Diversity in living organisms by pi yush mishra


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Diversity in living organisms by pi yush mishra

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Frnds as we all know that every organisms in this world weather a bacteria or any multicellular plant or any human being it is unique itself .This uniqueness is the basis of DIVERSITY.  From the diversity word the term BIODIVERSITY comes and this term simply means  BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY and it was first coined by Sir Walter G.Rosen .  Now lets go to the man part of our chapter the classification of living organisms.
  3. 3. • As mentioned in the chapter that Sir Earnest Hackel (1894),Robert Whittaker (1959) • and Carl Woese (1997)classified organisms into broad categories called KINGDOM. Earnest Hackel (1894) Robert Whittaker (1959) Carl Woese (1997)
  4. 4. The classification that Whittaker proposed consisted of 5 kingdoms 1 :> MONERA 2 :> PROTISTA 3 :> FUNGI 4 :> PLANTAE 5 :> ANIMALIA and one more thing that these groups were formed on the basis of CELL STRUCTURE , MODE OF NUTRITION , and BODY ORGANISATION.
  5. 5. KINGDOM MONERA  These Organisms do not have a well defined nucleus or organells , nor do any of them show mukticellular designs.  Some of them had Cell wall but some not which effected their body structure and body designs .  The mode of nutrition is either autotrphic or Hetrotrophic .  This groups include bacteria ,blue green algae or cynobacteria and mycoplasm.
  6. 6. KINGDOM PROTISTA  This group includes many kinds of unicellular eukaryotic organisms.  Some of them have appendeges like cillia or fllagela for locomotion.  Their mode of nutrition can be autotrophic or hetrotrophic.  Some of them can be named as –Algae, Diatoms and protozoans
  7. 7. KINGDOM FUNGI  They are special hetrotrophic eukaryotic organisms .  They use dead and decaying plants and animals as their habitat and therfore called as Saprophytes.  They have tuff sugar complex as their cell wall which is known as CHITIN.  Some of the examples are – yeast , mushroom etc.
  8. 8. PLANTAE  They are multicellular eukaryotes with cell walls present .  They are autotrophs and prepare their food by the process of photosynthesis.  All plants come under these category of kingdom Plantae.
  9. 9. Classification of Kingdom PLANTAE • • • • • 1> 2> 3> 4> 5> Thallophyta Bryophyta Pteridophyta Gymnosperms Angiosperms MONOCOTS DICOTS
  10. 10. * The plants who do not have well defined body design fall in this group. * These types of plants are commonly called as ALGAE. * These plants are predominantly (habitualy) aquatic . * Some of them are Spirogyra,ulothrix,cladophora and chara. *
  11. 11. * They are also called as the ampphibians of plant kingdom. * The plant body is differentiated into root and stem like structures. * They do not have specified tissue for the conduction of water and food to all the parts of the plant . * Examples- Moss (Funaria), and Marchantia. *
  12. 12. Sub division-PTERIDOPHYTA • This group has plant body differentiated into roots,stem and leaves and also has specialised structures for root stem and leaves .
  13. 13. CRYPTOGAMES The Thallophytes , the Bryophytes and the Pteridophytes all come under this group known as the cryptogames . This group bear naked embryos called spores and the reproductive organs of these organisms are hidden or are inconspicious. So they are called as Cryptogames .
  14. 14. Sub division – GYMNOSPERNMS This term is made from two greek words –gymno : means naked and sperma : means seed. The plants usually in this group bear naked seed and are usually perinnial evergreen and woody . Some of them are - pines, deodar, ginkgo etc.
  15. 15. Sub divison - Angiosperms  This group constitutes the largest group of plants. Seeds are produced inside an ovary which later becomes the fruit. These are highly evolved group of plants. The plant body is distinctly differentiated into roots, stem and leaves.  Based on the number of cotyledons (seed-leaves) that form the seed this group is divided into:  Monocotyledons (One seed leaf) Example: Rice, Wheat Dicotyledons (two seed leaves) Example: Beans, Mango
  17. 17. Animal Kingdom:- The following classification “telescope” clearly indicates the mechanism behind the classification of the Animal Kingdom
  19. 19. PORIFERA  The word porifera means pores or organisms having holes in their body .  They are non motaile animals who are attached to a solid support .  Due to the presence of holes , it leads to a canal system throughout their body to bring in food and oxygen.  Ostia are present all over the body with a single large opening at the top called Osculum.
  20. 20. COLENTERATA ( CINIDRIA )  Two layered body which is radially symmetrical  Aquatic in habitat which includes both fresh water and marine  The outer layer has tentacles armed with stinging cells cnidoblasts which can release venom into the victim. The inner layer encloses a body cavity called gastro vascular cavity  Animals in this group exist in two types of individuals called zooids polyps and medusae. Polyps are fixed and lead solitary or colonial life, while medusae are free swimming  Alternation of generation takes place in colonial forms. Polyps and medusae alternate with each other during the life cycle  Reproduction is usually asexual i.e., by budding in the polyp form and sexual in medusa form  Exoskeleton made of lime is found in corals  Example: Hydra, Obelia, Aurelia, Metridium . Sea anemone
  21. 21. Sea Anemone
  22. 22. PLATHYHELMINTHES  As the names tell us that Plathyhelmintes in which plathy means flat and minthes means worms alltoghether Flatworms .  Simplest triploblastic organisms showing bilateral symmetry  Mostly parasites in other animals  Body in dorsoventrally flat and leaf-like or ribbon-like with bilateral symmetry  The body cavity has only one opening which serves as both the mouth and the anus .  Ex- Planaria , Liverfluke , Tapeworm.
