Building Cloud Native Software


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To really take advantage of cloud, software must be optimized to run in the cloud. This presentation explores what it means to be "Cloud Native" and looks at a real open source project that has built a complete Cloud Native platform. Cloud is not just a better way to run existing software, there are core enhancements that need to be made to software to enable it to run really effectively in a cloud environment. Often the first thought is about massive scalability, but actually there are other key enablers: multi-tenancy, metering, dynamic distribution, self-service and incremental deployment and testability. This presentation explores these enablers and looks at how an Open Source project (Carbon) built on Apache technology was re-built to be cloud native. The presentation will cover not just the concepts but dive into the practical issues in making a cloud native system and also explore which Apache technologies can help along the way.

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  • Data center provisioned for peak capacity
    Utilization is 5-10% or up to 50% with virt
    Tight coupling between applications and hardware allocation
    Bought app silos (e.g. SAP)
    Provisioned for peak capacity
    Build apps using enterprise middleware
    Provisioned for peak capacity
    Hardware & app provisioning takes months
  • Has a private IaaS
    Overflows to one or more public IaaS
    Uses a bunch of public SaaS
    Has a bunch of private SaaS, both build & buy
    Internally built SaaS is HUGE
    Because that is the competitive differentiator for every business
    Private SaaS running on PaaS using private hybrid IaaS
    PaaS also could be private or public
    Has unified identity, security, audit, etc. across all of these
    Has federated identity management across public / private infra (SaaS/IaaS)
  • Building Cloud Native Software

    1. 1. Building Cloud Native Software Navigating the waters of a cloudy infrastructure Paul Fremantle CTO and Co-Founder, WSO2 VP, Apache Synapse ASF Member @pzfreo
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4. One view of Cloud Applications today VM App VM VM App
    5. 5. What’s wrong with this picture?
    6. 6. Cloud computing in one page The Big Picture • Infrastructure as a Service – Servers, storage & networking – For infrastructure specialists • Platform as a Service – Middleware and Core Services – For developers, integrators, architects • Software as a Service – Applications – For end-users
    7. 7. © WSO2 2010 Enterprise IT in 2010 7
    8. 8. © WSO2 2010 Enterprise IT in 2015+ 8
    9. 9. So how do you get into the water?
    10. 10. Elasticity
    11. 11. Why do people choose Cloud? • Usually provisioning time is much more important than elasticity • Some companies take 3-6 months to provision an application
    12. 12. Self-Service • Provision your company / dept • Provision your application • Provision integration • Provision users • Provision a portal • Provision storage • Provision queues • Etc
    13. 13. How do you effectively provision systems? • They should be multi-tenant • Why? – Per instance cost is very small • Unless the instance is used – Better shared resources – Infinitely simpler management
    14. 14. So far • (Elastic) • Self-Service • Multi-tenant
    15. 15. Elasticity • Yes you can (sometimes) rely on the IaaS – E.g. Amazon • But ultimately we will want to provide more intelligent elasticity – E.g. Coach/Business/Private Jet – Or based on market pricing – Or…… • Elasticity requires the underlying code to be “distributed”
    16. 16. So….. • You have an elastic, self-service, multi- tenant runtime • What next?
    17. 17. Money (aka Metering and Billing)
    18. 18. Metering • For many businesses, internal billing hasn’t been successful – That will have to change! • Metering is very important – And overall system, service and tenant monitoring
    19. 19. Monolithic is back!!!! • And, no, that isn’t good!
    20. 20. Wiring! • You’ve heard plenty about wiring from Tuscany • Wiring is really important in any large application • Dynamic wiring for the Cloud
    21. 21. Dynamic Discovery
    22. 22. Discovering other services? • Registry – for long term metadata • WS-Discovery – for “who is where now?” – “aka Discovery Proxy” • Probe (types, scope) • ProbeMatch <- UUID • Resolve(UUID) • ResolveMatch <- Transport Address
    23. 23. Incremental deployment and test • Co-deploy version 5.5.4 next to 5.5.3 – Implies versioned • Test in place • Partially switch 5% of live traffic over • Monitor CPU and Memory usage – And billing! • Switch the rest over • Revert
    24. 24. “Cloud Native” • Self-service • Distributed and Elastic • Multi-tenant • Metered and Billed • Dynamically wired • Versionable, Incrementally deployable and testable
    25. 25. A case study – “Stratos” • A full middleware platform • Based on OSGi • Self-service • Multi-tenant, Elastic, Metered and Billed • Partial versioning, dynamic discovery • Distributed but not yet endlessly scalable • Available under the Apache License – Heavily based on Apache projects • Tomcat, Axis2, Synapse, ODE, Shindig, Abdera, Commons, etc • Looking at Cassandra, QPid, etc
    26. 26. Carbon
    27. 27. Home page
    28. 28. First steps • Identity (and hence Multi-Tenancy) – Every domain/tenant has its own single-sign on and identity manager – Based on LDAP – which is inherently multi- tenant – Supporting SAML2, OpenId, OAuth, XACML, Infocard, WS-Trust
    29. 29. Next step – Registry/Repository • Added a tenant id column to every database in our registry/repository schema • Used to store: – Permissions – Metadata / Configuration – Code – The works
    30. 30. Next step • Security management – Using Java and OSGi security managers to isolate tenants – Come hear my talk on making Tomcat Multi- tenant tomorrow!
    31. 31. Billing and Metering • A generic multi-tenanted metering and billing module • Written as OSGi • Uses Drools to implement service levels – E.g. 10 users, 100Mb transfer/month, 15 deployed services for free level of subscription • Can be used to meter real business events – How many sales transactions / month
    32. 32. Elasticity • Elastic Load Balancer – Apache Synapse • Always done load balancing • Now has full transparent HTTP support • Has “Autoscale” mediators – Based on Azeez’s Master’s thesis • Priority Execution support and throttling (Business Class) – Underlying Cloud API • We have based on Amazon/Eucalyptus/Ubuntu API • Adding support for vmWare underneath
    33. 33. Distributed • Our distribution model is based on Apache Tribes • Adjusted Tribes to support WKA model • In a large cloud (e.g. Amazon) you cannot rely on subnet communications between nodes • Nominate two Well Known Addresses – Tribes contacts the WKA and uses that the bootstrap the fabric
    34. 34. Versioning and incremental behaviour • OSGi • We have a simple deployment model (CAR) – Each CAR consists of stuff • Webapps, ESB flows, BPEL, Registry entries, etc • Simple XML syntax is used to wrap everything as OSGi • Each Bundle has a version
    35. 35. Dynamic Wiring • A complete Governance Registry per tenant • Supports WS-Discovery seamlessly – i.e. supports both long-lived metadata and presence • Not finished yet
    36. 36. Quick demo
    37. 37. Still to do • Lots – Multi-tenant services • Log, Cache, Data, … – Better support for incremental deployment and test – Better support for coach/business/private jet – Extreme scale
    38. 38. “Cloud Native” • Self-service • Distributed and Elastic • Multi-tenant • Metered and Billed • Dynamically wired • Versionable, Incrementally deployable and testable
    39. 39. Summary • Cloud Native attributes distinguish code that just floats on top of the cloud from applications that live in the cloud • This actually applies to Infrastructure (IaaS), Platform (PaaS) and Applications (SaaS) • Stratos is an example of a making an OSGi system Cloud Native • Read my blog entry on this: –