the boat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The compartments typically had no windows, little ventilation, and were 6 to 8 feet high. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toilet facilities varied, from one toilet for every 47 passengers to one toilet for every 1,000 passengers. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Journey Across the Atlantic Living Conditions in Steerage <ul><li>Ships often provided steerage passengers with a bare minimum of food </li></ul><ul><li>Steerage passengers spent most of their voyage deprived of sky, sunlight, and fresh air, and the smell was often unbearable </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious diseases such as smallpox and typhoid spread quickly. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Journey Across the Atlantic Cabin Class <ul><li>In the early 1900s, some steamship companies removed the steerage areas and created a special third, or cabin, class for immigrant travel </li></ul><ul><li>Cabin class accommodations consisted of cabins that held two, four, or six beds, providing passengers with more privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Passengers had access to better and more toilet facilities, a dining room, and a lounge. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Arrival in America Arriving in America <ul><li>From 1892 to the early 1920s, approximately 75 % of all arriving immigrants entered U.S. through the immigration processing center at Ellis Island </li></ul><ul><li>For many immigrants, their first glimpse of Lady Liberty would be a moment they would remember all of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Ellis Island, or the Island of Tears where most immigrants would be inspected, questioned, and with any luck, cleared for entrance to U.S. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Medical Inspections First and Second Class Inspections <ul><li>First and second class passengers did not have to endure the lengthy inspection process on Ellis Island. </li></ul><ul><li>When a ship arrived in the harbor, a quarantine inspector boarded and checked that none of the passengers had highly contagious or threatening diseases, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the higher class passengers were briefly questioned and examined by U.S. immigrant inspectors, then disembarked; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The steerage class passengers went to Ellis Island for a rigorous inspection process. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Medical Inspections Arriving at Ellis Island <ul><li>Immigration officials gave each person a tag to pin onto their clothes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tag identified each person by a number that corresponded to a number assigned to them by the steamship on which they traveled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>groups of 30 for processing. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Medical Inspections Medical Inspections <ul><li>Government officials sought to weed out immigrants whom would require public assistance, such as the mentally ill and the sick. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Six second exam” by watching them walk up the stairs. </li></ul><ul><li>At top of the stairs, immigrants received an inspection card and underwent a more thorough medical examination. </li></ul><ul><li>The examination usually took about 45 minutes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the doctor found anything suspect he drew a letter on the immigrant’s right shoulder in chalk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically 20 percent of immigrants had medical problems </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Legal Inspections The Registry Hall <ul><li>Final legal inspection in the Registry Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants usually waited 2-3 hours to be questioned, occasionally the wait was as long as a day. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. inspector’s job to confirm the immigrant’s answers face-to-face, and determine whether the immigrant should be allowed entrance to the U.S. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Legal Inspections The Final Inspection <ul><li>Legal inspection lasted approximately 2 to 3 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted by a language interpreter, inspector asked the immigrants 32 questions to determine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if coming for a legitimate reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>had a proper moral character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unlikely to become a ward of the state, or a violent revolutionary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants remembered their experiences at Ellis Island as one of the worst times of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. officials detained approximately 20 % after the legal inspection, but only 2 % were actually sent back to their homeland. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ethnic Enclaves Leaving Ellis Island <ul><li>Immigrants traveling to places other than New York City-approximately 2/3 of the immigrants-could purchase railway tickets in the Railway Room. </li></ul><ul><li>Those immigrants who planned to settle in New York City walked down a pathway and boarded a ferry </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ethnic Enclaves Ethnic Enclaves <ul><li>About 2/3 of immigrants settled in urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>By 1920, 75 percent of foreign-born U.S. residents lived in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants initially stayed with friends or relatives in close-knit ethnic neighborhoods, or enclaves, </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic enclaves provided immigrants with many of the trappings of their country of origin </li></ul>
  18. 18. Living Conditions City Tenement Buildings <ul><li>Most cities were ill-equipped to handle the material needs of their increasing populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Most urban-dwelling immigrants lived in tenement buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Tenements typically had six or seven floors, each of which usually contained four four-room apartments. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Living Conditions The Perils of Tenement Living <ul><li>Most tenement apartments were filthy, run-down, and had little ventilation, light, or conveniences. </li></ul><ul><li>Fires, diseases, and death were common among immigrant tenement communities. </li></ul><ul><li>One half of Manhattan’s fires occurred in tenement buildings, which made up only 1/3 of the buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>60 % of immigrants died before their first birthdays. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Living Conditions Rural Living Conditions <ul><li>Some immigrants traveled west-and to a lesser extent, south-to settle in small towns and more rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Most rural immigrants had adequate space and light and a relatively higher standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>The weather was often harsh-including blizzards, dust storms, and droughts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Working Conditions The Immigrant Workforce <ul><li>The majority of immigrants worked in industrial jobs, for a variety of reasons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most American industries were rapidly growing and in need of workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers found in the new immigrants a plentiful and cheap source of labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants were desperate for work and willing to accept almost any kind of job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A substantial number of immigrants had no desire to resume agricultural work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A majority of immigrants had few specialized skills on which they could rely to earn money </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Working Conditions Working Conditions <ul><li>Immigrants were particularly vulnerable to worker exploitation, and many labored under intolerable conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Few employers paid immigrants a living wage. </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrant children needed to work to help support their poverty-stricken families </li></ul><ul><li>Employers demanded that their employees work from 12 to 16 hours per day. </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions in industrial occupation were often dangerous, unsanitary, and uncomfortable. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Working Conditions Improved Standard of Living <ul><li>Most were better off economically than they had been in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>One scholar reports that European farm laborers earned a mere $33 a year, compared to the $200 annual salary of the average American farmhand. </li></ul>
  24. 24. American Treatment of Citizens American Nativism <ul><li>American nativism was based on the belief that immigrants posed a threat to native-born Americans and their way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Nativists often held deep-seated prejudices about immigrants and considered the southern and eastern Europeans a different and inferior race </li></ul><ul><li>Many American workers accused immigrant of taking away jobs from “real” Americans. </li></ul>
  25. 25. American Treatment of Citizens American Nativism <ul><li>Nativists worked to restrict the number of immigrants entering the United States in several ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They pushed for Ellis Island inspectors to reject any immigrant who could not pass a literacy test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They called for laws restricting the number of immigrants that could enter the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1921 Congress passed the Dillington Bill, which established quotas for the number of immigrants the United States would accept from each nation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The bill marked the end of America’s open-door policy toward immigration </li></ul></ul>

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