  23. 23. Some of the flatworms
  24. 24. NEMATODA  This group of organisms have body bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic.  They have their body shaped cylindrical rather than flattened .  They have tissues but no real real organs , and they have the presence of Pseudocoelom.  They are very much familiar to the disease causing parasitic worms such as filarial worms .  Some of the nematodes are – ascaris ,wucheria etc.
  25. 25. Nematodes
  26. 26. ANNELIDA  Occur in moist soil, fresh water and sea  Body is soft and segmented, triploblastic with bilateral symmetry  First animal with the coelom (body cavity)  Body is covered by a non-chintinous cuticle which may have chitinous setae, or parapodia  Reproduction is generally sexual, but some may reproduce asexually by rejuvination i.e, by regrowing broken segments  Example: Nereis (sand worm), Aphrodite (sea mouse), Pheretima (earthworm), Hirudinaria (leech)
  27. 27. ARTHROPODA  This is the largest phylum with almost 80% of the animal kingdom .  Body is bilaterally symmetrical and segmented. It is divided into head, thorax and abdomen.  Possess jointed legs which may be modified for walking, swimming feeding and feeling .  Exoskeleton is chitinous which is shed periodically by moulting .  Body cavity is reduced and filled with blood (haemocoel) .  Respiration is by lungs, book lung and trachea  Example: Apis (honey bee), Araneae (Spider), Palaemon (prawn), Scolopendra (Centipede).
  28. 28. Some of the Arthropods
  29. 29. MOLLUSCA  Aquatic in habitat but some land forms are also seen .  Body is soft and divided into three regions (head, dorsal visceral mass and ventral foot).  Body enclosed in a hard calcareous .  Breathe through gills, land molluscs have lungs .  Sexes are separate.  Example: Chiton, Pila (snail), unio (fresh water mussel), octopus .
  30. 30. Pics Of Mollusca
  31. 31. ECHINODERMATA  Marine in habitat  Body is radially symmetrical, star shaped, spherical or elongate, Exoskeleton is spiny  Head is absent and five radially arranged arms present  Locomotion is with the help of tube feet  Sexes are separate  Example: Asterias (star fish), Echinus (sea urchin), Holothuria (sea cucumber), Antedon (feather star)
  32. 32. Pics of Echinodermata
  33. 33. PROTOCHORDATA  These animals are billiterally symmetrical and their body is triploblastic and they have a coelom.  The presence of notochord starts from this group of animals at certain stages of their life.  Example - Balanoglossus
  34. 34. ( Protochordates )
  35. 35. VERTEBRATA  These are the group of animals who have many special things and many unique things also.  They all posses 1: Notochord. 2: Dorsal nerve cord. 3: Are Triploblastic . 4: Have Coelomate etc .
  36. 36.  They are Further divided into 5 classes , they are as follows 1 : Pisces 2 : Amphibians 3 : Reptila 4 : Aves 5 : Mamilia
  37. 37. CLASS – PISCES  They all also belong to the fish community .  They all are exclusively aquatic animals.  They are cold blooded too.  They have their hearts 2 chambered .  Some of the pisces are – lion fish , Labeo Rohita, Sting ray etc .
  38. 38. CLASS – AMPHIBIANS  They are quite different from the fishes as due to the absence of scales .  They have Mucus Glands in their skin and have three chambered heart.  They also have a special quality of laying eggs in water .  Ex -Frogs toads , salamders etc .
  39. 39. Some of the Amphibians
  40. 40. One of the most dangerous Toads
  41. 41. CLASS- REPTILIA  Mostly terrestrial  Heart is 3 chambered, is cold blooded  Breathe through lungs  Body covered with scales  Have two pairs of pentadactyl (five digit) limbs which are absent in snakes  Example: Hemidactylus (wall lizard), chameleon, Draco (flying lizard)
  42. 42. CLASS – AVES  Arboreal in habitat i.e, they live on trees  Warm blooded. 4 chambered heart  Body covered with feathers  Lungs have membranous extensions called air sacs to make the body light  Mouth is surrounded by a beak. Teeth are absent  Fore-limbs are modified into wings  Ex- all the bird Family
  43. 43. BIRDS (AVES)
  44. 44. CLASS- MAMMALIA  Most intelligent of all organisms  Warm blooded with 4 chambered heart  Give birth to young ones  The mother suckles her young ones on milk secreted by special glands called mammary glands  Body covered with hair  Have two pairs of pentadactyl limbs  Breathe through lungs  Ex – Human beings , whales etc .
  45. 45. MAMMALs
  46. 46. ANIMALS Cellular Level Organisation Tissue Level Organisation Porifera No Body cavity Between Gastrodermis And Epidermis Colenterata, Plathyhelminthes Pseudocoelom Nematoda Coelomate
  47. 47. Mesodermal cells form a single cell during the growth of the Embryo Coloem formed from pouches pinched off from the endoderm Annelida , Arthrpoda, and Mollusca No Notochord Notochord Present Echinodermata Chordata
  48. 48. Notochord present at the larval stage , but very rudimentry Notochord replaced by the vertebral coloumn in adults Protochordata Pisces Amphibians Vertebrata Reptilia Aves Mammalia
  49. 49. • At last all the organisms live on the same earth together as we doo. • So it is our first and for most duty to protect the biological world and maintain the ecological balance . Conclusion