Frnds as we all know that every organisms in this
world weather a bacteria or any multicellular
plant or any human being it is unique itself .This
uniqueness is the basis of DIVERSITY.
From the diversity word the term BIODIVERSITY
comes and this term simply means
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY and it was first coined
by Sir Walter G.Rosen .
Now lets go to the man part of our chapter the
classification of living organisms.
• As mentioned in the chapter that Sir Earnest
Hackel (1894),Robert Whittaker (1959)
• and Carl Woese (1997)classified organisms
into broad categories called KINGDOM.
The classification that Whittaker proposed consisted of 5
1 :> MONERA
2 :> PROTISTA
3 :> FUNGI
4 :> PLANTAE
5 :> ANIMALIA
and one more thing that these groups were formed on the
basis of CELL STRUCTURE , MODE OF NUTRITION , and
These Organisms do not have a well defined nucleus or organells
, nor do any of them show mukticellular designs.
Some of them had Cell wall but some not which effected their
body structure and body designs .
The mode of nutrition is either autotrphic or Hetrotrophic .
This groups include bacteria ,blue green algae or cynobacteria and
This group includes many kinds of unicellular eukaryotic
Some of them have appendeges like cillia or fllagela for
Their mode of nutrition can be autotrophic or hetrotrophic.
Some of them can be named as –Algae, Diatoms and protozoans
They are special hetrotrophic eukaryotic organisms .
They use dead and decaying plants and animals as their habitat and
therfore called as Saprophytes.
They have tuff sugar complex as their cell wall which is known as
Some of the examples are – yeast , mushroom etc.
They are multicellular eukaryotes with cell walls present .
They are autotrophs and prepare their food by the process of
All plants come under these category of kingdom Plantae.
* The plants who do not have well defined body
design fall in this group.
* These types of plants are commonly called as
* These plants are predominantly (habitualy)
* Some of them are
Spirogyra,ulothrix,cladophora and chara.
* They are also called as the ampphibians of
* The plant
body is differentiated into root and
stem like structures.
* They do not have specified tissue for the
conduction of water and food to all the parts
of the plant .
* Examples- Moss (Funaria), and Marchantia.
• This group has plant body differentiated into
roots,stem and leaves and also has specialised
structures for root stem and leaves .
The Thallophytes , the Bryophytes and the
Pteridophytes all come under this group known as
the cryptogames .
This group bear naked embryos called spores and the
reproductive organs of these organisms are hidden or
So they are called as Cryptogames .
Sub division – GYMNOSPERNMS
This term is made from two greek words –gymno :
means naked and sperma : means seed.
The plants usually in this group bear naked seed and
are usually perinnial evergreen and woody .
Some of them are - pines, deodar, ginkgo etc.
Sub divison - Angiosperms
This group constitutes the largest group of plants.
Seeds are produced inside an ovary which later
becomes the fruit. These are highly evolved group of
plants. The plant body is distinctly differentiated into
roots, stem and leaves.
Based on the number of cotyledons (seed-leaves)
that form the seed this group is divided into:
Monocotyledons (One seed leaf)
Example: Rice, Wheat
Dicotyledons (two seed leaves)
Example: Beans, Mango
The word porifera means pores or organisms having holes in their
They are non motaile animals who are attached to a solid support .
Due to the presence of holes , it leads to a canal system
throughout their body to bring in food and oxygen.
Ostia are present all over the body with a single large opening at
the top called Osculum.
COLENTERATA ( CINIDRIA )
Two layered body which is radially symmetrical
Aquatic in habitat which includes both fresh water and marine
The outer layer has tentacles armed with stinging cells cnidoblasts
which can release venom into the victim. The inner layer encloses a body
cavity called gastro vascular cavity
Animals in this group exist in two types of individuals called zooids polyps and medusae. Polyps are fixed and lead solitary or colonial life,
while medusae are free swimming
Alternation of generation takes place in colonial forms. Polyps and
medusae alternate with each other during the life cycle
Reproduction is usually asexual i.e., by budding in the polyp form and
sexual in medusa form
Exoskeleton made of lime is found in corals
Example: Hydra, Obelia, Aurelia, Metridium . Sea anemone
As the names tell us that Plathyhelmintes in which plathy means
flat and minthes means worms alltoghether Flatworms .
Simplest triploblastic organisms showing bilateral symmetry
Mostly parasites in other animals
Body in dorsoventrally flat and leaf-like or ribbon-like with
The body cavity has only one opening which serves as both the
mouth and the anus .
Ex- Planaria , Liverfluke , Tapeworm.
This group of organisms have body bilaterally symmetrical and
They have their body shaped cylindrical rather than flattened .
They have tissues but no real real organs , and they have the presence
They are very much familiar to the disease causing parasitic worms
such as filarial worms .
Some of the nematodes are – ascaris ,wucheria etc.
Occur in moist soil, fresh water and sea
Body is soft and segmented, triploblastic with bilateral symmetry
First animal with the coelom (body cavity)
Body is covered by a non-chintinous cuticle which may have
chitinous setae, or parapodia
Reproduction is generally sexual, but some may reproduce
asexually by rejuvination i.e, by regrowing broken segments
Example: Nereis (sand worm), Aphrodite (sea mouse), Pheretima
(earthworm), Hirudinaria (leech)
This is the largest phylum with almost 80% of the animal
Body is bilaterally symmetrical and segmented. It is divided into
head, thorax and abdomen.
Possess jointed legs which may be modified for walking, swimming
feeding and feeling .
Exoskeleton is chitinous which is shed periodically by moulting .
Body cavity is reduced and filled with blood (haemocoel) .
Respiration is by lungs, book lung and trachea
Example: Apis (honey bee), Araneae (Spider), Palaemon (prawn),
Aquatic in habitat but some land forms are also seen .
Body is soft and divided into three regions (head, dorsal visceral
mass and ventral foot).
Body enclosed in a hard calcareous .
Breathe through gills, land molluscs have lungs .
Sexes are separate.
Example: Chiton, Pila (snail), unio (fresh water mussel), octopus .
Marine in habitat
Body is radially symmetrical, star shaped, spherical or elongate,
Exoskeleton is spiny
Head is absent and five radially arranged arms present
Locomotion is with the help of tube feet
Sexes are separate
Example: Asterias (star fish), Echinus (sea urchin), Holothuria (sea
cucumber), Antedon (feather star)
These animals are billiterally symmetrical and their body is
triploblastic and they have a coelom.
The presence of notochord starts from this group of animals at
certain stages of their life.
Example - Balanoglossus
These are the group of animals who have many special things and
many unique things also.
They all posses
2: Dorsal nerve cord.
3: Are Triploblastic .
4: Have Coelomate etc .
They are Further divided into 5 classes , they are
1 : Pisces
2 : Amphibians
3 : Reptila
4 : Aves
5 : Mamilia
CLASS – PISCES
They all also belong to the fish community .
They all are exclusively aquatic animals.
They are cold blooded too.
They have their hearts 2 chambered .
Some of the pisces are – lion fish , Labeo Rohita, Sting ray etc .
CLASS – AMPHIBIANS
They are quite different from the fishes as due to the absence of
They have Mucus Glands in their skin and have three chambered
They also have a special quality of laying eggs in water .
Ex -Frogs toads , salamders etc .
Heart is 3 chambered, is cold blooded
Breathe through lungs
Body covered with scales
Have two pairs of pentadactyl (five digit) limbs which are absent in
Example: Hemidactylus (wall lizard), chameleon, Draco (flying lizard)
CLASS – AVES
Arboreal in habitat i.e, they live on trees
Warm blooded. 4 chambered heart
Body covered with feathers
Lungs have membranous extensions called air sacs to make the body light
Mouth is surrounded by a beak. Teeth are absent
Fore-limbs are modified into wings
Ex- all the bird Family
Most intelligent of all organisms
Warm blooded with 4 chambered heart
Give birth to young ones
The mother suckles her young ones on milk secreted by special glands called
Body covered with hair
Have two pairs of pentadactyl limbs
Breathe through lungs
Ex – Human beings , whales etc .
No Body cavity Between
Mesodermal cells form
a single cell during the
growth of the Embryo
Coloem formed from
pouches pinched off
from the endoderm
Annelida , Arthrpoda,
Notochord present at the
larval stage , but very
Notochord replaced by the
vertebral coloumn in adults
• At last all the organisms live on the same earth together
as we doo.
• So it is our first and for most duty to protect the
biological world and maintain the ecological balance .
PRESENTED BY ---: PIYUSH MISHRA
CLASS – 10th
SCHOOL – DAV PUBLIC SCHOOL